These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Observational astrochemistry - Recent results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed.

Irvine, W. M.

2

Observational astrochemistry - Recent results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed.

Irvine, W. M.

1989-01-01

3

Observational astrochemistry - Recent results  

SciTech Connect

More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed. 44 refs.

Irvine, W.M.

1989-01-01

4

Observational astrochemistry - Recent results  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have

W Irvine

1989-01-01

5

Observational astrochemistry: recent results.  

PubMed

More than 80 molecular species have now been observed by astronomers in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the "biogenic" elements, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and (most recently) phosphorus. In addition, silicon is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Additions to the list of known interstellar molecules since the last COSPAR meeting are discussed individually. Recent measurements of the hydrogen isotopic fractionation for the cyclic molecule C3H2 are described; values up to 10,000 times the cosmic deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio are found. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed. PMID:11537359

Irvine, W M

1989-01-01

6

Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

7

Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Carpenter Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 275 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

8

Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former entry recess and typical sash window; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

9

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

10

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

11

Observe an animation showing the formation of an unconformity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the development of an angular unconformity to high school Earth science students. The introduction defines an unconformity as a gap in sedimentary rock. The animation shows how the cycle of sedimentation and erosion can be interrupted by intrusion of igneous rock. Mountain-building then tilts the rock layers, causing uneven erosion, which leaves pockets of material that are covered by newer sediments. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, giving students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

12

Observe an animation showing the formation of an arch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows middle and high school students how weathering forms sandstone arches. Descriptive text explains that the process begins with a flat, sedimentary surface in which tectonic stress has produced cracks. Weathering widens these cracks, producing thin sandstone walls, and wind-propelled sand drives a hole through the wall. A photograph of an actual arch is provided. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to read the text and connect it with the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

13

BEST IN SHOW RESULTS AND FAIR PHOTOS INSIDE  

E-print Network

club reporter sends in an article about your club happenings. See you at Awards Night! Sincerely Bulletin 4-7 Around The County 8 Awards Night 11 Fair Photos 13-15 Fair Best in Show Winners 17-20 window for a week. Show your 4-H spirit and wear your 4-H Club or Morris County 4-H t-shirt to school. Be sure

Goodman, Robert M.

14

Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Design Cross?sectional, observational. Subjects Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida—all leading sources of California's crime guns—where these restrictions do not exist. Main outcome measures Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate (“straw”) gun purchases. Results Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9–10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5–2.2%), p?=?0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p?=?0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p?=?0.06). Conclusions California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed. PMID:17567968

Wintemute, Garen J

2007-01-01

15

First results of galactic observations with MAGIC  

E-print Network

During its first cycle, the MAGIC (Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov) telescope was performing an observational campaign covering a total of about 250 hours on galactic sources. Here we review the results for the very high energy gamma-ray emission from some of those sources.

Nuria Sidro

2006-10-31

16

Nanotribology results show that DNA forms a mechanically resistant 2D network in metaphase chromatin plates.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (??0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (??0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (??0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (??0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

2010-12-15

17

Radio observations of asteroids: Results and prospects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio observations of the asteroids can provide information on the thermal and dielectric properties of the surface materials and because the radio emission arises somewhat below the surface, the data give some indication of layering. Observational difficulty has limited the investigations to only 6 asteroids: 1 Ceres and 324 Bamberga appear to have a layer of dust covering a more compacted material; the data on 4 Vesta cannot be matched by any current models for the surface; and the results for 18 Melpomene, 31 Euphrosyne and 433 Eros are too incomplete for firm conclusions. Future possibilities include more accurate radiometry of a few selected asteroids of different taxonomic classes and actual resolution of some of the larger objects by aperture synthesis techniques.

Dickel, J. R.

1978-01-01

18

Observational Results from Mount Stony Brook Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mount Stony Brook Observatory consists of a recently upgraded 0.35m Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope instrumented with several CCD cameras. Mt. Stony Brook, located on the Stony Brook campus, in a maritime environment approximately 40 miles East of New York City suffers from poor seeing and a bright sky. However, it offers one major advantage over larger telescopes: availability. We will describe the telescope and instrumentation. We currently use the observatory mainly for determining stellar rotational periods. We will present the results of observations of W Ursae Majoris, an eclipsing contact binary, and FK Comae, a rapidly rotating variable, which confirm our photometric accuracy as well as our period sensitivity. In addition we will be present a new rotational period for the naked T Tauri star TAP 26. TAP 26 was monitored for over 5 months in an attempt to confirm either the 2.51 day period (Bouvier et al. 1993) or the 13 hour period determined by Prosser et al. (1994). We report a 0(d) .715 rotational period and discuss which of the 3 reported periods is likely to be correct.

Petreshock, J.; Wolk, S.; Adams, N.; Walter, F.

1995-03-01

19

The Problems of Time and Observables: Some Recent Mathematical Results  

E-print Network

We present 2 recent results on the problems of time and observables in canonical gravity. (1) We cannot use parametrized field theory to solve the problem of time because, strictly speaking, general relativity is not a parametrized field theory. (2) We show that there are essentially no local observables for vacuum spacetimes.

