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Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan


17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, abort button, phones, and observation window. View looking northwest. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH



Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA


STS-55 Earth observation shows a sunset over South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows a spectacular sunset view over South America and the cleanest atmosphere since before the volcanic eruptions of 1991, according to NASA scientists studying the STS-55 photography. A dark cloud layer is evident at an altitude of 7 to 9 kilometers. Five kilometers higher, a pink layer of sulfuric acid droplets and ammonium sulfate particles begins at the tropopause and extends upward into the stratosphere to 19 kilometers. Above that, blue scattering by the atmosphere diminishes until, at an altitude of 60 kilometers, the blackness of space is predominant.




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in H?, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita



Showing results, 3 Energy technology and energy planning  

E-print Network

techniques for industry ­ Wind energy, 4 Wind turbines, 4 Wind energy systems, 5 Wind resources and wind systems, 10 Energy planning in developing countries, 11 ­ Environmental impact of atmospheric processesShowing results, 3 Energy, 4 Energy technology and energy planning Environment, 12 Environmental



SciTech Connect

Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent 'gentle rainfall' instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnes, Jason W. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Clark, Roger N. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Philip D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)



Observe an animation showing the formation of an unconformity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the development of an angular unconformity to high school Earth science students. The introduction defines an unconformity as a gap in sedimentary rock. The animation shows how the cycle of sedimentation and erosion can be interrupted by intrusion of igneous rock. Mountain-building then tilts the rock layers, causing uneven erosion, which leaves pockets of material that are covered by newer sediments. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, giving students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal



Observe an animation showing the formation of an arch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows middle and high school students how weathering forms sandstone arches. Descriptive text explains that the process begins with a flat, sedimentary surface in which tectonic stress has produced cracks. Weathering widens these cracks, producing thin sandstone walls, and wind-propelled sand drives a hole through the wall. A photograph of an actual arch is provided. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to read the text and connect it with the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal



Observe an animation showing evidence of the carbon cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this visual resource about the carbon cycle, students are presented with an animation and accompanying text that focus on carbon and plants. The text addresses how plants fit into the larger carbon cycle, including how carbon enters and leaves the biosphere, and it explains what students are viewing in the animation. The animation shows false color images on a flat map of the world. When the viewer clicks on the image (or the play button), the animation plays, and color patterns reveal changes in plant growth on land and water over a 3-year period. Movie controls allow students to pause the animation, to replay the animation, or to move backward or forward through the images 1 month at a time. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal



Submillimetre observations of galaxies. I - First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from a program of millimeter and submillimeter observations of galaxies using the UKT14 photometer at the JCMT. Three of the five objects discussed here are detected at 450 microns, and most at 800 microns as well. We perform fits to the dust spectrum for these objects, and find that dust temperatures of 28-35 K with a nu-squared emissivity law give the best results. We also investigate the beam corrections that would need to be made if the cool dust distribution were extended, and find that it is possible to hide a substantial amount of cold dust from our observations if this is the case. Future observations using bolometer arrays or large-beam instruments will be necessary to determine whether such a large cold component is actually present.

Clements, D. L.; Andreani, P.; Chase, S. T.



Application of bone scans for prostate cancer staging: Which guideline shows better result?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We evaluated the accuracy of current guidelines by analyzing bone scan results and clinical parameters of patients with prostate cancer to determine the optimal guideline for predicting bone metastasis. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer and who underwent a bone scan. Bone metastasis was confirmed by bone scan results with clinical and radiological follow-up. Serum prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, percent of positive biopsy core, clinical staging and bone scan results were analyzed. We analyzed diagnostic performance in predicting bone metastasis of the guidelines of the European Association of Urology (EAU), American Urological Association (AUA), and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines as well as Briganti’s classification and regression tree (CART). We also compared the percent of positive biopsy core between patients with and without bone metastases. Results: A total 167 of 806 patients had bone metastases. Receiver operating curve analysis revealed that the AUA and EAU guidelines were better for detecting bone metastases than were Briganti’s CART and NCCN. No significant difference was observed between AUA and EAU guidelines. Patients with bone metastases had a higher percent positive core than did patients without metastasis (the cut-off value >55.6). Conclusion: The EAU and AUA guidelines showed better results than did Briganti’s CART and NCCN for predicting bone metastasis in the enrolled patients. A bone scan is strongly recommended for patients who have a higher percent positive core and who meet the EAU and AUA guidelines. PMID:25210554

Chong, Ari; Hwang, Insang; Ha, Jung-min; Yu, Seong Hyeon; Hwang, Eu Chang; Yu, Ho Song; Kim, Sun Ouck; Jung, Seung-Il; Kang, Taek Won; Kwon, Dong Deuk; Park, Kwangsung



Space VLBI Observations Show $T_b > 10^{12} K$ in the Quasar NRAO 530  

E-print Network

We present here space-based VLBI observations with VSOP and a southern hemisphere ground array of the gamma-ray blazar NRAO 530 at 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz. The brightness temperature of the core at 1.6 GHz is $5 \\times 10^{11}$ K. The size is near the minimum observable value in the direction of NRAO~530 due to interstellar scattering. The 5 GHz data show a single component with a brightness temperature of $\\sim 3 \\times 10^{12}$ K, significantly in excess of the inverse Compton limit and of the equipartition brightness temperature limit (Readhead 1994). This is strong evidence for relativistic motion in a jet requiring model-dependent Doppler boosting factors in the range 6 to 60. We show that a simple homogeneous sphere probably does not model the emission region accurately. We favor instead an inhomogeneous jet model with a Doppler boosting factor of 15.

Geoffrey C. Bower; Donald C. Backer



Results of Sustained Observations from SABSOON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of meteorological and oceanographic data being collected on the continental shelf off Georgia by the South Atlantic Bight Synoptic Offshore Observational Network (SABSOON) permit an examination of episodic and seasonal phenomena operative on the shelf. Data are collected at offshore platforms and transmitted to shore in near-real time and made available on the project website. Examples of data collected since 1999 are presented that illustrate some of processes being addressed using the network. Maximum winds occur during remarkably energetic downbursts observed in spring and summer, associated with the passage of squalls over the coastal ocean. Peak wind speed at 50 m height exceed 40 ms and air temperature drops by 4 oC or more in less than 6 minutes, often accompanied by large changes in humidity and heavy rainfall, suggesting down draft of air from aloft. These events may play an important role in the offshore transport of continentally-derived material. Continuous ADCP measurements are being used to examine the seasonality of cross-shelf exchange and its relationship to the cross-shelf density gradient. The low-frequency cross-shelf circulation changes sign when the cross-shelf density gradient changes sign. Vertical stratification is surprisingly episodic, and maximum stratification has occurred in the winter and spring associated with appearance of long-salinity surface lens and may be associated with baroclinic instabilities. Strong stratification has also been observed in summer during Gulf Stream-derived intrusions onto the shelf, during which time the upper and lower layers become largely decoupled. Continuous optical measurements of above-water and in-water irradiance (PAR) show the mid-shelf surface sediments are often in the euphotic zone. Chlorophyll fluorescence (stimulated) shows strong light-dependent diurnal variability in near-surface waters and evidence of resuspension of benthic diatoms during storm events, particularly in the early fall. >

Seim, H.; Nelson, J.



Radio observations of asteroids: Results and prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio observations of the asteroids can provide information on the thermal and dielectric properties of the surface materials and because the radio emission arises somewhat below the surface, the data give some indication of layering. Observational difficulty has limited the investigations to only 6 asteroids: 1 Ceres and 324 Bamberga appear to have a layer of dust covering a more compacted material; the data on 4 Vesta cannot be matched by any current models for the surface; and the results for 18 Melpomene, 31 Euphrosyne and 433 Eros are too incomplete for firm conclusions. Future possibilities include more accurate radiometry of a few selected asteroids of different taxonomic classes and actual resolution of some of the larger objects by aperture synthesis techniques.

Dickel, J. R.



Optimizing Search by Showing Results Context Susan Dumais and Edward Cutrell  

E-print Network

coverage available with standard search engines. RELATED WORK Classification classification we mean abilityOptimizing Search by Showing Results Context Susan Dumais and Edward Cutrell Microsoft Research One interfaces integrating semantic category information search results. interfaces were based on familiar ranked

Chen, Hao


Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

LoPresto, Michael C.



A negative cloud-to-ground flash showing a number of new and rarely observed features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unusual natural lightning flash containing two branched negative strokes to ground was recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida, on 8 June 2013. The flash was apparently a bolt from the blue, whose first-stroke leader emerged from the side of the cloud at a height of about 3.5 km above ground level. The first leader showed profuse branching and what appears to be corona-like formations with spatial extent of 100 to 200 m (probably an intensified portion of radial corona sheath) at the upper part of the channel. Leader branching process facilitated by two simultaneous space stems was observed. The corresponding step lengths were estimated to be 14 and 15 m. The first-stroke attachment process involved a streamer zone about 50 m in length. One of the second-leader branches appeared to abruptly change its direction at the beginning of return stroke process.

Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Mallick, S.



RESULTS & CONCLUSION The analysis (above) shows that there are multiple reaches of Trout Brook and Smith  

E-print Network

RESULTS & CONCLUSION The analysis (above) shows that there are multiple reaches of Trout Brook, the centerlines of Trout Brook and Smith Brook were traced, along with some tributaries, from their respective Trout Brook and Smith Brook in eastern Cortland County. Essentially this was a proof-of-concept project

Barclay, David J.


BATSE results on observational properties of gamma-ray bursts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has observed over 600 gamma-ray bursts since its activation on 1991 April 21. We present here results on the global properties of the first 542 events. Their angular distribution is consistent with isotropy; their peak intensity distribution shows a depletion at low intensities, consistent with inhomogeneity in Euclidean space.

Kouveliotou, Chryssa



Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp -9) C, and average arc time of 1 msec, arcs can also occur with estimated arc currents approaching 10 milliamperes (mA). Discharges of this magnitude could interfere with the operation of sensitive electrical or electronic elements and logic circuits. Sojourner rover wheel tested in laboratory before launch to Mars. Before launch, we believed that the dust would become triboelectrically charged as it was moved about and compacted by the rover wheels. In all cases observed in the laboratory, the test wheel charged positively, and the wheel tracks charged negatively. Dust samples removed from the laboratory wheel averaged a few ones to tens of micrometers in size (clay size). Coarser grains were left behind in the wheel track. On Mars, grain size estimates of 2 to 10 mm were derived for the Martian surface materials from the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment. These size estimates approximately match the laboratory samples. Our tentative conclusion for the Sojourner observations is that fine clay-sized particles acquired an electrostatic charge during rover traverses and adhered to the rover wheels, carrying electrical charge to the rover. Since the Sojourner rover carried no instruments to measure this mission's onboard electrical charge, confirmatory measurements from future rover missions on Mars are desirable so that the physical and electrical properties of the Martian surface dust can be characterized. Sojourner was protected by discharge points, and Faraday cages were placed around sensitive electronics. But larger systems than Sojourner are being contemplated for missions to the Martian surface in the foreseeable future. The design of such systems will require a detailed knowledge of how they will interact with their environment. Validated environmental interaction models and guidelines for the Martian surface must be developed so that design engineers can test new ideas prior to cutting hardware. These models and guidelines cannot be validated without actual flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across t

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.



Observational Constraints on Chaplygin Quartessence: Background Results  

E-print Network

We derive the constraints set by several experiments on the quartessence Chaplygin model (QCM). In this scenario, a single fluid component drives the Universe from a nonrelativistic matter-dominated phase to an accelerated expansion phase behaving, first, like dark matter and in a more recent epoch like dark energy. We consider current data from SNIa experiments, statistics of gravitational lensing, FR IIb radio galaxies, and x-ray gas mass fraction in galaxy clusters. We investigate the constraints from this data set on flat Chaplygin quartessence cosmologies. The observables considered here are dependent essentially on the background geometry, and not on the specific form of the QCM fluctuations. We obtain the confidence region on the two parameters of the model from a combined analysis of all the above tests. We find that the best-fit occurs close to the $\\Lambda$CDM limit ($\\alpha=0$). The standard Chaplygin quartessence ($\\alpha=1$) is also allowed by the data, but only at the $\\sim2\\sigma$ level.

Martin Makler; Sergio Quinet de Oliveira; Ioav Waga



Televised medical talk shows—what they recommend and the evidence to support their recommendations: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the quality of health recommendations and claims made on popular medical talk shows. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Mainstream television media. Sources Internationally syndicated medical television talk shows that air daily (The Dr Oz Show and The Doctors). Interventions Investigators randomly selected 40 episodes of each of The Dr Oz Show and The Doctors from early 2013 and identified and evaluated all recommendations made on each program. A group of experienced evidence reviewers independently searched for, and evaluated as a team, evidence to support 80 randomly selected recommendations from each show. Main outcomes measures Percentage of recommendations that are supported by evidence as determined by a team of experienced evidence reviewers. Secondary outcomes included topics discussed, the number of recommendations made on the shows, and the types and details of recommendations that were made. Results We could find at least a case study or better evidence to support 54% (95% confidence interval 47% to 62%) of the 160 recommendations (80 from each show). For recommendations in The Dr Oz Show, evidence supported 46%, contradicted 15%, and was not found for 39%. For recommendations in The Doctors, evidence supported 63%, contradicted 14%, and was not found for 24%. Believable or somewhat believable evidence supported 33% of the recommendations on The Dr Oz Show and 53% on The Doctors. On average, The Dr Oz Show had 12 recommendations per episode and The Doctors 11. The most common recommendation category on The Dr Oz Show was dietary advice (39%) and on The Doctors was to consult a healthcare provider (18%). A specific benefit was described for 43% and 41% of the recommendations made on the shows respectively. The magnitude of benefit was described for 17% of the recommendations on The Dr Oz Show and 11% on The Doctors. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest accompanied 0.4% of recommendations. Conclusions Recommendations made on medical talk shows often lack adequate information on specific benefits or the magnitude of the effects of these benefits. Approximately half of the recommendations have either no evidence or are contradicted by the best available evidence. Potential conflicts of interest are rarely addressed. The public should be skeptical about recommendations made on medical talk shows. Additional details of methods used and changes made to study protocol PMID:25520234

Kolber, Michael R; McCormack, James; Lam, Vanessa; Overbo, Kate; Cotton, Candra; Finley, Caitlin; Turgeon, Ricky D; Garrison, Scott; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Banh, Hoan Linh; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G Michael



Computational Methods continued In previous work, we showed that while the LDA results systemmatically under-  

E-print Network

bohr representing the vacuum region. Interface properties with Li were modeled using a periodic array approximation[10] (GGA) functional. We also showed that the fractional atomic coordinates were very similar 64 bohr-2 and sampling of the Brillouin zone at least as dense as 10-3 bohr-3 /k-point. In fact

Holzwarth, Natalie


An analysis of semiclassical radiation from single particle quantum currents shows surprising results  

E-print Network

Classical electromagnetic radiation from quantum currents and densities are calculated. For the free Schrodinger equation with no external force it's found that the classical radiation is zero to all orders of the multipole expansion. This is true of mixed or pure states for the charged particle. It is a non-trivial and surprising result. A similar result is found for the Klein-Gordon currents when the wave function consists of only positive energy solutions. For the Dirac equation it is found that radiation is suppressed at lower frequencies but is not zero at all frequencies. Implications of these results for the interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed.

Mark P. Davidson



1. ABSTRACT We show results from joint TES-OMI retrievals for  

E-print Network

the Trinidad Head sonde station (41N, 124.1W). Other available corroborative data (not currently utilized interest is near the planetary boundary layer. Trinidad Head sonde 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 O3 (VMR) 1000.0 100 to jackknife Trinidad Head sonde provides a check of results in conjunction with surface ozone sites


Trial results show high remission rate in leukemia following immune cell therapy

Children and young adults (age 1 to age 30) with chemotherapy-resistant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experienced high remission rates following treatment with an experimental immunotherapy. Results demonstrated that the immunotherapy treatment had anti-leukemia effects in patients and that the treatment was feasible and safe.


NIH trial shows promising results in treating a lymphoma in young people

Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical trial results.


Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:

The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.


Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.


Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.  


Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice. PMID:24473120

Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler



Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also planet-wide phenomena and are a key observation for enhancing our understanding of the global atmospheric flows and CO2 cycle of the Martian atmosphere. The surface pressure is rising at this time of the Martian season, and this is clearly seen by the MSL pressure observations. The current surface pressure is slightly over 8 hPa, which represents a rise of a few % since the beginning of the mission. Our Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) produces similar results to the observations with some deviations. They are currently under investigation. References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [3] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13.

Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri



Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups. PMID:24069186

Martín, María M.; López-Gallardo, Esther; Solé-Violán, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Labarta, Lorenzo; Díaz, César; Borreguero-León, Juan María; Jiménez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo



Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help to resolve the problem of the 'missing heat' or 'missing energy', respectively, terms coined to grasp the observation that surface temperatures of planet Earth have stalled rising since about 15 years while radiation-affecting atmospheric CO2 concentrations continued to increase. Our results support the finding that excess energy which results from changes in the Earth' radiation balance is transferred into heating of the deep ocean, where it does not contribute to an increase of surface temperatures but inevitably enhances thermosteric sea level rise.

Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario



Preliminary Results from MCS and MSL Atmospheric Joint Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in May 2013, there has been an ongoing joint atmospheric observations campaign between the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Curiosity Rover (MSL). The observations in the campaign are grouped in four families each at a separate local mean time: 01:30, 04:30, 13:30 and 16:30. The goal is to perform one observation from each family every 5° of Ls (or 10 days). At each joint observation, the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS on MRO) observes the atmosphere above Curiosity with a limb observation to provide a profile of temperature, dust and water ice. At the same time, the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) acquires measurements of surface pressure and temperature, near-surface atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and winds, downward UV flux. For many of the observations, column optical depth measurements of aerosols and water vapor are acquired close in time with the Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) by Curiosity. Mars Color Imager (MARCI on MRO) weather images are available for daytime joint observations. The joint observations are being used for several preliminary studies (in addition to providing validation and instrument inter-comparisons). The initial joint observations occurred during the decaying phase of a regional dust storm and show a modest clearing of the atmospheric dust over time. As the season progresses towards aphelion, the overall dust is expected to decrease and equatorial water ice clouds will start to form. MCS provides a vertical profile of the aerosol and distinguishes between dust and ice while column opacity measurements from Mastcam provide the total aerosol column to the surface. While four local times is somewhat constraining, we expect to examine the expression of the diurnal and semi-diurnal tide. We expect to correlate the phasing of the tides in the surface pressure and overlying temperature structure. This should provide an understanding of the local link between the surface and the middle atmosphere provided by the tides. These preliminary results will cover mid-southern summer through mid-northern spring and will examine the rapid transition in the global circulation at the northern spring equinox.

Kass, D. M.; Lemmon, M. T.; Mischna, M. A.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Kleinboehl, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.



From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-asymptotic giant branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. Aims: Water fountain candidates can be identified based on the often double peaked 22 GHz H2O maser spectrum with a large separation between the maser peaks (often >100 km s-1). However, even a fast bipolar outflow will only have a moderate velocity extent in its maser spectrum when located close to the plane of the sky. In this project we aim to enhance the water fountain sample by identifying objects whose jets are aligned close to the plane of the sky. Methods: We present the results of seven sources observed with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100 m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. Results: We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a dying OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH maser and the lack of H2O masers. We therefore also re-observed the 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz OH masers. We confirm that the 1612 MHz masers have not reappeared and find that the1665/1667 MHz masers have decreased in strength by several orders of magnitude during the last decade. The JVLA observations also reveal a striking asymmetry in the red-shifted maser emission of IRAS 19422+3506. Conclusions: The OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448 is confirmed to be a new addition to the class of water fountain nebulae. Its kinematic age is ~70 yr, but could be lower, depending on the distance and inclination. Previous observations indicate, with significant uncertainty, that IRAS 18455+0448 has a surprisingly low mass compared to available estimates for other water fountain nebulae. The available historical OH maser observations make IRAS 18455+0448 unique for the study of water fountain nebulae and the launch of post-AGB bipolar outflows. The other candidate sources appear high mass-loss OH/IR stars with partly radially beamed H2O masers.

Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Amiri, N.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Tafoya, D.



Preliminary Results from Coordinated UVCS-CDS-Ulysses Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The June 2000 quadrature between the Sun, Earth, and Ulysses took place with Ulysses at a distance of 3.35 AU from the Sun and at heliocentric latitude 58.2 deg south, in the southeast quadrant. This provided an opportunity to observe the corona close to the Sun with Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) and, subsequently, to sample the same plasma when it reached Ulysses. Here we focus on simultaneous observations of UVCS and CDS made on June 12, 13, 16 and 17. The UVCS data were acquired at heliocentric altitudes ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 solar radii, using different grating positions, in order to get a wide wavelength range. CDS data consisted of Normal Incidence Spectrometer (NIS) full wavelength rasters of 120" x 150" centered at altitudes up to 1.18 solar radii, together with Grazing Incidence Spectrometer (GIS) 4" x 4" rasters within the same field of view, out to 1.2 solar radii. The radial direction to Ulysses passed through a high latitude streamer, throughout the 4 days of observations, Analysis of the spectra taken by UVCS shows a variation of the element abundances in the streamer over our observing interval: however, because the observations were in slightly different parts of the streamer on different days, the variation could be ascribed either to a temporal or spatial effect. The oxygen abundance, however, seems to increase at the edge of the streamer, as indicated by previous analyses. This suggests the variation may be a function of position within the streamer, rather than a temporal effect. Oxygen abundances measured by SWICS on Ulysses are compared with the CDS and UVCS results to see whether changes measured in situ follow the same pattern.

Parenti, S.; Bromage, B. J.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Raymond, J. C.; Noci, G.; Bromage, G. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)




SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others



News Note: Long-term Results from Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Shows Lower Toxicities of Raloxifene

Initial results in 2006 of the NCI-sponsored Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showed that a common osteoporosis drug, raloxifene, prevented breast cancer to the same degree, but with fewer serious side-effects, than the drug tamoxifen that had been in use many years for breast cancer prevention as well as treatment. The longer-term results show that raloxifene retained 76 percent of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, while remaining far less toxic – in particular, there was significantly less endometrial cancer with raloxifene use.


We describe initial results which show "live" ultrasound echography data visualized within a pregnant human subject. The  

E-print Network

-through head-mounted display, ultrasound echography, 3D medical imaging 1. Introduction We have been working-through HMD. Even though we concentrate here on medical ultrasound imaging, applications of this displayAbstract We describe initial results which show "live" ultrasound echography data visualized within

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of


Healthy Older Observers Show Equivalent Perceptual-Cognitive Training Benefits to Young Adults for Multiple Object Tracking  

PubMed Central

The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). Here we assess the capacity of older participants to improve their tracking speed thresholds in a dynamic, virtual reality environment. Results show that this capacity is significantly affected by healthy aging but that perceptual-cognitive training can significantly reduce age-related effects in older individuals, who show an identical learning function to younger healthy adults. Data support the notion that learning in healthy older persons is maintained for processing complex dynamic scenes. PMID:23761025

Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn



Editorial: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiophysics is a rapidly developing branch of solar physics and plasma astrophysics. Solar radiophysics has the goal of analyzing observations of radio emissions from the Sun and understanding basic physical processes operating in quiet and active regions of the solar corona. In the near future, the commissioning of a new generation of solar radio observational facilities, which include the Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) and the upgrade of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT), and the beginning of solar observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), is expected to bring us new breakthrough results of a transformative nature. The Marie-Curie International Research Staff Exchange (MC IRSES) “RadioSun” international network aims to create a solid foundation for the successful exploitation of upcoming solar radio observational facilities, as well as intensive use of the existing observational tools, advanced theoretical modeling of relevant physical processes and observables, and training a new generation of solar radio physicists. The RadioSun network links research teams from China, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and the UK. This mini-volume presents research papers based on invited reviews and contributed talks at the 1st RadioSun workshop in China. These papers cover a broad range of research topics and include recent observational and theoretical advances in solar radiophysics, MHD seismology of the solar corona, physics of solar flares, generation of radio emission, numerical modeling of MHD and plasma physics processes, charged-particle acceleration and novel instrumentation.

Nakariakov, Valery M.; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Yan, Yi-Hua



Initial Results Derived from JEM-GLIMS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify the spatial distributions and occurrence conditions of TLEs, JEM-GLIMS (Global Lightning and sprIte MeasurementS on JEM-EF) observations from Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) at International Space Station (ISS) will start this year. Science instruments of JEM-GLIMS consist of two kinds of optical detectors and two kinds of radio receivers. The optical instruments are two wide FOV CMOS cameras (LSI) and six-channel spectrophotometers (PH). LSI uses a CMOS device with 512x512 pixels as an imaging sensor and uses a CCTV lens with =25 mm/F=1.4 which becomes 28.3x28.3 deg. FOV. LSI-1 equips a wide band optical filter (766-832 nm) and mainly measures lightning emission, while LSI-2 equips a narrowband optical filter (762+/-7 nm) and mainly measures TLE emission. Five of six PH channels employ the optics with 42.7 deg. conical FOV and use photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) as photon detectors. Each channel of these photometers equips an optical band-pass filter to measure N2 1P, 2P, and LBH emissions. One of six photometers employs a wide-FOV optics (86.8 deg.) and wide-band filter to measure N2 1P lightning emission. All these optical instruments are pointed to the nadir direction. In order to detect whistler wave excited by lightning discharges, one VLF receiver (VLFR) is installed. VLFR consists of a 15 cm nadir-directing monopole antenna and an electronics unit recording waveform data with a sampling frequency of 100 kHz with 14-bit resolution. In addition to this, two sets of VHF receivers (VITF) are also installed to measure VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges. VITF consists of two patch-type antennas separated by 1.5 m and an electronics unit which records pulse data with a sampling frequency of 200 MHz with 8-bit resolution. Thus, the spatial and temporal evolution of lightning and TLEs can be measured by the two optical instruments, while the electrical characteristics of sprite-inducing lightning discharges can be measured by two radio receivers. JEM-GIMS was successfully launched by H-IIB rocket at 02:06:18 UT on July 21, 2012 and transported to ISS by the HTV-3 cargo transfer spaceship. HTV-3 successfully arrived at ISS on July 27 and our JEM-GLIMS instruments will be installed at JEM-EF on August 9. For the period from September 15 to 21 we will carry out the initial checkout operation, and finally we will start continuous TLE observations from the middle of October. At the presentation we will show the test results obtained during the checkout operations and will present the initial results derived from JEM-GLIMS lightning/TLE observations.

Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.



Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

Franchi, Massimo



Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS relative humidity observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS humidity device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The humidity device makes use of one transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom 2 providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The absolute accuracy of the humidity device is temperature dependent, and is of the order of 2% at the temperature range of -30 to -10 °C, and of the order of 10% at the temperature range of -80 to -60 °C. This enables the investigations of atmospheric humidity variations of both diurnal and seasonal scale. The humidity device measurements will have a lag, when a step-wise change in humidity is taking place. This lag effect is increasing with decreasing temperature, and it is of the order of a few hours at the temperature of -75 °C. To compensate for the lag effect we used an algorithm developed by Mäkinen [2]. The humidity observations were validated after tedious efforts. This was needed to compensate for the artifacts of the transducer electronics. The compensation process includes an assumption that the relative humidity at Mars in the temperature range of 0 to -30 °C is about zero. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water contents as well as with the modeling results. [3,4,5] References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Mäkinen, T. (2012) Personal communication [3] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [4] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13. [5] Savijarvi et al. (2010), Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136:651, 1497-1505.

Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team



Plasma observations near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of plasma measurements made by Voyager 2 in the vicinity of Saturn are discussed and compared with those made by Pioneer 11 and Voyager 1 in a more limited range of latitudes. The initial bow shock crossing on the inbound trajectory closely agreed with the shock position inferred from the external ram pressure in the solar wind, although boundaries on the outbound pass were much further out than expected. Magnetospheric plasma observations reveal the presence of (1) shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath between 30 and 22 Saturn radii; (2) a variable density region between 17 Saturn radii and the magnetopause; (3) an extended thick plasma sheet between 17 and 7 Saturn radii; and (4) an inner plasma torus probably originating from local sources. The ratio of heavy to light ions was observed to vary with distance to the equatorial plane in the dayside magnetosphere, with the heavy ions, probably O(+), more closely confined to the equatorial plane. The plasma data also account for the observed inner boundary of the neutral hydrogen torus discovered by Voyager 1.

Bridge, H. S.; Bagenal, F.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L.; Sullivan, J. D.; Gazis, P. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.



Magnetic Field Observations near Mercury: Preliminary Results from Mariner 10.  


Results are presented from a preliminary analysis of data obtained near Mercury on 29 March 1974 by the NASA-GSFC magnetic field experiment on Mariner 10. Rather unexpectedly, a very well-developed, detached bow shock wave, which develops as the super-Alfvénic solar wind interacts with the planet, has been observed. In addition, a magnetosphere-like region, with maximum field strength of 98 gammas at closest approach (704 kilometers altitude), has been observed, contained within boundaries similar to the terrestrial magnetopause. The obstacle deflecting the solar wind flow is global in size, but the origin of the enhanced magnetic field has not yet been uniquely established. The field may be intrinsic to the planet and distorted by interaction with the solar wind. It may also be associated with a complex induction process whereby the planetary interior-atmosphere-ionosphere interacts with the solar wind flow to generate the observed field by a dynamo action. The complete body of data favors the preliminary conclusion that Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field. If this is correct, it represents a major scientific discovery in planetary magnetism and will have considerable impact on studies of the origin of the solar system. PMID:17810508

Ness, N F; Behannon, K W; Lepping, R P; Whang, Y C; Schatten, K H



Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased by the observational technique?  

E-print Network

Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased present a quantitative comparison between a large data base of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves predictions. 1 Introduction Atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) are a neutral-air phenomenon, but most techniques

Boyer, Edmond


Mount Evans Observatory: Infrared Spectroradiometric Observations and Site Survey Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 24 inch Cassegrain at U of Denver's Mount Evans Observatory (elev. 14,154 feet) is being renovated and utilized to measure selected bright infrared objects in the 16 to 28 micron infrared spectral region. The mirrors have been refurbished and the telescope drive upgraded with a PC-controlled microstepper system. Software and hardware are now in place to control the sky chop and nod functions required for operating our infrared spectral radiometer. A small observing room facility adjacent to the dome has been added. Spectral radiometric observations and associated analysis of CW Leo, Mars and selected lunar surface regions, covering the 16 to 28 micron spectral interval will be presented, and compared with available IRAS LRS data (8--23 microns). The transparency in the atmospheric windows will be discussed quantitatively. In parallel, the results of ongoing site survey studies of water vapor column and meteorological conditions will be presented, including estimates for the number of days per year with total water vapor <2 pr mm and <1 precipitable millimeters. We are grateful to the estate of William Herschel Womble for providing funds to support these activities.

Klebe, D.; Mack, J.; Wiese, K.; Williams, J.; Stencel, R.



Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)



Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 1.  


Extensive measurements of low-energy plasma electrons and positive ions were made during the Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn and its satellites. The magnetospheric plasma contains light and heavy ions, probably hydrogen and nitrogen or oxygen; at radial distances between 15 and 7 Saturn-radii (Rs) on the inbound trajectory, the plasma appears to corotate with a velocity within 20 percent of that expected for rigid corotation. The general morphology of Saturn's magnetosphere is well represented by a plasma sheet that extends from at least 5 to 17 Rs, is symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis, and appears to be well ordered by the magnetic shell parameter L (which represents the equatorial distance of a magnetic field line measured in units of Rs). Within this general configuration, two distinct structures can be identified: a central plasma sheet observed from L = 5 to L = 8 in which the density decreases rapidly away from the equatorial plane, and a more extended structure from L = 7 to beyond 18 Rs in which the density profile is nearly flat for a distance +/- 1.8 Rs off the plane and falls rapidly thereafter. The encounter with Titan took place inside the magnetosphere. The data show a clear signature characteristic of the interaction between a subsonic corotating magnetospheric plasma and the atmospheric or ionospheric exosphere of Titan. Titan appears to be a significant source of ions for the outer magnetosphere. The locations of bow shock crossings observed inbound and outbound indicate that the shape of the Saturnian magnetosphere is similar to that of Earth and that the position of the stagnation point scales approximately as the inverse one-sixth power of the ram pressure. PMID:17783833

Bridge, H S; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; Olbert, S; Sullivan, J D; Bagenal, F; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M



Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring cellulases and other biomass-degrading enzymes to Bcell itself and in anchoring proteins other Gram-positive organisms. PMID:23593409

Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.



Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

El-Baz, F.



Plasma observations near Neptune - Initial results from Voyager 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma science experiment on Voyager 2 made observations of the plasma environment in Neptune's magnetosphere and in the surrounding solar wind. Because of the large tilt of the magnetic dipole and fortuitous timing, Voyager entered Neptune's magnetosphere through the cusp region, the first cusp observations at an outer planet. Thus the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere observed

J. W. Belcher; H. S. Bridge; B. Coppi; G. S. Gordon Jr.; A. J. Lazarus; R. L. McNutt Jr.; F. Bagenal; O. Divers; A. Eviatar; K. W. Ogilvie; L. Villanueva; M. Zhang; E. C. Jr. Sittler; G. L. Siscoe; V. M. Vasyliunas



New results of the spectral observations of CP stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has been, for a long time, a subject of debate. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as high abundance of the rare-earth elements presence of magnetic fields, complicate structure of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP-stars, make the detection of the lithium lines and the determination of the lithium abundance, a difficult task. During the International Meeting in Slovakia in 1996, the lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed. The results of the Li study carried out in CrAO Polosukhina (1973-1976), the works of Hack & Faraggiana (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992-1996) formed the basis of the International project ‘Lithium in the cool CP-stars with magnetic fields’. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

Polosukhina, N. S.; Shavrina, A. V.; Drake, N. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Smirnova, M. A.



Peripheral obstructions influence marmot vigilance: integrating observational and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals generally allocate some time during foraging to detecting predators. We used a combination of observations and an experiment to examine how vegetation height and peripheral obstructions influence vigilance by foraging yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). First, we analyzed a large sample of observations of marmots foraging in nature. Marmots increased vigilance with vegetation height and reared on their hind legs

Peter A. Bednekoff; Daniel T. Blumstein



Betaine and Trimethylamine-N-Oxide as Predictors of Cardiovascular Outcomes Show Different Patterns in Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Betaine is a major osmolyte, also important in methyl group metabolism. Concentrations of betaine, its metabolite dimethylglycine and analog trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in blood are cardiovascular risk markers. Diabetes disturbs betaine: does diabetes alter associations between betaine-related measures and cardiovascular risk? Methods Plasma samples were collected from 475 subjects four months after discharge following an acute coronary admission. Death (n?=?81), secondary acute MI (n?=?87), admission for heart failure (n?=?85), unstable angina (n?=?72) and all cardiovascular events (n?=?283) were recorded (median follow-up: 1804 days). Results High and low metabolite concentrations were defined as top or bottom quintile of the total cohort. In subjects with diabetes (n?=?79), high plasma betaine was associated with increased frequencies of events; significantly for heart failure, hazard ratio 3.1 (1.2–8.2) and all cardiovascular events, HR 2.8 (1.4–5.5). In subjects without diabetes (n?=?396), low plasma betaine was associated with events; significantly for secondary myocardial infarction, HR 2.1 (1.2–3.6), unstable angina, HR 2.3 (1.3–4.0), and all cardiovascular events, HR 1.4 (1.0–1.9). In diabetes, high TMAO was a marker of all outcomes, HR 2.7 (1.1–7.1) for death, 4.0 (1.6–9.8) for myocardial infarction, 4.6 (2.0–10.7) for heart failure, 9.1 (2.8–29.7) for unstable angina and 2.0 (1.1–3.6) for all cardiovascular events. In subjects without diabetes TMAO was only significant for death, HR 2.7 (1.6–4.8) and heart failure, HR 1.9 (1.1–3.4). Adding the estimated glomerular filtration rate to Cox regression models tended to increase the apparent risks associated with low betaine. Conclusions Elevated plasma betaine concentration is a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes; conversely low plasma betaine concentrations indicate increased risk in the absence of diabetes. We speculate that the difference reflects control of osmolyte retention in tissues. Elevated plasma TMAO is a strong risk marker in diabetes. PMID:25493436

Lever, Michael; George, Peter M.; Slow, Sandy; Bellamy, David; Young, Joanna M.; Ho, Markus; McEntyre, Christopher J.; Elmslie, Jane L.; Atkinson, Wendy; Molyneux, Sarah L.; Troughton, Richard W.; Frampton, Christopher M.; Richards, A. Mark; Chambers, Stephen T.



Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50?N, 126°43?E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s?1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m,

Yuji Kashino; Akio Ishida; Yoshifumi Kuroda



Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50'N, 126°43'E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s-1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m,

Yuji Kashino; Akio Ishida; Yoshifumi Kuroda



Cloud radar deployment for Indian Monsoon observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)'s acquired Ka-band radar for the Study of the interaction between Cloud and Environment for formation of Precipitation. Main objective of it is to make simultaneous high resolution measurements on dynamical, cloud microphysical and precipitation parameters pertain to monsoon system probably at diverse locations. The goal is to understand the interplay between cloud processes and environment that not only allow understanding the fundamental cloud-environment interactions but also precipitation formation mechanisms and further to estimate cloud contribution to the re-distribution of energy and water in climate system. For this, Polarimetric weather Doppler Radar at higher frequencies (9.5 and 35 GHz) can be a potential tool to gain knowledge on this scientific as well as societal application oriented programme. IITM's Polarimetric scanning Ka-band (cloud) radar operations started recently during May 2013. Mobile Ka-band Scanning Polarimetric Doppler Radar (KaSPR) is a cloud radar operating at wavelength of 8.5 mm with average powers of 110 W. KaSPR incorporates a conduction cooled Extended Interaction Klystron Amplifier. It is having four foot diameter Ka-band cassegrain antenna. Liquid cooled air-sealed RF unit provides excellent temperature stability. Antenna on the top of RF unit is mounted on the Elevation over azimuth pedestal which is designed to rotate continuously in the azimuth axis and a full 180 degrees in the elevation axis (horizon to horizon) with a maximum velocity of 200/sec and maximum acceleration of 120/s2. KaSPR uses dual channel 16-bit digital receiver having dynamic range of more than 80 dB with bandwidths 10 MHz. Arbitrary waveform generator capable of generating any user-defined waveform of up to 16K samples in length. It is having sensitivity of the order -45 dBZ at 5 km. KaSPR has been providing high sensitivity versatile measurements of cloud and precipitation at tropical site (Manderdev, 18.04290 N, 73.86890 E, 1.35 km AMSL) from a scanning mobile platform since May, 2013. The initial results of the above cloud radar observations on Indian monsoon will be discussed.

Chakravarty, K.; Kalapureddy, M.; Pa, M.; Deshpandy, S.; Das, S.; Pandithurai, G.; Prabhakaran, T.; Chandrasekar, C. V.; Goswami, B.



Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50'N, 126°43'E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s-1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m, and there was no evidence of a steady northward current (the Mindanao Undercurrent) at the study location. Compared with the large average velocity, MC variability was low (standard deviation <0.2 m s-1 for all directions). All the observed interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the MC were of comparable amplitude. The MC was strong during boreal summers and during the onset of the 2002-03 El Niño. The core velocity of the MC at approximately 100 m was correlated with the sea level difference between Cebu, Philippines and Malakal, Palau.

Kashino, Yuji; Ishida, Akio; Kuroda, Yoshifumi



Stratospheric and tropospheric NO2 observed by SCIAMACHY: first results  

E-print Network

) of ­ 3 km and ex- tending up to $100 km. Spectrally, SCIAMACHY is an 8-channel grating spectrometer August 2003 Abstract Observations from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric encouraging. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) (Bovens- mann

Chance, Kelly


Cassini Observations of Saturn's Magnetotail Region: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Cassini thermal plasma, hot plasma and magnetic field observations for several intervals between the dawn meridian of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and Saturn's magnetotail region, we investigate the structure of the magnetotail, plasma and magnetic field properties within tail-like current sheet regions and ion flows within the magnetotail regions. We use Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), Electron Plasma Spectrometer (ELS) observations, MIMI LEMMS ion and electron observations and Cassini magnetometer data (MAG) to characterize the plasma environment. IMS observations are used to measure plasma flow velocities from which one can infer rotation versus convective flows. IMS composition measurements are used to trace the source of plasma from the inner magnetosphere (protons, H2+ and water group ions) versus an external solar wind source (protons and e +i+on s). A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. For example, are there significant return flows (i.e., negative radial velocities, VR < 0) and/or plasmoids (V(sub R) > 0) within the magnetotail region? Initial preliminary evidence of such out flows and return flows was presented by Sittler et al. This talk complements the more global analysis by McAndrews et al.

Sittler, E. C.; Arridge, C.; Rymer, A.; Coates, A.; Krupp, N.; Blanc, M.; Richardson, J.; Andre, N.; Thomsen, M.; Tokar, R. L.; McAndrews, H. J.; Henderson, Mike; Cooper, J. F.; Burger, M.; Simpson, D.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C.; Dougherty, M.; Young, D. T.



Cassini Observations of Saturn's Dawn-Magnetotail Region: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Cassini thermal plasma, hot plasma and magnetic field observations for several intervals between the dawn meridian of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and Saturn's magnetotail region, we investigate the structure of the magnetotail, plasma and magnetic field properties within tail-like current sheet regions and ion flows within the dawn to magnetotail regions. We use Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) and Electron Plasma Spectrometer (ELS) observations and MIMI LEMMS ion and electron observations to characterize the plasma environment. LMS observations are used to measure plasma flow velocities from which one can infer rotation versus convective flows. IMS composition measurements are used to trace the, source of plasma from the inner magnetosphere (protons, H(2+) and water group ions) versus an external solar wind source (protons and He++ ions). A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. For example, are there significant return flows (i.e., negative radial velocities, V(sub R) < 0) and/or plasmoids (V(sub R) > 0) within the magnetotail region?

Sittler, Edward C.



Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng



GALLEX solar neutrino observations: results for GALLEX IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the GALLEX solar neutrino results for the measuring period GALLEX IV, from 14 February 1996 until 23 January 1997. Counting for the GALLEX IV runs was completed on 19 June 1997. The GALLEX IV result from 12 solar runs is [118.4 ± 17.8 (stat.) ± 6.6 (sys.)] SNU (1?). The combined result for GALLEX I+II+III+IV, which comprises 65

W. Hampel; J. Handt; G. Heusser; J. Kiko; T. Kirsten; M. Laubenstein; E. Pernicka; W. Rau; M. Wojcik; Yu. Zakharov; R. v. Ammon; K. H. Ebert; T. Fritsch; D. Heidt; E. Henrich; L. Stielglitz; F. Weirich; M. Balata; M. Sann; F. X. Hartmann; E. Bellotti; C. Cattadori; O. Cremonesi; N. Ferrari; E. Fiorini; L. Zanotti; M. Altmann; F. v. Feilitzsch; R. Mößbauer; S. Wanninger; G. Berthomieu; E. Schatzman; I. Carmi; I. Dostrovsky; C. Bacci; P. Belli; R. Bernabei; S. d'Angelo; L. Paoluzi; M. Cribier; J. Rich; M. Spiro; C. Tao; D. Vignaud; J. Boger; R. L. Hahn; J. K. Rowley; R. W. Stoenner; J. Weneser



Palomar 5 and its tidal tails: New observational results  

E-print Network

Sloan Digital Sky Survey data for the field of the globular cluster Pal 5 reveal the existence of a long massive stream of tidal debris spanning an arc of 10 degrees on the sky. Pal 5 thus provides an outstanding example for tidal disruption of globular clusters in the Milky Way. Radial velocities from VLT spectra show that Pal 5 has an extremely low velocity dispersion, in accordance with the very low mass derived from its total luminosity.

M. Odenkirchen; E. K. Grebel; W. Dehnen; H. -W. Rix; C. M. Rockosi; H. Newberg; B. Yanny



Plasma observations near Saturn - Initial results from Voyager 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn and its satellites yielded extensive measurements of magnetospheric low-energy plasma electrons and positive ions, both heavy and light, probably of hydrogen and nitrogen or oxygen. At radial distances between 15 and 7 Saturn radii on the inbound trajectory, the plasma appears to corotate with a velocity within 20% of that theoretically expected for rigid corotation. The Titan data, taken while the moon was inside the Saturn magnetosphere, shows a clear signature characteristic of the interaction between a subsonic corotating magnetospheric plasma and the atmospheric or ionospheric exosphere of Titan.

Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Olbert, S.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Gazis, P. R.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.



Recent SETI Results with Observations at the ATA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Allen Telescope Array is open for business and the SETI Institute is carrying out a variety of searches for exo-intelligence. Production-level searches for narrowband signals is underway. Results from these and searches using unconventional algorithms are presented.

Harp, G. R.; Backus, P. R.; Kilsdonk, T. N.; Jordan, J. C.; Tarter, J. C.



A processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed.

Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.



Long submarine lava flows: Observations and results from numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long (>100 km) lava flows are relatively common on Mars and Venus and have been identified on the Moon, but they are rarely documented on Earth. However, although ~75% of the Earth's surface is covered by water, only a small percentage of the ocean floor has been investigated at a resolution sufficient to unequivocally identify the boundaries of long submarine lava flows. Even so, basaltic lava flows as long as 110 km have been identified on the deep (>1500 m) seafloor near Hawaii and the East Pacific Rise. Ambient conditions on the deep ocean floor may favor the development of long lava flows for the following reasons. First, high pressures (>15 MPa) keep volatiles dissolved in basaltic lavas, preventing viscosity increases associated with exsolution and vesiculation. Second, seawater rapidly quenches the surface of submarine basalt flows so that an insulating glass layer, 1-5 cm thick, encases submarine flows within seconds after their emplacement. This glass rind effectively insulates the molten flow interior from additional heat loss, making submarine basalt flows behave as well-insulated, subaerial tube-fed flows. Thus, for identical basalt flows emplaced on the deep seafloor and subaerially, a submarine flow could advance farther before stopping. Results of numerical modeling indicate that thin (<=1 m) submarine basalt flows behave similarly to identical subaerial flows, but thicker submarine flows may advance significantly farther than their subaerial counterparts.

Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Fornari, Daniel J.



Results of MODIS band-to-band registration characterization using on-orbit lunar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since launch, lunar observations have been made on a regular basis for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used in a number of applications for their on-orbit calibration and characterization, including radiometric stability monitoring, band-to-band registration (BBR) characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparisons with others sensors. MODIS has 36 spectral bands, consisting of a total of 490 individual detectors, which are located on four different focal plane assemblies (FPAs). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations for its on-orbit BBR characterization in both along-scan and along-track directions. In addition to BBR, study of detector-to-detector registration (DDR) through the use of lunar observations is also discussed. The yearly averaged BBR results developed from MODIS lunar observations are presented in this paper and compared with that derived from its on-board calibrator (OBC). In general, results from different approaches agree well. Results show that on-orbit changes in BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS over their entire missions. It is clearly demonstrated in this paper that the lunar approaches developed and applied to MODIS can be effectively used by other sensors for their on-orbit BBR and DDR characterization.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal, Amit; Xie, Yong; Choi, Taeyoung; Wang, Zhipeng



Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry  

E-print Network

Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry Ro Parviainen Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry #12;Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results 1 Introduction The light curve Defocused PSF 2 Observations Observations 3 PSF fitting Photometry PSF model 1 PSF

Pinfield, David J.


INTEGRAL observations of the blazar Mrk 421 in outburst. Results of a multi-wavelength campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: If one wants to understand the physics of blazars, better simultaneous observations are important at all wavelengths, so it was fortunate that a ToO observation of the TeV-emitting blazar Mrk 421 with INTEGRAL could be triggered in June 2006 by an increase in the RXTE count rate to more than 30 mCrab. The source was then observed with all INTEGRAL instruments, with the exception of the spectrometer SPI, for a total exposure of 829 ks. During this time several outbursts were observed by IBIS and JEM-X. Multiwavelength observations were immediately triggered, and the source was observed at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths up to TeV energies. Aims: The data obtained during these observations were analysed with respect to time variability, time lags, correlated variability, and spectral evolution and then compiled in a ? F? spectrum. Methods: The observations of the different instruments/telescopes were analysed with the usual correlation and time-analysis methods. The spectral analysis of the X-ray data was performed with XSPEC. Results: Four strong flares at X-rays were observed that were not seen at other wavelengths (partially because of missing data). From the fastest rise in the X-rays, an upper limit could be derived to the extension of the emission region. A time lag between high-energy and low-energy X-rays was observed, which allowed an estimation of the magnetic-field strength. The spectral analysis of the X-rays revealed a slight spectral hardening of the low-energy (3-~43 keV) spectral index. The hardness-ratio analysis of the Swift-XRT (0.2-10 keV) data indicated a small correlation with the intensity; i.e., a hard-to-soft evolution was observed. At the energies of IBIS/ISGRI (20-150 keV), such correlations are less obvious. A multiwavelength spectrum was composed and the X-ray luminosities were calculated. Conclusions: The observed flaring activity of Mrk 421 is mainly visible at X-rays. It is found that the spectral change with intensity is small. But at least one flare showed a completely different spectral behaviour than the other flares, so one can conclude that each blob of relativistic-moving electrons has its own individual physical environment that leads to different emission characteristics. From a fit of a leptonic emission model to the data, one finds that the observed variability may be due to a varying efficiency of particle acceleration.

Lichti, G. G.; Bottacini, E.; Ajello, M.; Charlot, P.; Collmar, W.; Falcone, A.; Horan, D.; Huber, S.; von Kienlin, A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lindfors, E.; Morris, D.; Nilsson, K.; Petry, D.; Rüger, M.; Sillanpää, A.; Spanier, F.; Tornikoski, M.



Mercury: Mid-infrared (3-13.5 µm) observations show heterogeneous composition, presence of intermediate and basic soil types, and pyroxene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aerospace Corporation's Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii was used to obtain spectral measurements of Mercury's thermal emission on March 21, 1998 (45-85 deg longitude), and on May 12, 1998 (68-108 deg longitude). The spectra show heterogeneous composition on Mercury's surface between longitudes 45-85 deg and about 68-108 deg. These observations include measurements from 3-6 ?m, a spectral region not previously covered by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Excellent quality data were obtained in the atmospheric windows between 3-4.2 and 4.6-5.5 ?m. These wavelength regions exhibit high emissivity characteristic of a regolith with strong thermal gradients maintained in a vacuum environment with spectra dominated by grain sizes of about 30 ?m. Emission peaks are present at 3.5 and 5 ?m in the 45-85 deg longitude data. The 5 ?m peak has been tentatively attributed to clino-pyroxene. Data were also obtained in the 7.5-13.5 ?m spectral region. Spectra obtained during both observing periods show well-defined emissivity maxima (EM) in the spectral vicinity (between 7.7-9.2 ?m) of the Christiansen frequency of silicate soils. The location of the EM for longitudes 45-85 deg (7.9 ?m) is consistent with a surface composition of intermediate SiO2 content. The overall spectral shape is similar to that obtained previously at the same location with different instrumentation. In the region 68-108 deg longitude, three EM are observed at 7.8, 8.2, and 9.2 ?m, indicating the presence of distinctly different surface composition from the other location. Comparisons of these data to other mid-infrared spectra of Mercury's surface and asteroids, and of the different instrumentation used in observations are included.

Sprague, A. L.; Emery, J. P.; Donaldson, K. L.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Mazuk, A. L.



First preliminary results of an observation of Ginkgo Biloba treating patients with autistic disorder.  


Deficits in reciprocal social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and imaginative activity are the main characteristics of autism. From the psychopharmacological point of view, clonidine, metylphenidate and neuroleptics may improve some of these aspects, but with a remarkable risk of adverse side effects. In our observational study, three patients received 2 x 100 mg Ginkgo Biloba EGb 761 for 4 weeks and showed some improvement on the Aberrant Behavior and Symptom Checklist. These results suggest, that Ginkgo Biloba might be effective at least as an add-on therapy. PMID:19274699

Niederhofer, Helmut



Body Characteristics, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results. PMID:24992329

Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Ängquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.



Researching of sea waves influence on a coastal line transformation (based on field observation results)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long duration registrations of bottom pressure, temperature and meteorological data took place in June - October 2007 on the shelf near 104th - 110th kilometer of interstate road Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Okha. Sediment transport and abrasion processes are observed in this place, it is a dangerous factor for road and railroad constructions, it can also be threat for some buildings of Vzmorie town. Distributed network of autonomous pressure gauges was installed for wave structure studying. Gauges were installed in tree lines with 100, 150 and 200 meters far from each other. Gathered data contains information about different wave's regimes under different weather conditions, it's allowed us to make analysis. Different data rows for different wave regimes were taken for analysis. Transformation of wave field along shoreline and opposite was observed. The results of observation are showed that disposition of waves was determined by swell waves with period 8-9 second. Wind waves were weaker than swell waves, conceivably because of big depths in the studied area. Much more interesting results were found in the infragravity waves range (0.5 - 5 min). For example, peaks with period above 150 and 75 seconds are presented in the spectral estimation of record from gauge 23. The same peaks were not observed in other gauges to the North and to the South from 23. However, low frequency peak was much stronger at the storm weather, but 75 seconds peak was stayed non-changed under the different weather conditions. For understanding mechanism of infra-gravitation waves generation group structure of waves were studied. Spectrum characteristics of different data rows for different wave regimes and also for their envelopes were provided. Results of this research allow us to consider that wave packets with common period 7 - 8 seconds make infra-gravitation waves with period above 5 minutes which forcing sediment transport processes. Satellite images of studied place were used in this research. Beach cusps were found cusps (periodically forms of shore line) on these images, the cusps length place in diapason from 500 to 615 meters. Calculation and results of modeling showed that this cusps was generated by standing edge waves. Calculating of edge waves parameters for obtained bathymetry showed that period of edge waves which generated cusps must be about 4-5 minute. This period agree closely with spectrum estimation of data rows. This work is partly supported by RFBR grant 09-05-00447_? and The President of Russian Federation grant for young scientists MD-3024.2008.5.

Chernov, A.; Kouznetsov, K.; Kurkin, A.; Shevchenko, G.



Special Thanks to: Professor Wagdi Habashi, Dr. Isik Ozcer, the NTI staff and CFD lab staff The results show that this optimization procedure produces faster convergence  

E-print Network

int., 2011. 2. Flight Safety Foundation, "Aviation Safety Network." Accident Description. Available · The results show that this optimization procedure produces faster convergence rates while maintaining from Internet; accessed 28 July 2011. 3

Barthelat, Francois


Upper Stratospheric Temperature Climatology Derived from SAGE II Observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-mn observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K occurs in the subtropics in both hemispheres. The derived long-term temperature changes from 1985 to 1997 reveal a statistically significant negative trend of -2 to -2.5 K/decade in the tropical upper stratosphere and about -2 K/decade in the subtropics near the stratopause. At latitudes poleward of 50, the results show a statistically significant positive trend of about 1 K/decade in the upper stratosphere. The preliminary results also show large annual temperature oscillations in the extratropics with a maximum amplitude of approx. 8 K located at about 44 km near 50 in both hemispheres during local summer. In addition, the semiannual oscillation is found to be a maximum in the tropics with a peak amplitude of approx. 3.3 K located at about 42 km during the equinox.

Wang, P.-H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Chu, W. P.; Thomason, L. W.



Further results on the observability of quantum systems under general measurement  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present a collection of results on the observability of quantum mechanical systems, in the case the output is the result of a discrete nonselective measurement. By defining an effective observable we extend previous results, on the Lie algebraic characterization of observable systems, to general measurements. Further results include the characterization of a `best probe' (i.e. a minimally disturbing probe) in indirect measurement and a study of the relation between disturbance and observability in this case. We also discuss how the observability properties of a quantum system relate to the problem of state reconstruction. Extensions of the formalism to the case of selective measurements are also given.

D. D'Alessandro; R. Romano



A Portrait of the Centaur 2060 Chiron: new results from groundbased and Herschel observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Open Time Key Program entitled "TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region" has been awarded 373 hours to investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of TNOs and Centaurs [1]. In this work we present the results of the combined SPIRE and PACS instruments observations over 6 bands of the Centaur 2060 Chiron, together with groundbased observations used to constrain its absolute magnitude, to investigate possible cometary activity and its surface composition. The estimated nuclear HV magnitude during the Herschel observations is 5.81±0.08, indicating a high flux from the Centaur comparable to that of its activity peak during 1989. Using this HV value, our Chiron's best size estimation, from NEATM and TPM modelling, is 218±20 km, with an albedo of 16±3 %, a value higher than previous Chiron's albedo estimation. Chiron shows the strongest decrease in the emissivity versus wavelength in the TNOs and Centaurs sample investigated with the PACS and SPIRE instruments. The results on the cometary activity analysis both in the visual and far infrared images will also be presented.

Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Müller, T.; Panuzzo, P.; Kiss, C.; Lim, T.; Mommert, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Vilenius, E.; Tozzi, G. P.; Mottola, S.; Duffard, R.; Barucci, M. A.



Results from EDDAatCOSY: Spin Observables in Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic proton-proton scattering as one of the fundamental hadronic reactions has been studied with the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY/Jülich. A precise measurement of differential cross section, analyzing power and three spin-correlation parameters over a large angular (?c.m. ? 35° - 90°) and energy (Tp ? 0.5 - 2.5 GeV) range has been carried out in the past years. By taking scattering data during the acceleration of the COSY beam, excitation functions were measured in small energy steps and consistent normalization with respect to luminosity and polarization. The experiment uses internal fiber targets and a polarized hydrogen atomic-beam target in conjunction with a double-layered, cylindrical scintillator hodoscope for particle detection. The results on differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been published and helped to improve phase shift solutions. Recently data taking with polarized beam and target has been completed. Preliminary results for the spin-correlation parameters A NN, ASS, and ASL are presented. The observable ASS has been measured the first time above 800 MeV and our results are in sharp contrast to phase-shift predictions at higher energies. Our analysis shows that some of the ambiguities in the direct reconstruction of scattering amplitudes which also show up as differences between available phase-shift solutions, will be reduced by these new measurements.

Rohdjeß, Heiko



The Relevance of External Quality Assessment for Molecular Testing for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from Two Pilot Rounds Show Room for Optimization  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012–2013. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images. Results Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images. Conclusion There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing. PMID:25386659

Tembuyser, Lien; Tack, Véronique; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Pauwels, Patrick; Miller, Keith; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kerr, Keith; Schuuring, Ed; Thunnissen, Erik; Dequeker, Elisabeth M. C.



Results of MODIS Band-to-Band Registration Characterization Using On-Orbit Lunar Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since launch, lunar observations have been made regularly by both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used for a number of sensor calibration and characterization related applications, including radiometric stability monitoring, spatial characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparison. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 individual detectors. They are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations to characterize its band-to-band registration (BBR). In addition to BBR, the approach developed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) can be used to characterize MODIS detector-to-detector registration (DDR). Long-term BBR results developed from this approach are presented and compared with that derived from a unique on-board calibrator (OBC). Results show that on-orbit changes of BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and this approach can be applied to other remote sensing instruments.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal,Amit



New Results from Space and Field Observations on the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New space observations from the MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite and analysis of POLDER data flown on the ADEOS satellite, show in great details the spatial and seasonal variability of the global aerosol system. These spaceborne instruments distinguish fine aerosol from man-made regional pollution and biomass burning from mostly natural coarse dust and sea salt aerosol. E.g. fine regional pollution in and around the Indian sub-continent, Europe and North America; smoke from biomass burning in Southern Africa and Southern America; coarse dust from West Africa and mixed dust pollution and smoke from West and central Africa and East Asia. These regions were also studied extensively in focused field experiments and by the distributed AERONET network. The results generate the first climatologies of the aerosol system, are used to derive the aerosol radiative effects and to estimate the anthropogenic component. The measurements are also used to evaluate each other and constrain aerosol transport models.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent



F region airglow - Are ground-based observations consistent with recent satellite results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Atmosphere Explorer photochemistry is used to interpret simultaneous observations made at the Arecibo Observatory of the OI (6300 A) and NI (5200 A) airglow surface brightness and electron density and temperature profiles measured by incoherent scatter radar. It was found that the theory and the experiment agree for the 5200-A emission; however, it was not possible to obtain to a complete agreement for the 6300-A nightglow. It is suggested that the source of the discrepancy results from one of the parameters used to calculate the production rate of O(lD); the data show evidence of an asymmetrical behavior of the ionosphere between times when the F layer is descending and when it is ascending, with asymmetry probably reflecting the effects of transport on molecular ion densities in the bottom side of the F region.

Cogger, L. L.; Walker, J. C. G.; Meriwether, J. W., Jr.; Burnside, R. G.



Results from near infrared spectral observation of 1991 total solar eclipse.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduced are the data and analytical results of infrared spectral observations (10712 - 10972 Å) of the total solar eclipse of July 11, 1991 in Mexico. The surface brightness curve, derived from the continua of the extreme limb photosphere of flash spectra, has a dip at about 210 km inside the solar disk limb. The temperature at the bottom of the chromosphere is about 4425±26K. The flash spectra show that the He I 10803 line reaches a maximum of emission at about 1200 km beyond the photosphere. Spectra of the big prominence at the east limb indicate that it is a very weak prominence with an intensity of 2% - 5% of ordinary prominences. This prominence has a large turbulent velocity (about 30 km/sec) and a blueshift velocity along the light-of-sight (210±15 km/sec).

Li, Hui; You, Jianqi



Results from Infrared Spectral Observation of 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Hui Li and Jianqi You  

E-print Network

Results from Infrared Spectral Observation of 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Hui Li and Jianqi You Purple and analytical results of infrared spectra (10712 š A--10972 š A) observed in the total solar eclipse of 1991­prominence property. Keywords: total solar eclipse, infrared spectrum, solar prominence 1. Introduction One

Li, Hui


Results from Two Years of Global Lightning Observation with the Optical Transient Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) is an instrument designed specifically to detect and locate lightning during either daytime or nighttime. A predecessor of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), it has been in orbit for over two and half years. During this time global lightning activity has been observed on a quasi continuous basis. During this time an extensive effort has been under way to quantify and verify the OTD performance. OTD data has been compared with both the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and the Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system at KSC. Results of these intercomparisons will be presented as well as estimates of OTD overall performance parameters. In addition, one year of OTD results will be presented showing the strong influence of the sun on global lightning activity. A month by month collage of global lightning maps will be used to demonstrate both the first order forcing and more subtle influences. Finally, initial results form the Lightning Imaging Sensor, an instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) will be presented.

Christian, H. J.; Driscoll, K.; Boccippio, D. J.



Two-spacecraft observations of reconnection at the magnetopause: Model results and data comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit an example of “quasi-steady” magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause on February 11, 1998, observed by Equator-S and Geotail at the dawnside magnetopause. Phan et al. [Phan, T.D. et al., 2000. Extended magnetic reconnection at the Earth’s magnetopause from detection of bi-directional jets. Nature 404, 848 850.] reported oppositely directed jets at these spacecrafts and inferred a length of the reconnection line of about 38RE. Pinnock et al. [Pinnock, M., Chisham, G., Coleman, I.J., Freeman, M.P., Hairston, M., Villain, J.-P., 2003. The location and rate of dayside reconnection during an interval of southward interplanetary magnetic field. Ann. Geophys. 21, 1467 1482.] used measurements from SuperDARN radars to show that the reconnection electric field was variable. Here we complement this work by obtaining snapshots of the reconnection electric field from the in situ observations. To do this, we apply a reconstruction method based on a model of compressible Petschek-type magnetic reconnection. This independent method uses magnetic field observations as input data to calculate the reconnection electric field. We obtain average values of Erec in the range of 0.4 2.4 mV/m. Further we infer a distance perpendicular to the reconnection line of 0.4 0.6RE. The model results are compared with the two studies mentioned above. It thus appears that while the transfer of momentum for this event is indeed large-scale, the actual rate depends on the time it is measured.

Penz, T.; Farrugia, C. J.; Ivanova, V. V.; Semenov, V. S.; Biernat, H. K.; Torbert, R.


Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run

B. G. Fejer; R. W. Spiro; R. A. Wolf; J. C. Foster



Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere  

E-print Network

Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere - 7 October 2009 Sandrine Guerlet Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere #12;Motivation Observations of hydrocarbons in Saturn's stratosphere Origin: by-products of CH4 photolysis by solar UV ; Production rates

Demoulin, Pascal


Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.



First results from the Faint Object Camera - Observations of PKS 0521 - 36  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope was used to observe the radio galaxy PKS 0521 - 36 which hosts a prominent radio jet. Images of the jet show spatial structure comparable to VLA data and significantly better than optical ground-based observations. The jet structure is resolved at FOC resolution. In addition to the radio knot, well resolved by the FOC, an extension of the jet toward the nucleus is apparent. The rest of the jet does not show much clumpiness, implying that the synchrotron electrons must be accelerated all along the jet to account for the extent in the optical region.

Macchetto, F.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.



North America Extreme Precipitation Changes under Global Warming: ATHENA model results and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate models have generally shown a more extreme climate under global warming scenarios. A quantitative assessment of precipitation extreme is crucial in light of the damage produced by recent Hurricane Sandy and for water resource management in general. We examined the spatial and temporal structure of extreme precipitation from climate models and compare them with observed datasets derived from satellite and rain gauge analyses. Results from the ATHENA project (for high resolution global climate simulations) at resolutions of T159 and T1279, corresponding to resolutions of about 128km and 16km, respectively, with 6 hourly output are analyzed. The high resolution T1279 data revealed fine scale dependence on topography, such as the mountain ranges in the west coast, which are not resolved in T159. The high resolution data also show higher and more variable annual maximum. Comparison of AMIP and Time Slice data also reveal that the return periods of heavy rainfall decrease, or more frequent recurrence of extreme events under a global warming scenario. A Generalized Extremely Value (GEV) distribution is used to examine the parametric dependence of annual maximum rainfall although other EV distributions, such as a Frechet (EV type II) or Gumble (EV type I) distribution often perform better than the GEV. The estimated shape parameter, which determines the skewness of the distribution, is generally small and in the range of less than 0.2. Assuming the shape parameter is zero, the GEV reduces to a two parameter distribution- the location and scale parameters. Annual maximum rainfall derived from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one degree daily (1dd) product and the TRMM Merged Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree and 3 hourly resolutions are compiled and analyzed. Comparison between the ATHENA and satellite-gauge products shows that their spatial pattern is quite similar while the models tend to underestimate annual maximum rainfall and their variability.

Chiu, L.; Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Feng, X.



Comparison of space-based lidar observations (CALIOP) with regional model results over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional transport model (COSMO-MUSCAT: Consortium for Small-scale Modeling - MultiScale Atmospheric Transport Model) is used for simulations of aerosol optical properties within Europe. Based on the simulated concentrations of specific aerosol types together with mass extinction efficiencies, vertical profiles of the extinction coefficients (EXTs) are calculated from the model results. Vertical profiles of backscatter coefficients (BSCs) are computed using a lidar ratio. In the model version used here marine and dust aerosol types are not computed. Model simulations are performed for two short time periods: 19-26 July 2006 and 16-26 February 2007. The summer period is characterized by low wind speeds and a persistent meteorological situation. This caused the accumulation of particles within the atmosphere. For this time period an average aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.19 is simulated, whereas due to particle removal by several precipitation events during the winter period the average AOD is lower (0.14). In this investigation space-based observations of vertical profiles of BSCs are used for model evaluation. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) performs global aerosol profile measurements since April 2006 continuously. In addition to the BSC profiles information about the occurrence of particular aerosol types (smoke, polluted dust, clean continental, polluted continental, dust and clean marine) is available. Comparisons between observed and simulated BSC profiles for these two time periods show a relative model bias of -23%- -10% during summer and of -77%- -53% during winter between surface and 2 km altitude. Especially, during the winter period the bias is quite large caused in part by the tendency of the model to remove particles too efficiently due to wet deposition. Further, during 19-26 July 2006 Saharan dust was transported to Europe, which is not described by the model, and marine aerosol is only identified by CALIOP over sea surface. Eliminating BSC profiles where marine and dust aerosol types were detected by CALIOP improves the agreement between observed and simulated BSC profiles. A relative bias of -20% - -2% during summer and of -72% - -46% during winter is determined. The relatively large discrepancy during winter time can also be caused by the misinterpretation of the occurrence of marine aerosol. Marine aerosol was dominant during that time but CALIOP detects marine aerosol only over sea surface, whereas the transport of marine aerosol into continental regions is not considered. Additionally, differences regarding day- and night-time are found. In general comparisons between CALIOP and COSMO-MUSCAT lead to better results for night-time compared to day-time observations. This difference has also been found in comparisons of CALIOP BSC profiles with ground-based lidar profiles. The results point to the need to implement dust and marine aerosol type for characterizing aerosol distribution within the regional model for the European domain. Additionally, by using CALIOP data it is possible to analyze model ability to simulate the occurrence, the transport as well as the optical properties of specific aerosol types.

Tegen, I.; Meier, J.; Wandinger, U.; Mattis, I.; Wolke, R.



Prospects of an alternative treatment against Trypanosoma cruzi based on abietic acid derivatives show promising results in Balb/c mouse model.  


Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is an example of extended parasitaemia with unmet medical needs. Current treatments based on old-featured benznidazole (Bz) and nifurtimox are expensive and do not fulfil the criteria of effectiveness, and a lack of toxicity devoid to modern drugs. In this work, a group of abietic acid derivatives that are chemically stable and well characterised were introduced as candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease. In vitro and in vivo assays were performed in order to test the effectiveness of these compounds. Finally, those which showed the best activity underwent additional studies in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of action. In vitro results indicated that some compounds have low toxicity (i.e. >150 ?M, against Vero cell) combined with high efficacy (i.e. <20 ?M) against some forms of T. cruzi. Further in vivo studies on mice models confirmed the expectations of improvements in infected mice. In vivo tests on the acute phase gave parasitaemia inhibition values higher those of Bz, and a remarkable decrease in the reactivation of parasitaemia was found in the chronic phase after immunosuppression of the mice treated with one of the compounds. The morphological alterations found in treated parasites with our derivatives confirmed extensive damage; energetic metabolism disturbances were also registered by (1)H NMR. The demonstrated in vivo activity and low toxicity, together with the use of affordable starting products and the lack of synthetic complexity, put these abietic acid derivatives in a remarkable position toward the development of an anti-Chagasic agent. PMID:25462275

Olmo, F; Guardia, J J; Marin, C; Messouri, I; Rosales, M J; Urbanová, K; Chayboun, I; Chahboun, R; Alvarez-Manzaneda, E J; Sánchez-Moreno, M



Molecular analysis of human glycophorin MiIX gene shows a silent segment transfer and untemplated mutation resulting from gene conversion via sequence repeats.  


The human glycophorin (HGp) loci that define the red blood cell surface antigens of the MNSs blood group system exhibit considerable allelic variation. Previous studies have identified gene conversion events involving HGpA(alpha) and HGpB(delta) that produced delta-alpha-delta hybrid genes which differ in the location of breakpoints. This report presents the molecular analysis of HGpMilX, the first example of a reverse alpha-delta-alpha hybrid gene that specifies a newly described phenotype of the Miltenberger complex. A novel restriction fragment unique to the HGpMilX gene was detected by Southern blot hybridization. The structure of the genomic region encoding the entire extracellular domain of the MilX protein was determined. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified genomic DNA showed that a silent segment of the HGpB(delta) gene had been transposed to replace the internal part of exon III in the HGpA(alpha) gene, thereby resulting in the formation of the MilX allele with an alpha-delta-alpha configuration. The proximal alpha-delta breakpoint was found to be flanked by a direct repeat of the acceptor splice site, whereas the distal delta-alpha breakpoint was localized to a palindromic region. This DNA rearrangement, with a minimal transfer of 16 templated nucleotides and a single mutation of untemplated adenyl nucleotide, not only created two intraexon hybrid junctions but transactivated the expression of a new stretch of amino acid residues in the MilX protein. Such a segment replacement may have occurred through the directional transfer from one duplex to the other via the mechanism of gene conversion. The occurrence of HGpMilX as another hybrid derived from parts of parent genes underlines the role of the recombinational "hotspot" in the generation of allelic diversity in the glycophorin family. PMID:1421409

Huang, C H; Skov, F; Daniels, G; Tippett, P; Blumenfeld, O O



The NIKA 2013-2014 observation campaigns: control of systematic effects and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) is a dual-band camera operating with frequency multiplexed arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) cooled to 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the intensity and polarisation of the sky at 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the improvements on the control of systematic effects and astrophysical results made during the last observation campaigns between 2012 and 2014.

Catalano, A.; Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J.-F.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.



Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13 acquired near the landing site. We find that summer ice-free spectra at the Phoenix landing site are approximated by scattering properties similar to Gusev Crater soils. Summer spectra have the strong water absorption at 3 ?m, indicating a low level of hydration or adsorption of water, an effect previously observed throughout the northern hemisphere. Patches of permanent water ice appear on the shadowed sides of Heimdal Crater and on the shadowed sides of large mountains to the northeast. These patches were monitored throughout the summer and did not appear to grow or shrink; however, the ice patches darken between Ls~119 and Ls~160, possibly due to the sublimation or sintering of fine-grained ices cold-trapped onto the ice deposits during the spring defrost period. Mobile patches of summertime ice were observed to follow the shadow of a crater wall on an ~85-m crater located ~6.5 km northeast of the landing site. Widespread surface ice was first observed at the Phoenix landing site during the night (3 a.m. Local True Solar Time [LTST]) at Ls~104, and water ice was first observed in the afternoon (3 p.m. LTST) at Ls~154. CRISM observations show the first afternoon water ice clouds at Ls~157. Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) images first show evidence of afternoon (1 p.m. LTST) water ice in the shadows of large rocks on operations sol 80 (Ls~112), but did not observe widespread afternoon ice during the mission, which ended at Ls~149.

Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Wolff, M. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Lemmon, M. T.



Astrolabe 45' Zenith Distance Observations: Preliminar Results in Time and Latitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last two years, the astrolabe at Valinhos 0 (? = +3h07m; ?= -23 0O') has been used at 45° zenith distance with a reflection prism. During 1983 both 30° and 45° zenith distance were observed for the sake of comparison. Currently, in order to increase the observations of the Third Catalogue (VL3), which is part of a major southern general astrolabe catalogue, only the 45° observations are being made. The raw results in time and latitude, for the last two years, without internal and external corrections, are presented. The curves are compared to those obtained with the BIH data. Key words: earth rotation; astrolabe

Clauzet, L. B. F.; Leister, N. V.; Monteiro, W.



Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2013 Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in slightly less than two years, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Seasonal transport of volatiles should occur on Pluto, and this transport should be detectable through changes in its rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modeled. Giving the steady increase observed in Pluto's atmospheric pressure over the past two decades, associated sublimation of frost from the surface has likely occurred, as predicted by volatile transport models. Rotational light curves of Pluto through time have been created for static frost models based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. These models, which account for changes in viewing geometry, have been compared with observed light curves obtained between 1950 and 2013. No evidence for transport was evident prior to 2000. Observations from 2002 (Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128) and 2007-2008 (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460) suggest changes in the frost pattern on Pluto's surface. New observations of Pluto's light curve from the 2013 season from Table Mountain Observatory show no evidence for the large transport of volatiles on Pluto's surface. Our data are the first measurement of a large opposition surge on Pluto similar to that seen on other icy bodies. Both Buie et al. (2010) and our observations from the 2012-2013 seasons show that Pluto is becoming more red in color. This observation makes sense if nitrogen is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

Buratti, B. J.; Dalba, P. A.; Hicks, M.; Chu, D.; O'Neill, A.; Chesley, J. P.



The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER



A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally



Scientific Results from the EPOCH'92 Observations Organized by the USNO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the reality of any high frequency rotational variations observed during the EPOCH'92 campaign, a series of special Navy-Experimentai Global (or NAVEX-G) sessions were coordinated by the USNO to provide periods of observations by two independent Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) networks during part of EPOCH'92. The NAVEX-G network used the NAVNET Green Bank antenna together with radio telescopes in Chile, Italy, South Africa, Canada and Japan. This truly global network provided orientation accuracy comparable to the lower noise (but smalJer) NASA network run simultaneously, and thus a means of assessing the validity of any small high frequency variations in Earth orientation observed during this period. This paper presents a brief description of these NAVEX-G observations and the results obtained from them.

Eubanks, T. M.; Archinal, B. A.; Carter, M. S.; Josties, F. J.; Kingham, K. A.; Martin, J. O.; Matsakis, D. N.; McCarthy, D. D.



Results of the new reduction of positional observations of the asteroid Ceres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a new reduction of positional observations of the asteroid Ceres are presented. The observational material was obtained in the State Astronomical Institute using the wide-angle astrograph AFR-1. The interval of photographic observations is 30 years, from August 1956 to May 1986. Measurements of the relative coordinates of stars and the asteroid were submitted electronically. A new model of reduction and a modern catalogue of stellar positions, the reference catalogue Tycho, were used in the calculations. Right ascension and declination of the asteroid at the time of observations were obtained from the International Celestial Reference Frame. The estimate of the mean square error of one measurement is 0.25?.

Kuimov, K. V.; Romanova, G. V.; Solov'eva, O. D.; Chazov, V. V.



Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs.

Young, G.R.



Results of Instrument Observations and Adaptive Prediction of Thermoabrasion of Banks of the Vilyui Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data derived from observations of reformation of the thermoabrasive banks of the Viliyui Reservoir in Yakutia during the service period from 1972 through 2011, and results of analytical prediction of bank formations over the next 20 years for purposes of monitoring the ecological safety of this water body are presented.