C. G. Torre

1994-04-14

20

Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

21

A negative cloud-to-ground flash showing a number of new and rarely observed features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unusual natural lightning flash containing two branched negative strokes to ground was recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida, on 8 June 2013. The flash was apparently a bolt from the blue, whose first-stroke leader emerged from the side of the cloud at a height of about 3.5 km above ground level. The first leader showed profuse branching and what appears to be corona-like formations with spatial extent of 100 to 200 m (probably an intensified portion of radial corona sheath) at the upper part of the channel. Leader branching process facilitated by two simultaneous space stems was observed. The corresponding step lengths were estimated to be 14 and 15 m. The first-stroke attachment process involved a streamer zone about 50 m in length. One of the second-leader branches appeared to abruptly change its direction at the beginning of return stroke process.

Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Mallick, S.

2014-09-01

22

SOAR remote observing: tactics and early results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travel from North America to the 4.1m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon exceeds $1000, and takes >16 hours door to door (20+ hours typically). SOAR aims to exploit best seeing, requiring dynamic scheduling that is impossible to accomplish when catering to peripatetic astronomers. According to technical arguments at www.peakoil.org, we are near the peak rate of depleting world petroleum, so can expect travel costs to climb sharply. With the telecom bubble's glut of optical fiber, we can transmit data more efficiently than astronomers and "observe remotely". With data compression, less than half of the 6 Mbps bandwidth shared currently by SOAR and CTIO is enough to enable a high-fidelity observing presence for SOAR partners in North America, Brazil, and Chile. We discuss access from home by cable modem/DSL link.

Cecil, Gerald N.; Crain, J. Adam

2004-09-01

23

Observational constraints on Chaplygin quartessence: Background results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the constraints set by several experiments on the quartessence Chaplygin model (QCM). In this scenario, a single fluid component drives the Universe from a nonrelativistic matter-dominated phase to an accelerated expansion phase behaving, first, like dark matter and in a more recent epoch like dark energy. We consider current data from SNIa experiments, statistics of gravitational lensing, FR IIb radio galaxies, and x-ray gas mass fraction in galaxy clusters. We investigate the constraints from this data set on flat Chaplygin quartessence cosmologies. The observables considered here are dependent essentially on the background geometry, and not on the specific form of the QCM fluctuations. We obtain the confidence region on the two parameters of the model from a combined analysis of all the above tests. We find that the best fit occurs close to the ?CDM limit (?=0). The standard Chaplygin quartessence (?=1) is also allowed by the data, but only at the ˜2? level.

Makler, Martín; Quinet de Oliveira, Sérgio; Waga, Ioav

2003-12-01

24

STS-44 Earth observation shows purplish twilight over the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-44 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, shows twilight over the Atlantic Ocean. OV-104 was at a point in the north Atlantic located at 28 degrees north latitude and 37 degrees west longitude. The spacecraft has just passed sundown on the Earth's surface, but it was still daylight at an altitude of 195 nautical miles. During the mission, the astronauts noted that the limb of the Earth displayed a more purplish tint instead of its normal blue. This effect, according to NASA scientists, is attributed to the high altitude residue (mostly sulfuric acid particles) from the Mount Pinatubo eruptions of mid June 1991. Note the broad band of twilight in the center of the image. This band is another indicator of the upper atmospheric scattering of sunlight caused by this layer of haze that exists between 20 and 30 kilometers above Earth. Sunlight highlights the empty payload bay (PLB), the vertical tail, and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods against the black

1991-01-01

25

Titan's Atmosphere From Iso Observations: Recent Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have analyzed Titan observations performed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) in the 7-30 micron range (Coustenis et al., 2002, submitted for publication). The spectra obtained by three of the instruments on board the mission (the Short Wavelength Spectrometer, the Photometer and the Camera) were combined to provide a new and more precise thermal and compositional knowledge of Titan's stratosphere. With the high spectral resolution achieved by the SWS (much higher than that of the Voyager IRIS spectrometer), we were able to detect and separate the contribution of most of the atmospheric gases present on Titan and to determine disk-averaged mole fractions. Our latest analysis allowed us to detect the HC3N feature at 633 cm-1 and also, tentatively and for the first time, benzene (C6H6) at 674 cm-1. We have also tested vertical distributions for C2H2, HCN, HC3N and CO2. We have inferred a new D/H isotopic abundance of 8.75 +3.2 × 10-4. Finally, we have inferred upper limits -1.9 for a number of molecules proposed as likely candidates on Titan (such as allene and other more complex hydrocarbons and nitriles).

Coustenis, A.; Salama, A.; Schulz, B.; Ott, S.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, Th.; Gautier, D.; Feuchtgruber, H.

26

Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp -9) C, and average arc time of 1 msec, arcs can also occur with estimated arc currents approaching 10 milliamperes (mA). Discharges of this magnitude could interfere with the operation of sensitive electrical or electronic elements and logic circuits. Sojourner rover wheel tested in laboratory before launch to Mars. Before launch, we believed that the dust would become triboelectrically charged as it was moved about and compacted by the rover wheels. In all cases observed in the laboratory, the test wheel charged positively, and the wheel tracks charged negatively. Dust samples removed from the laboratory wheel averaged a few ones to tens of micrometers in size (clay size). Coarser grains were left behind in the wheel track. On Mars, grain size estimates of 2 to 10 mm were derived for the Martian surface materials from the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment. These size estimates approximately match the laboratory samples. Our tentative conclusion for the Sojourner observations is that fine clay-sized particles acquired an electrostatic charge during rover traverses and adhered to the rover wheels, carrying electrical charge to the rover. Since the Sojourner rover carried no instruments to measure this mission's onboard electrical charge, confirmatory measurements from future rover missions on Mars are desirable so that the physical and electrical properties of the Martian surface dust can be characterized. Sojourner was protected by discharge points, and Faraday cages were placed around sensitive electronics. But larger systems than Sojourner are being contemplated for missions to the Martian surface in the foreseeable future. The design of such systems will require a detailed knowledge of how they will interact with their environment. Validated environmental interaction models and guidelines for the Martian surface must be developed so that design engineers can test new ideas prior to cutting hardware. These models and guidelines cannot be validated without actual flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across t