Velikin, S. A. [Vilyuisk Permafrost Scientific-Research Station, Institute of Permafrost Science, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)] [Vilyuisk Permafrost Scientific-Research Station, Institute of Permafrost Science, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Sobol', I. S.; Sobol', S. V.; Khokhlov, D. N. [Nizhnii Novgorod State Architectural and Civil-Engineering University (Russian Federation)] [Nizhnii Novgorod State Architectural and Civil-Engineering University (Russian Federation)



New Theoretical Results on Channelized Hotelling Observer Performance Estimation with Known Difference of Class Means  

PubMed Central

Task-based assessments of image quality constitute a rigorous, principled approach to the evaluation of imaging system performance. To conduct such assessments, it has been recognized that mathematical model observers are very useful, particularly for purposes of imaging system development and optimization. One type of model observer that has been widely applied in the medical imaging community is the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). Since estimates of CHO performance typically include statistical variability, it is important to control and limit this variability to maximize the statistical power of image-quality studies. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that by including prior knowledge of the image class means, a large decrease in the bias and variance of CHO performance estimates can be realized. The purpose of the present work is to present refinements and extensions of the estimation theory given in our previous paper, which was limited to point estimation with equal numbers of images from each class. Specifically, we present and characterize minimum-variance unbiased point estimators for observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that allow for unequal numbers of lesion-absent and lesion-present images. Building on this SNR point estimation theory, we then show that confidence intervals with exactly-known coverage probabilities can be constructed for commonly-used CHO performance measures. Moreover, we propose simple, approximate confidence intervals for CHO performance, and we show that they are well-behaved in most scenarios of interest. PMID:24436497

Wunderlich, Adam; Noo, Frédéric



Global Ozone Observations from the UARS MLS: An Overview of Zonal-Mean Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longerterm changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, with a pattern generally consistent with Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of total column; the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30°S to 30°N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year.The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. These results are in general agreement with variations measured by the Nimbus-7 TOMS and Meteor-3 TOMS instruments at midlatitudes. However, the southern midlatitudes exhibit less of a column ozone decrease (relative to the north) in the MLS data (down to 100 hPa) than in the TOMS column results. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed CIO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from CIO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based on MLS CIO data. The puzzling asymmetric nature of the changes probably requires a dynamical component as an explanation. A combination of effects (including chemical destruction via heterogeneous processes and QBO phasing) apparently needs to be invoked. This dataset will place constraints on future modeling studies, which are required to better understand the source of the observed changes.Finally, residual ozone values extracted from TOMS-minus-MLS column data are briefly presented as a preliminary view into the potential usefulness of such studies, with information on tropospheric ozone as an ultimate goal.

Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.



Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

Bertera, Elizabeth M.



A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.



Photographic zenith tube of the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory - Processing method and observation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the reduction of PZT plates which has been used at the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory since 1986 is described. The formulas used for computing the coordinates of the stellar image in the focal plane at the midpoint of the exposure are correct to 0.0024 arcsec. Observations from February 1986 to October 1988 are compared with data of BIH and IERS, and the results of the comparison are used to compute the amplitudes of the annual terms of nonpolar variations in the observed latitudes and Delta(UTI).

Yurov, E. A.



Speckle interferometry of magnetic stars with the BTA. II. Results of 2010-2012 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of speckle interferometric observations of 156 stars possessing global magnetic fields, carried out with the 6-m BTA telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. Virtually all stars were observed between 2010 and 2012. Thirty-four stars were resolved into individual components (31 double and 3 triple), of which 14 binary systems (BD+41?43, HD2887, HD30466, HD36540, HD36955, HD37479, HD61045, HD89069, HD144334, HD164258, HD349321, HD343872, HD184471, HD196691) and 2 triple systems (HD37140, HD338226) were for the first time resolved by the astrometric method.

Rastegaev, D. A.; Balega, Yu. Yu.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Maksimov, A. F.; Malogolovets, E. V.



Continued Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2014 Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its high eccentricity and obliquity, Pluto should exhibit seasonal volatile transport on its surface. This transport should be detectable through changes in its historical rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modelled. Observations of Pluto’s light curve between 1950 and 1999 suggest a stable albedo pattern. Starting in the early part of this millennium, both new Hubble Space Telescope maps and light curve measurements obtained at JPL’s Table Mountain Observatory show evidence of small changes in Pluto’s distribution of surface albedo (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460.; Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128). Supporting possible surface volatile transport is the doubling of Pluto’s atmospheric pressure over the past two decades (Young et al., 2013, Ap. J. 766, L22). With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in July 2015, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Rotational light curves of Pluto have been created in two recent epochs: 2007-2008, and 2012-2014. Both light curves show a smaller amplitude than that expected for a static frost model based on albedo maps from the earliest HST images (Stern et al. 1997, Astron. J. 113, 827). Observations of both Buie et al. (2010) and our own between 2007 and 2014 show that Pluto is becoming redder. This observation makes sense if nitrogen frost is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hicks, Michael D.; Dalba, Paul A.; Chu, Devin S.; O'Neill, Ariel; Hillier, John K.; Banholzer, Sophianna



First results from ARTEMIS lunar wake crossing: observations and hybrid simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and its conductivity is not sufficient to facilitate the development of an induced magnetosphere. The interaction of the Moon with the unperturbed solar wind (SW) is, hence, dominated by the absorption of SW particles on its surface and the consequent generation of a lunar wake on the night side. The SW magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon; the pressure imbalance in lunar wake, however, accounts for a slight increase in magnetic pressure in the lunar wake center. The wake is slowly filled up with SW particles due to their thermal motion, which generates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction wave propagating away from the wake in the SW frame of reference. Over the last 3 years the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) mission provided excellent data helping the scientific community in drawing a detailed picture of the physical processes associated with the development of substorms in the terrestrial magnetotail. Two of the five THEMIS spacecraft are currently being sent into stationary orbits around the Moon in a follow-up mission called Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS). The ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft (formerly THEMIS-B) has recently passed through the lunar wake in a flyby maneuver on February 13, 2010. We show first results of two hybrid code simulations with static and, for the first time, dynamically changing SW input. Adapted SW monitor data of the NASA OMNI database is used as input for the simulations. During the wake crossing the spin stabilized spacecraft P1 was in lunar shadow and, hence, its spin period cannot be determined from sun sensor data. Therefore, an eclipse-spin model is applied to bridge the gap of missing spin period data in order to recover vector measurements. A comparison of the simulation results with correctly despun magnetic field and particle measurements of ARTEMIS P1 allows for a separation of static lunar wake and, due to SW variations, transient features in the observations.

Plaschke, F.; Wiehle, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Georgescu, E.; Glassmeier, K.; Motschmann, U. M.; Sibeck, D. G.



Map Showing Earthquake Shaking and Tsunami Hazard in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as a Result of an M8.0 Earthquake on the Lesser Antilles Megathrust  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Earthquake shaking (onland) and tsunami (ocean) hazard in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as a result of anM8.0 earthquake on the Lesser Antilles megathrust adjacent to Guadeloupe. Colors onland represent scenario earthquake shaking intensities calculated in USGS ShakeMap software (Wald et al. 20...



SciTech Connect

We present results from a season of observations with the Chinese Small Telescope ARray, obtained over 183 days of the 2010 Antarctic winter. We carried out high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 9125 stars with i ?< 15.3 mag located in a 23 deg{sup 2} region centered on the south celestial pole. We identified 188 variable stars, including 67 new objects relative to our 2008 observations, thanks to broader synoptic coverage, a deeper magnitude limit, and a larger field of view. We used the photometric data set to derive site statistics from Dome A. Based on two years of observations, we find that extinction due to clouds at this site is less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag during 45% and 75% of the dark time, respectively.

Wang, Lingzhi; Zhu, Zonghong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ashley, Michael C. B.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Storey, John W. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Liu, Qiang; Shang, Zhaohui; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Nanjing 210008 (China); Pennypacker, Carl R. [Center for Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)



Barometric and magnetic observations of vertical acoustic resonance and resultant generation of field-aligned current associated with earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three rare occasions are introduced, where the excitation of vertical acoustic resonance between the ground and the ionosphere, and the resultant generation of a field-aligned current, just after earthquakes are observationally confirmed. In the case of two inland earthquakes, barometric observations very close to the epicenters (i.e., only 30 km apart) were available, and they showed a sharp spectral peak which appeared within one hour after the origin time and lasted a few hours. The observed periods of the spectral peaks around 260 seconds are close to the period of the theoretically-expected fundamental mode of the resonance. On the other hand, magnetic observations on the ground showed a dominant period at 220-230 seconds which corresponds to the first overtone among theoretically-expected major resonance peaks. In the third case, i.e., during the 2010 Chile earthquake, a long-period magnetic oscillation in the east-west direction, which has two major resonance periods at 265 and 190-195 seconds, was observed on the night-side magnetic dip equator in Peru, where the distance is more than 2600 km from the epicenter, under a very quiet geomagnetic condition. The oscillation was interpreted as the effect of field-aligned current generated through a dynamo process in the ionosphere over the epicenter caused by the resonance.

Iyemori, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Odagi, Y.; Sano, Y.; Takeda, M.; Nose, M.; Utsugi, M.; Rosales, D.; Choque, E.; Ishitsuka, J.; Yamanaka, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Matsumura, M.; Shinagawa, H.



Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.



Observe an animation showing how geysers erupt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation uses a cross section to explain geyser eruption. As groundwater enters fractured bedrock, it is heated by nearby magma but is prevented from boiling by the pressure of overlying water. Eventually, the water becomes superheated and is forced upward, pushing water to the surface. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points.

Mcfarland, Dave; Larsen, Jamie; Earth, Exploring


The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.



The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.



Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between the atomic density derived from WMAP and the density inferred from the deuterium abundance is an important test of the standard big bang model. Determination of the acoustic scale at redshift z = 1090. Similarly, the recent measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the galaxy power spectrum (Eisenstein et al. 2005) has determined the acoustic scale at redshift z approx. 0.35. When combined, these standard rulers accurately measure the geometry of the universe and the properties of the dark energy. These data require a nearly flat universe dominated by dark energy consistent with a cosmological constant. Precise determination of the Hubble Constant, in conjunction with BAO observations. Even when allowing curvature (Omega(sub 0) does not equal 1) and a free dark energy equation of state (w does not equal -1), the acoustic data determine the Hubble constant to within 3%. The measured value is in excellent agreement with independent results from the Hubble Key Project (Freedman et al. 2001), providing yet another important consistency test for the standard model. Significant constraint of the basic properties of the primordial fluctuations. The anti-correlation seen in the temperature/polarization (TE) correlation spectrum on 4deg scales implies that the fluctuations are primarily adiabatic and rule out defect models and isocurvature models as the primary source of fluctuations (Peiris et al. 2003).

Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.



Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse. PMID:24877053

Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen



Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission of from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of 10(exp 11). As the pulsar is the youngest known neutron star with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further report on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge. The results of the spectral analysis has interesting implications for the composition of the interstellar medium.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R.; Kahn, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)



Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission of from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of T(sub c) approx. 10(sup 11) K. As the pulsar is the youngest known neutron star with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further report on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge. The results of the spectral analysis has interesting implications for the composition of the interstellar medium.(c) 2000.: American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved

Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R.; Kahn, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.



Magnetic reconnection signatures in the solar atmosphere: results from multi-wavelength observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the solar atmosphere magnetic reconnection is invoked as the main mechanism causing very energetic events (1028 - 1032 erg), like flares and coronal mass ejections, as well as other less energetic phenomena, like microflares, X-ray jets and chromospheric surges. In the last decade, thanks to high spatial resolution, multi-wavelength observations carried out by both ground-based telescopes (THEMIS, SST, VTT, DST) and space-born satellites (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, HINODE), it has been possible to study these phenomena and several signatures of the occurrence of magnetic reconnection have been singled out. In this paper, we describe some results obtained from the analysis of multi-wavelength observations carried out in the last years, with special emphasis on those events that were characterized by plasma outflows from the reconnection site. The events here discussed are relevant to some active regions observed on the Sun, characterized by the interaction of different bundles of magnetic flux tubes, as a consequence of phenomena of emergence of new magnetic flux from the subphotospheric layers and/or of cancellation of magnetic fragments. We report on these phenomena in order to give a contribution to the possibility to find a similarity with jets observed in AGNs.

Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Romano, P.


Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher temperatures in small shallow lakes and more southern latitudes. Most lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with short periods of thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. Over the ice-free season, the majority of the available energy from net radiation goes into evaporation, followed by sensible heat flux and warming of bottom sediments. Thermal bands of MODIS and Landsat imagery were fused using a spatio-temporal cokriging method to generate daily surface temperature estimates at Landsat spatial resolution. The close correspondence between satellite-derived and in situ measured near-surface lake temperature suggests that this approach yields viable results. Biogeochemical and inorganic geochemical constituents measured include dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4, and N2O), inorganic N, DON and DOC, alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, major ions, and CDOM. The greatest difference in the dissolved CH4:CO2 ratio in summer was longitudinal, with several lakes in western Alaskan Arctic exhibiting CH4 concentrations hundreds of times more supersaturated than air. Stable isotope analyses of CH4 (?13C and ?2H) show that several of these lakes have natural gas methane sources. Methane concentrations under ice (April) were several thousand times higher than in open-water conditions (August). Data collected during this 4-year project are archived at A-CADIS.

Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.



Validation of first chemistry mode retrieval results from new limb-imaging FTS GLORIA with correlative MIPAS-STR observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new airborne limb-imaging infrared FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) GLORIA and comparisons with observations by the conventional airborne limb-scanning infrared FTS MIPAS-STR. For GLORIA, the flights aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the ESSenCe campaign (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) were the very first in field deployment after several years of development. The simultaneous observations of GLORIA and MIPAS-STR during the flight on 16 December 2011 inside the polar vortex and under the conditions of optically partially transparent polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provided us the unique opportunity to compare the observations by two different infrared FTS generations directly. The retrieval results of temperature, HNO3, O3, H2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 show reasonable agreement of GLORIA with MIPAS-STR and collocated in-situ observations. For the horizontally binned hyperspectral limb-images, the GLORIA sampling outnumbered the horizontal cross-track sampling of MIPAS-STR by up to one order of magnitude. Depending on the target parameter, typical vertical resolutions of 0.5 to 2.0 km were obtained for GLORIA and are typically by factors of 2 to 4 better compared to MIPAS-STR. While the improvement of the performance, characterisation and data processing of GLORIA are subject of ongoing work, the presented first results already demonstrate the considerable gain in sampling and vertical resolution achieved with GLORIA.

Woiwode, W.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Oelhaf, H.; Höpfner, M.; Belyaev, G. V.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Grooß, J.-U.; Gulde, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schardt, G.; Schönfeld, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Sha, M. K.; Stroh, F.; Ungermann, J.; Volk, C. M.; Orphal, J.



Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.



Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M ?). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H? images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; de Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.



Mineral and nitrogen balance study - Results of metabolic observations on Skylab II 28-day orbital mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The prediction that various stresses of flight, particularly weightlessness, would bring about significant derangements in the metabolism of the musculoskeletal system has been based on various balance-study observations of long-term immobilized or inactive bed rest. The three astronauts of Skylab II consumed a planned dietary intake of major metabolic elements in mixed foods and beverages and provided virtually complete collections of excreta for 31 days preflight, 28 days inflight, and 17 days postflight. Analyses showed that, in varying degree among the crewmen, urinary calcium increased gradually during flight in a pattern similar to that observed in bed-rest studies. Fecal calcium excretion did not change significantly, but calcium balance, owing to the urinary calcium rise, became either negative or less positive than in preflight measurement. Increased excretion and negative nitrogen and phosphorus balances inflight indicated appreciable loss of muscle tissue in all three crewmen. Significant losses also occurred inflight in potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Based on the similarity in pattern and degree between these observations of calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen loss, musculoskeletal integrity would not be threatened in space flights of up to at least 3 months. However, if similar changes occur in the planed Skylab flights for considerably more than 28 days, concern for capable musculoskeletal function should be serious for flights of very many months' duration.

Whedon, G. D.; Lutwak, L.; Reid, J.; Rambaut, P.; Whittle, M.; Smith, M.; Leach, C.



Time-Series of Linear Spectropolarimetric Observations of Wolf-Rayet Stars: Results for WR 134  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a timeseries of spectropolarimetric observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 134. Our most striking observation so far is that in addition to the depolarization of spectral lines with respect to the continuum, already known to occur for this star, we find excess line polarisation in the red and blue wings at wavelengths clearly in excess of the terminal velocity of the wind. Also, contrary to expectations, we find no line depolarisation for the flat-topped He I ?5876 and C IV ?5804 lines. The excess polarization of the red wing is very likely a consequence of the well known red-shifted electron-scattering wing formed in expanding atmospheres, but the origin of the blue wing polarization still remains to be identified.

St-Louis, N.; de la Chevrotière, A.; Moffat, A. F. J.



Preliminary Observational Results of Tidal Synchronization in Detached Solar-Type Binary Stars  

E-print Network

We present preliminary observational results on tidal synchronization in detached solar-type binary stars in the open clusters M35 (NGC2168; ~ 150 Myr) and M34 (NGC1039; ~ 250 Myr). M35 and M34 provide populations of close late-type binaries with ages that make them attractive observational tests of models of tidal synchronization during the early main-sequence phase. A combined dataset of stellar rotation periods from time-series photometry and binary orbital periods and eccentricities from time-series spectroscopy enables us to determine the angular rotation velocity of the primary star and the orbital angular velocity at periastron. Comparison of the stellar and orbital angular velocities provides information about the level of synchronization in individual binary stars.

S. Meibom



Preliminary results of digital zenith camera system in Istanbul for astro-geodetic observations in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Zenith Camera Systems have been developed since the 2000s. They are equipped with CCD technology, GPS, and electronic inclinometers. Automated control and processing procedures increase the accuracy of vertical deflection measurements up to ×0.2' (2mm/km). After the first studies on Digital Zenith Camera Systems in Aus-tria, Germany and Switzerland, recently some other studies in Poland, Serbia, and Latvia are performed, and all of which are aimed to make improvements in measurement accuracies. Hence, Astro-geodetic measurements remove the restrictions of gravity measurements in mountainous regions and coastlines. From this point of view, with its suitable topography Turkey is an ideal test area for measurements as such. This study introduces the preliminary results of astro-geodetic observations performed in Istanbul, Turkey. Furthermore, it also gives some details about data acquisition, instrumentation and processing technique that focuses on observation principle and new technologies used in modern Geodetic Astronomy. Hence, in the scope of this project Astro-geodetic observations are performed with a new CCD equipped telescope designed as Zenith Camera in Istanbul. The system contains a CCD camera, Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescope, two dual axis tilt sensors, and a geodetic GPS receiver for time measurements and ellipsoidal coordinates of station. The system is operated with a computer control unit for data capturing and system control. In this study the preliminary results of the Digital Zenith Camera System conducted at a test station in Istanbul will be presented. The design of the future observations that will take place along a test profile will also be discussed.

Halicioglu, K.; Deniz, R.; Ozener, H.



The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey: II. Results of Precursor Observations  

E-print Network

In preparation for the full Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA extragalactic HI survey, precursor observations were carried out in Aug--Sep 2004 with the 7-beam Arecibo L-band feed array (ALFA) receiver system and the WAPP spectral processors. While these observations were geared mainly at testing and debugging survey strategy, hardware and software, approximately 36 hours of telescope time yielded science--quality data. From those observations, an initial list of 730 tentative detections of varying degree of reliability was extracted. Ninety--eight high signal-to-noise candidates were deemed to be bona fide HI line detections. To test our ability to discriminate cosmic signals from RFI and noise, 165 candidates ranging in reliability likelihood were re--observed with the single beam L--band wide system at Arecibo in Jan--Feb 2005. Of those, 41% were confirmed as real. We present the results of both the ALFA and single beam observations for the sample of 166 confirmed HI sources, as well as our assessment of their optical counterparts. Of the 166 sources, 62 coincide with previously known HI sources, while optical redshifts were available for an additional 18 galaxies; thus, 52% of the redshifts reported here were previously unknown. Of the 166 HI detections, 115 are identified with previously cataloged galaxies, of either known or unknown redshift, leaving 51 objects identified for the first time. Because of the higher sensitivity of the Arecibo system, fewer than 10% of the 166 HI sources would have been detected by a HIPASS--like survey of the same region. Three of the objects have HI masses less than 10^7 solar masses. The full ALFALFA survey which commenced in February 2005 should detect more than 100 times as many objects of similarly low HI mass over the next 5 years.

Riccardo Giovanelli; Martha P. Haynes; Brian R. Kent; Philip Perillat; Barbara Catinella; G. Lyle Hoffman; Emmanuel Momjian; Jessica L. Rosenberg; Amelie Saintonge; Kristine Spekkens; Sabrina Stierwalt; Noah Brosch; Karen L. Masters; Christopher M. Springob; Igor D. Karachentsev; Valentina E. Karachentseva; Rebecca A. Koopmann; Erik Muller; Wim van Driel; Liese van Zee



Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. III: Observations and Results for a Final Sample  

E-print Network

This paper is the fourth in a series whose purpose is to study the interstellar abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and argon in the Galaxy using a sample of 86 planetary nebulae. Here we present new high-quality spectrophotometric observations of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae with spectral coverage from 3700-9600 Angstroms. A major feature of our observations throughout the entire study has been the inclusion of the near-infrared lines of [S III] 9069,9532, which allows us to calculate accurate S+2 abundances and to either improve upon or convincingly confirm results of earlier sulfur abundance studies. For each of the 20 objects here we calculate ratios of S/O, Cl/O, and Ar/O and find average values of S/O=1.1E-2+/-1.1E-2, Cl/O=4.2E-4+/-5.3E-4, and Ar/O=5.7E-3+/-4.3E-3. For six objects we are able to compare abundances of S+3 calculated directly from available [S IV] 10.5 micron measurements with those inferred indirectly from the values of the ionization correction factors for sulfur. In the final paper of the series, we will compile results from all 86 objects, search for and evaluate trends, and use chemical evolution models to interpret our results.

K. B. Kwitter; R. B. C. Henry; J. B. Milingo



Depression and Oxidative Stress: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen’s d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Results Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen’s d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen’s d = ?0.24, 95% confidence interval = ?0.33 to ?0.15). Conclusions This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress. PMID:24336428

Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J.; Miller, Edgar R.; Szanton, Sarah L.



Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first Hymex campaign (5 September-6 November 2012) referred to as Special Observation Period (SOP-1), dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in Western Mediterranean, three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were activated: Liguria-Tuscany, North-Eastern Italy and Central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models has allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen the strict collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper, an overview of the Italian organization during the SOP-1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in North-Eastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in Central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems. Moreover, using one of the three events, the usefulness of different operational chains is highlighted.

Ferretti, R.; Pichelli, E.; Gentile, S.; Maiello, I.; Cimini, D.; Davolio, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Panegrossi, G.; Baldini, L.; Pasi, F.; Marzano, F. S.; Zinzi, A.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bartolini, G.; Loglisci, N.; Montani, A.; Marsigli, C.; Manzato, A.; Pucillo, A.; Ferrario, M. E.; Colaiuda, V.; Rotunno, R.



Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Special Observation Period (SOP1), part of the HyMeX campaign (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiments, 5 September-6 November 2012), was dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in the western Mediterranean, and three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were identified: Liguria-Tuscany, northeastern Italy and central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models, including hydrological models and marine models, allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen strong collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper an overview of the Italian organization during SOP1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in northeastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems, including the hydrological impacts. The usefulness of having different weather forecast operational chains characterized by different numerical weather prediction models and/or different model set up or initial conditions is finally shown for one of the events (IOP19).

Ferretti, R.; Pichelli, E.; Gentile, S.; Maiello, I.; Cimini, D.; Davolio, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Panegrossi, G.; Baldini, L.; Pasi, F.; Marzano, F. S.; Zinzi, A.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bartolini, G.; Loglisci, N.; Montani, A.; Marsigli, C.; Manzato, A.; Pucillo, A.; Ferrario, M. E.; Colaiuda, V.; Rotunno, R.



First Results of Coordinated Observations from IRIS and New Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the chromospheric structuring and dynamics is controlled by the underlying photospheric processes, associated with turbulent magnetoconvection, ubiquitous magnetic flux emergence, small-scale eruptions and acoustic events. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory offers a substantial improvement in ground-based high-resolution capabilities, and provides important support for the IRIS mission. The primary goal of the coordinated IRIS-NST observations is to obtain complementary data for investigations of photosphere-chromosphere links and drivers of the chromospheric dynamics. The coordinated NST observations are performed using the second-generation adaptive optics system AO-308, and three instruments: Broadband Filter Imagers (G-band and TiO), Visible Imaging Spectrometer (H-alpha), and Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS). NIRIS provides high-cadence data in Fe I 1565 nm doublet which is the most Zeeman sensitive probe of magnetic fields in the deep photosphere, and in the He I 1083 nm multiplet for diagnostics of the upper chromosphere. We present initial results of the coordinated observations, and discuss properties of small-scale ejections in fibril magnetic structures, obtained from analysis of IRIS and NST data.

Kosovichev, A. G.; Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Gorceix, N.; Kleint, L.; Plymate, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Yurchyshyn, V.



Polarization observations and results of the 1998 February 26th solar corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the long-term study program of the solar corona, we have organized an expedition in Curacao (Dutch Antillas) to observe the total solar eclipse of February 26th, 1998. As the totality duration was quite short, we had to improve again the CCD experiment layout in order to record a sample of images as wide as possible in both polarization and brightness ranges. This was made possible by the acquisition of a new PC with fast hard disc and data transfer port. We managed then to record 7 series of different exposures, each containing polarization measurements of 24 images (thus 8 times oversampled). The data processing led to accurate brightness and polarization maps as well as electron density models. The shape of the corona is highly flattened with large polar holes filled by numerous wide plumes. Large streamers are also observed and are essentially aligned along the solar equatorial plane. Moreover, the polarization indicates that these structures are located in the vicinity of the plane of the sky. Unfortunately, the unusually high sky brightness hid the faintest coronal structures and limited the visibility up to 3 solar radii implying a similar limitation in our modelling. We present here these results and give a brief comparison with our previous eclipse observation.

Gabryl, J.-R.; Cugnon, P.; Clette, F.



Revisiting Spitzer transit observations with Independent Component Analysis: new results for the GJ436 system  

E-print Network

We analyzed four Spitzer/IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 {\\mu}m of the primary transit of the exoplanet GJ436b, by using blind source separation techniques. These observations are important to investigate the atmospheric composition of the planet GJ436b. Previous analyses claimed strong inter-epoch variations of the transit parameters due to stellar variability, casting doubts on the possibility to extract conclusively an atmospheric signal; those analyses also reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of this reanalysis. The method we used has been proposed in Morello et al. (2014) to analyze 3.6 {\\mu}m transit light-curves of the hot Jupiter HD189733b; it performes an Independent Component Analysis (ICA) on a set of pixel-light-curves, i.e. time series read by individual pixels, from the same photometric observation. Our method only assumes the independence of instrumental and astrophysical signals, and therefore guarantees a higher degree of objectivity compared to parametric detrending techniques ...

Morello, G; Tinetti, G; Howarth, I D; Micela, G; Allard, F



Effects of the observation method (direct v. from video) and of the presence of an observer on behavioural results in veal calves.  


This study aimed at assessing the effect of the observation method (direct or from video) and the effect of the presence of an observer on the behavioural results in veal calves kept on a commercial farm. To evaluate the effect of the observation method, 20 pens (four to five calves per pen) were observed by an observer for 60 min (two observation sessions of 30 min) and video-recorded at the same time. To evaluate the effect of the presence of the observer in front of the pen, 24 pens were video-recorded on 4 consecutive days and an observer was present in front of each pen for 60 min (two observation sessions of 30 min) on the third day. Behaviour was recorded using instantaneous scan sampling. For the study of the observer's effect, the analysis was limited to the posture, abnormal oral behaviour and manipulation of substrates. The two observation methods gave similar results for the time spent standing, but different results for all other behaviours. The presence of an observer did not affect the behaviour of calves at day level; however, their behaviour was affected when the observer was actually present in front of the pens. A higher percentage of calves were standing and were manipulating substrate in the presence of the observer, but there was no effect on abnormal oral behaviour. In conclusion, direct observations are a more suitable observation method than observations from video recordings for detailed behaviours in veal calves. The presence of an observer has a short-term effect on certain behaviours of calves that will have to be taken into consideration when monitoring these behaviours. PMID:23916373

Leruste, H; Bokkers, E A M; Sergent, O; Wolthuis-Fillerup, M; van Reenen, C G; Lensink, B J



Air Pollution Transport in an Alpine Valley: Results From Airborne and Ground-Based Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An observational dataset from a wintertime field campaign in the Inn Valley, Austria, is analysed in order to study mechanisms of air pollution transport in an Alpine valley. The results illustrate three types of mechanisms: transport by a density current, back-and-forth transport by valley winds, and transport by slope winds. The first type is associated with an air mass difference along the valley. Cooler air located in the lower part of the valley behaves like a density current and produces the advection of pollutants by upvalley winds. In the second type, strong horizontal gradients in pollution concentrations exist close to ground. Multiple wind reversals result in a back-and-forth transport of pollutants by weak valley winds. In the third type, upslope winds during daytime decrease low-level pollution concentrations and cause the formation of elevated pollution layers.

Gohm, A.; Harnisch, F.; Vergeiner, J.; Obleitner, F.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Fix, A.; Neininger, B.; Emeis, S.; Schäfer, K.



Direct Observation of Differences of Carotenoid Polyene Chain cis/trans Isomers Resulting from Structural Topology  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and theoretical calculations have been used to study carotenoid geometrical motifs generated by photoisomerization from the all-trans geometry. Multiple geometric isomers of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin were separated using TIMS (R > 110) for [M]+, [M + H]+, and [M – 18]+ molecular species. Comparison of observed cross sections with those obtained from molecular dynamics calculations showed that the number of cis double bonds and s-cis single bonds in the polyene chain determine the topology space of the carotenoid. The intensities of IMS signals are correlated with the relative stability of these geometric isomers.1,2 The most stable isomer is the all-trans geometry regardless of the ionization state ([M – 18]+, [M]+, and [M + H]+), and structural stability decreases with the increasing number of cis and/or s-cis bonds in the polyene chain. PMID:24428664



Direct observation of differences of carotenoid polyene chain cis/trans isomers resulting from structural topology.  


In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and theoretical calculations have been used to study carotenoid geometrical motifs generated by photoisomerization from the all-trans geometry. Multiple geometric isomers of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin were separated using TIMS (R > 110) for [M](+), [M + H](+), and [M - 18](+) molecular species. Comparison of observed cross sections with those obtained from molecular dynamics calculations showed that the number of cis double bonds and s-cis single bonds in the polyene chain determine the topology space of the carotenoid. The intensities of IMS signals are correlated with the relative stability of these geometric isomers.1,2 The most stable isomer is the all-trans geometry regardless of the ionization state ([M - 18](+), [M](+), and [M + H](+)), and structural stability decreases with the increasing number of cis and/or s-cis bonds in the polyene chain. PMID:24428664

Schenk, Emily R; Mendez, Vanesa; Landrum, John T; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco



FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument: Results of the Lick observing campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIRST is a prototype instrument aimed at achieving high dynamic range and angular resolution in ground-based images at visible wavelengths near the diffraction limit. FIRST utilizes an aperture masking-like technique that makes use of single-mode fibers and pupil remapping to maximize the area of the telescope mirror in use. While located at Lick observatory in 2011 and 2012, FIRST observed 25 binary systems with the Shane 3m telescope, with separations ranging from 20 to 200 mas, comparable to the 50 mas diffraction limit for our central wavelength. Huby et al. (2013) has reported results for the Capella system that established the utility of FIRST for characterizing stellar binaries using the directly measured spectral flux ratio. Using an improved data analysis pipeline, we obtained closure phase measurements for a majority of the targets observed at Lick, and derived angular separations and spectral flux ratios. From the spectral flux ratios we obtained spectra for the companions over at least 600-850 nm with R~300. Finally, by obtaining results for many binary systems we have better constrained the current performance of FIRST, which has an exciting future ahead at its current location behind SCExAO at the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, where it will eventually become available for general use by the astronomical community.

Bordwell, Baylee; Duchene, Gaspard; Huby, Elsa; Goebel, Sean; Marchis, Franck; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre; Kotani, Takayuki; Gates, Elinor L.; Choquet, Elodie



Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 Stellar Mass). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H(alpha) images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; De Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.




SciTech Connect

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M{sub Sun }). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H{alpha} images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; De Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA-European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cignoni, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); De Marchi, G. [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gallagher, J. S. III; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tosi, M., E-mail: [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others



Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented.

S. Schanne



Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children  

PubMed Central

Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.



Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are available. Therefore it would be very useful to get more laboratory data and especially from Tran et al (2013), Mahjoub et al. (2012) and Imanaka et al. (2012) samples in these spectral regions since their refractive indexes match observational and theoretical data in other spectral ranges. This presentation will critically summarize these recent results and present detailled constraints on the optical constants Titan's aerosols. In addition, specific lacks of data will be highlighted as well as some possible investigations to be carried out to fill these gaps. References: Cable, M. L., et al., 2012. Titan Tholins: Simulating Titan Organic Chemistry in the Cassini-Huygens Era. Chemical Reviews. 112, 1882-1909. Imanaka, H., et al., 2012. Optical constants of Titan tholins at mid-infrared wavelengths (2.5-25 µm) and the possible chemical nature of Titan's haze particles. Icarus. 218, 247-261. Khare, B. N., et al., 1984. Optical-Constants of Organic Tholins Produced in a Simulated Titanian Atmosphere - from Soft-X-Ray to Microwave-Frequencies. Icarus. 60, 127-137. Kim, S. J., Courtin, R., 2013. Spectral characteristics of the Titanian haze at 1-5 micron from Cassini/VIMS solar occultation data. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 557, L6. Mahjoub, A., et al., 2012. Influence of methane concentration on the optical indices of Titan's aerosols analogues. Icarus. 221, 670-677. Raulin, F., et al., 2012. Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393. Sagan, C., Khare, B. N., 1979. Tholins - Organic-Chemistry of Inter-Stellar Grains and Gas. Nature. 277, 102-107. Tran, B. N., et al., 2003. Simulation of Titan haze formation using a photochemical flow reactor - The optical constants of the polymer. Icarus. 165, 379-390. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François



Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.



Observations on a Slow Burning Regime for Hydrocarbon Droplets - N-Heptane/Air Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments on n-heptane/airdroplet combustion under reduced gravity have served as a benchmark for much of the existing theoretical efforts on the modeling of sphero-synmmetric droplet burning. New experiments conducted in the NASA-Lewis Research Center 2.2 second droptower (at less than 10 exp -5 g) which emphasize the production of sphero-symmetry and low relative droplet/gas convection produce burning rates in air (for about 1 mm droplets) as much as 40-percent lower than the classical result (0.78 sq mm/s). The burning rate is proportional to the measured droplet/gas relative velocity, and the observed functional dependence is much larger than predicted by published convective correlations. New results clearly indicate that the droplet/laboratory velocity does not correspond to the relative droplet/gas velocity. Thus, the convective effects on droplet combustion is not properly characterized by droplet motion alone. Differences in the burning rates are speculated to result from the effects of the accumulated soot as well as the asymmetry (caused by convection) in the temperature and species distributions surrounding the droplet.

Choi, Mun Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Haggard, John B., Jr.



Polarization observations and results of the 1998 February 26th solar eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following our long-term solar corona study program, we organized an expedition to the Curacao island (Dutch Antillas) to observe the total solar eclipse of February 26th, 1998. As the duration of this totality was quite short, our polarized white-light CCD imaging experiment was redesigned in order to increase the number of recorded images, thereby increasing the number of sampled polarization angles and exposures. This was made possible by upgrading to a new PC system, with fast hard disc and data transfer port. This allowed us to finally record 7 series of different exposures, each containing 24 images taken at 12 polarization angles, i.e. with 8-time oversampling. The data were processed to derive global maps of brightness and polarization, and from these, to build electron density models. In those maps, the shape of the corona is highly flattened, with extended polar holes filled with numerous wide plumes. All large streamers are essentially aligned along the solar equatorial plane. Moreover, the measured degree of polarization indicates that these structures are located in the vicinity of the plane of the sky. Unfortunately, the unusually high sky brightness hid the faint extensions of coronal structures. This limited their visibility to less than 3 solar radii, implying a corresponding limitation in the radial extent of our global model. The results presented here are also briefly compared with our earlier eclipse observations.

Gabryl, J.-R.; Cugnon, P.; Clette, F.



Efficacy and safety of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis: interim observational programme results  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials established the efficacy and safety of natalizumab. Data are needed over longer periods of time and in the clinical practice setting. Objective To evaluate long-term safety of natalizumab and its impact on annualised relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods The Tysabri (natalizumab) Observational Program (TOP) is an open-label, multinational, 10-year prospective study in clinical practice settings. Results In this 5-year interim analysis, 4821 patients were enrolled. Follow-up for at least 4?years from natalizumab commencement in 468 patients and at least 2?years in 2496 patients revealed no new safety signals. There were 18 cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy reported, following 11–44 natalizumab infusions. Mean annualised relapse rate decreased from 1.99 in the 12?months prior to baseline to 0.31 on natalizumab therapy (p<0.0001), remaining low at 5?years. Lower annualised relapse rates were observed in patients who used natalizumab as first MS therapy, in patients with lower baseline EDSS scores, and in patients with lower prenatalizumab relapse rates. Mean EDSS scores remained unchanged up to 5?years. Conclusions Interim TOP data confirm natalizumab's overall safety profile and the low relapse rate and stabilised disability levels in natalizumab-treated patients with RRMS in clinical practice. Trial registration number NCT00493298. PMID:24532785

Butzkueven, Helmut; Kappos, Ludwig; Pellegrini, Fabio; Trojano, Maria; Wiendl, Heinz; Patel, Radhika N; Zhang, Annie; Hotermans, Christophe; Belachew, Shibeshih



Dome Fuji Seeing -the Summer Results and the Future Winter-over Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out the first seeing measurements at Dome Fuji in the 2010-2011 austral summer. From these observations, we found that the summer seeing at Dome Fuji was 1.2'' (mean), 1.1'' (median), 0.83'' (25th percentile) and 1.5'' (75th percentile), respectively. We also found that the seeing changed continuously and had a minimum around 0.7'' at ~18:00 hours daily. We compared the seeing with some weather parameters obtained from the 16 m mast, and found that the seeing had good correlations with atmosphere temperature and wind shear. These results suggest that the seeing is degraded by turbulence near the surface boundary layer. Because the data were obtained only over a short duration in summer, the general characteristics of Dome Fuji's seeing could not be evaluated. We plan to observe the seeing in winter with a stand-alone DIMM telescope. This new DIMM, which we named the Dome Fuji Differential Image Motion Monitor (DF-DIMM), will be installed at Dome Fuji in January 2013.

Okita, Hirofumi; Takato, Naruhisa; Ichikawa, Takashi; Bonner, Colin S.; Ashley, Michel C. B.; Storey, John W. V.