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

1998-01-01

27

Frequently Asked Questions Observations show that changes are occurring in the amount,  

E-print Network

in heavy precipitation events have been observed, even in places where total amounts have decreased in the occurrences of both droughts and floods. Precipitation is the general term for rainfall, snowfall and other

28

RXTE PCA observations show the Rapid Burster undergoing continuous Type II bursting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Levine and Remillard (ATel. No. 1939) recently reported that the Rapid Burster (MXB1730-335) has been near 50 mcrab in the RXTE ASM daily average intensities for more than two weeks following the expected time of an outburst. A 1000 s long follow-up observation with the RXTE PCA was performed early on Feb. 24, 2009. The source was found to be in a bursting state like some of those seen from the Rapid Burster previously.

Swank, Jean; Markwardt, Craig; Pereira, Divya; Levine, Alan M.; Remillard, Ronald A.

2009-02-01

29

Exploring Earth, Visualization: Observe an animation showing growth of a continent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts convergent plate boundaries. The animation shows how continents can "grow" by accumulating crustal material along their edges at convergent boundaries. One can view the animation in full motion, or choose to view the animation in detail frame by frame.

30

XTE J1752-223: RXTE PCA Observation shows black hole candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 2009-10-26 at 15:03 UT, the RXTE PCA made its first pointed observation of the newly discovered transient source XTE J1752-223 (ATels #2258, #2259, #2261, #2263, #2265, #2268). The PCA spectrum is consistent with the source being in the black hole low-hard state dominated by a power law component with photon index 1.38 +/- 0.01 with a weak black body with kT=0.83+/-0.01 keV. A prominent iron line is also seen at ~6.4 keV, with equivalent width of 95 eV.

Shaposhnikov, N.; Markwardt, C. B.; Swank, J. H.

2009-10-01

31

Frequently Asked Questions Instrumental observations over the past 157 years show that  

E-print Network

at the surface have risen globally, with important regional variations. For the global average, warming. This is in accord with physical expectations and most model results. Confirmation of global warming comes from since 1901, most notably the north- ern North Atlantic near southern Greenland. Warming during this time

32

An analysis of semiclassical radiation from single particle quantum currents shows surprising results  

E-print Network

Classical electromagnetic radiation from quantum currents and densities are calculated. For the free Schrodinger equation with no external force it's found that the classical radiation is zero to all orders of the multipole expansion. This is true of mixed or pure states for the charged particle. It is a non-trivial and surprising result. A similar result is found for the Klein-Gordon currents when the wave function consists of only positive energy solutions. For the Dirac equation it is found that radiation is suppressed at lower frequencies but is not zero at all frequencies. Implications of these results for the interpretation of quantum mechanics are discussed.

Mark P. Davidson

2002-09-10

33

Children of Senegal River Basin show the highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ever observed worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common intestinal protist found in human feces and considered an emerging parasite with a worldwide distribution. Because of its potential impact in public health, we reinforced the picture of Blastocystis sp. prevalence and molecular subtype distribution in Africa by performing the first survey of this parasite in Senegal. Methods Stool samples from 93 symptomatic presenting with various gastrointestinal disorders or asymptomatic children living in three villages of the Senegal River Basin were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by non-quantitative and quantitative PCR using primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene. Positive samples were subtyped to investigate the frequency of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in our cohort and the distribution of subtypes in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups of children. Results By the use of molecular tools, all 93 samples were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. indicating a striking parasite prevalence of 100%. Mixed infections by two or three subtypes were identified in eight individuals. Among a total of 103 subtyped isolates, subtype 3 was most abundant (49.5%) followed by subtype 1 (28.2%), subtype 2 (20.4%) and subtype 4 (1.9%). Subtype 3 was dominant in the symptomatic group while subtypes 1 and 2 were detected with equal frequency in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The distribution of subtypes was compared with those available in other African countries and worldwide. Comparison confirmed that subtype 4 is much less frequently detected or absent in Africa while it is commonly found in Europe. Potential sources of Blastocystis sp. infection including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmissions were also discussed. Conclusions The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in our Senegalese population was the highest prevalence ever recovered worldwide for this parasite by reaching 100%. All cases were caused by subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a predominance of subtype 3. More than half of the children infected by Blastocystis sp. presented various gastrointestinal disorders. Such high prevalence of blastocystosis in developing countries makes its control a real challenge for public health authorities. PMID:24666632

2014-01-01

34

Trial results show high remission rate in leukemia following immune cell therapy  

Cancer.gov

Children and young adults (age 1 to age 30) with chemotherapy-resistant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experienced high remission rates following treatment with an experimental immunotherapy. Results demonstrated that the immunotherapy treatment had anti-leukemia effects in patients and that the treatment was feasible and safe.

35

NIH trial shows promising results in treating a lymphoma in young people  

Cancer.gov

Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical trial results.

36

Arctic Precipitation and Evaporation: Model Results and Observational Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational estimates of precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Estimates of Arctic regional mean precipitation from several observational sources show considerable scatter, and the observational estimates based on gauge-adjusted station data are considerably larger than the other observational

John E. Walsh; Vladimir Kattsov; Diane Portis; Valentin Meleshko

1998-01-01

37

Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:  

Cancer.gov

The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

38

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Cancer.gov

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

39

International gene therapy trial for 'bubble boy' disease shows promising early results  

Cancer.gov

Researchers reported promising outcomes data for the first group of boys with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID-X1), a fatal genetic immunodeficiency also known as "bubble boy" disease, who were treated as part of an international clinical study of a new form of gene therapy. The mechanism used to deliver the gene therapy is designed to prevent the serious complication of leukemia that arose a decade ago in a similar trial in Europe, when one-quarter of boys treated developed the blood cancer. Researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute presented the study results annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, on behalf of the Transatlantic Gene Therapy Consortium.

40

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also planet-wide phenomena and are a key observation for enhancing our understanding of the global atmospheric flows and CO2 cycle of the Martian atmosphere. The surface pressure is rising at this time of the Martian season, and this is clearly seen by the MSL pressure observations. The current surface pressure is slightly over 8 hPa, which represents a rise of a few % since the beginning of the mission. Our Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) produces similar results to the observations with some deviations. They are currently under investigation. References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [3] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13.

Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri

2013-04-01

41

From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448  

E-print Network

[abridged] The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-Asymptotic Giant Branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar Planetary Nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. We present the results of seven sources observed with the JVLA that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a 'dying' OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH ma...

Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Tafoya, D

2014-01-01

42

Preliminary Results from Coordinated UVCS-CDS-Ulysses Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The June 2000 quadrature between the Sun, Earth, and Ulysses took place with Ulysses at a distance of 3.35 AU from the Sun and at heliocentric latitude 58.2 deg south, in the southeast quadrant. This provided an opportunity to observe the corona close to the Sun with Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) and, subsequently, to sample the same plasma when it reached Ulysses. Here we focus on simultaneous observations of UVCS and CDS made on June 12, 13, 16 and 17. The UVCS data were acquired at heliocentric altitudes ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 solar radii, using different grating positions, in order to get a wide wavelength range. CDS data consisted of Normal Incidence Spectrometer (NIS) full wavelength rasters of 120" x 150" centered at altitudes up to 1.18 solar radii, together with Grazing Incidence Spectrometer (GIS) 4" x 4" rasters within the same field of view, out to 1.2 solar radii. The radial direction to Ulysses passed through a high latitude streamer, throughout the 4 days of observations, Analysis of the spectra taken by UVCS shows a variation of the element abundances in the streamer over our observing interval: however, because the observations were in slightly different parts of the streamer on different days, the variation could be ascribed either to a temporal or spatial effect. The oxygen abundance, however, seems to increase at the edge of the streamer, as indicated by previous analyses. This suggests the variation may be a function of position within the streamer, rather than a temporal effect. Oxygen abundances measured by SWICS on Ulysses are compared with the CDS and UVCS results to see whether changes measured in situ follow the same pattern.

Parenti, S.; Bromage, B. J.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Raymond, J. C.; Noci, G.; Bromage, G. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

43

Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help to resolve the problem of the 'missing heat' or 'missing energy', respectively, terms coined to grasp the observation that surface temperatures of planet Earth have stalled rising since about 15 years while radiation-affecting atmospheric CO2 concentrations continued to increase. Our results support the finding that excess energy which results from changes in the Earth' radiation balance is transferred into heating of the deep ocean, where it does not contribute to an increase of surface temperatures but inevitably enhances thermosteric sea level rise.

Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

2014-05-01

44

From the ashes: JVLA observations of water fountain nebula candidates show the rebirth of IRAS 18455+0448  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The class of water fountain nebulae is thought to represent the stage of the earliest onset of collimated bipolar outflows during the post-asymptotic giant branch phase. They thus play a crucial role in the study of the formation of bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe). To date, 14 water fountain nebulae have been identified. The identification of more sources in this unique stage of stellar evolution will enable us to study the origin of bipolar PNe morphologies in more detail. Aims: Water fountain candidates can be identified based on the often double peaked 22 GHz H2O maser spectrum with a large separation between the maser peaks (often >100 km s-1). However, even a fast bipolar outflow will only have a moderate velocity extent in its maser spectrum when located close to the plane of the sky. In this project we aim to enhance the water fountain sample by identifying objects whose jets are aligned close to the plane of the sky. Methods: We present the results of seven sources observed with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) that were identified as water fountain candidates in an Effelsberg 100 m telescope survey of 74 AGB and early post-AGB stars. Results: We find that our sample of water fountain candidates displays strong variability in their 22 GHz H2O maser spectra. The JVLA observations show an extended bipolar H2O maser outflow for one source, the OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448. This source was previously classified as a dying OH/IR star based on the exponential decrease of its 1612 MHz OH maser and the lack of H2O masers. We therefore also re-observed the 1612, 1665, and 1667 MHz OH masers. We confirm that the 1612 MHz masers have not reappeared and find that the1665/1667 MHz masers have decreased in strength by several orders of magnitude during the last decade. The JVLA observations also reveal a striking asymmetry in the red-shifted maser emission of IRAS 19422+3506. Conclusions: The OH/IR star IRAS 18455+0448 is confirmed to be a new addition to the class of water fountain nebulae. Its kinematic age is ~70 yr, but could be lower, depending on the distance and inclination. Previous observations indicate, with significant uncertainty, that IRAS 18455+0448 has a surprisingly low mass compared to available estimates for other water fountain nebulae. The available historical OH maser observations make IRAS 18455+0448 unique for the study of water fountain nebulae and the launch of post-AGB bipolar outflows. The other candidate sources appear high mass-loss OH/IR stars with partly radially beamed H2O masers.

Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Amiri, N.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Tafoya, D.

2014-09-01

45

Partially Observed Markov Decision Process Multiarmed Bandits - Structural Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers multiarmed bandit problems involving partially observed Markov decision processes (POMDPs). We show how the Gittins index for the optimal scheduling policy can be computed by a value iteration algorithm on each process, thereby considerably simplifying the computational cost. A suboptimal value iteration algorithm based on Lovejoy's approximation is presented. We then show that for the case of

Vikram Krishnamurthy; Bo Wahlberg

2009-01-01

46

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

47

Results of the Crab pulsar observation at 6-m telescope.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the Crab pulsar observations with the photometric MANIA (Multichannel Analysis of Nanosecond Intensity Alterations) complex at the 6-m telescope are presented. More than 12 million photons in the UBVR-bands were detected simultaneously with a time resolution of 10-7s. Using search software for the optical pulsar period, the authors obtained the light curves of the object with a time resolution of about 3.3 ?s. Their detailed analysis gives the spectral change during pulse and subpulse, the shape of the pulse peaks which are plateaux (with a duration of about 50 ?s for the main pulse), limits for an amplitude of fine temporal (stochastic and regular) structure of the pulse and subpulse and the interpulse space intensity. The results of CCD-spectroscopy of the Crab pulsar show that its summarized spectrum is flat. There are no lines, neither emission nor absorption. The upper limit for line intensity or depth is 3.5% with the confidence probability of 95%.

Beskin, G. M.; Komarova, V. N.; Neustroev, V. V.; Plokhotnichenko, V. L.

48

Arctic precipitation and evaporation: Model results and observational estimates  

SciTech Connect

Observational estimates of Precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Estimates of Arctic regional mean precipitation from several observational sources show considerable scatter, and the observational estimates based on gauge-adjusted station data are considerably larger than the other observational estimates. While the AMIP model simulations of precipitation also show scatter, the ensemble mean of the models` precipitation exceeds even the higher (gauge-adjusted) observational estimates over the Arctic Ocean and its major watersheds. The difference between simulated precipitation and evaporation (P-E), representing the net freshwater gain (runoff) by the surface, also exceeds the observational estimates by 44%-83% over the Arctic Ocean and by generally smaller percentages over the terrestrial watersheds. The ensemble model mean of the annual P - E exceeds the corresponding river discharges of the Ob and Mackenzie Rivers by 62% and 14%, respectively. The simulated P and E are highly correlated across the AMIP models, and the interannual (as well as the seasonal) variations of P and E are highly correlated in the output of most of the individual models, implying a coupling of the regional P and E in the models. The only formulational feature found to be common to the high-P (and high-E) models is the use of a specified rather than a computed soil moisture. A preliminary examination of the reanalyses of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction shows that the differences between the reanalysis-derived P and E are closer to the observational estimates than are the AMIP estimates. However, the magnitudes of the reanalysis-derived P and E, individually, are higher than the corresponding observational estimates. 25 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Walsh, J.E.; Portis, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kattsov, V.; Meleshko, V. [Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1998-01-01

49

Editorial: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiophysics is a rapidly developing branch of solar physics and plasma astrophysics. Solar radiophysics has the goal of analyzing observations of radio emissions from the Sun and understanding basic physical processes operating in quiet and active regions of the solar corona. In the near future, the commissioning of a new generation of solar radio observational facilities, which include the Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) and the upgrade of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT), and the beginning of solar observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), is expected to bring us new breakthrough results of a transformative nature. The Marie-Curie International Research Staff Exchange (MC IRSES) “RadioSun” international network aims to create a solid foundation for the successful exploitation of upcoming solar radio observational facilities, as well as intensive use of the existing observational tools, advanced theoretical modeling of relevant physical processes and observables, and training a new generation of solar radio physicists. The RadioSun network links research teams from China, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and the UK. This mini-volume presents research papers based on invited reviews and contributed talks at the 1st RadioSun workshop in China. These papers cover a broad range of research topics and include recent observational and theoretical advances in solar radiophysics, MHD seismology of the solar corona, physics of solar flares, generation of radio emission, numerical modeling of MHD and plasma physics processes, charged-particle acceleration and novel instrumentation.