Linear and circular polarimetry of recent comets: Observational results for eight comets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of polarimetric observations for a number of recent comets carried out at the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (Russia) and the 2.6-m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (Ukraine) during 2011--2013. Comets 103P/Hartley 2, C/2009 P1 (Garradd), C/2011 L4 (PANSTARRS), C/2012 S1 (ISON), C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, C/2010 S1 (LINEAR), and C/2011 R1 (McNaught) were observed at different distances from the Sun (0.9--6.3 au) and at different phase angles (6.2--83.5 deg). The results obtained are compared with the phase-angle dependencies of linear polarization typical for the high-polarization and low-polarization comets. The linear polarization of comet S1 (LINEAR) and Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are the first ever measured at the heliocentric distances larger than 6 au. The maps of circular polarization over the coma and its variations with the distance from the nucleus of comets P1 (Garradd), L4 (PANSTARRS), R1 (McNaught), and Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 are obtained. In all cases, left-handed circular polarization is detected and its value is within the range from -0.04 % up to -0.3 %. Detection of left-handed circular polarization in these comets has confirmed our previous conclusion that circular polarization of comets is predominantly left-handed. We will discuss the possible reasons for the diversity and similarity of linear and circular polarization in comets.

Rosenbush, V.; Ivanova, A.; Kiselev, N.; Afanasiev, V.; Kolesnikov, S.; Shakhovskoy, D.



Modelling and observation of transionospheric propagation results from ISIS II in preparation for ePOP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (ePOP) is scheduled to be launched as part of the Cascade Demonstrator Small-Sat and Ionospheric Polar Explorer (CASSIOPE) satellite in early 2008. A Radio Receiver Instrument (RRI) on ePOP will receive HF transmissions from various ground-based transmitters. In preparation for the ePOP mission, data from a similar transionospheric experiment performed by the International Satellites for Ionospheric Studies (ISIS) II satellite has been studied. Prominent features in the received 9.303-MHz signal were periodic Faraday fading of signal intensity at rates up to 13 Hz and a time of arrival delay between the O- and X-modes of up to 0.8 ms. Both features occurred when the satellite was above or south of the Ottawa transmitter. Ionospheric models for ray tracing were constructed using both International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) profiles and local peak electron density values from ISIS ionograms. Values for fade rate and differential mode delay were computed and compared to the values observed in the ISIS II data. The computed values showed very good agreement to the observed values of both received signal parameters when the topside sounding foF2 values were used to scale IRI profiles, but not when strictly modelled IRI profiles were used. It was determined that the primary modifier of the received signal parameters was the foF2 density and not the shape of the profile. This dependence was due to refraction, at the 9.303-MHz signal frequency, causing the rays to travel larger distances near the peak density where essentially all the mode splitting occurred. This study should assist in interpretation of ePOP RRI data when they are available.

Gillies, R. G.; Hussey, G. C.; James, H. G.; Sofko, G. J.; André, D.



Comparison of EMAC model results to satellite observations in the winter 2008/09 within the HEPPA-II intercomparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) initiative compares several satellite observations to results of different atmospheric models. In the current intercomparison the focus is on indirect effects due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) after the Major Stratospheric Warming during the winter 2008/09. After this event large amounts of NOx are transported downwards from the thermosphere into the mesosphere, despite low geomagnetic activity during this winter and therefore low thermospheric production of NOx. In the HEPPA-II study we focus on the assessment of the EPP source, vertical coupling and on composition changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere due to indirect EPP effects. In our presentation we will show mid-atmospheric composition changes in the model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) within the HEPPA-II intercomparison. Besides NOx we will show results for other NOy family members, some dynamical tracers and the meteorological conditions in EMAC. We performed a EMAC simulation with prescribed observed NOx vmr from MIPAS at the upper model boundary. Additionally we performed a model run without prescribed NOx to distinguish between indirect effects due to EPP and other atmospheric effects.

Versick, S.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; Stiller, G.; von Clarmann, T.; Kirner, O.



Surface Tension and Viscosity Measurements in Microgravity: Some Results and Fluid Flow Observations during MSL-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscosity of a liquid metal was successfully measured for the first time by a containerless method, the oscillating drop technique. This method also provides a means to obtain a precise, non-contact measurement of the surface tension of the droplet. This technique involves exciting the surface of the molten sample and then measuring the resulting oscillations; the natural frequency of the oscillating sample is determined by its surface tension, and the damping of the oscillations by the viscosity. These measurements were performed in TEMPUS, a microgravity electromagnetic levitator (EML), on the Space Shuttle as a part of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1), which flew in April and July 1997 (STS-83 and STS-94). Some results of the surface tension and viscosity measurements are presented for Pd82Si18. Some observations of the fluid dynamic characteristics (dominant flow patterns, turbulent transition, cavitation, etc.) of levitated droplets are presented and discussed together with magnetohydrodynamic calculations, which were performed to justify these findings.

Hyer, Robert W.; Trapaga, G.; Flemings, M. C.



Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar: Results from Continuous Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PANSY radar has been installed at Syowa Station (69°00’S, 39°35’E) as the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic. It is a monostatic coherent pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz VHF, consisting of an active phased array of 1,045 Yagi antennas and the same number of transmitter/receiver (TR) modules obtaining a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar install was carried out in early 2011, and since April 2012 the radar has been continuously operated with 228 antennas and modules. The full radar system operation will start in 2015. The primary objectives of the radar to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere and middle atmosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric/stratospheric clouds. The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Furthermore, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. In this paper we will report the scientific objectives of the project, technical descriptions, and the results of observations in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere to date, including observations regarding severe snow storms, gravity waves, multiple tropopauses, and polar mesosphere summer/winter echoes.

Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Saito, Akinori; Sato, Toru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Sato, Kaoru; Kohma, Masaki


Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight of the controller which necessitates aircraft autonomy. An autonomous unmanned aircraft requires a significantly more complex command and control system and elicits more scrutiny by airspace regulatory agencies. Therefore, while the potential utility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, the unmanned aircraft along with the communications and logistics infrastructure required for their operation) for stormscale research may be obvious, the engineering and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome for their use are significant. Surmounting these engineering and regulatory hurdles was the principal objective of the UAS component of VORTEX-2. Regulatory hurdles prevented UAS operations in the first year of VORTEX-2. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (tasked with regulating all UAS operations) granted the UAS group certificates of authorization (CoA) to fly for all of year-2 over northeast CO, southwest NE, and northwest KS. The majority of the engineering hurdles involved the communication system necessary to 1) command and control the aircraft through its on-board autopilot and 2) direct ground-based vehicles required to remain compliant with FAA regulations. Testing during both year-1 and -2 yielded a robust communication system. Lessons learned from interactions with the FAA along with an overview of the communication system will be presented at the conference. Scientifically, the UAS in VORTEX-2 was tasked with collecting in-situ observations of the temperature and moisture above the surface across the rear flank gust front (RFGF) and within the rear flank downdraft (RFD). Despite the relatively small region approved for UAS operations, 6 flights were conducted in the vicinity of supercells during year-2 of VORTEX-2: 6 May, 26 May, 6 June, 7 June, 9 June, and 10 June. Of these flights, three (6 June, 9 June, and 10 June) collected observations across the RFGF and within the RFD. Results from the VORTEX-2 flights along with an outlook towards possible future applications of UAS for stormscale research will be presented at the conference.

Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B.; Frew, E.



MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results of the Australian bush fires of February 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on February 7, 2009, Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume remained north-eastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On February 17 the eastern part had reached southern South America and on February 20 the central Southern Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific. Between February 20 and the first week of March the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of February 11, followed by larger amounts on February 17 and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-17 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

Glatthor, Norbert; Höpfner, Michael; Semeniuk, Kirill; Lupu, Alexandru; Palmer, Paul; McConnell, Jack; Kaminski, Jacek; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Funke, Bernd; Kellmann, Sylvia; Linden, Andrea; Wiegele, Andreas



Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.



Comparison of Observed Spatio-temporal Aftershock Patterns with Earthquake Simulator Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complex nature of faulting in southern California, knowledge of rupture behavior near fault step-overs is of critical importance to properly quantify and mitigate seismic hazards. Estimates of earthquake probability are complicated by the uncertainty that a rupture will stop at or jump a fault step-over, which affects both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes. In recent years, earthquake simulators and dynamic rupture models have begun to address the effects of complex fault geometries on earthquake ground motions and rupture propagation. Early models incorporated vertical faults with highly simplified geometries. Many current studies examine the effects of varied fault geometry, fault step-overs, and fault bends on rupture patterns; however, these works are limited by the small numbers of integrated fault segments and simplified orientations. The previous work of Kroll et al., 2013 on the northern extent of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah rupture in the Yuha Desert region uses precise aftershock relocations to show an area of complex conjugate faulting within the step-over region between the Elsinore and Laguna Salada faults. Here, we employ an innovative approach of incorporating this fine-scale fault structure defined through seismological, geologic and geodetic means in the physics-based earthquake simulator, RSQSim, to explore the effects of fine-scale structures on stress transfer and rupture propagation and examine the mechanisms that control aftershock activity and local triggering of other large events. We run simulations with primary fault structures in state of California and northern Baja California and incorporate complex secondary faults in the Yuha Desert region. These models produce aftershock activity that enables comparison between the observed and predicted distribution and allow for examination of the mechanisms that control them. We investigate how the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks are affected by changes to model parameters such as shear and normal stress, rate-and-state frictional properties, fault geometry, and slip rate.

Kroll, K.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Dieterich, J. H.



Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in tide gauge data north of 40N, in the subpolar SST and in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and in subpolar winter heat flux values. The decadal cycle is a well separated mode in a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for a time series of SST EOF mode 1 with a center over the Gulf Stream extension. Tide gauge and SST data are consistent in that both show a significant subdecadal periodicity exclusively in the subpolar gyre, but in subtropics the 12-14 year period is the prominent, but nonstationary, decadal signal. The main finding of this study is that this 12-14 year cycle can be constructed based on the leading mode of the surface heat flux. This connection to the surface heat flux implicates the participation of the thermohaline circulation in the decadal cycle. During the cycle starting from the positive index phase of NAO, SST and oceanic heat content anomalies are created in subtropics due to local heat flux and intensification of the thermohaline circulation. The anomalies advect to the subpolar gyre where they are amplified by local heat flux and are part of the negative feedback of thermohaline circulation on itself. Consequently the oceanic thermohaline circulation slows down and the opposite cycle starts. The oscillatory nature would not be possible without the active atmospheric participation in the cycle, because it provides the unstable interaction through heat flux, without it, the oceanic mode would be damped. This analysis suggests that the two principal modes of heat flux variability, corresponding to patterns similar to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Western Atlantic (WA), are part of the same decadal cycle and an indirect measure of the north-south movement of the storm tracks.

Hakkinen, Sirpa



Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results  

SciTech Connect

In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy); Palazzo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Silk, J. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Slosar, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)



Generalizing Observational Study Results Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data Sources Simulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Study Design Using simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95% confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal Findings In general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. Conclusions Propensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

DuGoff, Eva H.; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A.



New results near {sup 100}Sn : observation of single-neutron states in {sup 101}Sn.  

SciTech Connect

A search for in-beam {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 101}Sn, which contains only one neutron outside the {sup 100}Sn core, using a novel approach was carried out at the Argonne Tandem-Linac System. {sup 101}Sn nuclei were produced using the {sup 46}Ti({sup 58}Ni, 3n){sup 101}Sn fusion-evaporation reaction. Beta-delayed protons with energies and decay times consistent with previous {sup 101}Sn decay studies were observed at the focal plane of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. In-beam {gamma} rays were detected in the Gammasphere Ge-detector array and were correlated with the {sup 101}Sn {beta}-delayed protons using the Recoil-Decay Tagging method. As a result, a {gamma}-ray transition between the single-neutron {nu}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}d{sub 5/2} states situated at the Fermi surface was identified. The measured {nu}g{sub 7/2}-{nu}d{sub 5/2} energy splitting was compared with predictions corresponding to various mean-field potentials and was used to calculate multi-neutron configurations in light Sn isotopes. Similar approach can be used to study core excitations in {sup 101}Sn and other exotic nuclei near {sup 100}Sn.

Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Gros, S.; Hecht, A. A.; Hoteling, N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Lotay, G.; Peterson, D.; Robinson, A. P.; Walters, W. B.; Wang, X.; Woods, P. J.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Edinburgh; Univ. of Notre Dame



The MACHO Project: Preliminary Results from 4 years of LMC observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MACHO Project is a search for dark matter in the form of massive compact halo objects (MACHOs). Photometric monitoring of tens of millions of stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), and Galactic bulge is used to search for gravitational microlensing events caused by these otherwise invisible objects. An analysis of 4 years of LMC data on 12.5 million stars is currently underway. We present preliminary results of this analysis which reveal about 15 candidate microlensing events. We also present our microlensing detection efficiency calculation pipeline. The accurate determination of our detection efficiency is key in estimating the MACHO contribution to the dark matter halo. The efficiency pipeline uses data from the MACHO Project's ground based survey and from HST observations of MACHO fields to determine the true color and luminosity distribution of LMC source stars. Artificial microlensing events are then inserted into the underlying source distribution, image sequences are created from a wide sample of real image conditions and detection efficiencies are determined using our standard reduction pipeline. The full calculation of our efficiencies requires the creation, reduction and analysis of 322 Gbytes of artificial image data and is currently underway. The MACHO Project dedicates this work to one of its key founders, Alex Rodgers.

Cook, K.; Alcock, C.; Alves, D.; Minniti, D.; Marshall, S.; Vandehei, T.; Griest, K.; Allsman, R.; Axelrod, T.; Freeman, K.; Peterson, B.; Rodgers, A.; Pratt, M.; Becker, A.; Stubbs, C.; Tomaney, A.; Lehner, M.; Bennett, D.; Nelson, C.; Quinn, P.; Sutherland, W.; Welch, D.




SciTech Connect

We are undertaking a multi-frequency Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) survey of edge-on protoplanetary disks to probe the growth of solids in each disk, sedimentation of such material into the disk midplane, and the connection of these phenomena to the planet formation process. The projection of edge-on disk systems along our line of sight enables a study of the vertical stratification of large grains with fewer model dependencies than would be required for disks that are more face-on. Robust studies of the spatial distribution of grains up to {approx}1 cm in size are possible with the wavelength range and sensitivity of the EVLA. In this contribution, we describe target selection and observational strategies. First results concerning the Class 0 source IRAS 04368+2557 (L1527 IRS) are presented, including a study of this source's 8.46 GHz continuum variability over short and long time baselines and an indication that its protoplanetary disk may have a dearth of pebble-sized grains.

Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palmer, Patrick [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perrin, M. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Maddison, S. T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Duvert, G. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stapelfeldt, K., E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-900, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)



Coronae at 3 Gyr: First Results from a Chandra Observation of the Open Cluster Ruprecht 147  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruprecht 147 is the oldest nearby star cluster, with an age of 3 Gyr and a distance of 300 pc. This makes it an important benchmark in exploring activity-age-rotation relationships, bridging the gap between the Hyades and M67. We present the first results from a deep 250 ksec ACIS-I observation of the cluster. Analysis of the longest (81 ksec) pointing detects more than half of the known members in the field, with spectral types ranging from F6 to K5. The star most like the Sun in our sample, a G2V, has an X-ray luminosity (0.2-7 keV) of L_X ~ 1.1e28 ergs/s, which suggests a scaling with age t of log L_X ~ -b log t where 1.25 < b < 4, possibly steeper than seen at younger ages. This research was supported by Chandra grant G02-13022X.

Saar, Steven H.; Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason



Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?Lambda-CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further.With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat Lambda-CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.



The longitudinal extent of 3He rich SEP events: A comparison of numerical calculation results and observations by STEREO and ACE spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impulsive 3He rich Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are usually produced by the solar flares. Previous observation results show the longitudinal extent for the impulsive events are usually near 40 degrees. New observations from the STEREO show that some impulsive 3He rich events can cover a much wider longitudinal extent than 40 degrees. It seems that SEPs can still be observed on the field lines disconnected far away from the source. As a result, the coverage of SEP events is much larger than the width of sources. One possibility of such a large longitude extent is through cross-field transport. We use a Fokker-Planck focus transport equation to calculate the transport of SEPs in three-dimensional Parker interplanetary magnetic field. We compare the numerical simulation results with the simultaneous spacecraft observations of STEREO A, B, and ACE. In this way, we can investigate how SEPs propagate in the heliospheric magnetic fields.

Qin, G.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, M.



Fusing Observations and Model Results for Creation of Enhanced Ozone Spatial Fields: Comparison of Three Techniques  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents three simple techniques for fusing observations and numerical model predictions. The techniques rely on model/observation bias being considered either as error free, or containing some uncertainty, the latter mitigated with a Kalman filter approach or a spati...


Structural features of the tail of Comet Halley using results from observations in Cuba in 1986  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calibrated system of isophotes of Comet Halley near perihelion is obtained during the processing of photographic observation of Comet Halley taken in 1986 in Cuba. Dependences of the variations in the maximal elongation of the isophotes and the size of the cometary head are plotted. A symmetry of the cut-off of the comet tail relative to the perihelion is observed.

Nikonov, O. V.; Pogodin, M. A.; Kotliar, L. M.; Tolbin, S. V.; Farinas, R.



Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.



Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M?1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and ?-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (?o = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (?o ? 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ? K ? 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

Mirhusen, Narziev


First accuracy assessment of the HY-2A altimeter sea surface height observations: Cross-calibration results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the launch of China's first altimetry and scatterometry satellite, Haiyang-2A (HY-2A), various validation studies of HY-2A radar altimetry using preliminary data products have been conducted. Here, we present the first comprehensive result assessing HY-2A's altimeter data quality and the altimetry system performance using an improved HY-2A Geophysical Data Record (GDR) product (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics reprocessed GDR product version A, GDR_IGGA). The main improvements include altimeter timing and waveform retracking, and tropospheric, ionospheric, and sea-state bias (SSB) corrections, which resulted in more accurate HY-2A sea surface height observations. Jason-2 altimeter observations are used for the cross calibration of the HY-2A altimeter over the oceans between ±60° latitude bounds, primarily due to the limitation of Jason-2 coverage. The statistical results from single- and dual-satellite altimeter crossover analysis demonstrated that HY-2A fulfills its mission requirements. We uncovered a mean relative bias of -0.21 cm (with respect to Jason-2), and a standard deviation of 6.98 cm from dual-satellite crossover analysis. In addition, we present the results of a detailed analysis on variance reduction studies for the various geophysical corrections from HY-2A and compared them with Jason-2. The wave-number spectra of HY-2A and Jason-2 sea-level anomalies show similar spectral content, verifying the performance of HY-2A altimetry to be similar to Jason-2. Open issues and the remaining HY-2A data problems have been identified, allowing prospective future studies for further improvement of its accuracy.

Bao, Lifeng; Gao, Peng; Peng, Hailong; Jia, Yongjun; Shum, C. K.; Lin, Minseng; Guo, Qi



Correlation between incidental FDG PET/CT colorectal observations and endoscopic and histopathological results  

PubMed Central

Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) is used in the imaging workup of various malignancies. Incidental gastrointestinal observations on FDG PET/CT may be of clinical significance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate endoscopic and histopathological observations in patients referred for colonoscopy due to incidental FDG colonic uptake on a PET/CT study. Fifty-six patients with incidental colonic findings on FDG PET/CT underwent colonoscopy. Normal colonoscopies were observed in 63% of the patients. In 37% of the colonoscopies, we identified an endoscopic observation, including 67% with benign adenomatous polyps, 3% with hyperplastic polyps, 20% with advanced histological lesions and 10% with a malignancy. PMID:24396473




SOAR Remote Observing: Tactics and Early Results Gerald Cecil1a  

E-print Network

compression, remote observing, LabVIEW, SOAR 1. INTRODUCTION As described previously1 , SOAR is deploying of IP connectivity required to support reliably projects that incorporate intensive video conferencing

Cecil, Gerald


Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

Bay Hasager, Charlotte



In ecliptic observations of Jovian radio emissions by Ulysses - Comparison with Voyager results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Ulysses inbound cruise to Jupiter the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment observed a variety of the planet's radio components in the frequency range below 1 MHz. Most of these emissions were already detected by the Voyager Radio Astronomy and Plasma Wave experiments, however, with much less sensitivity and different spectral coverage. These different radio components within the URAP dynamic spectra are identified, and their appearance with the previous Voyager observations are compared.

Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.; Zarka, PH.; Aubier, M. G.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.



Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Science Payload Measurement Results of South Pole Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA's LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission is a lunar impactor targeted at a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south-pole. It will raise and observe an ejecta cloud of regolith and possibly ice and\\/or water vapor. LCROSS was co-manifested with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on an Atlas V rocket and launched June 18, 2009. The mission

K. Ennico; A. Colaprete; M. Shirley; D. H. Wooden; K. Galal



Neogene transtensive faulting in the Rawil axial depression (SW Switzerland): preliminary results from field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helvetic nappe stack in the Rawil depression between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs is affected by dominantly dextral transtensional faults developed or reactivated during the Neogene. This area shows the evolution of a fault system from partially ductile to brittle conditions and is currently one of the most seimogenically active zones in Switzerland. This field study aims to establish which fault sets have been activated during the Neogene and possibly Quaternary to Recent, to better constrain their relative age and kinematics, and to study the transition from ductile to brittle behaviour. The observed faults can be assigned to three general sets on the basis of their strike orientation. The first set (1) strikes NE-SW. Faults with distinctly different ages of initial activity are part of this set: Cretaceous normal faults with syn-sedimentary features; thrusts due to nappe-stacking; and later normal to oblique faults. All of these faults dip mainly to the SE. Paleo-tectonic features exposed in Plaine des Roses, les Audannes and Plaine Morte suggest that faults with this general orientation were already active during Cretaceous sedimentation. The post Aptian Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence is influenced by paleo-escarpments directly related to syn-sedimentary faults. These surfaces are marked in many places by karstification and silicification, sedimentary dykes and onlap of basinal younger formations. Some of these faults have been subsequently reactivated during Neogene syn- and post-collisional extension with normal to oblique kinematics. Transtensive reactivation of Cretaceous faults initially developed a ductile mylonitic fabric (expecially in limestones) that is overprinted by cataclasites and more discrete faults surfaces. Similarly oriented NE-striking veins were also developed under transitional brittle-ductile conditions in the limestones and, from relative age relationships, are the oldest veins developed in the area. The transtensive fault sets striking (2) E-W and (3) NW-SE generally dip at a low to moderate angle to the S or SW. The two sets are broadly coeval, as indicated in the Rawil-Plaine Morte area by many examples of branching and bending of one set into the other and by similar displacement directions and deformation fabrics. Transtensional movements must largely post-date folding, because faults of sets (2) and (3) obliquely crosscut the fold system and the fold geometry can be matched to either side. Folding and the initial stage of normal to oblique faulting developed under very low grade metamorphic conditions, with exhumation during the Neogene related to extension that was parallel or slightly oblique to the main Alpine fold axis-trend. Also for these fault sets there is locally a transition from an initial more ductile mylonitic fabric to cataclasite. Calcite slickenlines and fibres on these Neogene fault planes indicate two main stretching directions. The older one is WSW-directed and generally plunges around 25°, whereas the younger one plunges S, with a steeper, mainly dip-slip movement. Crosscutting vein relationships and bending of vein tails planes indicate a counter-clockwise rotation of the stretching direction, from WSW toward S. The WSW-directed orogen-parallel stretching is similar in orientation to that associated with the Simplon-Rhône Fault and is probably coeval, implying possible activity throughout much of the Neogene. The orientation of the transtensive faults outcropping in the Rawil depression is consistent with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the Rhone Valley. Establishing the kinematics and mechanics of these faults developed at depth in this seismically active region can therefore help in understanding earthquake processes.

Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Mancktelow, Neil



Project Phoenix: A Summary of SETI Observations and Results, 1995 - 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Project Phoenix was a Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) that observed nearly 800 stars within about 80 parsecs over the available frequencies in the microwave spectrum from 1200 to 3000 MHz with a resolution of 0.7 Hz. The search had three major observing campaigns using the Parkes 64 meter, the NRAO 140 Foot, and the Arecibo 305 meter antennas. Phoenix used real time signal detection and immediate verification of possible ETI signals. The search looked for narrowband signals that were continuously present, or pulsed regularly, and allowed for frequency drift rates of up to about 1 Hz per second. A database of terrestrial signals found in the previous week was used to match against detections for each observation. Candidate signals, i.e., those not in the database, were checked immediately with a "pseudo-interferometric" observation using a second, distant antenna, or by simple on-off observations if the second antenna was unavailable. While millions of signals were detected, all proved to be from terrestrial technology. In conclusion, we can set upper limits on the power of narrowband transmitters in the vicinity of nearby stars. Project Phoenix was the privately-funded continuation of the NASA Targeted Search SETI program and we gratefully acknowledge the use of NASA equipment on long term loan through 2002. The search was supported by contributions from Bernard M. Oliver, William and Rosemary Hewlett, Gordon and Betty Moore, the David and Lucile Packard Foundation, and the Paul G. Allen Foundation.

Backus, P. R.; Project Phoenix Team



Aperiodic Large-Scale Disturbances in the Lower Ionosphere. Ionosonde Observation Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the observed disturbances of the parameters of the ionosphere affected by high-power radio waves from the SURA heating facility. Ionosondes located in Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow (Russia), Kharkov (Ukraine), and Pruhonice (Czechia) were used for the observations. The diagnostic tools were from 560 to 2200 km away from SURA. Additional ionization layers with a cutoff frequency of 2.6-3.4 MHz were occasionally observed on the ionograms of the Nizhny Novgorod and Moscow stations. The effective altitude of these layers was 120-160 km and the true altitude was about 110-130 km. The occurrence of additional ionization layers below 100-130 km was controlled by an increase in the minimum observable frequency (MOF). For the Moscow station, the MOF increased by about 1 MHz in the daytime and almost did not change in the night time. MOF variations on the ionograms of the Kharkov and Pruhonice stations were less significant (0.3-0.4 MHz) in all time of the day. The observed effects are most probably due to the midlatitude precipitation of electrons from the inner radiation belt, which increased the electron number density in the ionosphere, absorption of the sounding radio waves, and the MOF. Estimated particle flux density was 108-109 m-2 ·s-1. The electron number density in the daytime increased by a factor of 2-3.

Chernogor, L. F.; Frolov, V. L.; Barabash, V. V.



Observations of Cygnus X-2 with IUE: Ultraviolet results from a multiwavelength campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The observations of the low-mass x ray binary, Cyg X-2, taken with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) in a campaign conducted in June and October of 1988 are reported. A direct relationship between the strength of the UV continuum and line emission and the placement of the x ray spectrum in one of three branches of the so-called Z-shaped curve is found by comparison with simultaneous x ray observations. All three previously known x ray spectral states are detected; the UV continuum and line emission increase monotonically along the Z with the least emission in the horizontal branch, and the most in the flaring branch. Emission lines due to HeII, CIV, NIII, NIV, NV, SiIV, and MgII are observed.

Vrtilek, S. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Garcia, M. R.; Verbunt, F.; Hasinger, Guenther; Kuerster, M.



Measurements of formaldehyde total content in troposphere using DOAS technique in Moscow Region: preliminary results of three year observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the formaldehyde (HCHO) atmospheric column are performed at Zvenigorod Scientific Station, Moscow Region, Russia since 2008 by the MAX-DOAS instrument. A previously developed algorithm for the formaldehyde retrieval was updated by adding an availability to use information on the surface albedo and the height of the atmospheric boundary layer provided by other measurements and/or modeling. We present preliminary results of the analysis of observations performed in 2010-2012. The obtained data allow quantifying the Moscow megapolis influence on air quality at Zvenigorod. The average HCHO vertical column density observed at the east winds is larger than one at the west winds. The Moscow influence causes the difference of about 0.85×1016 mol cm-2 between these values. This difference slightly depends on the air temperature and the season. A temperature effect is noticeable in the formaldehyde atmospheric column. Our data show statistically significant positive temperature effect in formaldehyde for the background and polluted conditions for temperatures from -5°C to +35°C. The temperature trend in formaldehyde data at Zvenigorod varies between 7.5×1014 and 9.3×1014 mol cm-2 °C-1 for all wind directions. The increase of the formaldehyde atmospheric column with the increase of the air temperature can be caused by the HCHO formation from non-methane biogenic volatile organic compounds (mainly - isoprene) for which more emission is expected at higher temperatures, and by growth of areas of forest and turf fires.

Postylyakov, Oleg; Borovski, Alexander; Elokhov, Alexander; Dzhola, Anatoly; Grechko, Evgeny; Kanaya, Yugo



Analysis of Students' Responses to Contradictory Results Obtained by Simple Observation or Controlling Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates students' responses to presentations of experimental results that conflicted with their preconceptions regarding electric circuits, and how those responses varied according to the type of inquiry skills required to obtain the results. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

Park, Jongwon; Kim, Ikgyun



What Do Blood Tests Show?  


... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...


Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January and February. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of 10(exp 11) K. As the pulsar is the best studied of the young known neutron stars with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further comment on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R. F.; Juda, M.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S. S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)



Preliminary observations and results obtained with the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter. [for Solar Maximum Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New observation with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) of a number of manifestations of solar activity obtained during the first three months of Solar Maximum Mission operations are presented. Attention is given to polarimetry in sunspots, oscillations above sunspots, density diagnostics of transition-zone plasmas in active regions, and the eruptive prominence - coronal transient link.

Tandberg-Hassen, E.; Cheng, C. C.; Athay, R. G.; Beckers, J. M.; Brandt, J. C.; Chapman, R. D.; Bruner, E. C.; Henze, W.; Hyder, C. L.; Gurman, J. B.



Observing Two Pluto Stellar Approaches In 2006: Results On Pluto's Atmosphere And Detection Of Hydra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stellar approaches of Pluto - on 10 April and 12 June 2006 - have been used to probe the planet's surroundings and atmosphere. On 10 April 2006, Pluto missed the star by 0.5 arcsec, as seen from Chile (ESO La Silla and Paranal). The appulse was observed from VLT (AO, K band), NTT (H band) and 2.2-m reflector (I

Bruno Sicardy; W. Beisker; V. Batista; F. Colas; E. Gendron; J. Lecacheux; F. Roques; T. Widemann; A. Doressoundiram; N. Ageorges; C. Foellmi; V. Ivanov; O. Marco; O. Mousis; P. Rousselot; R. Behrend; M. Assafim; J. Camargo; D. da Silva Neto; A. Andrei; R. Vieira Martins; D. Gault; M. Richmond; J. Greenhill; S. Dieters; A. Gilmore; P. Kilmartin; J. Hearnshaw; S. Mathers; L. Priest



Implementing the Palomar Transient Factory Real-Time Detection Pipeline in GLADE: Results and Observations  

E-print Network

Control System Data Quality Monitor P48 Camera High Speed Link Follow-Up Telescopes Detailed Processing, a dedicated photometric follow-up telescope, and a full archive of all detected sources (Figure 1 [2 taken. Observation of potential #12;transients by a network of follow-up telescopes is triggered

Rusu, Florin


Results of the Workshop on Impact Cratering: Bridging the Gap Between Modeling and Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 7-9,2003, approximately 60 scientists gathered at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas, for a workshop devoted to improving knowledge of the impact cratering process. We (co-conveners Elisabetta Pierazzo and Robert Herrick) both focus research efforts on studying the impact cratering process, but the former specializes in numerical modeling while the latter draws inferences from observations of planetary craters. Significant work has been done in several key areas of impact studies over the past several years, but in many respects there seem to be a disconnect between the groups employing different approaches, in particular modeling versus observations. The goal in convening this workshop was to bring together these disparate groups to have an open dialogue for the purposes of answering outstanding questions about the impact process and setting future research directions. We were successful in getting participation from most of the major research groups studying the impact process. Participants gathered from five continents with research specialties ranging from numerical modeling to field geology, and from small-scale experimentation and geochemical sample analysis to seismology and remote sensing.With the assistance of the scientific advisory committee (Bevan French, Kevin Housen, Bill McKinnon, Jay Melosh, and Mike Zolensky), the workshop was divided into a series of sessions devoted to different aspects of the cratering process. Each session was opened by two invited t a b , one given by a specialist in numerical or experimental modeling approaches, and the other by a specialist in geological, geophysical, or geochemical observations. Shorter invited and contributed talks filled out the sessions, which were then concluded with an open discussion time. All modelers were requested to address the question of what observations would better constrain their models, and all observationists were requested to discuss how their observations can constrain modeling efforts.

Herrick, Robert (Editor); Pierazzo, Elisabetta (Editor)



Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 ?m) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 ?m. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm?1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm?1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm?1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). Data from these instruments, as well as from frequently launched radiosondes, were used to characterize the atmospheric state needed as input for line-by-line radiative transfer calculations. By comparing these calculations with the TAFTS and AERI-ER observations, it is possible to test the effectiveness of ice crystal size distribution parameterizations (which are generally derived from mid-latitude and tropical in-situ observations) when applied to Arctic cirrus. The influence of the assumed single scattering properties (here calculated for ice aggregates by A. Baran of the UK Met Office) on the calculated spectra is also considered in this work.

Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.



Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.



The dark matter halo shape of edge-on disk galaxies . III. Modelling the HI observations: results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the third paper in a series in which we attempt to put constraints on the flattening of dark halos in disk galaxies. We observed for this purpose the Hi in edge-on galaxies, where it is in principle possible to measure the force field in the halo vertically and radially from gas layer flaring and rotation curve decomposition respectively. For this purpose we need to analyse the observed XV diagrams in such a way as to accurately measure all three functions that describe the planar kinematics and distribution of a galaxy: the radial Hi surface density, the rotation curve and the Hi velocity dispersion. In this paper, we first present the results of the modelling of our Hi observations of 8 Hi rich, late-type, edge-on galaxies. We find that in all of these we find differential rotation. Most systems display Hi velocity dispersions of 6.5 to 7.5 km s-1 and all except one show radial structure in this property. There is an increase in the mean Hi velocity dispersion with maximum rotation velocity, at least up to 120 km s-1. Next we analyse the Hi observations to derive the radial variation of the thickness of the Hi layer. The combination of these gas flaring measurements with the Hi kinematics measurements allow us to measure the total vertical force of each galaxy assuming hydrostatic equilibrium. We find that with the exception of the asymmetric IC5052, all of the galaxies in our sample are good candidates for 3D mass modelling to measure the dark halo shape. The flaring profiles are symmetric with respect to the galactic centres and have a common shape, increasing linearly inside the stellar disks and exponential outside where the gravitational potential is dominated by the dark halo. In the best example, UGC 7321, we find in the inner regions small deviations from the midplane and accompanying increases in thickness of the Hi layer that are possibly a result of perturbations of the gravitational field by a relatively strong bar.

O'Brien, J. C.; Freeman, K. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.



Solar Light Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

de Nie, Michael Willem.


NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.



Satellite observations of thermospheric tides: Results from the Wind Imaging Interferometer on UARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermospheric winds measured by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite are analyzed for migrating solar tides. The data cover a 2-year period commencing February 1992 and are obtained from the atomic oxygen O(1S) 557.7-nm emission, which provides observations of the 90- to 200-km altitude range during daytime and the 90- to 110-km range at night.

Charles McLandress; Gordon G. Shepherd; Brian H. Solheim



The Ionosphere of Jupiter: A Comparison of Galileo Radio Occultation Results With Previous Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 5, 1995, shortly after the Galileo spacecraft was inserted into orbit, its S-band radio signal was occulted by Jupiter.During entry into occultation at a latitude of 24.3deg S and a solar zenith angle (SZA) of 88.6deg a narrow ionospheric peak of about 107,000 cm(-3) was observed at an altitude of about 870 km above the 1-bar level. During

A. J. Kliore; R. Woo; R. G. Herrera; P. Priest; S. W. Asmar; D. P. Hinson; J. D. Twicken; H. T. Howard; F. M. Flasar; P. J. Schinder



Assessing the Crustal Stratigraphy of Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Orbital Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby images revealed subtle color variations across Mercury's surface, many of which are associated with impact craters and basins. Impact craters that excavated material spectrally distinct from the surrounding pre-impact surface serve as windows into the subsurface, allowing observations of material at depth that would otherwise remain hidden to remote observations. Previous localized studies of spectrally distinct, excavated material suggested the presence of buried volcanic plains and a heterogeneous crustal stratigraphy and support the important role of volcanism in the evolution of the crust. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has since acquired global color (1 km/pixel) and high-resolution monochrome (250 m/pixel) base maps of the innermost planet, taken under illumination and observation geometries optimized for observing both color and morphology. These base maps, along with detailed targeted observations (up to 80 m/pixel color and 10 m/pixel monochrome), allow detailed co-mapping of geologic and spectral features across Mercury's surface. Such mapping, along with the use of scaling laws and melt-volume calculations to bound the depth of origin of crater ejecta and central peak structures, allows us to investigate many aspects of Mercury's crustal stratigraphy, including, but not limited to, the following topics: (1) The stratigraphy of four of Mercury's younger large basins: Caloris (1550 km in diameter), Rembrandt (720 km), Beethoven (630 km), and Tolstoj (360 km), which have all been flooded by spectrally distinct volcanic plains. Post-flooding craters of varying sizes enable an estimation of the thickness of the volcanic fill and the nature of the pre-flooding basin floor. These measurements will help to constrain models for subsequent compensation, uplift, and deformation; and incorporation of topography and gravity data link basin fill with the broader lithospheric evolution of Mercury. (2) The depth of origin and distribution of low-reflectance material (LRM), a likely compositional end-member. LRM centers are often associated with large crater and basin ejecta, implying that this material must originate at substantial depth. In previous studies, LRM was found to be the color unit with the greatest depth of origin. A more complete knowledge of LRM distribution in the crust will enable a better assessment of the nature of the material's pre-excavation origin. (3) The location and thickness of pre-Tolstojan (> 4.0 Ga) volcanic plains. Such plains tend to be located beneath younger intermediate plains and may be used to assess the extent of an older generation of volcanic activity.

Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.



Sexual Intercourse Frequency in Men Presenting for Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction: Results from the Pan-European Erectile Dysfunction Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that influence the number of sexual intercourse attempts among men with erectile dysfunction (ED) before initiation of ED treatment were investigated in a population of 4998 men enrolled in the (Erectile Dysfunctions) Observation Study (EDOS). Our results showed that increasing age, increasing severity and duration of ED, and decreasing satisfaction with one's sex life and partner were all associated

Alan Riley; Anthony Beardsworth; Stathis Kontodimas; David Suarez; Juan Vicente Torres; Josep Maria Haro



Observations of marine stratocumulus microphysics and implications for processes controlling droplet spectra: Results from the Marine  

E-print Network

droplet spectra: Results from the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment Jian Wang,1 Peter H. Daum,1] During the Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment, cloud and aerosol microphysics were measured microphysics and implications for processes controlling droplet spectra: Results from the Marine Stratus


Public medical shows.  