Nakariakov, Valery M.; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Yan, Yi-Hua

2014-07-01

50

Cassini RADAR Icy Satellite Observation Designs and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Titan is the primary target of interest for the Cassini RADAR, whenever possible the radar has observed other icy satellites in the Saturn system. Nearing the end of the prime mission, some have been observed several times, and some have been observed with multi-point scans with real-aperture resolution providing some regional data. Most of the observations are tone transmissions that are processed for their Doppler signature. In a few cases, a full chirp is transmitted which offers the possibility of range processing. In a recent Iapetus observation, the range was low enough to permit synthetic aperture imaging of portions of the facing hemisphere. This presentation will discuss the observation designs used, and the status and prospects for processing of the overall data set. The latest results from the Iapetus imaging observation will be shown. In addition to the active echo data obtained, passive radiometer data has also been obtained and the two data sets have the potential to complement the optical and infrared imaging of the icy satellites and shed more light on the structure and composition of their surfaces. This work is supported by the NASA Cassini Program at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

West, R. D.; Ostro, S.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Callahan, P.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Janssen, M.; Johnson, W. T.; Kelleher, K.; Stiles, B.; Veeramachaneni, C.; Cassini RADAR Team

2007-12-01

51

Planetary Population Synthesis: Comparison of Updated Model Results and Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of extrasolar planet research is currently undergoing an fast, impressive gain of observational knowledge on the architectures and characteristics of planetary systems around other stars. This is thanks to the results of both observations from the ground, as well as observations from space. Some of these detections, in particular from the KEPLER satellite and from high precision radial velocity searches have recently challenged existing planet formation models. This has triggered intense theoretical work in order to understand the origins of the differences between observation and theory. In my talk I will present updated core accretion formation models which were used to conduct population synthesis simulations. Besides many other improvements contain these models a much more detailed description of planetary migration, allow for the concurrent formation of many fully interacting embryos in one disk, and include now also the subsequent evolution of the planets after formation on Gyr timescales. The latter improvement gives us all major quantities characterizing a planet, like its mass, composition, radius, luminosity and effective temperature. It also means that the results can be directly compared not only to the observed mass - distance diagram, but also to the observed radius distribution and the luminosity measured by direct imaging. Thanks to such improvement of the models, allowing new physical phenomena like the capture into mean motion resonances, or the existence of convergence zones for type I migration, it is found that the properties of the population of synthetic close-in, low mass planets, and of the corresponding observed population are much more similar than in earlier models, even though that some differences still exist. An example is that the models predict an bimodal distribution of planetary radii, which is not observed. I will discuss the reasons for both the better agreement, as well as the remaining differences.

Mordasini, Christoph

2011-09-01

52

Initial Results Derived from JEM-GLIMS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify the spatial distributions and occurrence conditions of TLEs, JEM-GLIMS (Global Lightning and sprIte MeasurementS on JEM-EF) observations from Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) at International Space Station (ISS) will start this year. Science instruments of JEM-GLIMS consist of two kinds of optical detectors and two kinds of radio receivers. The optical instruments are two wide FOV CMOS cameras (LSI) and six-channel spectrophotometers (PH). LSI uses a CMOS device with 512x512 pixels as an imaging sensor and uses a CCTV lens with =25 mm/F=1.4 which becomes 28.3x28.3 deg. FOV. LSI-1 equips a wide band optical filter (766-832 nm) and mainly measures lightning emission, while LSI-2 equips a narrowband optical filter (762+/-7 nm) and mainly measures TLE emission. Five of six PH channels employ the optics with 42.7 deg. conical FOV and use photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) as photon detectors. Each channel of these photometers equips an optical band-pass filter to measure N2 1P, 2P, and LBH emissions. One of six photometers employs a wide-FOV optics (86.8 deg.) and wide-band filter to measure N2 1P lightning emission. All these optical instruments are pointed to the nadir direction. In order to detect whistler wave excited by lightning discharges, one VLF receiver (VLFR) is installed. VLFR consists of a 15 cm nadir-directing monopole antenna and an electronics unit recording waveform data with a sampling frequency of 100 kHz with 14-bit resolution. In addition to this, two sets of VHF receivers (VITF) are also installed to measure VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges. VITF consists of two patch-type antennas separated by 1.5 m and an electronics unit which records pulse data with a sampling frequency of 200 MHz with 8-bit resolution. Thus, the spatial and temporal evolution of lightning and TLEs can be measured by the two optical instruments, while the electrical characteristics of sprite-inducing lightning discharges can be measured by two radio receivers. JEM-GIMS was successfully launched by H-IIB rocket at 02:06:18 UT on July 21, 2012 and transported to ISS by the HTV-3 cargo transfer spaceship. HTV-3 successfully arrived at ISS on July 27 and our JEM-GLIMS instruments will be installed at JEM-EF on August 9. For the period from September 15 to 21 we will carry out the initial checkout operation, and finally we will start continuous TLE observations from the middle of October. At the presentation we will show the test results obtained during the checkout operations and will present the initial results derived from JEM-GLIMS lightning/TLE observations.

Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.

2012-12-01

53

News Note: Long-term Results from Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Shows Lower Toxicities of Raloxifene  

Cancer.gov

Initial results in 2006 of the NCI-sponsored Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showed that a common osteoporosis drug, raloxifene, prevented breast cancer to the same degree, but with fewer serious side-effects, than the drug tamoxifen that had been in use many years for breast cancer prevention as well as treatment. The longer-term results show that raloxifene retained 76 percent of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, while remaining far less toxic – in particular, there was significantly less endometrial cancer with raloxifene use.