In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

Walusinski, Olivier



Results from the NMSU-NASA Marshall Space Flight Center LCROSS observational campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) lunar impact on 9 October 2009 using three telescope and instrument combinations in southern New Mexico: the Agile camera with a V filter on the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point Observatory (APO), a StellaCam video camera with an R filter on the New Mexico State University (NMSU) 1 m telescope at APO, and a Goodrich near-IR (J and H band) video camera on the NMSU 0.6 m telescope at Tortugas Mountain Observatory. The three data sets were analyzed to search for evidence of the debris plume that rose above the Cabeus crater shortly after the LCROSS impact. Although we saw no evidence of the plume in any of our data sets, we constrained its surface brightness through analysis of our photometrically calibrated data. The minimum surface brightness that we could have detected in our Agile data was 9.69 magnitudes arc sec-2, which is 177 times fainter than the brightest part of the foreground ridge of Cabeus. In our near-IR data, our minimum detectable surface brightness was 8.58 magnitudes arc sec-2, which is 370 times fainter than the brightest part of the foreground ridge in the J and H bands. The debris plume was detected by the LCROSS shepherding spacecraft and the Diviner radiometer on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Given the plume radiance observed by LCROSS, we cannot distinguish between a conical or cylindrical plume geometry because when seen from Earth, both are below our detection thresholds.

Chanover, N. J.; Miller, C.; Hamilton, R. T.; Suggs, R. M.; McMillan, R.



Preliminary results of short-term variability of sunspot magnetic fields as observed at Cuba.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the intensity of sunspot magnetic fields H(t) have been made with the measuring microscope UIM-23. An estimation of the accuracy of the measurements with the telescope of the Central Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences is ? = 60 G. Observations of 12 sunspots confirm the presence of the oscillatory component of the H(t) variations, connected with the intrinsic sunspot properties. Estimations of oscillatory parameters H(t) have been made. Their periods are between T = 40 - 110m, amplitudes A = 60 - 220 G. The data indicate a possible nonlinear character of oscillations H(t).

Nikonov, O. V.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Kulish, A. P.; Nikonova, E. S.; Granda, K.



Sub-crustal earthquakes beneath the Gulf of Cadiz - First results from seismological observations with the NEAREST OBS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophysical and geological investigations conducted so far in the Gulf of Cadiz allow us today to have an idea of the largest active faults that can generate destructive earthquakes and tsunamis comparable to the Nov 1st, 1755 Lisbon event. However, their kinematics and seismic activity are poorly known because the seismic networks based on land do not allow a precise hypocenter location and estimation of focal mechanisms for the smaller events. Therefore the EC project NEAREST (Integrated observation from NEAR shore sourcES of Tsunamis: towards an early warning system) was initiated (GOCE, contract n. 037110). One of the main objectives of the project is the characterisation of the tsunamigenic sources in the Gulf of Cadiz through seismological monitoring of natural seismicity by means of 24 BB seismometers deployed for 11 months in addition to the GEOSTAR multi-parameter deep-sea observatory. Together with the dense onshore seismic networks the temporary OBS network will allow the location and characterization of small seismic events more precisely than it can be done with onshore stations only. Spectrograms are used to identify previously unknown earthquakes. One of the major questions is the maximum depth of seismic activity beneath the Gulf of Cadiz. In the recording period from September 2007 to August 2008 about 300 events were located within the OBS network using the Portuguese onshore seismic stations. Magnitudes range from 1 to 4.7 (ML from Institute of Meteorology Lisbon, Portugal). Using the OBS network many events could be detected which are not located by the onshore stations. First results show that the events occur to approximately 50 km depth, often deeper than the locations by land stations, and confirming the results available from regional and teleseismic waveform modelling. Focal mechanisms show strike-slip and thrust-slip events.

Geissler, W. H.; Matias, L. M.; Monna, S.; Stich, D.; Iben Brahim, A.; Mancilla, F.; Zitellini, N.; Nearest Working Group



Flight Test Results of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Advanced Land Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 ?m. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.

Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.



Preliminary results from the retrieval and assimilation of GPS radio occultation refractivity observations during tropical storm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne GPS radio occultation (RO) data have been collected by the GNSS Instrument System for Multi-static and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) during the 2010 PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment to study developing Atlantic tropical storms. This airborne system is designed to receive and record radio signals from setting and rising GPS satellites. The additional phase delay of the GPS radio signals due to refraction in the atmosphere is used to retrieve vertical profiles of refractivity, which depend strongly on moisture. A large airborne RO dataset was acquired from twenty-six research flights and refractivity profiles have been derived from the GISMOS geodetic GPS receivers. The airborne RO profiles consistently agree within ~2% with refractivity profiles calculated from ECMWF model analyses above 5 km altitude and with nearby dropsonde profiles. Accurate refractivity results are an important first step in investigating the impact of assimilating moisture profiles within the mesoscale environment of developing storms. A case study is conducted for pre-Hurricane Karl. The evolution of refractivity derived from RO data over the five days leading to the genesis of tropical storm Karl are consistent with mid-tropospheric moistening in the vicinity of the storm center. The algorithm to assimilate airborne GPS observations has been implemented in the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) Data Assimilation (DA) system of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We use a non-local operator for the integrated excess phase, defined as the integrated value of refractivity along the GPS radio ray path. One observation per horizontal and vertical model grid point is assimilated instead of only one per vertical model level, so that the horizontal drift of the occultation points within each model level is considered. Three data assimilation experiments were conducted: 1) NONE: No data are assimilated during data cycling. 2) DRPS: Dropsonde observations are assimilated every three hours during data cycling. 3) DRPS+GPS: Refractivity retrieved from the airborne GPS system above 5 km is included in the data assimilation process used for the DRPS experiment. Preliminary numerical experiments show a positive impact from the assimilation of both dropsondes and airborne GPS observations on Karl simulations, with improvements in refractivity and moisture fields above ~2.5 km. GPS signals from the GISMOS radio frequency (RF) recording system are being analyzed with a more robust open loop tracking method than the real-time phase-locked loop tracking used in the conventional receivers, which is expected to provide many more profiles. A test case using open loop mode tracked ~2 km deeper into the troposphere than the conventional geodetic receiver.

Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Muradyan, P.; Nievinski, F. G.; Larson, K. M.; Garrison, J. L.; Wang, E. K.; Chen, S.



New results on the microstructure of amorphous silicon as observed by internal friction  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the low temperature internal friction (Q{sup {minus}1}) of amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Electron-beam evaporation leads to the well-known temperature-independent Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} plateau common to all amorphous solids. For hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with about 1 at.% H produced by hot wire chemical vapor deposition, however, the value of Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} is over two hundred times smaller than for e-beam a-Si. This is the first observation of an amorphous solid without any significant low energy excitations. This finding offers the opportunity to study amorphous solids containing controlled densities of tunneling defects, and thus to explore their nature.

Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Jones, K.M.; Liu, X.; White, B.E. Jr.; Pohl, R.O.



Venus surface and near surface anomalies on the Northern hemisphere observed by VIRTIS/VEX: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus nightside emission measurements of VIRTIS on Venus Express provide the opportunity of surface studies in the narrow near infrared atmospheric windows. The measurements as well as detailed new radiative transfer simulations show that radiance ratios in the emission windows between 1.0 and 1.35 m with respect to the 1.02 m window can be used to extract information about the surface elevation and temperature. Based on these analyses, first surface and near surface anomalies are identified on the Northern hemisphere of Venus, which are due to deviations of the elevation - temperature correlation in certain small areas. The data are selected from VIRTIS-M-IR nightside measurements. To ensure minimal atmospheric influence on the measured signatures, only pushbroom observations with small observation angles close to nadir are taken into account. The radiative transfer simulation technique considers absorption, emission, and multiple scattering by gaseous and particulate constituents of the atmosphere. Look-up tables of quasi-monochromatic gas absorption cross-sections are calculated using appropriate spectral line data bases and line profiles and a line-by-line procedure. Empirical continuum absorption coefficients are determined from a 'VIRTIS reference spectrum'. In order to derive the parameters of the H2SO4 clouds, Mie theory is applied. Multiple scattering is considered by a Successive Order procedure. The synthetic quasi-monochromatic intensity spectra at the model top level of the atmosphere are convolved with the VIRTIS spectral response function. The surface windows at 1.02, 1.10 and 1.18 m exhibit a clear dependence of transmitted radiation on topographical features and, thus, on surface thermal emission, since an elevation change of 12 km results in a temperature change of 100 K. In the first approximation, the radiance ratios are affine linear functions of the surface temperature. This is demonstrated by both measurements and simulations. In general, the ratio-based VIRTIS topography correlates well with the Magellan topography, but differences occur in localized areas. Different local surface anomalies do exist. These anomalies are probably a result of the lower atmosphere dynamics, errors in Magellan elevation determinations, or variations in the surface emissivity. Surface emissivity variations are important indicators of the nature of surface material. They may be due to variations in mineralogy and surface texture. While most of Venus' geologic units are thought to be basaltic in composition, some of them (tessera terrains) could be felsic. The 1 m emissivity of felsic materials is lower compared to basalts at similar texture conditions. Nevertheless, we found that anomalous areas comprise practically the same geologic units as adjacent non-anomalous terrains. The surface texture (grain size, packing density, surface roughness) is another important factor for emissivity anomalies. Grain size affects the spectral characteristics. Laboratory measurements of basalts and oxidized basalts show significant changes in the contrast of the 1 m reflectivity band. Although most of the surface of Venus is not very rough, roughness variations exist. Tesserae and rifts show a higher surface roughness compared to other areas. Finally, the Magellan radar data that represent the base of the topography information of the Venus surface result from a surface layer of about 1 m in thickness, whereas the VIRTIS-NIR data describe the optical upper surface layer only. The radiative transfer simulations show the capability of our algorithm to investigate the surface of Venus. Based on these simulations and the VIRTIS/VEX measurements, the extracted anomalies are discussed in the framework of these processes and influences mentioned above. Future improvements will contribute to eliminate the masking of the Venus nightside windows by far wing and pressure-induced absorptions of the deep atmosphere constituents. This will allow a better separation of deep atmosphere, temperature, and emissivity contributions to the Venus nightside e

Arnold, G.; Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Basilevski, A.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.



Television Quiz Show Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn



Motorcycle rider protective apparel wearing: Observational study results from the Brisbane and Canberra regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continued growth in popularity of motorcycling is an area of concern within the road safety domain due to the vulnerability of motorcyclists sustaining injury in the event of a crash. Currently in Australia only motorcycle helmets are mandatory for motorcyclists or pillions to wear and there is no legislative standard for other protective apparel. This paper reports the results

D. Wishart; B. Watson; P. Rowden


Distant Galaxy Clusters: New Detections and Follow-Up Observations in the Optical. I. Photometric Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new cluster detection algorithm was developed and applied to the ESO Imaging Survey dataset (EIS), producing a new catalogue of cluster candidates up to estimated z ˜ 1. Such a catalogue will enable us to perform statistically significant studies as well as detailed research on some of these systems individually and on their member galaxies. The ongoing follow-up of the candidates in multi-waveband photometry is now starting to produce its first results and BVRI colors have already been used to select three of the cluster candidates for VLT spectroscopy. Those results are shown in a companion poster by Serote Roos et al., also presented in this conference. The data shall be used later to study the role of the environment in the evolution of galaxy populations.

Lobo, Catarina; Iovino, Angela


Geographical statistical assessments of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China: Results from upscaling network observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantifying the magnitudes and distributions of carbon budgets is helpful for strategies in mitigating global climate change. Based on spatial patterns of carbon fluxes (gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and their drivers, we constructed geographical statistical assessment schemes and quantified the magnitudes of carbon fluxes in China. The optimal assessment scheme was then validated with observed eddy covariance data to analyze the spatial distributions of carbon fluxes. Using climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes, our estimates of GEP, ER and NEP in China during 2000s were 7.51 ± 0.51, 5.82 ± 0.16 and 1.91 ± 0.15 PgC yr- 1, corresponding to 4.29%-6.80%, 5.65%-6.06% and 9.10%-12.73% of global annual carbon fluxes, respectively. The spatial distributions of GEP, ER and NEP, generated from the optimal scheme, were similar, following a southeast-northwest decreasing gradient. The maximum values for GEP, ER and NEP were 1790, 1300 and 490 gC m- 2 yr- 1, respectively, which occurred in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics. Climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes provided an independent dataset for the regional carbon budget assessment, which can be deemed as the potential carbon fluxes. Meanwhile, most areas in China were potential carbon sink especially Eastern China and the largest potential carbon sink appeared in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics.

Zhu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Gui-Rui; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li; Fu, Yu-Ling; Wen, Xue-Fa; Liu, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min



Preliminary results and status report of the Hawaiian Scientific Observation Hole program  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI), an institute within the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, at the University of Hawaii at Manoa has drilled three Scientific Observation Holes (SOH) in the Kilauea East Rift Zone to assess the geothermal potential of the Big Island of Hawaii, and to stimulate private development of the resource. The first hole drilled, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters and recorded a bottom hole temperature of 306 C. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole, SOH- 1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C and effectively defined the northern limit of the Hawaii Geothermal Project-Abbott--Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential ''discovery''. The SOH program was also highly successful in developing slim hole drilling techniques and establishing subsurface geological conditions.

Olson, Harry J.; Deymonaz, John E.



Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter Lambda-CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities Omega(sub b)h(exp 2), Omega(sub c)h(exp 2)and Omega(sub Lambda), are each determined to a precision of approx. 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional Lambda-CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their Lambda-CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Omega(sub kappa) = (0.0027 (sub +0.0039) (sup -0.0038;) the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Sigma M(sub nu) < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0+/-40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N(sub eff) and the primordial helium abundance, Y(sub He), agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.




SciTech Connect

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? {sub b} h {sup 2}, ? {sub c} h {sup 2}, and ?{sub ?}, are each determined to a precision of ?1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to ?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m {sub ?} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Spergel, D. N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Page, L.; Jarosik, N. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gold, B. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kogut, A.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others



Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary results  

E-print Network

The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positiv...

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Romanov, Alexey; Romanov, Alexander; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick



Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick



Some observational aspects and modeling results of the Orissa super cyclone, October 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The super cyclone that crossed the Orissa coast near Paradeep port (20.3 N, 86.7 E) around 0600 UTC on 29 October 1999, caused enormous damage - death of 10,000 people and 400,000 cattle, property damage worth Ind. Rs. 10,000 crores ( about USD 2 billion), salinization of about 1.8 million hectares of agricultural land, destruction of paddy crop paddy crop worth Ind. Rs.1,500 crores (USD 300 million), and severe damage to transmission lines, power supply, roads and buildings sustained severe damages. This cyclone was identified as a low pressure in the Gulf of Thailand on 24th October 1999. It moved westwards and gradually intensified reaching the intensity of a severe cyclonic storm on 27 October. The cyclone further intensified reaching very high intensity to be called as a super cyclone when it crossed the Orissa coast near Paradeep around 0600 UTC of 29 October. The observational installations on the Orissa coast were severely damaged and failed to record. However rough estimates have been made using the satellite and radar pictures. Average speed of the storm was about 20 km/hour and increased to 30 km/hour while intensifying, but reduced before and after crossing the coast. The central surface pressure is estimated as 912 hPa on 29 October with the T-number as T7; correspondingly the maximum wind speed is estimated as 260 km/hour with the radius of the eye at 15 km. Heavy rainfall was reported on 29, 30 and 31 October with maximum amounts of 955 mm in Bhadrak district of Orissa and 600-800 mm in Mahanadi river basin. A storm surge of 5 to 6m above the astronomical tide is reported at Paradeep on 29 October. All the above parameters, namely, strong winds with gale, torrential rains with heavy rainfall rate and high storm surge, caused the devastation. An attempt has been made to simulate the intensification and movement of the cyclone using a high resolution mesoscale model. The simulation study indicated that the models are capable of predicting the intensification of the storm as well as the movement. However the model errors range below 50 km with respect to the track.

Rao, N. J.; Rao, D. B.



Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over east Asia. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast Asia, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.

Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi



Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, William D.



Some further observations on droplet combustion characteristics - NASA LeRC-Princeton results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and numerical studies are reviewed which are designed to examine the effects of droplet/gas motion, product-intermediate absorption, extinction, and sooting on droplet combustion. The experimental work at the NASA-Lewis Research Center involves a 2.2-s droptower for investigating microgravitational effects of droplet combustion over a relatively extended range. The droplet-gas velocities are very low because the spherosymmetrical nature of the major combustion processes produces a quiescent environment. The refined experimental results are combined with numerical modeling based on a technique that is fully transient, comprehensive, and has few empirical simplifications. The combination of techniques improves the present understanding of convection-induced effects, reducing soot formation, and promoting quiescent droplet combustion.

Choi, Mun Y.; Cho, Seog Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Haggard, John B., Jr.



Aircraft microwave observations and simulations of deep convection from 18 to 183 GHz. II - Model results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this June 29, 1986 case study, a radiative transfer model is used to simulate the aircraft multichannel microwave brightness temperatures presented in the Adler et al. (1990) paper and to study the convective storm structure. Ground-based radar data are used to derive hydrometeor profiles of the storm, based on which the microwave upwelling brightness temperatures are calculated. Various vertical hydrometeor phase profiles and the Marshall and Palmer (M-P, 1948) and Sekhon and Srivastava (S-S, 1970) ice particle size distributions are experimented in the model. The results are compared with the aircraft radiometric data. The comparison reveals that the M-P distribution well represents the ice particle size distribution, especially in the upper tropospheric portion of the cloud; the S-S distribution appears to better simulate the ice particle size at the lower portion of the cloud, which has a greater effect on the low-frequency microwave upwelling brightness temperatures; and that, in deep convective regions, significant supercooled liquid water (about 0.5 g/cu m) may be present up to the -30 C layer, while in less convective areas, frozen hydrometeors are predominant above -10 C level.

Yeh, Hwa-Young M.; Prasad, N.; Mack, Robert A.; Adler, Robert F.



Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, ?. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ?CDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): ? b h 2 = 0.02267+0.00058 -0.00059, ? c h 2 = 0.1131 ± 0.0034, ?? = 0.726 ± 0.015, ns = 0.960 ± 0.013, ? = 0.084 ± 0.016, and ?_{R}^2 = (2.445± 0.096)× 10^{-9} at k = 0.002 Mpc-1. From these we derive ?8 = 0.812 ± 0.026, H 0 = 70.5 ± 1.3 km s-1 Mpc-1, ? b = 0.0456 ± 0.0015, ? c = 0.228 ± 0.013, ? m h 2 = 0.1358+0.0037 -0.0036, z reion = 10.9 ± 1.4, and t 0 = 13.72 ± 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0.22(95%CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dns /dln k = -0.028 ± 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 < 1 + w < 0.12(95%CL) and -0.0179 < ? k < 0.0081(95%CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N eff = 4.4 ± 1.5 (68% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N eff = 0 are disfavored at >99.5% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f local NL < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f equil NL < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.



First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Preliminary Maps and Basic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present full-sky microwave maps in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz) from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) first-year sky survey. Calibration errors are less than 0.5%, and the low systematic error level is well specified. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is separated from the foregrounds using multifrequency data. The sky maps are consistent with the 7° FWHM Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) maps. We report more precise, but consistent, dipole and quadrupole values. The CMB anisotropy obeys Gaussian statistics with -58results will improve. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Barnes, C.; Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Peiris, H. V.; Verde, L.; Weiland, J. L.



Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P?=?0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: ?0.10, 95% CI: ?0.15 to ?0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p?=?0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of openness were evaluated as less adequate feedback-givers. Non-surgical attending physicians who were conscientious seem to be good at evaluating residents. These insights could contribute to future work on development paths of attending physicians in medical education. PMID:24844725

Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.



Neutron Monitor Observations and Hysteresis Phenomenon, 5. Results For Solar Minimum 1994-1996.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of NM data on stations with different cut-off rigidities we found rigid- ity dependence of galactic cosmic ray long-term variation near the last solar mini- mum (sunspot numbers Wc40, period January 1994-January 1997). In the frame of the model of global cosmic ray modulation in the Heliosphere with taking into ac- count time-lag of processes in the interplanetary space relative to processes on the Sun by using data on solar activity-cosmic ray hysteresis effects, we determine the dimension of modulation region, radial diffusion coefficient, cosmic ray intensity out of the Heliosphere, and residual cosmic ray modulation in dependence of primary cos- mic ray particle rigidity with taking into account drift effects according to Burger and Potgieter (1999). We include in the consideration drift effects (as depending from the sign of solar polar magnetic field and determined by difference of total CR modulation at A>0 and A<0, and with amplitude dependent from the value of tilt angle between interplanetary neutral current sheet and equatorial plane). The amplitude of drifts in dependence of CR particle rigidity we use what was obtained in Dorman et al. (2002) from comparison of CR modulation in odd and even solar cycles. We estimate the dimension of modulation region (with taking into account the influence of nonlinear processes on the solar wind speed in the outer Heliosphere according to Le Roux and Fichtner, 1997), the radial diffusion coefficient and transport path in radial direction as well as residual CR modulation in the minimum of solar activity in dependence of primary CR particle rigidity. We discuss these results in connection with obtained in Dorman et al. (2002). REFERENCES: Burger, R. A., and M. S. Potgieter, Proc. 26th Inter. Cosmic Ray Conf., 7, 13, 1999. Dorman, L.I., et al., Report on ST19.02 Session of EGS-2002 Gen. Assembly. Le Roux, J. A. and H. Fichtner, Ap. J, 477, L115, 1997.

Dorman, L. I.; Iucci, N.; Parisi, . M.; Villoresi, G.


The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.


Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus 0.013, OMEGA(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.1358(sup +0.0037)(sub -0.0036), z reion = 10.9 plus or minus 1.4, and t(sub 0) = 13.72 plus or minus 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ration is r less than 0.22 (95% CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dn(sub s)/d ln k = -0.028 plus or minus 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 less than 1 + w less than 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 less than OMEGA(sub k) less than 0.0081 (95% CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N(sub eff) = 4.4 plus or minus 1.5 (69% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N(sub eff) = 0 are disfavored at greater than 99% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 less than f(sup local)(sub NL) less than 111 (95% CL) and -151 less than f(sup equal)(sub NL) less than 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.

Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.



Observational Results using BTFI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here an overview of a new tunable filter instrument for the SOAR telescope. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) is a highly versatile new technology to be used both in seeing-limited mode and at higher spatial fidelity using SAM Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics facility (SOAR Adaptive Module) which is being deployed at the SOAR telescope. It presents important new science capabilities for the SOAR astronomical community, from studies of the centers of nearby galaxies and the insterstellar medium to statistical cosmological investigations.

Quint, B.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.



Combining observations and numerical model results to improve estimates of hypoxic volume within the Chesapeake Bay, USA  

E-print Network

/L. To improve estimates of HV, DO was subsampled from the output of 3-D model hindcasts at times observations and numerical model results to improve estimates of hypoxic volume within the Chesapeake Bay, USA the Chesapeake Bay, USA Aaron J. Bever,1,2 Marjorie A. M. Friedrichs,1 Carl T. Friedrichs,1 Malcolm E. Scully,3

Latour, Robert J.


[Results from the X-ray and Optical Follow-up Observations of the Swift BAT AGN Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I will present results from the x-ray and optical follow-up observations of the Swift BAT ACN survey. I will discuss the nature of obscuration in these objects, the relationship to optical properties and the change of properties with luminosity and galaxy type and how they will influence the design of XO.

Mushotzky, R.



Further results on the observability in magneto-inertial navigation Pedro Batista, Nicolas Petit, Carlos Silvestre, and Paulo Oliveira  

E-print Network

Further results on the observability in magneto-inertial navigation Pedro Batista, Nicolas Petit assumption usually formulated to employ the magneto-inertial navigation (MINAV) technique. This technique "magneto-inertial navigation" (MINAV) [1], [2], [3]. As its name calls to mind, it relies on the combined


The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron



Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.



Do Elephants Show Empathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty

Lucy A. Bates; Phyllis C. Lee; Norah Njiraini; Joyce H. Poole; Katito Sayialel; Soila Sayialel; Cynthia J. Moss; Richard W. Byrne



ISU Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at SE Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Student activities and descriptions of the demonstrated material are also provided.

Shropshire, Steven



Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra



Sexual intercourse frequency in men presenting for treatment of erectile dysfunction: results from the pan-European erectile dysfunction observational study.  


Factors that influence the number of sexual intercourse attempts among men with erectile dysfunction (ED) before initiation of ED treatment were investigated in a population of 4998 men enrolled in the (Erectile Dysfunctions) Observation Study (EDOS). Our results showed that increasing age, increasing severity and duration of ED, and decreasing satisfaction with one's sex life and partner were all associated with a reduced number of sexual intercourse attempts in the 4 weeks prior to enrollment in EDOS. PMID:17162484

Riley, Alan; Beardsworth, Anthony; Kontodimas, Stathis; Suarez, David; Torres, Juan Vicente; Haro, Josep Maria



The longitudinal extent of 3He rich SEP events during the weak solar cycle 24: A comparison of simulation results and multi-spacecraft observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impulsive 3He rich Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are usually produced by solar flares. Early observational results showed that the longitudinal extent for impulsive events is usually near 40 degrees. New observations during the weak solar cycle 24 from multi-spacecraft, e.g., STEREO A, STEREO B, and ACE, show that some impulsive 3He rich events can cover a much wider longitudinal extent. It seems that SEPs can still be observed on field lines far away from those directly connected to the source. As a result, the spread in longitude of SEP events is much larger than the width of sources. Particles' perpendicular diffusion can be used to explain such a wide extent. In this work, we use a Fokker-Planck focused transport equation to calculate the transport of SEPs in the three-dimensional Parker interplanetary magnetic field. Furthermore, we compare the numerical simulation results with the simultaneous spacecraft observations of STEREO A, B, and ACE. In this way, we can investigate how SEPs propagate in the heliospheric magnetic fields.

Qin, G.; Wang, Y.



Show-Me Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.



Mars Slide Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn



Intravitreal Anti-vascular Endothelial Growth Factor versus Observation in Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy: One-year Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) compared with observation for treating acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods A retrospective study of 36 patients with acute CSC, including 21 patients treated with anti-VEGF (anti-VEGF group) and 15 patients with observation (observation group). Patients in the anti-VEGF group received a single dose of bevacizumab or ranibizumab at baseline. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness (CFT) and resolution of subretinal fluid (SRF) on optical coherence tomography (OCT) were assessed. The integrity of the foveal inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) line at 12 months was also analyzed. Results Resolution of SRF was achieved in 20 of 21 eyes in the anti-VEGF group and in 12 of 15 eyes in the observation group (p = 0.151). Mean BCVA and CFT were not different between the two groups at 12 months (p > 0.05). The amount of change in BCVA, however, differed significantly between the groups (p = 0.044). Final OCT more frequently detected the foveal IS/OS line in the anti-VEGF group than in the observation group (p = 0.012). Conclusions In terms of BCVA, anti-VEGF and observation only had similar therapeutic effects in acute CSC patients. In some patients, however, the rapid resolution of SRF by anti-VEGF might reduce the risk of photoreceptor degeneration and improve long-term visual acuity. PMID:25120339

Park, Sang-Uk; Lee, Seung-Jun



Using Graphs to Show Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)



NPR: The Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.


Egg: the Arts Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.


The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. Preliminary results from the SNSPOL project provide support for the increasingly popular hypothesis that many supernovae are aspherical explosion events. Thus far, we have observed 27 different SNe, many over multiple epochs, over the course of the last three years. While the history and evolution of these events is often studied with photometric and spectroscopic information, most supernovae are not studied with the combined advantage that spectropolarimetric data provides. The use of polarimetry allows us to probe the extent of the asphericity of the explosions while the use of spectroscopy allows us to characterize this asphericity across a variety of chemical species individually and as a function of velocity. Modern 3-D model simulations favor an explosion mechanism that is often inherently asymmetric in nature. Here, we showcase some of our initial results for the nearby type-IIb SN 2011dh that demonstrate the unique information that spectropolarimetric observations provide.

Bilinski, Christopher; Williams, G. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, N.; Milne, P.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Dessart, L.



Preliminary Results on Direct Observation of True Ternary fission in the reaction 232Th+d (10 MeV)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the first direct observation of the true ternary fission of 234Pa* nucleus are presented. The yield of the effect depending of the experimental geometry is about 10-5/binary fission. Mass of the lightest fragment in the triplet lies mainly in the range of (20÷40) a.m.u. Connection between the effect and known heavy ion or lead radioactivity is discussed.

Pyatkov, Yu.; Kamanin, D.; Krasznohorkay, A.; Alexandrov, A.; Alexandrova, I.; Csatlós, M.; Csige, L.; Gulyás, J.; Naqvi, F.; Kondratyev, N.; Kuznetsova, E.; Tyukavkin, A.; Tornyi, T.; Zhuchko, V.



Factors influencing asthma control: results of a real-life prospective observational asthma inhaler treatment (ASIT) study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the availability of new pharmacological options and novel combinations of existing drug therapies, the rate of suboptimal asthma control is still high. Therefore, early identification of the clinical and behavioral factors responsible for poor asthma control, and interventions during routine outpatient visits to improve asthma trigger management, are strongly recommended. This study was designed to evaluate the profiles of asthmatic patients and their inhaler treatment devices in relation to asthma control in Turkey. Methods A total of 572 patients with persistent asthma (mean [standard deviation] age: 42.7 [12.1] years; 76% female) were included in this prospective observational study. A baseline visit (0 month, visit 1) and three follow-up visits (1, 3 and 6 months after enrolment) were conducted to collect data on demographics, past medical and asthma history, and inhaler device use. Results Asthma control was identified in 61.5% of patients at visit 1 and increased to 87.3% at visit 4 (P < 0.001), regardless of sociodemographics, asthma duration, body mass index or smoking status. The presence of asthma-related comorbidity had a significantly negative effect on asthma control (P = 0.004). A significant decrease was determined, in the rate of uncontrolled asthma, upon follow-up among patients who were using a variety of fixed dose combination inhalers (P < 0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis was used to show that the presence of asthma-related comorbidity (odds ratio [OR], 0.602; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.419; 0.863, P = 0.006) and active smoking (OR, 0.522; 95% CI, 0.330; 0.825, P = 0.005) were significant predictors of asthma control. Conclusion Our findings indicate that, despite ongoing treatment, asthma control rate was 61.5% at visit 1 in adult outpatients with persistent asthma. However, by the final follow-up 6 months later, this had increased to 87.3%, independent of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Poor asthma control was associated with asthma-related comorbid diseases, while the efficacy of fixed dose combinations was evident in the achievement of asthma control. PMID:23843695

Y?ld?z, Füsun



Observations and Parameterizations of Particle Size Distributions in Deep Tropical Cirrus and Stratiform Precipitation Clouds: Results from In-Situ Observations in TRMM Field Campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we report on the evolution of particle size distributions (PSDs) and habits as measured during slow, Lagrangian-type spiral descents through deep subtropical and tropical cloud layers in Florida, Brazil, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, most of which were precipitating. The objective of the flight patterns was to learn more about how the PSDs evolved in the vertical and to obtain information of the vertical structure of microphysical properties. New instrumentation yielding better information on the concentrations of particles in the size (D) range between 0.2 and 2 cm, as well as improved particle imagery, produced more comprehensive observations for tropical stratiform precipitation regions and anvils than have been available previously. Collocated radar observations provided additional information on the vertical structure of the cloud layers sampled. Most of the spirals began at cloud top, with temperatures (T) as low as -50 C, and ended at cloud base or below the melting layer (ML). The PSDs broadened from cloud top towards cloud base, with the largest particles increasing in size from several millimeters at cloud top to one centimeter or larger towards cloud base. Some continued growth was noted in the upper part of the ML. Concentrations of particles less than 1 mm in size decreased with decreasing height. The result was a consistent change in the PSDs in the vertical. Similarly, systematic changes in the size dependence of the particle cross-sectional area was noted with decreasing height. Aggregation-as ascertained from both the changes in the PSDs and evolution of particle habits as observed in high detail with the cloud particle imager (CPI) probe-was responsible for these trends. The PSDs were generally well-represented by gamma distributions of the form N = N0 gamma D microns e- lambda gamma D that were fitted to the PSDs over 1-km horizontal intervals throughout the spirals. The intercept (N0 gamma), slope (lambda gamma), and dispersion (microns) values were derived for each PSD. Exponential curves (N = N0e- lambdaD; micron = 0) were also fitted to the distributions. The lambda gamma values for given spirals varied systematically with temperature as did the values of lambda (exponential), and the data generally conformed to values found in previous studies involving exponential fits to size distributions in mid-latitude frontal and cirrus layers. Considerable variability often noted in the PSD properties during the loops of individual spirals was manifested primarily in large changes in N0 gamma and N0, but micron, lambda gamma and lambda remained fairly stable. Temperature is not found to be the sole factor controlling lambda gamma or lambda but is a primary one. Direct relationships were found between lambda gamma and N0 gamma or lambda gamma and micron for the gamma distributions and lambda and N0 for the exponential. The latter relationship was not found as distinctly in earlier studies; observed PSDs in this study had better fidelity with less scatter. The micron values changed monotonically with T over the range of temperatures and were directly related to N0 gamma or lambda gamma, thereby reducing the number of variables in the PSD functional equation to two. In the upper part of the ML, N0 and lambda continued to decrease, and in the lower part these values began to increase as the largest particles melted. We developed general expressions relating various bulk microphysical, radar, and radiative transfer-related variables to N0 gamma and lambda gamma, useful for both tropical and mid-latitude clouds. These relationships facilitate the specification of a number of bulk properties in cloud and climate models. The results presented in this paper apply best to temperatures between 0 and -40 C, for which the measured radar reflectivities fall in the range of 0 to 25 dBZe.

Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Field, Paul R.; Durden, Stephen L.; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Dye, James E.; Hall, William; Grainger, Cedric A.



In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014  

PubMed Central

Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion There are no significant differences in the final results of AIS and JIS, treated with total respect of the SRS and SOSORT criteria, in adolescence. Brace efficacy can neutralize the risk of progression. PMID:25031608



The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIn SN 2010jl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. We present results from the multi-epoch spectropolarimetric observations of the SN 2010jl. This type IIn supernova in UGC 5189A remained bright for an unusually long time allowing us to obtain 11 epochs of data over the course of 15 months. We find significant polarization in the continuum and variations in polarization across the Balmer and HeI lines. The measured polarized continuum decreased steadily over the 15 months of observations. This evolution allowed us to make a solid estimate of the interstellar polarization component thereby revealing the intrinsic supernova polarization. The polarization provides us with detailed information about the aspherical morphology of the explosion and the properties of the progenitor’s pre-explosion mass loss.

Williams, George G.; Dessart, L.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Milne, P.; Smith, N.; Smith, P. S.



Probing the Kinematics of the Narrow-Line Region in Seyfert Galaxies with Slitless Spectroscopy: Observational Results  

E-print Network

We present slitless spectra of 10 Seyfert galaxies observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The spectra cover the [OIII] 4959, 5007 emission lines at a spectral resolving power of ~9000 and a spatial resolution of 0.1". We compare the slitless spectra with previous HST narrow-band images to determine the velocity shifts and dispersions of the bright emission-line knots in the narrow-line regions (NLRs) of these Seyferts. Many knots are spatially resolved with sizes of tenths of arcsecs, corresponding to tens of pcs, and yet they appear to move coherently with radial velocities between zero and +/- 1200 km/s with respect to the systemic velocities of their hostgalaxies. The knots also show a broad range in velocity dispersion, ranging from ~30 km/s (the velocity resolution) to ~1000 km/s FWHM. Most of the Seyfert galaxies in this sample show an organized flow pattern, with radial velocities near zero at the nucleus (defined by the optical continuum peak) and increasing to maximum blueshifts and redshifts within ~1'' of the nucleus, followed by a decline to the systemic velocity. The emission-line knots also follow a general trend of decreasing velocity dispersion with increasing distance. In the Seyfert 2 galaxies, the presence of blueshifts and redshifts on either side of the nucleus indicates that rotation alone cannot explain the observed radial velocities, and that radial outflow plays an important role. Each of the Seyfert galaxies in this sample (with the exception of Mrk 3) shows a bright, compact (FWHM < 0.5") [O III] knot at the position of its optical nucleus. These nuclear emission-line knots have radial-velocity centroids near zero, but they typically have the highest velocity dispersions.

J. R. Ruiz; D. M. Crenshaw; S. B. Kraemer; G. A. Bower; T. R. Gull; J. B. Hutchings; M. E. Kaiser; D. Weistrop



Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of European intergroup randomized trial comparing autografting versus observation.  


We present results of a phase 3 randomized trial of autografting in chronic lymphocytic leukemia versus observation for responding patients after first- or second-line treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate that autografting improves the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) from 30% to 50%. There were 223 enrolled patients, 72% men and 28% women, 83% after first and 17% after second-line treatment. Binet stages were progressive A 13%, B 67%, C 20%; at randomization, 59% were in complete remission, and 41% in less than complete remission. Patients were randomized between autografting (n = 112) and observation (n = 111). Median EFS was 24.4 months (range, 16.7-32 months) in the observation group and 51.2 months (39.8-62.5 months) in the autografting group; the 5-year EFS was 24% and 42%, respectively (P < .001). Accordingly, the 5-year relapse incidence was 76% versus 54% (P < .001). Median time to relapse requiring therapy or death was 40 months (25-56 months) in the observation arm and 65 months (59-71 months) after autografting (P = .002). Cox modeling confirmed that autografting significantly improved EFS (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.65; P < .001). At 5 years, the probability of OS was 85.5% and 84.3% for autografting and observation, respectively (P = .77). In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, consolidating autografting reduces the risk of progression by more than 50% but has no effect on overall survival. PMID:21106985

Michallet, Mauricette; Dreger, Peter; Sutton, Laurent; Brand, Ronald; Richards, Sue; van Os, Marleen; Sobh, Mohamad; Choquet, Sylvain; Corront, Bernadette; Dearden, Claire; Gratwohl, Alois; Herr, Wolfgang; Catovsky, Daniel; Hallek, Michael; de Witte, Theo; Niederwieser, Dietger; Leporrier, Michel; Milligan, Donald



Testing of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results for about Three Years of Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: More than 50 years ago, it was sug-gested that some areas near the lunar poles are suffi-ciently cold to trap and preserve for a very long time (~Gy) hydrogen bearing volatiles, either primordial or produced at the Moon via solar wind interactions or brought to the Moon as water ice by comets and mete-oroids [1,2]. The results of observations made by radar onboard the Clementine spacecraft and by neutron (LPNS) and gamma-ray (LPGRS) spectrometers onboard the Lunar Prospector mission have been inter-preted as an enhancement of hydrogen abundance in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) [3]. Unfortu-nately, the spatial resolution of these instruments were much broader than the size of any largest PSRs [4] requiring model dependent data deconvolution to res-lve signal from PSRs itself. Data Analysis: We would like to present updated results of analysis of Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data for about three years of lunar mapping. Data measured by collimated LEND detectors allows one to look at neutron flux distribution at Moon poles with much better spatial resolution then was achieved at previous space missions. Using the LEND data we had tested the hypothesis that all PSRs are contain a large amount of water ice permafrost and test for hydrogen presents in regolith of regions outside of PSRs. Discussion: Both analyses of individual PSRs and studies of groups of PSRs have shown that these spots of extreme cold at lunar poles are not associated with a strong effect of epithermal neutron flux suppression [5]. We found only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the South and Rozhdestvensky U in the North, which manifest significant neutron suppression, from -5.5% to -14.9%. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, no more than few percentages, if at all. Some PSRs even display excess of neutron emis-sion in respect to sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ~2%, with low statistical confidence. A ~2% suppression corresponds to ~125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous Hydrogen distribution in depth in the regolith [6]. References: [1] Arnold, J. R. (1979) JGR, 84, 5659-5668. [2] Watson, K., Murray B. C. and Brown H. (1961) JGR, 66, 3033-3045. [3] Feldman W. C. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23231-23252. [4] Maurice S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04, 40 PP. [5] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483. [6] Sanin A.B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26

Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.



Results of magnetic field measurements of CP stars carried out with the Russian 6-m telescope. I. Observations in 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of magnetic field measurements for 39 chemically peculiar and 3 normal main sequence stars used as standard stars. Observations were carried out with the Main Stellar Spectrograph of the Russian 6-m telescope during 2007. Zeeman measurements for 8 stars were performed for the first time. The accuracy analysis for the longitudinal magnetic field measurements of the stars confirms that the systematic errors do not exceed 10-20 G and are within the quoted limits. The absence of significant instrumental deviations follows from the measurements of the CP stars with well-known B e variation curves.

Romanyuk, I. I.; Semenko, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.



Project VeSElkA : Preliminary results for CP stars recently observed with ESPaDOnS†  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results for the estimation of gravity and effective temperature of poorly studied chemically peculiar stars recently observed with the spectropolarimeter ESPaDOnS at CFHT in the frame of the VeSElkA (Vertical Stratification of Elements Abundance) project. A grid of theoretical stellar atmosphere models with the corresponding fluxes has been calculated using the PHOENIX code. We have used these fluxes to fit Balmer line profiles employing the code FITSB2 that produces estimates of the effective temperature, surface gravity and radial velocity for each star.

Khalack, Viktor; LeBlanc, Francis



Results of ionospheric observations in Alma-Ata on March 16-20 and December 5-10, 1988  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of an analysis of ionospheric conditions observed at the Alma-Ata station suring the SUNDIAL periods March 16-20 and December 5-10, 1988. Data collected for the March 16-20, 1988 period indicate a quiet period of the ionosphere, with changes of critical frequencies in the F2 layer (f0F2) falling within the 20 percent limit, except of a short-time increase in f0F2 values on March 19. During the December 5-10 period, the lower-latitude ionosphere was disturbed more than in March, with weak negative disturbances followed by positive ones.

Burlakova, I. A.; Gordienko, G. I.; Zelenkova, I. A.



Observing the result of external magnetic field with nonextensivity on DA waves for two temperature electrons in a dusty plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This theoretical investigation has been made on dust-acoustic (DA) waves containing nonextensivity of electrons being two different temperatures, negatively charged dust grains, and Maxwellian ions. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (Z-K) equation has been derived and numerically solved to analysis the basis features. It is observed that the characteristics of the DA solitary waves (DASWs) are significantly modified by the external magnetic field with the different temperatures for electrons followed by the nonextensive distribution. The results obtained from this analysis can be employed in understanding the nature of plasma waves both in laboratory and space plasma system.

Zobaer, M. S.; Roy, N.; Mamun, A. A.



Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However, there are the following minor differences: there is no latitudinal dependence of the peak altitude for WACCM and the density maximum, passing the equatorial region during equinox conditions, is not reduced as for SCIAMACHY.

Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.



Observations and preliminary science results from the first 100 sols of MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station ground temperature sensor measurements at Gale Crater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

describe preliminary results from the first 100 sols of ground temperature measurements along the Mars Science Laboratory's traverse from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest in Gale. The ground temperature data show long-term increases in mean temperature that are consistent with seasonal evolution. Deviations from expected temperature trends within the diurnal cycle are observed and may be attributed to rover and environmental effects. Fits to measured diurnal temperature amplitudes using a thermal model suggest that the observed surfaces have thermal inertias in the range of 265-375 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, which are within the range of values determined from orbital measurements and are consistent with the inertias predicted from the observed particle sizes on the uppermost surface near the rover. Ground temperatures at Gale Crater appear to warm earlier and cool later than predicted by the model, suggesting that there are multiple unaccounted for physical conditions or processes in our models. Where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) descent engines removed a mobile layer of dust and fine sediments from over rockier material, the diurnal temperature profile is closer to that expected for a homogeneous surface, suggesting that the mobile materials on the uppermost surface may be partially responsible for the mismatch between observed temperatures and those predicted for materials having a single thermal inertia. Models of local stratigraphy also implicate thermophysical heterogeneity at the uppermost surface as a potential contributor to the observed diurnal temperature cycle.

Hamilton, Victoria E.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Sebastián, Eduardo; Torre Juárez, Manuel; Ramos, Miguel; Armiens, Carlos; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Carrasco, Isaías; Christensen, Philip R.; De Pablo, Miguel A.; Goetz, Walter; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Lemmon, Mark T.; Madsen, Morten B.; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Molina, Antonio; Palucis, Marisa C.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Richardson, Mark I.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Zorzano, María-Paz



Combining observations and numerical model results to improve estimates of hypoxic volume within the Chesapeake Bay, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall size of the "dead zone" within the main stem of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries is quantified by the hypoxic volume (HV), the volume of water with dissolved oxygen (DO) less than 2 mg/L. To improve estimates of HV, DO was subsampled from the output of 3-D model hindcasts at times/locations matching the set of 2004-2005 stations monitored by the Chesapeake Bay Program. The resulting station profiles were interpolated to produce bay-wide estimates of HV in a manner consistent with nonsynoptic, cruise-based estimates. Interpolations of the same stations sampled synoptically, as well as multiple other combinations of station profiles, were examined in order to quantify uncertainties associated with interpolating HV from observed profiles. The potential uncertainty in summer HV estimates resulting from profiles being collected over 2 weeks rather than synoptically averaged ˜5 km3. This is larger than that due to sampling at discrete stations and interpolating/extrapolating to the entire Chesapeake Bay (2.4 km3). As a result, sampling fewer, selected stations over a shorter time period is likely to reduce uncertainties associated with interpolating HV from observed profiles. A function was derived that when applied to a subset of 13 stations, significantly improved estimates of HV. Finally, multiple metrics for quantifying bay-wide hypoxia were examined, and cumulative hypoxic volume was determined to be particularly useful, as a result of its insensitivity to temporal errors and climate change. A final product of this analysis is a nearly three-decade time series of improved estimates of HV for Chesapeake Bay.

Bever, Aaron J.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Scully, Malcolm E.; Lanerolle, Lyon W. J.



Occurrence conditions of roll waves for three grain-fluid models and comparison with results from experiments and field observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the flow and deposition behaviour of debris flows, phenomena like particle sorting, levee formation and the development of roll waves are expected to be important processes. However, these processes are not well understood and hardly implemented in modelling approaches. In this study, we focus on the development of roll waves and derive advanced criteria separating stable and instable flow regimes for three debris flow models. These criteria are expressed using critical Froude numbers. Each of these simple flow models reflect different sources of flow resistance: laminar-viscous stress (Bingham type), dispersive stress due to particle collision (Bagnold type), and a model combining turbulent and dispersive stresses. Subsequently, we compare the predictions from these models with results from laboratory experiments with grain-fluid mixtures in a straight flume and with observations from a debris flow monitoring site at the Lattenbach creek in Austria. The experimental flows match with a turbulent flow model including particle collisions. For the natural flows the connection between models and observations is not clear due to limited field data. The results of our study contribute to an improved determination of critical flow conditions and provide data for model testing.

Arai, M.; Huebl, J.; Kaitna, R.



Effects and safety of (131)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) radiotherapy in malignant neuroendocrine tumors: Results from a multicenter observational registry.  


Effective treatments for malignant neuroendocrine tumors are under development. While iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine ((131)I-MIBG) radiotherapy has been used in the treatment of malignant neuroendocrine tumors, there are few studies evaluating its therapeutic effects and safety in a multicenter cohort. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the effects and safety of (131)I-MIBG therapy for conditions including malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma within a multicenter cohort. Forty-eight malignant neuroendocrine tumors (37 pheochromocytoma and 11 paraganglioma) from four centers underwent clinical (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy. The tumor responses were observed before and 3 to 6 months after the (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy in accordance with RECIST criteria. We also evaluated the data for any adverse effects. The four centers performed a total of 87 (131)I-MIBG treatments on 48 patients between January 2000 and March 2009. Of the treatments, 65 were evaluable using RECIST criteria. One partial response (PR), 40 stable disease (SD), and 9 progressive disease (PD) in malignant pheochromocytoma were observed after each treatment. Fourteen SD and one PD were observed in paraganglioma. Patients with normal hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP) > 130 mmHg) showed significantly reduced systolic BP after the initial follow-up (n=10, 138.1±8.2 to 129.5±13.5 mmHg, P=0.03). In adult neuroendocrine tumors with a treatment-basis analysis, there were side effects following 41 treatments (47.1%) and most of them (90.2%) were minor. In this multicenter registry, PR or SD was achieved in 84.6% of the treatment occasions in adult neuroendocrine tumors through (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy. This indicated that most of the (131)I-MIBG radiotherapy was performed safely without significant side effects. PMID:25214026

Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Oriuchi, Noboru; Wakabayashi, Hiroshi; Tomiyama, Yuuki; Jinguji, Megumi; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Kayano, Daiki; Fukuoka, Makoto; Inaki, Anri; Toratani, Ayane; Okamoto, Shozo; Shiga, Tohru; Ito, Yoichi M; Nakajo, Masatoyo; Nakajo, Masayuki; Kinuya, Seigo



Observational Bias during Nutrition Surveillance: Results of a Mixed Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Data Collection System in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Sahel is subject to seasonal hungry periods with increasing rates of malnutrition. In Northern Nigeria, there is no surveillance system and surveys are rare. The objectives were to analyse possible observational bias in a sentinel surveillance system using repeated mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional data and estimate the extent of seasonal variation. Methods Thirty clusters were randomly selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling from Kazaure Local Government Area, Jigawa State. In each cluster, all the children aged 6–59 months within 20 randomly selected households had their mid-upper arm circumference measured and were tested for oedema. The surveys were repeated every 2 or 4 weeks. At each survey round, three of the clusters were randomly selected to be replaced by three new clusters chosen at random by PPS. The seasonal variation of acute malnutrition was assessed using cyclical regression. The effect of repeated visits to the same cluster was examined using general linear mixed effects models adjusted for the seasonal change. Results There was a significant seasonal fluctuation of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) with a peak in October. With each repeat survey of a cluster, the prevalence of GAM decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 2.7; p?=?0.012) relative to the prevalence observed during the previous visit after adjusting for seasonal change. Conclusions Northern Nigeria has a seasonal variation in the prevalence of acute malnutrition. Repeated surveys in the same cluster-village, even if different children are selected, lead to a progressive improvement of the nutritional status of that village. Sentinel site surveillance of nutritional status is prone to observational bias, with the sentinel site progressively deviating from that of the community it is presumed to represent. PMID:23671632

Grellety, Emmanuel; Luquero, Francisco J.; Mambula, Christopher; Adamu, Hassana H.; Elder, Greg; Porten, Klaudia



The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results  

SciTech Connect

A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.

Skyllingstad, E.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Wijesekera, H.W.; Gregg, M.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Applied Physics Lab.] [and others



Results from two studies in seismology: I. Seismic observations and modeling in the Santa Clara Valley, California. II. Observations and removal of the long-period noise at the Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from two projects are presented in this work. Following brief introductory Chapter 1 that provides general background, Chapter 2 describes the influence of the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) basin structure on the propagation of teleseismic waves. Teleseismic P-waves recorded during the 1998 deployment of the 41-station seismic array are used in the analysis. Observations are compared to synthetics computed by 3D finite-difference simulations using the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D velocity models. Chapter 3 includes further study of the ground-motion amplification in the SCV using microseisms recorded by the SCV seismic array in 1998. The obtained results are compared to the local earthquake amplification. Chapter 4 presents results of the 3D simulations using the most recent version of the USGS velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay Area. Results are compared to 1998 SCV seismic array observations and to simulations presented in Chapter 2. Results presented in Chapters 2 to 4 all show strong correlations between basin depth reported in the USGS 3D seismic velocity model and different relative measures of ground motion parameters. The teleseismic, local earthquake and microseism observations are also found to be strongly correlated with one another. Since the results suggest that all three datasets are sensitive to the basin structure, they can be used to improve the 3D velocity model. I started to develop a simultaneous inversion of the teleseismic, local, and microseism observations to refine the seismic velocity model. Chapter 5 presents preliminary results and future plans. Results from the second project are included in Chapters 6 to 9. Chapter 6 provides information about the Monterey ocean bottom broadband seismic station (MOBB). It explains why seismology is moving into the oceans, describes the MOBB location, provides details about the instruments that comprise the MOBB, and describes the deployment. Examples of data and preliminary analysis are also included. Chapter 7 presents observations of infragravity waves at MOBB. Combined with the information from the ocean buoys, the MOBB data show that the infragravity waves in the longer than 20 s period band are mainly locally generated from shorter-period ocean waves. Two types of the observed infragravity band signal modulation are presented and possible mechanisms for the modulation are discussed. Also included is the analysis of the ocean bottom seismic data from the temporary Oregon ULF/VLF deployment that also indicates that the infragravity waves are primarily locally generated. Chapter 8 describes analysis of data from another ocean bottom station. KEBB is located offshore Washington, in deeper water and further offshore than MOBB. Results suggests that in this case the infragravity waves are generated from shorter period ocean waves in the coastal region and not locally at KEBB. Chapter 9 focuses on the removal of the long-period background as well as signal-generated noise from the MOBB data. Methods used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the ocean bottom seismic data are presented.

Dolenc, David



The Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results (1874 - 1976): Summary of the Observations, Applications, Datasets, Definitions and Errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of sunspot positions and areas that were published initially by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and subsequently by the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), as the Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results ( GPR), 1874 - 1976, exist in both printed and digital forms. These printed and digital sunspot datasets have been archived in various libraries and data centres. Unfortunately, however, typographic, systematic and isolated errors can be found in the various datasets. The purpose of the present paper is to begin the task of identifying and correcting these errors. In particular, the intention is to provide in one foundational paper all the necessary background information on the original solar observations, their various applications in scientific research, the format of the different digital datasets, the necessary definitions of the quantities measured, and the initial identification of errors in both the printed publications and the digital datasets. Two companion papers address the question of specific identifiable errors; namely, typographic errors in the printed publications, and both isolated and systematic errors in the digital datasets. The existence of two independently prepared digital datasets, which both contain information on sunspot positions and areas, makes it possible to outline a preliminary strategy for the development of an even more accurate digital dataset. Further work is in progress to generate an extremely reliable sunspot digital dataset, based on the programme of solar observations supported for more than a century by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. This improved dataset should be of value in many future scientific investigations.

Willis, D. M.; Coffey, H. E.; Henwood, R.; Erwin, E. H.; Hoyt, D. V.; Wild, M. N.; Denig, W. F.



PKS 2155-304 in July 2006: H.E.S.S. results and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations  

SciTech Connect

The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest and best-studied VHE {gamma}-ray sources in the southern hemisphere. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has monitored PKS 2155-304 in 2006 and a multi-wavelength campaign involving X-ray, optical and radio observatories was triggered by the detection of an active state in July 2006, followed by the detection of two extraordinary flares on July, 28th and 30th, with peak fluxes {approx}100 times the usual values. We present results from the spectral and flux variability analysis of the VHE and simultaneous X-ray observations with Chandra during the second flare, as well as the detailed evolution of the VHE flux of PKS 2155-304 observed by H.E.S.S. in 2006. A study of flux correlations in the different frequency ranges during the second flare and the adjacent nights is discussed. We also present an interpretation of the active state of PKS 2155-304 in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission.

Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Boisson, Catherine; Sol, Helne; Zech, Andreas [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Meudon (France); Benbow, Wystan; Buehler, Rolf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Costamante, Luigi; Raue, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Giebels, Berrie; Superina, Giulia [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Pita, Santiago [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland); Punch, Michael [APC, CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); Volpe, Francesca [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France)



Video Observations Encompassing the 2002 Leonid Storm: First Results and a Revised Photometric Procedure for Video Meteor Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 2001 Leonid storm, Marshall Space Flight Center, with the cooperation of the University of Western Ontario and the United States Air Force, deployed 6 teams of observers equipped with intensified video systems to sites located in North America, the Pacific, and Mongolia. The campaign was extremely successful, with the entire period of enhanced Leonid activity (over 16 hours) captured on video tape in a consistent manner. We present the first results from the analysis of this unique, 2 terabyte data set and discuss the problems involved in reducing large amounts of video meteor data. In particular, the question of how to determine meteor masses though photometric analysis will be re-examined, and new techniques will be proposed that eliminate some of the deficiencies suffered by the techniques currently employed in video meteor analysis.

Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley; Gural, Peter S.; Brown, Peter; Ellis, Jim (Technical Monitor)



Super-Droplet Approach to Simulate Precipitating Trade-Wind Cumuli - Comparison of Model Results with RICO Aircraft Observations  

E-print Network

In this study we present a series of LES simulations employing the Super-Droplet Method (SDM) for representing aerosol, cloud and rain microphysics. SDM is a particle-based and probabilistic approach in which a Monte-Carlo type algorithm is used for solving the particle collisions and coalescence process. The model does not differentiate between aerosol particles, cloud droplets, drizzle or rain drops. Consequently, it covers representation of such cloud-microphysical processes as: CCN activation, drizzle formation by autoconversion, accretion of cloud droplets, self-collection of raindrops and precipitation including aerosol wet deposition. Among the salient features of the SDM, there are: (i) the robustness of the model formulation (i.e. employment of basic principles rather than parametrisations) and (ii) the ease of comparison of the model results with experimental data obtained with particle-counting instruments. The model set-up used in the study is based on observations from the Rain In Cumulus over Oc...

Arabas, Sylwester



New results of structured VLF emissions observed simultaneously at two closely located stations near L ~ 5.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous records of VLF (very low frequencies) emissions have been carried out at two ground-based stations located at similar geomagnetic latitudes near L ~ 5.5 and spaced in the longitude by ~ 400 km, Kannuslehto (KAN) in Finland and Lovozero (LOZ) in Russia, using quite similar VLF receivers with two calibrated orthogonal air-core loop antennas. We found that the general spectral properties of the VLF chorus emissions at these two stations were similar and typically have right-hand polarization. Contrary to VLF chorus, the short-period VLF emissions (periodic emissions, PE) in which separated spectral elements are repeated with the periodicity of 3-4 s were mostly left-hand polarized. Usually, these waves propagated in the north-south direction. We suppose that PEs are generated inside of the plasmasphere by the cyclotron instability under a quasi-linear relaxation of the energetic electron distribution function. However, sometimes PE occurred only at an individual station. We speculated that this could be due to the influence of the local inhomogeneities to the VLF waves during the propagation through the ionospheric trough to the ground. Unusual series of short-duration (10-100 s) bursts of VLF emissions, lasting several hours, were also found in the morning under very quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp ~ 0-1). Generally, these emissions were observed simultaneously at KAN and LOZ showing both right-hand and left-hand polarization, and different arrival directions provided the rather extended ionospheric exit area.

Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Bespalov, P. A.; Turunen, T.



Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: Results of a longitudinal observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective Doctors of chiropractic (DCs) use manual cervical distraction to treat patients with neck pain. Previous research demonstrates variability in traction forces generated by different DCs. This article reports on a training protocol and monthly certification process using bioengineering technology to standardize cervical traction force delivery among clinicians. Methods This longitudinal observational study evaluated a training and certification process for DCs who provided force-based manual cervical distraction during a randomized clinical trial. The DCs completed a 7-week initial training that included instructional lectures, observation, and guided practice by a clinical expert, followed by 3 hours of weekly practice sessions delivering the technique to asymptomatic volunteers who served as simulated patients. An instrument-modified table and computer software provided the DCs with real-time audible and visual feedback on the traction forces they generated and graphical displays of the magnitude of traction forces as a function of time immediately after the delivery of the treatment. The DCs completed monthly certifications on traction force delivery throughout the trial. Descriptive accounts of certification attempts are provided. Results Two DCs achieved certification in traction force delivery over 10 consecutive months. No certification required more than 3 attempts at C5 and occiput contacts for 3 force ranges (0–20 N, 21–50 N, and 51–100 N). Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of a training protocol and certification process using bioengineering technology for training DCs to deliver manual cervical distraction within specified traction force ranges over a 10-month period. PMID:25237767

Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.



Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: Results of a longitudinal observational study.  


Objective : Doctors of chiropractic (DCs) use manual cervical distraction to treat patients with neck pain. Previous research demonstrates variability in traction forces generated by different DCs. This article reports on a training protocol and monthly certification process using bioengineering technology to standardize cervical traction force delivery among clinicians. Methods : This longitudinal observational study evaluated a training and certification process for DCs who provided force-based manual cervical distraction during a randomized clinical trial. The DCs completed a 7-week initial training that included instructional lectures, observation, and guided practice by a clinical expert, followed by 3 hours of weekly practice sessions delivering the technique to asymptomatic volunteers who served as simulated patients. An instrument-modified table and computer software provided the DCs with real-time audible and visual feedback on the traction forces they generated and graphical displays of the magnitude of traction forces as a function of time immediately after the delivery of the treatment. The DCs completed monthly certifications on traction force delivery throughout the trial. Descriptive accounts of certification attempts are provided. Results : Two DCs achieved certification in traction force delivery over 10 consecutive months. No certification required more than 3 attempts at C5 and occiput contacts for 3 force ranges (0-20 N, 21-50 N, and 51-100 N). Conclusions : This study demonstrates the feasibility of a training protocol and certification process using bioengineering technology for training DCs to deliver manual cervical distraction within specified traction force ranges over a 10-month period. PMID:25237767

Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D; Salsbury, Stacie A; Goertz, Christine M



Trends in First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Asia: Results from the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database  

PubMed Central

Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has evolved rapidly since its beginnings. This analysis describes trends in first-line ART use in Asia and their impact on treatment outcomes. Methods Patients in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database receiving first-line ART for ?6 months were included. Predictors of treatment failure and treatment modification were assessed. Results Data from 4662 eligible patients was analysed. Patients started ART in 2003–2006 (n?=?1419), 2007–2010 (n?=?2690) and 2011–2013 (n?=?553). During the observation period, tenofovir, zidovudine and abacavir use largely replaced stavudine. Stavudine was prescribed to 5.8% of ART starters in 2012/13. Efavirenz use increased at the expense of nevirapine, although both continue to be used extensively (47.5% and 34.5% of patients in 2012/13, respectively). Protease inhibitor use dropped after 2004. The rate of treatment failure or modification declined over time (22.1 [95%CI 20.7–23.5] events per 100 patient/years in 2003–2006, 15.8 [14.9–16.8] in 2007–2010, and 11.6 [9.4–14.2] in 2011–2013). Adjustment for ART regimen had little impact on the temporal decline in treatment failure rates but substantially attenuated the temporal decline in rates of modification due to adverse event. In the final multivariate model, treatment modification due to adverse event was significantly predicted by earlier period of ART initiation (hazard ratio 0.52 [95%CI 0.33–0.81], p?=?0.004 for 2011–2013 versus 2003–2006), older age (1.56 [1.19–2.04], p?=?0.001 for ?50 years versus <30years), female sex (1.29 [1.11–1.50], p?=?0.001 versus male), positive hepatitis C status (1.33 [1.06–1.66], p?=?0.013 versus negative), and ART regimen (11.36 [6.28–20.54], p<0.001 for stavudine-based regimens versus tenofovir-based). Conclusions The observed trends in first-line ART use in Asia reflect changes in drug availability, global treatment recommendations and prescriber preferences over the past decade. These changes have contributed to a declining rate of treatment modification due to adverse event, but not to reductions in treatment failure. PMID:25184314

Boettiger, David Charles; Kerr, Stephen; Ditangco, Rossana; Merati, Tuti Parwati; Pham, Thuy Thi Thanh; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Li, Chung Ki Patrick; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Lee, Christopher; Van Kinh, Nguyen; Pujari, Sanjay; Wong, Wing Wai; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Zhang, Fujie; Yunihastuti, Evy; Choi, Jun Yong; Oka, Shinichi; Ng, Oon Tek; Kantipong, Pacharee; Mustafa, Mahiran; Ratanasuwan, Winai; Sohn, Annette; Law, Matthew



Strategies to observe JWST First Light objects at z=10--20 based on recent results from the HUDF XDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reflect on the best observing strategies to see an optimum number of First Light objects at 10-20 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), based on recent results from the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 UltraDeep Field. First, we summarize the best available data to redshifts z<8 on how the Schechter UV Luminosity Function (LF) evolves in its faint-end slope [alpha(z)], its characteristic luminosity [M*(z)] and corresponding space density [phi*(z)], and use hierarchical models to explore how alpha(z) and phi*(z) may evolve for z>8. We use the strongly declining number of z=9-11 candidates in the HUDF-XDF compared to the large number of z=7-8 objects, to constrain the plausible range in evolution of M*(z) for z> 9. While hierarchical models suggest that alpha(z>8) converges to ~-2 and phi*(z>8) to ~< 10^-3/Mpc^3, the one plausible =10-12 candidate seen in the HUDF-XDF suggests that M*(z) may drop to fainter than M=--17.5 mag at z>10 in WMAP9/Planck cosmology. If so, this may have a significant impact on the optimal observing strategies of z>10 objects with JWST. If M*(z) and/or phi*(z) continue to decline significantly for z>9, only deep 200+-hr JWST surveys that reach to AB>31 mag will see a significant number of z>10 objects. Shallow or medium deep JWST surveys that reach to AB<30 mag will not see very many unlensed z>10 objects, since they will generally sample brighter than M* at z>10. Hence, in order to sample the brighter-end of the LF at z>10, and to average over the expected significant cosmic variance at z>10, JWST will either need to observe a larger number (>5) of deep JWST fields, and/or it will need to do a much larger number (>10-20) of medium-deep surveys on gravitational lensing foreground targets. The 6 Hubble Frontier Fields that started in 2013 are excellent lensing targets for JWST. We present a subset of 2400 galaxy groups from the GAMA spectroscopic survey to z=0.4 that have M>10^15 M_o and are sufficiently compact to also be excellent lensing targets for JWST medium-deep surveys of First Light objects at z>10.

Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Lange, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Cluver, M.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Barone-Nugent, Robert L.



In situ observation of corrosion-enhanced dislocation emission and motion resulting in initiation of stress corrosion cracking  

SciTech Connect

A special constant deflection device for TEM was used to study the change in dislocation configuration ahead of a crack tip during stress corrosion cracking (XC) of brass in water and of Ti-24Al-11Nb alloy in methanol as well as the initiation of SCC. In situ tensile test in TEM for brass was carried out to compare. The results show that corrosion process itself during SCC can enhance dislocation emission, multiplication and motion as well as a dislocation free zone (DFZ) is formed. When the corrosion--enhanced dislocation emission and motion reaches certain a condition a nanocrack of SCC initiates in the DFZ or from the crack tip. Because of the action of the corrosion solution the nanocrack of SCC propagates into a cleavage or intergranular microcrack rather than blunts into a void like in situ tension in TEM.

Chu, W.Y.; Gu, B.; Gao, K.W.; Zhang, T.C.; Hsiao, C.M. [Univ. of Science Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Materials Physics



Clinical characteristics and management of iron overload in 631 patients with chronic transfusion dependency: results from a multicentre, observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term red blood cell transfusion therapy results in iron overload. Consensus documents have been developed for several transfusion-dependent groups of patients to provide clinicians with guidance on the monitoring and treatment of this transfusion complication. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and current standard of care for patients with transfusion dependency in Spain. Material and methods This observational, multicentre study was conducted from November 2008 to December 2009 in 41 Spanish hospitals and day-care centres. Patients who received their first transfusion after January 2007, and who had received at least 10 units of packed red blood cells at the time of inclusion were eligible for the study. Results We collected data from 631 patients with a mean age of 65±17 years. Haematological disease (84% of patients) was the most frequent underlying disorder. Patients had received a mean of 30±26 red blood cell units from diagnosis until inclusion in the study, and a mean of 18±18 red blood cell units in the previous year. Ferritin levels were available before and after starting the study for 116 (18%) and 412 (65%) patients, respectively. Mean ferritin level at study inclusion was 1,570 ng/mL, and 58% of patients had a ferritin level of at least 1,000 ng/mL. In spite of this, only 89 (14%) patients were receiving chelation therapy. Discussion The management of patients with transfusion dependency could be improved by using ferritin levels to diagnose iron overload and guide the timely start of chelation therapy. PMID:23522894

Cid, Joan; Palomera, Luis; Díaz, Matías; Zamora, Concha; Solano, Fernando



Mixed phase cloud observation in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard: Preliminary results from the May-June 2011 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and aerosols are key elements having the potential to change climate by their radiative effects on the energy balance in the global climate system. In the Arctic, we have been continuing ground-based remote-sensing measurements for clouds and aerosols using a sky-radiometer, a micro-pulse lidar and an all-sky camera in Ny-Alesund (78.9N, 11.9E), Svalbard. In addition to the regular operations, we have performed an intensive observation campaign for mixed phase clouds in May-June 2011. This campaign aimed at low-level clouds to investigate cloud optical and microphysical properties and cloud-aerosol interaction processes in the Arctic, mainly from cloud radiation measurements and active remote-sensing at the surface, and in-situ microphysics measurements at the Norwegian Zeppelin Station located at a 474 meters high mountain-side. The instrumentation for in-situ measurements includes conventional cloud microphysics probes, i.e., DMT CAPS and Gerber PVM-100, and a newly developed cloud particle microscopic imager for cloud water/ice particle size distributions and the effective radius. The Rion KR-12A aerosol particle counter and the TSI 3007 condensation particle counter were placed in the ropeway cabin for measuring particle number and size distribution to see the difference between in-cloud and below-cloud conditions. We will present preliminary results from the in-situ cloud measurements for several days during the May-June 2011 field experiment.

Shiobara, M.; Uchiyama, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Kobayashi, H.



Initial results on the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields observed from the DE-2 satellite in the field-aligned current regions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial results of the electric and magnetic field observations from the DE-2 satellite show a remarkably good correlation between the north-south component of the electric field and the east-west component of the magnetic field in many passes of the field-aligned current regions. For a dayside cusp pass on August 15, 1981 the coefficient of correlation between these components was 0.996. A preliminary inspection of the available data from the first 6 months of the DE operation indicates that the similarity between the electric and magnetic field signatures of the field-aligned currents is a commonly observed feature at all local times. This high correlation is interpreted to be an indication that the closure of the field-aligned current is essentially meridional. When the correlation between these components is not good, the closure current is likely to be flowing along the auroral belt. When the correlation between the electric and magnetic fields is high, it is possible to estimate the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity from the observed field components.

Sugiura, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Farthing, W. H.; Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.



A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft observations: initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on-board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to observe plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. Observations from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which shows that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this allows the drift velocities of each depletion to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude as well as local time. Previous ground-based airglow observations from a small number of locations have indicated that the drift velocities of depletions may vary rapidly with magnetic latitude. Here we shall present the first results from TOAD of this shear in drift velocities from our global sample of depletion drift velocities.

England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Park, S. H.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.



Observational Constraints on the Nature of the Dark Energy: First Cosmological Results From the ESSENCE Supernova Survey  

SciTech Connect

We present constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w = P/({rho}c{sup 2}), using 60 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the ESSENCE supernova survey. We derive a set of constraints on the nature of the dark energy assuming a flat Universe. By including constraints on ({Omega}{sub M}, w) from baryon acoustic oscillations, we obtain a value for a static equation-of-state parameter w = -1.05{sub -0.12}{sup +0.13} (stat 1{sigma}) {+-} 0.13 (sys) and {Omega}{sub M} = 0.274{sub -0.020}{sup +0.033} (stat 1{sigma}) with a best-fit {chi}{sup 2}/DoF of 0.96. These results are consistent with those reported by the Super-Nova Legacy Survey in a similar program measuring supernova distances and redshifts. We evaluate sources of systematic error that afflict supernova observations and present Monte Carlo simulations that explore these effects. Currently, the largest systematic currently with the potential to affect our measurements is the treatment of extinction due to dust in the supernova host galaxies. Combining our set of ESSENCE SNe Ia with the SuperNova Legacy Survey SNe Ia, we obtain a joint constraint of w = -1.07{sub -0.09}{sup +0.09} (stat 1{sigma}) {+-} 0.13 (sys), {Omega}{sub M} = 0.267{sub -0.018}{sup +0.028} (stat 1{sigma}) with a best-fit {chi}{sup 2}/DoF of 0.91. The current SNe Ia data are fully consistent with a cosmological constant.

Wood-Vasey, W.Michael; Miknaitis, G.; Stubbs, C.W.; Jha, S.; Riess, A.G.; Garnavich, P.M.; Kirshner, R.P.; Aguilera, C.; Becker, A.C.; Blackman, J.W.; Blondin, S.; Challis, P.; Clocchiatti, A.; Conley, A.; Covarrubias, R.; Davis, T.M.; Filippenko, A.V.; Foley, R.J.; Garg, A.; Hicken, M.; Krisciunas, K.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.



Troposphere - ionosphere coupling: results of the ground based observations in Antarctica and perspective for "Sich-1M" satellite experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of meteorological processes upon the ionosphere cannot be ignored in conceptual space weather models. The giant energy stored in motion of tropospheric air masses (weather fronts, cyclones, stream jets, penetrating convection, etc) serves as a powerful source of upward energy fluxes propagating from the lower to upper atmosphere. The prospective energy carrier might be associated with the middle-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) traveling upwards to the ionospheric heights and producing the effects known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's). We present the results of detailed experimental and theoretical study of these phenomena. The original data had been provided by experiments in the region of high meteorological activity, namely Antarctic coast of the Drake Passage, where the Ukrainian Antarctic station " Akademik Vernadsky" is located (UK's "Michael Faraday" till 1996). The permanent data sets were collected over the seven years from 1996 till 2002. The passing atmospheric fronts were in most cases accompanied by excitation of middle-scale AGW's and quasiperiodic variations of magnetic field components, showing the same time periods as the atmospheric pressure. As follows from the cross-correlation analysis of the magnetic field and pressure variations, the magnetic field normally lagged behind the pressure by few tens minutes. On this base we elaborate a quantitative model describing the AGW excitation by weather fronts, AGW propagation to the upper atmosphere and generation of geomagnetic pulsation in the ionospheric dynamo-region. We expect to carry out further experiments onboard Ukrainian remote sensing satellite "Sich-1M" (launch in 2004), which payload contains optical and radar equipment allowing to detect weather systems as well as a set of electromagnetic sensors ("Variant" experiment" for registration of the fine structure of fields and currents in the ionosphere. We are going to compare a ground based meteorological and magnetic data base from Antarctica with measurements on the board of "Sich-1M" satellite.

Lizunov, G.; Yampolski, Yu.; Korepanov, V.; Lytvynenko, L.; Zalizovsky, A.


High definition clouds and precipitation for climate prediction -results from a unified German research initiative on high resolution modeling and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the German BMBF initiative 'High Definition Cloud and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction -HD(CP)2'. This initiative addresses most of the problems that are discussed in this session in one, unified approach: cloud physics, convection, boundary layer development, radiation and subgrid variability are approached in one organizational framework. HD(CP)2 merges both observation and high performance computing / model development communities to tackle a shared problem: how to improve the understanding of the most important subgrid-scale processes of cloud and precipitation physics, and how to utilize this knowledge for improved climate predictions. HD(CP)2 is a coordinated initiative to: (i) realize; (ii) evaluate; and (iii) statistically characterize and exploit for the purpose of both parameterization development and cloud / precipitation feedback analysis; ultra-high resolution (100 m in the horizontal, 10-50 m in the vertical) regional hind-casts over time periods (3-15 y) and spatial scales (1000-1500 km) that are climatically meaningful. HD(CP)2 thus consists of three elements (the model development and simulations, their observational evaluation and exploitation/synthesis to advance CP prediction) and its first three-year phase has started on October 1st 2012. As a central part of HD(CP)2, the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) has been carried out in spring 2013. In this campaign, high resolution measurements with a multitude of instruments from all major centers in Germany have been carried out in a limited domain, to allow for unprecedented resolution and precision in the observation of microphysics parameters on a resolution that will allow for evaluation and improvement of ultra-high resolution models. At the same time, a local area version of the new climate model ICON of the Max Planck Institute and the German weather service has been developed that allows for LES-type simulations on high resolutions on limited domains. The advantage of modifying an existing, evolving climate model is to share insights from high resolution runs directly with the large-scale modelers and to allow for easy intercomparison and evaluation later on. Within this presentation, we will give a short overview on HD(CP)2 , show results from the observation campaign HOPE and the LES simulations of the same domain and conditions and will discuss how these will lead to an improved understanding and evaluation background for the efforts to improve fast physics in our climate model.

Rauser, F.



Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

SciTech Connect

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)



Prognostic Factors for Long-Term Survival in Patients with Ampullary Carcinoma: The Results of a 15-Year Observation Period after Pancreaticoduodenectomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Although ampullary carcinoma has the best prognosis among all periampullary carcinomas, its long-term survival remains low. Prognostic factors are only available for a period of 10 years after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify factors that influence the long-term patient survival over a 15-year observation period. Methods. From 1992 to 2007, 143 patients with ampullary carcinoma underwent pancreatic resection. 86 patients underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (60%) and 57 patients underwent standard Kausch-Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (40%). Results. The overall 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 79%, 40%, 24%, and 10%, respectively. Within a mean observation period of 30 (0–205) months, 100 (69%) patients died. Survival analysis showed that positive lymph node involvement (P = 0.001), lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0001), intraoperative administration of packed red blood cells (P = 0.03), an elevated CA 19-9 (P = 0.03), jaundice (P = 0.04), and an impaired patient condition (P = 0.01) are strong negative predictors for a reduced patient survival. Conclusions. Patients with ampullary carcinoma have distinctly better long-term survival than patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Long-term survival depends strongly on lymphatic nodal and vessel involvement. Moreover, a preoperative elevated CA 19-9 proved to be a significant prognostic factor. Adjuvant therapy may be essential in patients with this risk constellation. PMID:24723741

Jacob, Dietmar; Bahra, Marcus; Puhl, Gero; Krannich, Alexander; Andreou, Andreas; Gül, Safak; Guckelberger, Olaf



Sputum eosinophilia is a determinant of FEV1 decline in occupational asthma: results of an observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the potential determinants of forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) decline in workers with occupational asthma (OA) still exposed to the causative agent. We hypothesised that sputum eosinophilia might be a predictor of poor asthma outcome after diagnosis. Setting, design and participants In a specialistic clinical centre of the University Hospital of Pisa, we studied 39 participants (28 M, 11 F) diagnosed as having OA, routinely followed up between 1990 and 2009. They were a subgroup of 94 participants diagnosed as affected by OA in that period: 9 had been removed from work at the diagnosis, 21 were excluded for having ceased occupational exposure after few months from diagnosis, and 25 were lost at the follow-up or had no acceptable sputum measurements at the diagnosis. Estimates of the decline in FEV1 were obtained by means of simple regression analysis during the period of occupational exposure after diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effects of factors (baseline FEV1 and sputum inflammatory cells, duration and type of exposure) that may potentially influence FEV1 decline. Results At follow-up (5.7+3.7?years), most participants were still symptomatic despite inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) treatment and had their occupational exposure reduced. Participants with higher sputum eosinophils (>3%) at baseline had a significantly greater decline of FEV1 (–52.5 vs ?18.6?mL/year, p=0.012). Logistic regression showed that persistent exposure and sputum eosinophilia were significantly associated with a greater decline in FEV1 (OR 11.5, 95% CI 1.8 to 71.4, p=0.009 and OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 41.7, p= 0.042, respectively). Conclusions Sputum eosinophilia at diagnosis, together with the persistence of occupational exposure during follow-up, may contribute to a greater decline in FEV1 in patients with OA still at work. Further long-term studies are required as to whether intensive ICS treatment may be beneficial for patients with OA and increase ad eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:25564139

Talini, Donatella; Novelli, Federica; Bacci, Elena; Bartoli, Marialaura; Cianchetti, Silvana; Costa, Francesco; Dente, Federico L; Di Franco, Antonella; Latorre, Manuela; Malagrinò, Laura; Vagaggini, Barbara; Celi, Alessandro; Paggiaro, Pierluigi



2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra Info  

E-print Network

2013 Goat Shows Show Date Show Name Entries Due Eligibility Weigh In Show Time Contact Phone Extra/13/2013 Cannon Co. Day of Show Youth Must 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Carol 615-563-5260 Bring own Jr. Goat $1.00 a head Control 10 a.m. Melton Bedding Association Goat 7/20/2013 Overton Co. Day of Show Youth Before 5 p.m. 6

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.


Ulysses observations of jovian relativistic electrons in the interplanetary space: new results from distant encounter with Jupiter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the first approach by Pioneer 10 in 1972, Jupiter is known to be the source of relativistic electrons that dominate the radiation environment of the entire inner heliosphere during solar quiet periods. Jets of relativistic electrons were observed when the spacecraft got within short distances of a fraction of 1 AU from the magnetosphere. Because it is a point

M. Zhang



Cassini Observations of Saturn's Dawn-Magnetotail Region and their Relation to Models of Saturn's Aurora: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Cassini plasma and magnetic field observations from the dawn meridian of Saturn s outer magnetosphere to Saturn s magnetotail region, we investigate the applicability of the centrifugal instability model by Sittler et al. [2006] for Saturn s auroral response to the solar wind, versus the reconnection model of Saturn s aurora by Cowley et al. [2005]. We use Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) and Electron Plasma Spectrometer (ELS) observations to characterize the plasma environment. ELS and magnetometer observations are used to map out the morphology of the outer magnetosphere from dawn to midnight local time. IMS observations are used to measure plasma flow velocities from which one can infer rotation versus convective flows. IMS composition measurements are used to trace the source of plasma from the inner magnetosphere (protons, H2 and water group ions) versus an external solar wind source (protons and Heff ions). A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. Is there a significant return flow from the magnetotail? Pitch angle distributions also play an important role as a discriminator. If the magnetosphere tends to conserve angular momentum as suggested by Sittler et al. [2006], then we expect to see an anti-correlation between rotational flow component and radial flow velocities. All will be investigated.

Sittler, E. C.; Blanc, M. F.; Richardson, J. D.; Rymer, A.; Thomsen, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D.; Khurana, K. K.; Dougherty, M.



Cerebral Aneurysm Multicenter European Onyx (CAMEO) Trial: Results of a Prospective Observational Study in 20 European Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the Onyx liquid embolic system in treating a selected population of patients with intracranial aneurysms that presented difficulties for surgical or endovascular alternatives. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in 20 European centers enroll- ing a consecutive series of 119 patients with 123 aneurysms judged

Andrew J. Molyneux; Saruhan Cekirge; Isil Saatci; Gyula Gal


The generation of available potential energy: a comparison of results from a general circulation model with observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of available potential energy (APE) in the space-time domain in January and July in a present-day climate simulation with a general circulation model (GCM) is compared with observations. An attempt is made to explain the differences. The generation is computed from the fields of diabatic heating and temperature. The heating is computed with the residual method, using UKMO

Peter Siegmund



The dark matter halo shape of edge-on disk galaxies . III. Modelling the HI observations: results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the third paper in a series in which we attempt to put constraints on the flattening of dark halos in disk galaxies. We observed for this purpose the Hi in edge-on galaxies, where it is in principle possible to measure the force field in the halo vertically and radially from gas layer flaring and rotation curve decomposition respectively.

J. C. O'Brien; K. C. Freeman; P. C. van der Kruit



Large-scale variations of the low-latitude ionosphere during the October-November 2003 superstorm: Observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The GPS-derived total electron content (TEC), ion drift measurements from the ROCSAT-1 spacecraft at around 600 km altitude, and far-ultraviolet airglow measured by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) carried on board the NASA TIMED satellite are utilized for studying large disturbances of the low-latitude ionosphere during the October-November 2003 superstorm period. Two chains of GPS receivers, one in the American sector (˜70°W) and the other in the Asian/Australian sector (˜120°E), are used to simultaneously observe the daytime equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) during the entire storm period. It is found from the GPS-TEC measurements that the EIA expanded to very high latitudes with large increases of TEC right after the storm started. The large expansion of the EIA was associated with strong upward E × B drifts measured from the Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument (IPEI) on board the ROCSAT-1, providing evidence of a penetration electric field and a strong plasma fountain effect. Suppression of the EIA was observed during the storm recovery, associated with downward E × B drifts that were observed by the ROCSAT-1. Significant negative storm effects in the southern hemisphere were also observed in the GPS-TEC during the first day of the recovery phase. The areas of negative storm effects are in good agreement with reductions in the [O]/[N2] density ratio inferred from the ratio of OI (135.6 nm) to LBH emissions measured from GUVI. An enhancement of the EIA was observed on the day, 1 November, that the storm was about to fully recover.

Lin, C. H.; Richmond, A. D.; Liu, J. Y.; Yeh, H. C.; Paxton, L. J.; Lu, G.; Tsai, H. F.; Su, S.-Y.



Effectiveness and safety of fixed dose combination of acarbose/metformin in Indian Type 2 diabetes patients: Results from observational GLOBE Study  

PubMed Central

Primary objective - evaluate effectiveness and safety of acarbose/metformin fixed dose FDC on glycemic control in Indian T2DM patients in real life clinical setting. Secondary objective - evaluate safety and satisfaction of treatment. Materials and Methods: Open-label, prospective, multicentre, single-arm, non-interventional study. Patients included were aged ?18 years with T2DM on Acarbose (25/50 mg) and Metformin (500 mg) FDC. Glycemic parameters were recorded during observation. Results: Total 9364 patients were enrolled in the study (mean age, 50.7 years and 60.1% were male). Mean (SD) FBG and PPG was significantly reduced by 42.4 (32.6) mg/dl (P < 0.0001) and 80.2 (49.7) mg/dl (P < 0.0001) respectively at the end of observation. Mean (SD) HbA1c reduced by -1.0% (0.8) to 7.3% (0.7) at the last follow-up visit (P <0.0001). Majority of patients (97.5%) and physicians (98.42%) were satisfied with acarbose/metformin FDC treatment. Also, significant reduction in body weight by -1.7 (2.2) kg was observed (P < 0.0001). Patients with known T2DM and newly diagnosed showed a similar glycemic control (P < 0.0001). Drug-related adverse events were reported by only 1.4% patients mostly gastrointestinal. Conclusions: Acarbose/metformin FDC was efficacious, safe well accepted in routine clinical practice. It was well-tolerated without significant risk of hypoglycemia and can be used in early T2DM management PMID:25593840

Saboo, Banshi; Reddy, Gundam Chandrasekhara; Juneja, Subhashchander; Kedia, Ashok Kumar; Manjrekar, Pravin; Rathod, Rahul



New Drug Shows Mixed Results Against Early Alzheimer's  


... In Search of an Alzheimer’s Cure New therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s could lead to drugs without side ... Fitness: Take Care of Your Core Fitness: Get Moving! How Meditation May Help Against Alzheimer’s Reducing Clutter ...


Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show  

E-print Network

Highlights Soccer Tournament ELI Talent Show Notes from your Teachers Notes from the Office very quickly! ELI Talent Show As you probably already know, the ELI is going to have its second annual Talent Show. The talent show is open to ELI students, faculty, staff, and LAs. Acts can include

Pilyugin, Sergei S.


LWR fuel rod behavior observed during postulated accident conditions: a comparison of FRAP-T calculated and PBF experimental results  

SciTech Connect

Light water reactor (LWR) fuel rod behavior during transient experiments conducted in the Power Burst Facility is reviewed. The experiments examined simulated hypothetical reactivity initiated accidents (RIA) and power-cooling-mismatch (PCM) events. Fuel rod behavior calculated by the Fuel Rod Analysis Program-Transient (FRAP-T) is compared with the test data. Important physical phenomena observed during the tests and not presently incorporated into the FRAP-T code are: (a) fuel swelling in the radial direction due to fission gas effects, (b) UO/sub 2/-zircaloy chemical interaction, and (c) loss of UO/sub 2/ grain boundary strength and fuel powdering. Additional models needed in FRAP-T to reflect the fuel behavior observed during the two types of transients are cladding thickness variation during an RIA, molten fuel movement and possible cladding-molten fuel thermal interaction during a PCM event, and in the case of breached rods, the effects of hydrogen pickup on cladding embrittlement.

Charyulu, M.K.; Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.



Mars surface mineralogy from Hubble Space Telescope imaging during 1994–1995: Observations, calibration, and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible to near-infrared observations of Mars were made with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during 1994-1995 with the goals of monitoring seasonal variability of the surface and atmosphere and mapping specific spectral units to constrain the planer's surface mineralogy. This paper presents the details of the collection and calibration of the data, concentrating specifically on the near-IR data that were

James F. Bell III; Michael J. Wolff; Philip B. James; R. Todd Clancy; Steven W. Lee; Leonard J. Martin



Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086

Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg



National Assessment of Educational Progress, Report 1--Science: National Results. Observations and Commentary of a Panel of Reviewers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are five reviews of the National Assessment of Educational Progress results in science. Dr. Mildred Ballou discusses the objectives of the assessment by age level with concern over explanations for responses, social implications, and validity of testing exercises. Wilmer Cooksey comments on the results as viewed by the classroom teacher…

National Assessment of Educational Progress, Ann Arbor, MI.


Rates of Change to a Positive Result in Subsequent Screening Mammography in Korean Women: A Retrospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This retrospective cohort study aimed at calculating some parameters of changes in the findings of the subsequent screening mammography (SSM) in female Korean volunteers. Methods: The study included screenees aged 30 to 79 years who underwent SSM voluntarily after testing negative in the baseline screenings performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A change to a positive result was defined as category 4 or 5 by using the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The proportion of results that had changed to positive (CP, %) was calculated by dividing the number of cases with results that were positive in the SSM by the total number of study participants. The rate of results that had changed to positive (CR, cases per 100 000 screenee-months) was calculated by dividing the number of cases with results that were positive in the SSM by the total number of months of the follow-up period. Results: The overall CP and CR in all age groups (n=77 908) were 2.26% and 93.94 cases per 100 000 screenee-months, respectively. The median CP interval in the subjects who had positive SSM results was 30 to 36 months, while that in the age group of 30 to 39 years was shorter. Conclusions: Different screening intervals should be considered among women aged between 30 and 59 years. In addition, a strategy for a screening program should be developed for the age group of 30 to 39 years, in particular. PMID:25652710

Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Sang Yop; Kim, Eun Hee; Kim, Yoon-Nam; Nam, Chung Mo



ELI Talent Show Final Exams  

E-print Network

Highlights ELI Talent Show Final Exams Scholarship Nominees Graduate Admissions Workshop Reminders from the Office Manners, Cultures, & Grammar TheELIWeekly ELI Talent Show It's going to be a blast! Come one, come all! The 2nd Annual ELI Talent Show will be on Tuesday, April 15th

Pilyugin, Sergei S.


Vaccination rules for a true-mass action SEIR epidemic model based on an observer synthesis. Preliminary results  

E-print Network

This paper presents a simple continuous-time linear vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-byimmunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically converge to zero. A state observer is used to estimate the true various partial populations of susceptible, infected, infectious and immune which are assumed to be unknown. The model parameters are also assumed to be, in general, unknown. In this case, the parameters are replaced by available estimates to implement the vaccination action.

De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S



The Knowledge of Celestial Things: Using the Kepler Instrument and Data Analysis Handbooks to Plan Observations and Believe the Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"... the ways by which men arrive at knowledge of the celestial things are hardly less wonderful than the nature of these things themselves" - Johannes Kepler As an introduction to the understanding of Kepler data products, we have prepared the Kepler Instrument and Data Analysis Handbooks, and make them available through STScI's MAST and Kepler's GO web sites to all who are interested in planning, publishing, or reviewing Kepler observations. The Kepler Mission is designed to detect transits of Earth-size planets orbiting in the "habitable zone” of 9Observation Program (FOP) will then work to rule out non-planet transit explanations for each such phenomenon. The Instrument Handbook describes the Kepler photometer characteristics pertinent to achieving and maintaining Kepler's photometric precision. The Data Analysis Handbook describes the processing steps -including calibration, photometry, systematic error correction, and transit detection- used in converting the raw data to planet candidates. Our poster presentation is meant to solicit feedback from the community, so the next versions of these documents can be improved accordingly. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.

Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Caldwell, D. A.; Jenkins, J. M.; Bryson, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Gazis, P.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Haas, M. R.



In haematopoietic SCT for acute leukemia TBI impacts on relapse but not survival: results of a multicentre observational study.  


The aim of this study was to determine whether parameters related to TBI impacted upon OS and relapse in patients with acute leukemia in CR who underwent haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in 11 Italian Radiation Oncology Centres. Data were analysed from 507 patients (313 males; 194 females; median age 15 years; 318 with ALL; 188 with AML; 1 case not recorded). Besides 128 autologous transplants, donors included 192 matched siblings, 74 mismatched family members and 113 unrelated individuals. Autologous and allogeneic transplants were analysed separately. Median follow-up was 40.1 months. TBI schedules and HSCT type were closely related. Uni- and multi-variate analyses showed no parameter was significant for OS or relapse in autologous transplantation. Multivariate analysis showed type of transplant and disease impacted significantly on OS in allogeneic transplantation. Disease, GVHD and TBI dose were risk factors for relapse. This analysis illustrates that Italian Transplant Centre use of TBI is in line with international practice. Most Centres adopted a hyperfractionated schedule that is used worldwide (12 Gy in six fractions over 3 days), which appears to have become standard. TBI doses impacted significantly upon relapse rates. PMID:23708705

Aristei, C; Santucci, A; Corvò, R; Gardani, G; Ricardi, U; Scarzello, G; Magrini, S M; Donato, V; Falcinelli, L; Bacigalupo, A; Locatelli, F; Aversa, F; Barbieri, E



The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: precipitation measurements, retrieval techniques and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological site in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within CI region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area. The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area was covered by a uniquely dense meteorological instrumentation thanks to a synergy between Italian institutions and NASA-GSFC. The following RADARs were operated: a Doppler single-polarization C-band radar located at Mt. Midia; the Polar 55C Doppler dual-polarization C-band radar located in Rome; a Doppler C-band polarimetric radar located at Il Monte (Abruzzo); a polarimetric X-band mini-radar in L'Aquila; a polarimetric X-band portable mini-radar in Rome; a single-polarization X-band mini-radar in Rome. DISDROMETERs were also deployed: 4 Parsivel optical disdrometers in Rome (at Sapienza, CNR-ISAC and CNR-INSEAN); 1 2D-video disdrometer in Rome; 3 Parsivels optical disdrometer respectively in L'Aquila (Abruzzo), Avezzano (Abruzzo) and Pescara (Abruzzo). Other INSTRUMENTS were available: 1 K-band vertically-pointing micro rain-radar (MRR), 2 Pludix X-band disdrometers, 1 VLF lightining sensor, 1 microwave radiometer at 23-31 GHz in Rome (at Sapienza); the raingauge network with more than 200 stations in Central Italy. Three overpasses in CI were also performed by the Falcon 20 aircraft equipped with the 95GHz cloud radar RASTA. Analysis of the SOP1.1 main events in CI will be described by focusing on the raindrop size distribution statistics and its geographical variability. Intercomparison of rainfall estimates from disdrometers, raingauges and radars will be illustrated with the aim to provide a quality-controlled and physically consistent rainfall dataset for meteorological modeling validation and assimilation purposes.

Silvio Marzano, Frank; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Ferretti, Rossella; Gatlin, Patrick.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt



Role of doxycycline to resolve different types of non-malignant lung and pleural pathology: The results of a pilot observation  

PubMed Central

Background: Lung lesions may develop from tissue reactions to known or unknown stimuli and present with different morphological descriptions. The pathogenesis may be induced and maintained by different bioactive substances, of which, the upregulation matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a vital role. Inhibition of the MMPs, therefore, may be a prospective mode of therapy for such lesions. Materials and Methods: A number of patients with lung lesions of different morphologies and presentations were treated empirically with long-term oral doxycycline (100 mg BID) upon exclusion of malignancy and infection in an open, single-arm, prospective, observational pilot study. The effect of the treatment was recorded on serial x-rays/computed tomography (CT) scans and the impact of treatment was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) or a Likert-like scale. Furthermore, six independent pulmonologists’ opinion (expressed on a ‘0’ to ‘100’ scale) were pooled with regard to the significance and the expectedness of such a change. Results: Twenty-six patients (mean age 49.33 years and male: female ratio = 10:3) with different types of pulmonary parenchymal/pleural lesions were treated with long-term oral doxycycline for a mean duration of 386.88 days related to the available radiological comparison. They showed a mean improvement of 3.99 on the Likert-like scale and 78% on the VAS scale. The mean significance of the change was 83.33%, with a mean expectedness of 18% as per the pooled opinion of the pulmonologists. Inference: The significant and unexpected resolution of different tissue lesions from long-term doxycycline appears to be a novel observation. This needs proper scientific validation.

Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Dey, Rana; Saha, Dipanjan; Nag, Saikat; Ghosh, Subhasish; Chowdhury, Sushmita Roy; Ganguly, Dhiman



Observations of tornadoes and wall clouds with a portable FM-CW Doppler radar: 1989--1990 results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on our progress using a portable, 1 W,FM (frequency modulated)-CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to make measurements of the wind field in tornadoes and wall clouds along with simultaneous visual documentation. Results using a CW version of the radar in 1987--1988 are given in

H. B. Bluestein; W. P. Unruh



Observations of tornadoes and wall clouds with a portable FM-CW Doppler radar: 1989--1990 results  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report on our progress using a portable, 1 W,FM (frequency modulated)-CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to make measurements of the wind field in tornadoes and wall clouds along with simultaneous visual documentation. Results using a CW version of the radar in 1987--1988 are given in Bluestein and Unruh (1989). 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Bluestein, H.B. (Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (USA). School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))



Early Neurological Outcome of Young Infants Exposed to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Pregnancy: Results from the Observational SMOK Study  

PubMed Central

Background Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy is common while the effect on the infant’s neurological outcome is unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal SSRI-exposure on the infants’ neurological functioning, adjusted for maternal mental health. Methods A prospective observational study from May 2007 to April 2010. The study groups comprised 63 SSRI-exposed infants (SSRI group) and 44 non-exposed infants (non-SSRI group). Maternal depression and anxiety were measured using questionnaires. The main outcome measures during the first week after birth and at three to four months were the quality of the infants’ general movements (GMs) according to Prechtl and a detailed motor optimality score. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for abnormal GM quality in the SSRI and non-SSRI groups, and adjusted for maternal depression, anxiety, and other confounders. The study was registered under 53506435 in the ISRCTN. Findings All infants were born around term. During the first week, abnormal GMs occurred more frequently in the SSRI group than in the non-SSRI group (59% versus 33%) and the median MOS was lower (13 versus 18). The OR for abnormal GMs in the SSRI versus the non-SSRI group was 3·0 (95% CI, 1.3 to 6.9) and increased after adjustment for confounders. At three to four months, more SSRI-exposed infants had monotonous movements (48% versus 20%) with lower median MOSs (26 versus 28). The OR for monotonous movements was 3·5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 8.6) and increased after adjusting for confounders. Interpretation Prenatal exposure to SSRI had an adverse effect on early neurological functioning as reflected by GM quality, irrespective of maternal depression and anxiety, and other confounders. Physicians should take this into account in consultation with parents. PMID:23785389

de Vries, Nathalie K. S.; van der Veere, Christine N.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.



Planning a Successful Tech Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

Nikirk, Martin



Hubble Space Telescope Proper Motions along the Sagittarius Stream: I. Observations and Results for Stars in Four Fields  

E-print Network

We present a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) study of stellar proper motions (PMs) for four fields spanning 200 degrees along the Sagittarius (Sgr) stream: one field in the trailing arm, one field near the Sgr dSph tidal radius, and two fields in the leading arm. From data with 6-9 year time baselines, we determine absolute PMs of dozens of individual stars per field, using established techniques that use distant background galaxies to define a stationary reference frame. Stream stars are identified based on combined color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and PM information. The results are broadly consistent with the few existing PM measurements for the Sgr dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) and the trailing arm. However, our new results provide the highest PM accuracy for the stream to date, the first PM measurements for the leading arm, and the first PM measurements for individual stream stars [We also serendipitously determine the PM of the globular cluster NGC 6652 to be ($\\mu_{\\rm W}$, $\\mu_{\\rm N}$) = (5.66 $\\pm$ 0.07...

Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Majewski, Steven R; Kallivayalil, Nitya; Law, David R; Anderson, Jay; Siegel, Michael H



Important Results From Shallow Seismic Observations at the Ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town Site in Upper Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were observed along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds are expected from future work at the site.

Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.



Preliminary Results for the Radiation Environment Observed by RD3-B3 Radiometerdosimeter Inside Bion-M # 1 Spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space radiation has been monitored using the P#xd0bb;3-?3 (further is used the Latin transcription RD3-B3) spectrometer-dosimeter on board a recent space flight on the Russian recoverable satellite ??OH-M No.1 (further is used the Latin transcription BIONM No. 1). The instrument was mounted inside of the satellite in pressurized volume together with biological objects and samples. RD3-B3 instrument is a battery operated version of the spare model of the R3D-B3 instrument developed and built for the ESA BIOPAN-6 facility on Foton M3 satellite flown in September 2007. Cosmic ionizing radiation has been monitored and separated in 256 deposited energy spectra, which were further used for determination of the absorbed dose rate and flux. The report summarizes the first results for the Earth radiation environment at the altitude (253-585 km) of the BION-M No.1 spacecraft.

Dachev, Tsvetan; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen; Bankov, Nikolay; Petrov, Vladisloav; Shurshakov, Viacheslav; Ivanova, Olga; Häder, Donat-Peter; Lebert, Michael; Schuster, Martin; Reitz, Günter; Horneck, Gerda; Ploc, Ondrej



The role of clouds at middle and high latitudes in the global circuit - results from observations and modeling. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric current system, termed the global atmospheric electric circuit (GEC) is assumed to be driven by cloud generators, located mainly at low geographic latitudes. At high latitudes, the lower atmosphere circuit is coupled with the magnetosphere-ionosphere current system, the influence of which can extend to middle latitudes during strong magnetospheric disturbances. In this work we present results of investigation into the role of clouds at middle and high latitudes in the GEC, particularly low-level stratiform clouds. We have analysed meteorological data and atmospheric electricity parameters monitored at the mid-latitude Geophysical Observatory in Swider (52.12 N, 21.24 E) and also at the polar station in Hornsund, Svalbard, (77.00 N, 15.50 E) during occurrences of nimbostratus and stratus, with the aim of obtaining parametrization of middle and high-latitude clouds for GEC models. This research is supported by Polish National Science Center grants No NCN-2011/01/B/ST10/07188 and NCN-2011/01/B/ST10/07118.

Odzimek, A.; Kubicki, M.; Baranski, P.



"RadioAstron"-A telescope with a size of 300 000 km: Main parameters and first observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with the participation of many international organizations, worked toward the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory with its onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. Together with some of the largest ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include supermassive black holes, accretion disks, and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars, regions of formation of stars and planetary systems in our and other galaxies, interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the gravitational field of the Earth. The results of ground-based and inflight tests of the space radio telescope carried out in both autonomous and ground-space interferometric regimes are reported. The derived characteristics are in agreement with the main requirements of the project. The astrophysical science program has begun.

Kardashev, N. S.; Khartov, V. V.; Abramov, V. V.; Avdeev, V. Yu.; Alakoz, A. V.; Aleksandrov, Yu. A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Andrianov, A. S.; Antonov, N. M.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Arkhipov, M. Yu.; Baan, W.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Bartel', N.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Berulis, J. J.; Burke, B. F.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Burgin, M. S.; Busca, G.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Bychkova, V. S.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Wellington, K. J.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Wietfeldt, R.; Voitsik, P. A.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Girin, I. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.; D'Addario, L.; Giovannini, G.; Jauncey, D. L.; Dewdney, P. E.; D'yakov, A. A.; Zharov, V. E.; Zhuravlev, V. I.; Zaslavskii, G. S.; Zakhvatkin, M. V.; Zinov'ev, A. N.; Ilinen, Yu.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kanevskii, B. Z.; Knorin, I. A.; Casse, J. L.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Kogan, B. L.; Komaev, R. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kopelyanskii, G. D.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kotik, A. N.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Cooper, D. N.; Kut'kin, A. M.; Cannon, W. H.; Larionov, M. G.; Lisakov, M. M.; Litvinenko, L. N.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Lobanov, A. P.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Langston, G.; McCracken, K.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Menderov, A. V.; Murphy, D. W.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Mozgovoi, Yu. V.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Oreshko, V. V.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pravin-Kumar, A.; Preston, R. A.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rakhimov, I. A.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Romney, J. D.; Rocha, P.; Rudakov, V. A.; Räisänen, A.; Sazankov, S. V.; Sakharov, B. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Skulachev, D. P.; Slysh, V. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Smith, J. G.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Sokolovskii, K. V.; Sondaar, L. H.; Stepan'yants, V. A.; Turygin, M. S.; Turygin, S. Yu.; Tuchin, A. G.; Urpo, S.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Finkel'shtein, A. M.; Fomalont, E. B.; Fejes, I.; Fomina, A. N.; Khapin, Yu. B.; Tsarevskii, G. S.; Zensus, J. A.; Chuprikov, A. A.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Shapirovskaya, N. Ya.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Schmidt, A.; Shnyreva, L. A.; Shpilevskii, V. V.; Ekers, R. D.; Yakimov, V. E.




SciTech Connect

At present, many models of the coronal magnetic field rely on photospheric vector magnetograms, but these data have been shown to be problematic as the sole boundary information for nonlinear force-free field extrapolations. Magnetic fields in the corona manifest themselves in high-energy images (X-rays and EUV) in the shapes of coronal loops, providing an additional constraint that is not at present used as constraints in the computational domain, directly influencing the evolution of the model. This is in part due to the mathematical complications of incorporating such input into numerical models. Projection effects, confusion due to overlapping loops (the coronal plasma is optically thin), and the limited number of usable loops further complicate the use of information from coronal images. We develop and test a new algorithm to use images of coronal loops in the modeling of the solar coronal magnetic field. We first fit projected field lines with those of constant-{alpha} force-free fields to approximate the three-dimensional distribution of currents in the corona along a sparse set of trajectories. We then apply a Grad-Rubin-like iterative technique, which uses these trajectories as volume constraints on the values of {alpha}, to obtain a volume-filling nonlinear force-free model of the magnetic field, modifying a code and method presented by Wheatland. We thoroughly test the technique on known analytical and solar-like model magnetic fields previously used for comparing different extrapolation techniques and compare the results with those obtained by currently available methods relying only on the photospheric data. We conclude that we have developed a functioning method of modeling the coronal magnetic field by combining the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field with information from coronal images. Whereas we focus on the use of coronal loop information in combination with line-of-sight magnetograms, the method is readily extended to incorporate vector-magnetic data over any part of the photospheric boundary.

Malanushenko, A. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Wheatland, M. S.; Gilchrist, S. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)



Flashes in the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Initiated by the Lightning Discharges: Recent Results and Future Optical and Spectral Observation Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent years yielded important experimental results in the field of studying the middle- and the upper-atmospheric discharges initiated by the lightning strokes. These results have been obtained using the most widespread measurement method related to the high-speed high-sensitivity visibleband cameras and the spectroscopy, which is the most rapidly developing method of observation of the upper-atmospheric flashes. Both methods are used during the ground-based, as well as the balloon- and satellite-borne observations. The above-mentioned methods are reviewed in this paper.

Kostinskiy, A. Yu.



First results from the faint object camera - High-resolution observations of the central object R136 in the 30 Doradus nebula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

R136 is the luminous central object of the giant H II region 30 Doradus in the LMC. The first high-resolution observations of R136 with the Faint Object Camera on board the Hubble Space Telescope are reported. The physical nature of the brightest component R136a has been a matter of some controversy over the last few years. The UV images obtained show that R136a is a very compact star cluster consisting of more than eight stars within 0.7 arcsec diameter. From these high-resolution images a mass upper limit can be derived for the most luminous stars observed in R136.

Weigelt, G.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.; Crane, P.; Deharveng, J. M.; Disney, M. J.; Jakobsen, P.; Kamperman, T. M.



Results, Results, Results?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the amount of time, energy, and money devoted to provincial achievement exams in Canada, it is disturbing that Alberta students and teachers feel so pressured and that the exams do not accurately reflect what students know. Research shows that intelligence has an (untested) emotional component. (MLH)

Wallace, Dale



Geminids 2012 - a spectacular show from Oman  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Geminids are the most reliable prominent meteor shower currently visible. They can be observed from the whole northern hemisphere and even low southern latitudes as well. Nevertheless, as the weather is often unfavourable in Central Europe during December, a six-day-long visual observing campaign was carried out from Oman in 2012. There observing conditions were nearly perfect, especially in the Rub al-Khali desert in the western part of the country. As a consequence, we managed to record more than 1800 Geminids within almost 45 hours of effective observing time. An impression of the campaign together with a summary of the results is given.

Weiland, Thomas; Bettonvil, Felix



Map showing of UT's Main,  

E-print Network

$ $ Map showing locations of UT's Main, Scott Park, and Health Science Campuses Student Parking HEALTH SCIENCE CAMPUS GLENDALE BANCROFT NEBRASKA DETROIT FERI A NG BUILDING DIRECTORY AC Scott Park..........................................WBReceiving..........................................WB Minority Business Development Ctr....FAMinority Business Development Ctr....FA NorthwestNorthwest State

Viola, Ronald


The OOPSLA trivia show (TOOTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.

Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt



Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine  

E-print Network

or short-term diarrhea followed by systemic or blood stream infection. E-439 3-07 *Visiting Professor, Swine Practice, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, The Texas A&M University System. Diarrheal Disease in Show Swine Bruce Lawhorn...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce



Browse the archive Show summaries  

E-print Network

for consumers? www.fightthepowergrab.o Slide Shows for Physics MathType for science and math presentations that a "fast ignition" laser facility could make a significant contribution to fusion research, as well than magnets to confine the plasma, will be investigated by the National Ignition Facility (NIF



E-print Network

systems such as profilers (e.g. radiosondes and remote-sensing techniques like spectrometers). The DEMEVAP project (MEthodogical DEvelopment for the remote sensing of water VAPor) aims at developingACCURACY OF WATER VAPOR OBSERVATIONS FROM IN-SITU AND REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES: FIRST RESULTS FROM

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Reconciliation and Interpretation of the Big Bend National Park Light Extinction Source Apportionment: Results from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study—Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently completed Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study focused on particulate sulfate source attribution for a 4?month period from July through October 1999. A companion paper in this issue by Schichtel et al. describes the methods evaluation and results reconciliation of the BRAVO Study sul-fate attribution approaches. This paper summarizes the BRAVO Study extinction budget assessment

Marc L. Pitchford; Bret A. Schichtel; Kristi A. Gebhart; Michael G. Barna; William C. Malm; Ivar H. Tombach; Eladio M. Knipping



On the consistency of model, ground-based, and satellite observations of tidal signatures: Initial results from the CAWSES tidal campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparisons between tidal wind signatures diagnosed from satellite and ground-based observations and a general circulations model for two (September-October 2005, March-April 2007) of the four Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System (CAWSES) Global Tidal Campaign observation periods are presented (CAWSES is an international program sponsored by Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). Specific comparisons are made between model (extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model), satellite (Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED)), meteor, MF and incoherent scatter radar (ISR), and lidar tidal signatures in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The satellite and ground-based signatures are in good agreement and demonstrate for the first time that the tidal wind fields observed by both types of observations are consistent with each other. This is the first time that such agreement has been reported and effectively resolves the long-standing issue between ground-based radar and satellite optical measurements of winds. This level of agreement, which has proved elusive in the past, was accomplished by superposing the significant tidal components from the satellite analyses to reconstruct the fields observed by the ground stations. Particularly striking in these comparisons is the extent to which the superposed fields show strong geographic variability. This variability is also seen in the component superpositions generated from the extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (eCMAM), although differences in the geographic patterns are evident.

Ward, W. E.; Oberheide, J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Nakamura, T.; Hoffmann, P.; Singer, W.; Chang, L. C.; Du, J.; Wang, D.-Y.; Batista, P.; Clemesha, B.; Manson, A. H.; Riggin, D. M.; She, C.-Y.; Tsuda, T.; Yuan, T.



The PHEMU09 catalogue and astrometric results of the observations of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter made in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. In 2009, the Sun and the Earth passed through the equatorial plane of Jupiter and therefore the orbital planes of its main satellites. It was the equinox on Jupiter. This occurrence made mutual occultations and eclipses between the satellites possible. Experience has shown that the observations of such events provide accurate astrometric data able to bring new information on the dynamics of the Galilean satellites. Observations are made under the form of photometric measurements, but need to be made through the organization of a worldwide observation campaign maximizing the number and the quality of the data obtained. Aims: This work focuses on processing the complete database of photometric observations of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter made during the international campaign in 2009. The final goal is to derive new accurate astrometric data. Methods: We used an accurate photometric model of mutual events adequate with the accuracy of the observation. Our original method was applied to derive astrometric data from photometric observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. Results: We processed the 457 lightcurves obtained during the international campaign of photometric observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter in 2009. Compared with the theory, for successful observations, the r.m.s. of O-C residuals are equal to 45.8 mas and 81.1 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively; the mean O-C residuals are equal to -2 mas and -9 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively, for mutual occultations; and -6 mas and +1 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively, for mutual eclipses.

Arlot, J.-E.; Emelyanov, N.; Varfolomeev, M. I.; Amossé, A.; Arena, C.; Assafin, M.; Barbieri, L.; Bolzoni, S.; Bragas-Ribas, F.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Casarramona, F.; Casas, R.; Christou, A.; Colas, F.; Collard, A.; Combe, S.; Constantinescu, M.; Dangl, G.; De Cat, P.; Degenhardt, S.; Delcroix, M.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Dourneau, G.; Douvris, A.; Druon, C.; Ellington, C. K.; Estraviz, G.; Farissier, P.; Farmakopoulos, A.; Garlitz, J.; Gault, D.; George, T.; Gorda, S. Yu.; Grismore, J.; Guo, D. F.; Herald, D.; Ida, M.; Ishida, M.; Ivanov, A. V.; Klemt, B.; Koshkin, N.; Le Campion, J. F.; Liakos, A.; Liao, S. L.; Li, S. N.; Loader, B.; Lopresti, C.; Lo Savio, E.; Marchini, A.; Marino, G.; Masi, G.; Massallé, A.; Maulella, R.; McFarland, J.; Miyashita, K.; Napoli, C.; Noyelles, B.; Pauwels, T.; Pavlov, H.; Peng, Q. Y.; Perelló, C.; Priban, V.; Prost, J.; Razemon, S.; Rousselle, J. P.; Rovira, J.; Ruisi, R.; Ruocco, N.; Salvaggio, F.; Sbarufatti, G.; Shakun, L.; Scheck, A.; Sciuto, C.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Sinyaeva, N. V.; Sofia, A.; Sonka, A.; Talbot, J.; Tang, Z. H.; Tejfel, V. G.; Thuillot, W.; Tigani, K.; Timerson, B.; Tontodonati, E.; Tsamis, V.; Unwin, M.; Venable, R.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Vilar, J.; Vingerhoets, P.; Watanabe, H.; Yin, H. X.; Yu, Y.; Zambelli, R.



The Educational Experiences of Pupils with a Statement for Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools: Results from a Systematic Observation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings from the Deployment and Impact of Support Staff project showed that day-to-day support for pupils with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream UK schools is often provided by teaching assistants (TAs), instead of teachers. This arrangement is the main explanation for other results from the project, which found TA support had a more…

Webster, Rob; Blatchford, Peter



Preliminary Results on Direct Observation of True Ternary fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th+d (10 MeV)  

SciTech Connect

Results of the first direct observation of the true ternary fission of {sup 234}Pa* nucleus are presented. The yield of the effect depending of the experimental geometry is about 10{sup -5}/binary fission. Mass of the lightest fragment in the triplet lies mainly in the range of (20 divide 40) a.m.u. Connection between the effect and known heavy ion or lead radioactivity is discussed.

Pyatkov, Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kamanin, D.; Alexandrov, A.; Alexandrova, I.; Kondratyev, N.; Kuznetsova, E.; Tyukavkin, A.; Zhuchko, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Krasznohorkay, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Gulyas, J.; Naqvi, F.; Tornyi, T. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)



Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at .