54

Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Haberle, R.; Polkko, J.; Savijärvi, H.; Rennó, N.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Schmidt, W.; Richardson, M.; Siili, T.; Paton, M.; Torre-Juarez, M. De La; Mäkinen, T.; Newman, C.; Rafkin, S.; Mischna, M.; Merikallio, S.; Haukka, H.; Martin-Torres, J.; Komu, M.; Zorzano, M.-P.; Peinado, V.; Vazquez, L.; Urqui, R.

2014-09-01

55

maximal steatosis as early as week 2 (168 and 292 mg/109 cells, respectively). Our results showed  

E-print Network

maximal steatosis as early as week 2 (168 and 292 mg/109 cells, respectively). Our results showed and bovine adipose tis- sue cultured over 7 days. Y Faulconnier,Y Faulconnier, L Guillon, R Lefaivre, M-Champanelle, France) The effect of insulin (2 mU/ml) on glucose uti- lization was studied on adipose tissue (AT

Boyer, Edmond

56

Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

Franchi, Massimo

2014-01-01

57

Results of Draconid 2011 observations from the BRAMS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the applicability of the Observability Function (OF) to the BRAMS network is pre- sented. Preliminary results are shown taking into account only geometry. Radiation patterns of the antennas are assumed to be isotropic. Manual counts for the Draconids outburst in 2011 obtained with the BRAMS network data are presented. The differences between the different stations are discussed in terms of the OFs and other parameters.

Calders, Stijn; Verbeeck, Cis; Lamy, Herve; Ranvier, Sylvain; Gamby, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

58

Healthy Older Observers Show Equivalent Perceptual-Cognitive Training Benefits to Young Adults for Multiple Object Tracking  

PubMed Central

The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). Here we assess the capacity of older participants to improve their tracking speed thresholds in a dynamic, virtual reality environment. Results show that this capacity is significantly affected by healthy aging but that perceptual-cognitive training can significantly reduce age-related effects in older individuals, who show an identical learning function to younger healthy adults. Data support the notion that learning in healthy older persons is maintained for processing complex dynamic scenes. PMID:23761025

Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Remy; Faubert, Jocelyn

2013-01-01

59

Solar System Observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 microns, and the detection of emission bands in the spectra of several distant asteroids (Trojans) around 10 and 25 microns. The 10 Kuiper Belt objects observed to date have albedos in the range 0.08 - 0.15, significantly higher than the earlier estimated 0.04. An additional KBO [(55565) 2002 AW(sub l97)] has an albedo of 0.17 plus or minus 0.03. The emission bands in the asteroid spectra are indicative of silicates, but specific minerals have not yet been identified. The Centaur/comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has a nucleus surface albedo of 0.025 plus or minus 0.01, and its dust production rate was calculated from the properties of the coma. Several other investigations are in progress as the incoming data are processed and analyzed.

Cruikshank, Dale P.

2005-01-01

60

Optical Spectroscopic Observations of ?-Ray Blazar Candidates. I. Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction (~30%) of the ?-ray sources listed in the second Fermi/LAT (2FGL) catalog is still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at lower energies. Using the available information at lower energies and optical spectroscopy on the selected counterparts of these ?-ray objects, we can pinpoint their exact nature. Here, we present a pilot project pointing to assess the effectiveness of the several classification methods developed to select ?-ray blazar candidates. To this end, we report optical spectroscopic observations of a sample of five ?-ray blazar candidates selected on the basis of their infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) colors or of their low-frequency radio properties. Blazars come in two main classes, BL Lac objects and FSRQs, showing similar optical spectra except for the stronger emission lines of the latter. For three of our sources, the almost featureless optical spectra obtained confirm their BL Lac nature, while for the source WISEJ022051.24+250927.6 we observe emission lines with equivalent width EW ~ 31 Å, identifying it as a FSRQ with z = 0.48. The source WISEJ064459.38+603131.7, although not featuring a clear radio counterpart, shows a blazar-like spectrum with weak emission lines with EW ~ 7 Å, yielding a redshift estimate of z = 0.36. In addition, we report optical spectroscopic observations of four WISE sources associated with known ?-ray blazars without a firm classification or redshift estimate. For the latter sources, we confirm a BL Lac classification, with a tentative redshift estimate for the source WISEJ100800.81+062121.2 of z = 0.65.

Paggi, A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; D'Abrusco, R.; Massaro, F.; Giroletti, M.; Smith, H. A.; Margutti, R.; Tosti, G.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Otí-Floranes, H.; Landoni, M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Funk, S.

2014-05-01

61

Magnetic field observations near Mercury: Preliminary results from Mariner 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a preliminary analysis of data obtained near Mercury by the NASA/GSFC Magnetic Field Experiment on Mariner 10. A very well developed, detached bow shock wave, which developed as the super-Alfvenic solar wind interacted with the planet Mercury was observed. A magnetosphere-like region, with maximum field strength of 98 gamma at closest approach (704 km altitude) was also observed, and was contained within boundaries similar to the terrestrial magnetopause. The obstacle deflecting the solar wind flow was global in size, but the origin of the enhanced magnetic field was not established. The most plausible explanation, considering the complete body of data, favored the conclusion that Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field.

Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.; Schatten, K. H.