Results from ground-based observations of asteroid 2012 DA_{14} during its close approach to the Earth on February 15, 2013  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA_{14} (hereafter DA_{14}) made its closest approach to the Earth on February 15, 2013, when it passed at a distance of 27,700 km from the Earth's surface. DA_{14} was discovered only one year before the approach. This fact, together with its small size, made a good characterization of the body very difficult. However, it was the first time an asteroid of moderate size (˜45 m estimated before the approach) was predicted to come that close to the Earth, becoming bright enough to permit a detailed study from ground-based telescopes. With the aim of collecting the most varied and useful information, we designed and carried out an observational campaign that involved 5 ground-based telescopes located in 4 different Spanish observatories. Visible colors and spectra were obtained using the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at the ''El Roque de los Muchachos'' Observatory (ORM) and the 2.2-m CAHA telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria); near-infrared colors were obtained using the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, located also at the ORM; time-series photometry was obtained using the f/3 0.77-m telescope at La Hita Observatory (Toledo) and the f/8 1.5-m telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (Granada, Spain). The analysis of the data confirmed that this NEA can be classified as an L-type asteroid with an estimated geometric albedo of p_V = 0.44 ± 0.20. L-type asteroids are not very common and most of them display unusual characteristics that indicate that their surfaces could be covered by a mixture of high- and low-albedo particles, as it is detected on some carbonaceous chondrites (CV3 and CO3). We found the asteroid to be quite elongated and very irregular, with an equivalent diameter of 18 m, less than a half of the former estimation. This suggests that close approaches of objects as small as DA_{14} are 4 times more frequent per year than it was thought before (once every 40 years). The rotational period of the object was also estimated with high accuracy with interesting results. Using the time-series photometry before and after the encounter, we show that the object probably suffered a spin-up due to the gravitational forces during its close approach to the Earth, decreasing its rotational period from 9.8 ± 0.1 hr. to 8.8 ± 0.1 hr.

de Leon, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Morales, N.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Licandro, J.; Perez-Romero, A.; Lorenzi, V.; Cikota, S.



Subsidized optimal ART for HIV-positive temporary residents of Australia improves virological outcomes: results from the Australian HIV Observational Database Temporary Residents Access Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction HIV-positive (HIV+) temporary residents living in Australia legally are unable to access government subsidized antiretroviral treatment (ART) which is provided via Medicare to Australian citizens and permanent residents. Currently, there is no information systematically being collected on non-Medicare eligible HIV+ patients in Australia. The objectives of this study are to describe the population recruited to the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) Temporary Residents Access Study (ATRAS) and to determine the short- and long-term outcomes of receiving (subsidized) optimal ART and the impact on onwards HIV transmission. Methods ATRAS was established in 2011. Eligible patients were recruited via the AHOD network. Key HIV-related characteristics were recorded at baseline and prospectively. Additional visa-related information was also recorded at baseline, and updated annually. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the ATRAS cohort in terms of visa status by key demographic characteristics, including sex, region of birth, and HIV disease status. CD4 cell count (mean and SD) and the proportion with undetectable (<50 copies/ml) HIV viral load are reported at baseline, 6 and 12 months of follow-up. We also estimate the proportion reduction of onward HIV transmission based on the reduction in proportion of people with detectable HIV viral load. Results A total of 180 patients were recruited to ATRAS by June 2012, and by July 2013 39 patients no longer required ART via ATRAS, 35 of whom became eligible for Medicare-funded medication. At enrolment, 63% of ATRAS patients were receiving ART from alternative sources, 47% had an undetectable HIV viral load (<50 copies/ml) and the median CD4 cell count was 343 cells/µl (IQR: 222–479). At 12 months of follow-up, 85% had an undetectable viral load. We estimated a 75% reduction in the risk of onward HIV transmission with the improved rate of undetectable viral load. Conclusions The immunological and virological improvements highlight the importance of supplying optimal ART to this vulnerable population. The increase in proportion with undetectable HIV viral load shows the potentially significant impact on HIV transmission in addition to the personal health benefit for each individual. PMID:25680919

Petoumenos, Kathy; Watson, Jo; Whittaker, Bill; Hoy, Jennifer; Smith, Don; Bastian, Lisa; Finlayson, Robert; Sloane, Andrew; Wright, Stephen T.; McManus, Hamish; Law, Matthew G



Using dissociation energies to predict observability of b- and y-peaks in mass spectra of short peptides. II. Results for hexapeptides with non-polar side chains  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE The hypothesis that dissociation energies can serve as a predictor of observability of b- and y-peaks is tested for seven hexapeptides. If the hypothesis holds true for large classes of peptides, one would be able to improve the scoring accuracy of peptide identification tools by excluding theoretical peaks that cannot be observed in practical product ion spectra due to various physical, chemical or thermodynamic considerations. METHODS Product ion m/z spectra of hexapeptides AAAAAA, AAAFAA, AAAVAA, AAFAAA, AAVAAA, AAFFAA and AAVVAA have been acquired on a Finnigan LTQ XL mass spectrometer in the collision-induced dissociation (CID) activation mode on a grid of activation times 0.05 to 100 ms and normalized collision energy 10 to 35%. Dissociation energies were calculated for all fragmentation channels leading to b- and y-fragments at the TPSS/6–31G(d,p) level of the density functional theory. RESULTS It was demonstrated that the m/z peaks observed in the product ion spectra correspond to the fragmentation channels with dissociation energies below a certain threshold value. However, there is no direct correlation between the most intense m/z peaks and the lowest dissociation energies. Using the dissociation energies, it was predicted that out of 63 theoretically possible peaks in the b- and y-series of the seven hexapeptides, 19 should not be observable in practical spectra. In the experiments, 24 peaks were not observed, including all 19 predicted. CONCLUSIONS Dissociation energies alone are not sufficient for predicting ion intensity relationships in product ion m/z spectra. Nevertheless, the present data suggest that dissociation energies appear to be good predictors of observability of b- and y-peaks and potentially very useful for filtering theoretical peaks of each candidate peptide in peptide identification tools. PMID:23239328

Obolensky, O. I.; Wu, Wells W.; Shen, Rong-Fong; Yu, Yi-Kuo



Comparing modelled predictions of neonatal mortality impacts using LiST with observed results of community-based intervention trials in South Asia  

PubMed Central

Background There is an increasing body of evidence from trials suggesting that major reductions in neonatal mortality are possible through community-based interventions. Since these trials involve packages of varying content, determining how much of the observed mortality reduction is due to specific interventions is problematic. The Lives Saved Tool (LiST) is designed to facilitate programmatic prioritization by modelling mortality reductions related to increasing coverage of specific interventions which may be combined into packages. Methods To assess the validity of LiST outputs, we compared predictions generated by LiST with observed neonatal mortality reductions in trials of packages which met inclusion criteria but were not used as evidence inputs for LiST. Results Four trials, all from South Asia, met the inclusion criteria. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) predicted by LiST matched the observed rate very closely in two effectiveness-type trials. LiST predicted NMR reduction was close (absolute difference <5/1000 live births) in a third study. The NMR at the end of the fourth study (Shivgarh, India) was overestimated by 39% or 16/1000 live births. Conclusions These results suggest that LiST is a reasonably reliable tool for use by policymakers to prioritize interventions to reduce neonatal deaths, at least in South Asia and where empirical data are unavailable. Reasons for the underestimated reduction in one trial likely include the inability of LiST to model all effective interventions. PMID:20348113

Friberg, Ingrid K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bang, Abhay; Cousens, Simon; Baqui, Abdullah H; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Walker, Neff; Lawn, Joy E



Tropical pacific forcing of a 1998-1999 climate shift: observational analysis and climate model results for the boreal spring season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational data and climate model simulations and experiments are utilized to document an abrupt shift in Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and associated atmospheric conditions, which occurred in 1998-1999. Emphasis is placed on the March-May (MAM) season, as the motivation for the work is to extend a recent study that reported an abrupt decline in East African MAM rainfall at that time. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of MAM SSTs over the last century following the removal of the concurrent influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and global warming trend by linear regression reveals a pattern of multidecadal variability in the Pacific similar to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Examination of MAM precipitation variations since 1940 indicates, among other findings, that recurrent drought events since 1999 in East Africa, central-southwest Asia, parts of eastern Australia and the southwestern US are all regional manifestations of a global scale multidecadal pattern. Associated shifts in the low-level wind field and upper-level stationary waves are discussed. Simulations using an atmospheric climate model forced with observed, global SSTs capture many of the salient precipitation and atmospheric circulation features associated with the observed shift. Further, when the model is forced only with observed SSTs from the tropical Pacific it also captures many of the observed atmospheric changes, including the abrupt shift in 1999. The results point to the fundamental role played by the tropical Pacific in driving the response to multidecadal variability of SSTs in the basin and provide important context for recent seasonal climate extremes in several regions of the globe.

Lyon, Bradfield; Barnston, Anthony G.; DeWitt, David G.



UC Davis study shows how DNA finds its match

It’s been more than 50 years since James Watson and Francis Crick showed that DNA is a double helix of two strands that complement each other. But how does a short piece of DNA find its match, out of the millions of "letters" in even a small genome? New work by researchers at the University of California, Davis, handling and observing single molecules of DNA, shows how it’s done. The results are published online Feb. 8 by the journal Nature.


Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

Vetrov, A.



Annual variations of the amplitude characteristic of the noise magnetic field in the ELF frequency range based on the results of high-latitude observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual variation of a number of amplitude characteristics of the noise electromagnetic field in the frequency range near the first Schumann resonance (and in particular the mean values of the modulus of horizontal magnetic components and parameters of the distribution function of noise pulses over amplitudes) was obtained and analyzed based on the results of three-year measurements performed at the high-latitude magnetic observatory Lovozero. The summer increase in mean and median values of the magnetic component of noises associated with electrical storms and the lack of annual variations of the exponent that empirically describes the distribution of amplitudes of noise signals were found. The relationship between the seasonal (winter/summer in the northern hemisphere) increase in the mean value of the modulus of the horizontal magnetic field component and seasonal increase in the global number of lightning discharges is shown by the correlation of the results of satellite observations and measurements of the magnetic component.

Pchelkin, V. V.



ClO Observations from Space by JEM/SMILES: First results of SMILES L2 research product and comparison with MLS and Odin/SMR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submillimetre-wave receiving Systems based on sensitive SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) detector Technology provide new opportunities for Accurate Observation of ClO in the at-mosphere. The Superconducting Submillimetre-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was launched and installed onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. The SMILES project is a collaboration of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The aims of THE SMILES project are: i) Space demonstration of super-conductive SIS mixer for submillimetre-wave limb emission sounding cooled down to 4K using a mechanical cooler. ii) Global measurements of atmospheric molecules and radicals. SMILES observes atmospheric species and isotopologues such as Osub3/sub, Hsup35/supCl, Hsup37/supCl, ClO, Upper tro-pospheric humidity, BrO, HOBr, HOCl, HOsub2/sub, Hsub2/subOsub2/sub, HNOsub3/sub, CHsub3/subCN, SOsub2/sub, and ozone isotope species in the altitude region from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with a precision of a few percent. SMILES observes day and night profiles of ClO in the altitude range 20-65km between 65N and 38S. We have been analyzing the ClO observations. We will present the recent status of the analysis with respect to the NICT research level-2 data product, give an error estimation, and provide early comparison/validation results from comparisons with global measurements from Odin/SMR and MLS.

Sato, Tomohiro; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Ochiai, Satoshi; Kanamori, Hideto; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Takeshi; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Smiles Mission Team


Crustal vertical motion along a profile crossing the Rhine graben from the Vosges to the Black Forest Mountains: Results from absolute gravity, GPS and levelling observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rhine plain is oriented north-south and limited by the Vosges Mountains (France) to the West and the Black Forest Mountains (Germany) to the East. The present-day tectonic evolution of this system is not well known and many questions are still pending: is the graben subsiding? Are the mountains uplifting? What is the relative behaviour of the three different geological components? In attempting to answer these questions, we compare for the first time in this region time series of absolute gravity (AG) measurements to the available GPS observations at three sites along a profile crossing the Rhine graben. Our reference station is the gravimetric observatory near Strasbourg (J9), located in the Rhine plain where AG measurements are performed regularly since 1997 and where superconducting gravimeter (SG) observations are available almost continuously for 17 years. The secondary sites are the Welschbruch station in the Vosges Mountains where six AG measurements have been conducted since 1997 and the Black Forest Observatory (BFO) where three AG measurements are available. GPS permanent receivers are collocated at the Strasbourg-J9 site since 1999, at the Welschbruch station since 2000, and at BFO since 2002. Levelling data are only available in the BFO region. We compare the long term content of two types of geodetic measurements with special emphasis on the trend despite the limited duration of our data sets. Assuming that the gravity changes are linear in time, we obtain g?=1.9±0.2 ?Gal/yr at Strasbourg-J9, g?=-0.96±0.2 ?Gal/yr at Welschbruch site and g?=2.5±0.5 ?Gal/yr at BFO. The trends according to GPS observations are, respectively: -1.51 ± 0.07 and -0.74 ± 0.10 mm/yr at Strasbourg-J9 and Welschbruch site, respectively; there is no GPS result available at BFO. The AG results for BFO are very questionable, as well as the GPS observations at the Welschbruch station. Nonetheless, Strasbourg-J9 and Welschbruch AG measurements lead to subsidence and uplift, respectively, which are expected results in agreement with GPS at Strasbourg-J9.

Amalvict, M.; Hinderer, J.; Rózsa, S.



The ~10 hour modulation of the relativistic electron spectrum as a result of the periodic motion of the Jovian outer magnetosphere layer: Ulysses observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze relativistic (E>3 MeV) electron observations during the dayside inbound trajectory of Ulysses (day 33 to day 38, 1992) in the Jovian magnetosphere and we demonstrate that the continuous presence of a relativistic electron layer at higher north latitudes (Ulysses reached ~40° lat. during closest approach the planet). In particular, we evaluated the cross-B field anisotropy of relativistic (E>3 MeV) electrons intensity by the COSPIN/HET detector onboard Ulysses, and we found that between the times of plasma sheet crossings/approaches, when Ulysses was found far from the magnetodisc, at higher north latitudes, local increases in the relativistic electron intensity and intensity gradient in the northward direction were persistently observed. We also found that (1) the well known ~10 h separated relativistic electron spectral index peaks (spectral softening) and (2) the detection of relativistic electron intensity gradient in the northward direction are related phenomena. We infer that phenomenon 1 and 2 are explained by the ~10 h periodic upward-downward motion of the Jovian magnetosphere, and consequently of the outer magnetosphere relativistic electron layer. ?he above results extends earlier results for low energy electrons and energetic protons (Anagnostopoulos et al., 1998, 2001b) to relativistic electron phenomena, and provide strong evidence, for the first time, that the well known ~10 h rocking of the relativistic electron spectrum in the outer magnetosphere (the so called "clock phenomenon") is a spatial and not a temporal effect, as was earlier hypothesized (Simpson et al.,1992).

Anagnostopoulos, G. C.; Karanikola, I.; Marhavilas, P. K.



(25143) Itokawa: The power of radiometric techniques for the interpretation of remote thermal observations in the light of the Hayabusa rendezvous results*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa was characterized in great detail by the Japanese Hayabusa mission. We revisited the available thermal observations in the light of the true asteroid properties with the goal of evaluating the possibilities and limitations of thermal model techniques. In total, we used 25 published ground-based mid-infrared photometric observations and five so far unpublished measurements from the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite AKARI in combination with improved H-G values (absolute magnitude and slope parameter). Our thermophysical model (TPM) approach allowed us to determine correctly the sense of rotation, to estimate the thermal inertia and to derive robust effective size and albedo values by only using a simple spherical shape model. A more complex shape model, derived from light-curve inversion techniques, improved the quality of the predictions considerably and made the interpretation of the thermal light curve possible. The radiometrically derived effective diameter value agrees within 2% with the true Itokawa size value. The combination of our TPM and the final (25143) Itokawa in-situ shape model was then used as a benchmark for deriving and testing radiometric solutions. The consolidated value for the surface-averaged thermal inertia is ? = 700 ± 200 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1. We found that even the high-resolution shape models still require additional small-scale roughness in order to explain the disk-integrated infrared measurements. Our description of the thermal effects as a function of wavelengths, phase angle, and rotational phase facilitates the planning of crucial thermal observations for sophisticated characterization of small bodies, including other potentially hazardous asteroids. Our analysis shows the power of radiometric techniques to derive the size, albedo, thermal inertia, and also spin-axis orientation from small sets of measurements at thermal infrared wavelengths.

Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Usui, Fumihiko



A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional Observations (ManTIS) and the Resultant Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System  

PubMed Central

This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional observations (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy shows that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant observation center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit



Methodological developments for the remote sensing of water vapor combining Raman lidar, GPS and in-situ observations: results from the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring water vapour in the atmosphere is still a challenging topic for ever more demanding geophysical applications requiring high absolute accuracy, both at high and low water vapour concentrations, and long term stability. Changes in instruments or sensor types make this task very difficult and require a reference technique for inter-calibration purposes. Scanning Raman lidars have been shown in the past to be a potential candidate technique for transferring absolute calibration from ground-based sensors to other systems such as profilers (e.g. radiosondes and remote-sensing techniques like spectrometers and radiometers) and/or precipitable water vapour (PWV) measurements (e.g. from GPS or dual-channel microwave radiometers). The DEMEVAP (DEvelopment of MEthods for remote sensing of water VAPor) project aims at developing improved reference humidity sounding methods based on the combined used of scanning Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. The ultimate goal is to achieve absolute accuracy better than 3% on the total column water vapour. An intensive observing period was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France, which involved two Raman lidars, four radiosonde measurement systems, five GPS stations, a stellar spectrometer, and several ground-based capacitive and dew-point sensors. Observations were collected over 17 nights during which 26 balloons were released which carried a total of 79 radiosondes. Most of the balloons carried 3 or 4 different sonde types simultaneously (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White) for comparison purposes. The dataset collected during DEMEVAP 2011 is used to assess several GPS and Raman lidar calibration methods and evaluate the humidity bias of different operational radiosonde types. The four radiosonde systems show biases of -11 to +7% compared to GPS PWV. Several Raman lidar calibration methods using either radiosonde profiles or GPS PWV measurements are compared to a hybrid method combining GPS and lidar data at the observation level. All these methods show a good degree of repeatability in the estimated lidar calibration constant of 2 to 5%.

Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.; Keckhut, P.; Bourcy, T.; Tzanos, D.



A Census of X-ray Gas in NGC 1068: Results From 450 ks of CHANDRA High Energy Transmisson Grating Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present models for the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. These are fitted to data obtained using the High Energy Transmission Grating on Chandra. The data show line and radiative recombination continuum emission from a broad range of ions and elements. The models explore the importance of excitation processes for these lines including photoionization followed by recombination, radiative excitation by absorption of continuum radiation, and inner shell fluorescence. The models show that the relative importance of these processes depends on the conditions in the emitting gas and that no single emitting component can fit the entire spectrum. In particular, the relative importance of radiative excitation and photoionization/recombination differs according to the element and ion stage emitting the line. This in turn implies a diversity of values for the ionization parameter of the various components of gas responsible for the emission, ranging from log(E ) = 1 to 3. Using this, we obtain an estimate for the total amount of gas responsible for the observed emission. The mass flux through the region included in the HETG extraction region is approximately 0.3M/yr, assuming ordered flow at the speed characterizing the line widths. This can be compared with what is known about this object from other techniques.

Kallman, T.; Evans, Daniel A.; Marshall, H.; Canizares, C.; Longinotti, A.; Nowak, M.; Schulz, N.



Weather Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will be observing the weather in our enviornment. Post your observations. Take a hike! Tell us what you see! Make sure and note the date/time/season. Take a walk in your neighboorhood- what signs show you the current season? Vacation? Make observations about the place you visited. Make obseravtions every week! Keep a journal about the changes you observe! Winter Storm ImageSeasonal ChangesAround the WorldSeasonsSeasons of the Year ...




OH Fluorescence and Prompt Emission in comet 103P/Hartley 2 observed by EPOXI mission and expected results for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS WAC camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OH radical, observed in cometary comae, is the direct dissociation product of water. Given the strong A2? ? X2II (0, 0) emission band in the near-UV at 308.5 nm due to resonance fluorescence, the OH radical has been used, for years, as a tracer of the water parent molecule. Specifically, the OH fluorescence band provides an immediate tool to monitor the water production rate and its variations with the comet's heliocentric distance, rotational period and possible activity changes. Photolysis of water in cometary comae gives rise, with a non negligible branching ratio, to OH fragments in the first electronically excited state (OH*). This state is very unstable, with a lifetime of about 10?6s (Becker and Haaks, 1973), therefore OH* molecules promptly decay to the ground state. This process, generally referred to as prompt emission (PE), is responsible for an emission band in the near-UV ranging approximatelly from 306 to 325 nm. Original studies and tentative detections of OH PE have been put forth by Bertaux (1986), Budzien and Feldman (1991), Bonev et al. (2004), A'Hearn et al. (2007) using ground and space observations. Both from the above mentioned works together with our analysis, this process is expected to be prominent at short distances from the nucleus, where there is high density of water molecules, requiring the need of spacecraft observations to reach the necessary resolution. The hyperactive Jupiter family comet 103P/Hartley 2 has been visited by EPOXI spacecraft on 4 November 2010 at a minimum distance of 694 km, when it was at 1.064 AU from the Sun (A'Hearn et al. 2011). We present the analysis of photometric observations in OH filter acquired by MRI camera onboard EPOXI used to investigate the spatial distribution of OH in the coma of Hartley 2. The data revealed a radial OH structure within 35 km from the nucleus, appearing to be coming directly from the nucleus, in the region of the central waist. A theoretical computation evidencing a strong possibility that this OH structure could be partially associated with OH PE has been performed. This is strongly supported by the agreement of the OH spatial distribution with the water spatial distribution derived from HRI IR spectrometer observations (A'Hearn et al. 2011). Given the results on comet Hartley 2, we present our expectations and preliminary analysis of OH fluorescence and prompt emission mechanisms in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, target of the Rosetta mission. The OSIRIS WAC camera on board Rosetta is equipped with 7 narrowband filters centered on molecular emission bands, including the OH gas filter. This will enable us to investigate OH fluorescence and PE at increasing resolution as Rosetta will approach the comet. This analysis, supported by accompanying observations acquired by OSIRIS WAC camera in the forbidden OI band at 630 nm, will help in further constrain the water photochemistry and the fluorescence and PE processes occurring in the cometary comae.

La Forgia, F.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Lazzarin, M.; Magrin, S.; Bodewits, D.; Bertini, I.; Pajola, M.; Barbier, C.; Sierks, H.



Reconciliation and interpretation of the Big Bend National Park light extinction source apportionment: results from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study--part II.  


The recently completed Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study focused on particulate sulfate source attribution for a 4-month period from July through October 1999. A companion paper in this issue by Schichtel et al. describes the methods evaluation and results reconciliation of the BRAVO Study sulfate attribution approaches. This paper summarizes the BRAVO Study extinction budget assessment and interprets the attribution results in the context of annual and multiyear causes of haze by drawing on long-term aerosol monitoring data and regional transport climatology, as well as results from other investigations. Particulate sulfates, organic carbon, and coarse mass are responsible for most of the haze at Big Bend National Park, whereas fine particles composed of light-absorbing carbon, fine soils, and nitrates are relatively minor contributors. Spring and late summer through fall are the two periods of high-haze levels at Big Bend. Particulate sulfate and carbonaceous compounds contribute in a similar magnitude to the spring haze period, whereas sulfates are the primary cause of haze during the late summer and fall period. Atmospheric transport patterns to Big Bend vary throughout the year, resulting in a seasonal cycle of different upwind source regions contributing to its haze levels. Important sources and source regions for haze at Big Bend include biomass smoke from Mexico and Central America in the spring and African dust during the summer. Sources of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in Mexico, Texas, and in the Eastern United States all contribute to Big Bend haze in varying amounts over different times of the year, with a higher contribution from Mexican sources in the spring and early summer, and a higher contribution from U.S. sources during late summer and fall. Some multiple-day haze episodes result from the influence of several source regions, whereas others are primarily because of emissions from a single source region. PMID:16350369

Pitchford, Marc L; Schichtel, Bret A; Gebhart, Kristi A; Barna, Michael G; Malm, William C; Tombach, Ivar H; Knipping, Eladio M



The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: results from a multicenter observational study  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. Materials and Methods From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. Results The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was observed only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was observed in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade ?3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary. PMID:25324987

Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Ahn, Seung-Do; Choi, Doo-Ho; Kang, Min Kyu; Chung, Woong-Ki




SciTech Connect

We report observational techniques, results, and Monte Carlo population analyses from a Spitzer Infrared Array Camera imaging survey for substellar companions to 117 nearby M, L, and T dwarf systems (median distance of 10 pc, mass range of 0.6 to {approx}0.05 M{sub Sun }). The two-epoch survey achieves typical detection sensitivities to substellar companions of [4.5 {mu}m] {<=} 17.2 mag for angular separations between about 7'' and 165''. Based on common proper motion analysis, we find no evidence for new substellar companions. Using Monte Carlo orbital simulations (assuming random inclination, random eccentricity, and random longitude of pericenter), we conclude that the observational sensitivities translate to an ability to detect 600-1100 K brown dwarf companions at semimajor axes {approx}>35 AU and to detect 500-600 K companions at semimajor axes {approx}>60 AU. The simulations also estimate a 600-1100 K T dwarf companion fraction of <3.4% for 35-1200 AU separations and <12.4% for the 500-600 K companions for 60-1000 AU separations.

Carson, J. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming St., Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, A313E Zaffarano, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Patten, B. M.; Hora, J. L.; Schuster, M. T.; Fazio, G. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Luhman, K. L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Sonnett, S. M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Allen, P. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA 17604 (United States); Stauffer, J. R. [Spitzer Science Center, 1200 E California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91106 (United States); Schnupp, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)



Computer-aided diagnosis in chest radiography: results of large-scale observer tests at the 1996-2001 RSNA scientific assemblies.  


Since 1996, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) schemes have been presented as interactive demonstrations on computer workstations at each scientific assembly of the Radiological Society of North America. The schemes involved (a) detection of pulmonary nodules, (b) temporal subtraction, (c) detection of interstitial lung disease, (d) differential diagnosis of interstitial lung disease, and (e) distinction between benign and malignant pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs. Large-scale observer tests were carried out to examine how radiologists can benefit from CAD systems. Observer performance was evaluated by analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The statistical significance of the difference between the areas under the ROC curves without and with CAD was analyzed with the Student t test. In all of the tests, the diagnostic accuracy of the radiologists in total improved significantly when CAD was used. This result provides additional evidence that CAD has the potential to improve the performance of radiologists in their decision-making process in interpreting chest radiographs. PMID:12533660

Abe, Hiroyuki; MacMahon, Heber; Engelmann, Roger; Li, Qiang; Shiraishi, Junji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Aoyama, Masahito; Ishida, Takayuki; Ashizawa, Kazuto; Metz, Charles E; Doi, Kunio



Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: Results from a large German community-based observational cohort study.  


Abstract Background. After approval of bevacizumab in Germany in 2005 for the treatment of unresectable advanced or refractory colorectal cancer (CRC), this observational cohort study was initiated to assess the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab with various chemotherapy regimen in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). Material and methods. To facilitate enrolment of a typical mCRC population, eligibility criteria were minimised. Choice of chemotherapy regimen was at the physicians' discretion, but influenced by current registration status. Predefined endpoints were treatment characteristics, response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adverse events assessed as potentially related to bevacizumab treatment. Patients were followed for up to four years. Results. In total 1777 eligible patients were enrolled at 261 sites from January 2005 to June 2008. Median age: 64 years (range 19-100); male 62%; ECOG performance status 0-1/? 2 89%/11%. Chemotherapy choice was fluoropyrimidine (FU) 12%, FU/oxaliplatin 18%, FU/irinotecan 64%, no chemotherapy concurrent to bevacizumab 2% and other 4%. Best investigator-assessed response rate was 60% (complete response 10%, partial response 51%). Median PFS was 10.2 months and median OS was 24.8 months. Conclusions. The efficacy and safety profile of bevacizumab in this population of mCRC patients with different chemotherapy regimens is consistent with that observed in other patient registries/non-randomised trials and also corresponds well with data from similar treatment arms of phase III trials. PMID:25307517

Stein, Alexander; Petersen, Volker; Schulze, Mathias; Seraphin, Jörg; Hoeffkes, Heinz-Gert; Valdix, Anette R; Schroeder, Jan; Herrenberger, Julia; Boxberger, Frank; Leutgeb, Barbara; Hinke, Axel; Kutscheidt, Andreas; Arnold, Dirk



The information about possible orbits of NEOs from the results of long-term radar observations of meteors in the Laboratory of Radioengeneering of Khnure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main fundamental results of statistical examination of the data of the observations of weak meteors to +12m obtained with the meteoric automatic radar system of KHNURE are presented. From the KHNURE base of meteors individual orbits 5160 meteor showers are singled out and astronomical interpretation of the ones are presented. The estimates of the Solar system small bodies contribution in the meteoric complex are made. It is shown that among the stream meteoroids 75% are of the asteroid origin. Studying of the orbits of meteor streams from the KHNURE databank together with the up-to-date theories allow to make the assumption about the existence of plenty of NEOs which probability of detection by traditional methods today is very small.

Voloshchuk, Yu. I.; Kashcheyev, B. L.; Kolomiyets, S. V.; Slipchenko, N. I.



Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud Observations . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does show skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy observations exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud observables on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.

da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.



The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. I. Observational Results for Holmberg II ULX  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We presen the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) observations of the [O IV] 25.89 um emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map shows that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower ionization lines are similar to those observed in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the, photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data is used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use its previously published optical and radio data to construct the full SED for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.

Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.



DYZ1 arrays show sequence variation between the monozygotic males  

PubMed Central

Background Monozygotic twins (MZT) are an important resource for genetical studies in the context of normal and diseased genomes. In the present study we used DYZ1, a satellite fraction present in the form of tandem arrays on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, as a tool to uncover sequence variations between the monozygotic males. Results We detected copy number variation, frequent insertions and deletions within the sequences of DYZ1 arrays amongst all the three sets of twins used in the present study. MZT1b showed loss of 35 bp compared to that in 1a, whereas 2a showed loss of 31 bp compared to that in 2b. Similarly, 3b showed 10 bp insertion compared to that in 3a. MZT1a germline DNA showed loss of 5 bp and 1b blood DNA showed loss of 26 bp compared to that of 1a blood and 1b germline DNA, respectively. Of the 69 restriction sites detected in DYZ1 arrays, MboII, BsrI, TspEI and TaqI enzymes showed frequent loss and or gain amongst all the 3 pairs studied. MZT1 pair showed loss/gain of VspI, BsrDI, AgsI, PleI, TspDTI, TspEI, TfiI and TaqI restriction sites in both blood and germline DNA. All the three sets of MZT showed differences in the number of DYZ1 copies. FISH signals reflected somatic mosaicism of the DYZ1 copies across the cells. Conclusions DYZ1 showed both sequence and copy number variation between the MZT males. Sequence variation was also noticed between germline and blood DNA samples of the same individual as we observed at least in one set of sample. The result suggests that DYZ1 faithfully records all the genetical changes occurring after the twining which may be ascribed to the environmental factors. PMID:24495361



Reconciliation and interpretation of Big Bend National Park particulate sulfur source apportionment: results from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study--part I.  


The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) study was an intensive monitoring study from July through October 1999 followed by extensive assessments to determine the causes and sources of haze in Big Bend National Park, located in Southwestern Texas. Particulate sulfate compounds are the largest contributor of haze at Big Bend, and chemical transport models (CTMs) and receptor models were used to apportion the sulfate concentrations at Big Bend to North American source regions and the Carbón power plants, located 225 km southeast of Big Bend in Mexico. Initial source attribution methods had contributions that varied by a factor of > or =2. The evaluation and comparison of methods identified opposing biases between the CTMs and receptor models, indicating that the ensemble of results bounds the true source attribution results. The reconciliation of these differences led to the development of a hybrid receptor model merging the CTM results and air quality data, which allowed a nearly daily source apportionment of the sulfate at Big Bend during the BRAVO study. The best estimates from the reconciliation process resulted in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from U.S. and Mexican sources contributing approximately 55% and 38%, respectively, of sulfate at Big Bend. The distribution among U.S. source regions was Texas, 16%; the Eastern United States, 30%; and the Western United States, 9%. The Carbón facilities contributed 19%, making them the largest single contributing facility. Sources in Mexico contributed to the sulfate at Big Bend on most days, whereas contributions from Texas and Eastern U.S. sources were episodic, with their largest contributions during Big Bend sulfate episodes. On the 20% of the days with the highest sulfate concentrations, U.S. and Mexican sources contributed approximately 71% and 26% of the sulfate, respectively. However, on the 20% of days with the lowest sulfate concentrations, Mexico contributed 48% compared with 40% for the United States. PMID:16350368

Schichtel, Bret A; Gebhart, Kristi A; Malm, William C; Barna, Michael G; Pitchford, Marc L; Knipping, Eladio M; Tombach, Ivar H



ß-hCG and prediction of therapeutic success in ectopic pregnancies treated with methotrexate, results from a prospective observational study.  


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (ß-hCG) levels measurement, for predicting success of medical treatment in cases diagnosed as tubal ectopic pregnancy (TEP). Design: Five-year prospective observational study. Setting: Prenatal Diagnosis Unit, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital - Barcelona. Patients: TEP cases fulfilling criteria for medical treatment with Methotrexate. Interventions: ß-hCG levels were measured on d 0, 4 and 7 of treatment. Results were compared by non-parametrical tests. A ROC curve was plotted to define cut-off points. Diagnostic accuracy of the different measurements was evaluated. Main outcome measure: Failure of treatment defined as need for surgical treatment or persistence of high ß-HCG levels despite treatment. Results: 126 women were diagnosed as TEP, eligible for medical treatment. There were no differences in parity, age, previous TEP, or adnexal mass size. Success rate was 88%. ß-HCG decreased significantly more, between days 0-7 and 4-7, in the successful cases. LR for success prediction was 6.2 and 7.8 for ß-HCG levels at days 4 and 7 respectively, 4.02 and 2.47 for decrement between days 0-7 (25%) and 4-7 (20%), respectively. Conclusion: ß-hCG cutoff values have a potential for predicting a successful medical treatment of TEP. PMID:24871360

Orozco, Esteban Mauricio; Sánchez-Durán, Maria Angeles; Bello-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Sagalá, Juan; Carreras, Elena; Roura, Lluis Cabero



Surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet in the new CCSM: results for 1948-present and comparison with observations and higher-resolution models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The latest version of the Community Climate System Model, CCSM4, has been coupled to the Glimmer ice sheet model in order to simulate interactive ice sheets. The surface mass balance is computed in the land surface component of CCSM, using an energy-balance scheme with multiple elevation classes in each grid cell. We present initial results of the 20th-century surface mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet with the new scheme. The land model is run in two configurations: (1) forced with atmospheric climatology from reanalysis, 1948-present, and (2) coupled on a half-hourly time scale to the CCSM atmosphere model. Results are compared to observations and to output from a high-resolution regional model. The sensitivity of the simulated surface mass balance to several key parameters (e.g., ice albedo and temperature lapse rate) is examined. This work is being done in preparation for IPCC AR5 climate change simulations using CCSM4 with a dynamic Greenland ice sheet.

Vizcaíno, Miren; Lipscomb, William H.



The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this one, but when I searched the Internet for information and looked at YouTube presentations, I could only find simplistic references to Newton's laws and the conservation of mechanical energy principle. Nowhere could I find detailed calculations. On the other hand, there were several biomechanical articles with empirical reports of the results of kinetic and dynamic investigations of show jumping using high-speed digital cameras and force plates. They summarize their results in tables that give information about the motion of a horse jumping over high fences (1.40 m) and the magnitudes of the forces encountered when landing. However, they do not describe the physics of these results.

Stinner, Art



VLA Shows "Boiling" in Atmosphere of Betelgeuse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A team of astronomers says that observations with the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show that a neighboring bloated star has giant convective plumes propelling gas from its surface (photosphere) up into the star's atmosphere. This new information contradicts long-held ideas that such stellar atmospheres are more uniform, and may resolve questions about how the star's atmosphere attains its enormous size as well as how dust and gas is driven away from the star. Jeremy Lim of the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy & Astrophysics in Taiwan; Chris Carilli, Anthony Beasley, and Ralph Marson of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM; and Stephen White of the University of Maryland studied the red-supergiant star Betelgeuse, about 430 light-years away in the constellation Orion. They reported their findings in the April 9 issue of the scientific journal Nature. "These radio-telescope images confirm that Betelgeuse -- already more than 600 times larger than our Sun -- has a dense atmosphere that extends to many times larger still than the star itself," said Lim. "The highest-resolution image shows the star's atmosphere to have a remarkably complex structure." "To our surprise," added White, "the images also show that most of the gas in the atmosphere is only about as hot as that on the surface. Previously, all of it was thought to be very much hotter." The astronomers used the VLA to make images of Betelgeuse at a variety of radio frequencies. The series of radio observations measured the temperature of the star's atmosphere at different heights. Previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) at ultraviolet wavelengths showed that the star's atmosphere contains very hot gas at about twice the surface temperature. The VLA images showed that there also is lower-temperature gas throughout the atmosphere. This gas is near the surface temperature at low heights and decreases in temperature progressively outwards. Although its existence was not previously suspected, this lower-temperature gas turns out to be the most abundant constituent of Betelgeuse's atmosphere. "This alters our basic understanding of red-supergiant star atmospheres," explains Lim. "Instead of the star's atmosphere expanding uniformly because of gas heated to very high temperatures near its surface, it now appears that several giant convection cells propel gas from the star's surface into its atmosphere. This creates the complex structure we observe for Betelgeuse's atmosphere." Betelgeuse can be likened to an enormous "boiling" ball of gas heated by the release of energy from nuclear fusion in its core. The circulating boiling pattern -- convection -- appears as large regions of hot upwelling gas on the star's surface. "The idea that red-supergiant stars have enormous convection cells is not new," noted Marson. "This was suggested by Martin Schwarzschild more than 20 years ago, and was seen in optical images of Betelgeuse's surface in 1990." The new picture of Betelgeuse's atmosphere also helps resolve the mystery of how massive amounts of dust and gas are expelled from red supergiant stars, an important source of enrichment for the interstellar medium. If their atmospheres were entirely very hot at lower levels, dust grains would not be able to condense there. Dust grains could possibly condense at higher levels, but there they would not get enough "push" from the star's radiation to explain their outward movement. In the new picture, the relatively cool environment at lower levels allows dust grains to condense effectively; here they can be strongly propelled by the more-intense starlight, carrying gas with them. Indeed, dust has previously been inferred to form sporadically near Betelgeuse's surface, but its presence there was difficult to reconcile with the old picture. "This method for propelling the mass outflows of red giant and supergiant stars was proposed by Sun Kwok i



Pure oxygen ventilation during general anaesthesia does not result in increased postoperative respiratory morbidity but decreases surgical site infection. An observational clinical study  

PubMed Central

Background. Pure oxygen ventilation during anaesthesia is debatable, as it may lead to development of atelectasis. Rationale of the study was to demonstrate the harmlessness of ventilation with pure oxygen. Methods. This is a single-centre, one-department observational trial. Prospectively collected routine-data of 76,784 patients undergoing general, gynaecological, orthopaedic, and vascular surgery during 1995–2009 were retrospectively analysed. Postoperative hypoxia, unplanned ICU-admission, surgical site infection (SSI), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and hospital mortality were continuously recorded. During 1996 the anaesthetic ventilation for all patients was changed from 30% oxygen plus 70% nitrous oxide to 100% oxygen in low-flow mode. Therefore, in order to minimize the potential of confounding due to a variety of treatments being used, we directly compared years 1995 (30% oxygen) and 1997 (100%), whereas the period 1998 to 2009 is simply desc