1974-01-01

62

Results of tidal gravity observations with a conical pendulum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several years of observations of the gravity tide were recorded with the conical pendulum in the feedback mode. This means that the instrument is calibrated by design and that the calibration factor is traceable to a frequency standard. The noise level is in the range of tens of microgals, and the delta factors are estimated at the percent level. The results are presented and discussed. Various suggestions are given for improving the instrument so that full use can be made of its calibration accuracy.

Rasson, J.

63

Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.  

PubMed

The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

2014-04-01

64

Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance.  

PubMed

Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the other hand, transgenic lines expressing nontranslatable HC-Pro or translatable HC-Pro with a deletion of the central domain showed wild type symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and heterologous viruses. These results showed that CABMV HC-Pro is a pathogenicity determinant that conditions enhanced sensitivity to virus infection in plants, and that the central domain of the protein is essential for this. The severe symptoms in CABMV-infected HC-Pro expressing lines were remarkably followed by brief recovery and subsequent re-establishment of infection, possibly indicating counteracting effects of HC-Pro expression and a host defense response. One of the HC-Pro expressing lines (h48) was found to contain low levels of transgenic HC-Pro RNA and to be resistant to CABMV and to recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro. This indicated that h48 was (partially) posttranscriptionally silenced for the HC-Pro transgene inspite of the established role of HC-Pro as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Line h48 was not resistant to PVY, but instead showed enhanced symptoms compared to nontransgenic plants. This may be due to relief of silencing of the HC-Pro transgene by HC-Pro expressed by PVY. PMID:12206307

Mlotshwa, Sizolwenkosi; Verver, Jan; Sithole-Niang, Idah; Prins, Marcel; Van Kammen, A B; Wellink, Joan

2002-01-01

65

DUst around NEarby Stars. The Survey Observational Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts.Aims. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems.Methods. We used Herschel PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 micron were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 micron, and at 250, 350 and 500 micron using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 micron to detect the stellar photosphere. Results. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of approx. 12.1% +/- 5% before Herschel to approx 20.2 % +/- % 2. A significant fraction (approx. 52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160 micron range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age.

Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J. Ch.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S..; Fridlund, M.; Heras, A. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Lohne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Rodman, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Ardila, D.; Beichmann, C.

2013-01-01

66

Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

67

Seismic Observations From the Afar Rift Dynamics Project: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2005 Dabbahu rifting event in Afar, 9 broadband seismometers were installed around the active rift segment to study the microseismicity associated with this and subsequent dyking events. These recorded more than one year of continuous data. In March 2007, 41 stations were deployed throughout Afar and the adjacent rift flanks as part of a large multi-national, collaboration involving universities and organisations from the UK, US and Ethiopia. This abstract describes the crustal and upper mantle structure results of the first 19 months of data. Bulk crustal structure has been determined using the H-k stacking of receiver functions and thickness varies from ~45 km on the rift margins to ~16 km beneath the northeastern Afar stations. Estimates of Vp/Vs show normal continental crust values (1.7-1.8) on the rift margins, and very high values (2.0-2.2) in Afar. A study of seismic noise interferometry is in early stages, but inversions using 20 s Green's function estimates, with some control from regional surface waves, show evidence for thin crustal regions around the recently rifted Dabbahu segment. To improve our understanding of the physical and compositional properties of the crust and locate regions of high attenuation (an indicator of melt), we determine attenuation (Q) using t* values measured from spectra of P wave arrivals. We present whole path attenuation from source to receiver, which will provide a starting point for a future tomographic inversion. SKS-wave splitting results show sharp changes over small lateral distances (40° over <30 km), with fast directions overlying the Dabbahu segment aligning parallel with the recent diking. This supports ideas of melt dominated anisotropy beneath the Ethiopian rift. Seismic tomography inversions show that in the top 150 km low velocities mimic the trend of the seismicity in Afar. The low velocity anomalies extend from the main Ethiopian rift NE, towards Djibouti, and from Djibouti NW towards the Dabbahu segment. Outside of these linear regions the velocities are relatively fast. Below ~250 km the anomaly broadens to cover most of the Afar region with only the rift margins remaining fast. The seismic studies will be integrated with results from other areas of the consortium project (e.g., Magneto- tellurics, GPS, insar, gravity, petrology, geochemistry), enabling us to develop a greater understanding of rifting beneath an area of incipient oceanic spreading.

Hammond, J. O.; Guidarelli, M.; Belachew, M.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ebinger, C.; Stuart, G.; Kendall, J.

2008-12-01

68

Mars Global Surveyor TES Results: Observations of Water Ice Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 31, 1999, Mars Global Surveyor completed its first martian year in orbit. During this time, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment gathered extensive data on water ice clouds. We report here on three types of martian clouds. 1) Martian southern summer has long been characterized as the season when the most severe dust storms occur. It is now apparent that northern spring/summer is characterized as a time of substantial low latitude ice clouds [1]. TES observations beginning in the northern summer (Lsubs=107) show a well developed cloud belt between 10S and 30N latitude; 12 micron opacities were typically 0.15. This system decreased dramatically after Lsubs= 130. Thereafter, remnants were most persistent over the Tharsis ridge. 2) Clouds associated with major orographic features follow a different pattern [2]. Clouds of this type were present prior to the regional Noachis dust storm of 1997. They disappeared with the onset of the storm, but reappeared rather quickly following its decay. Typical infrared opacities were near 0.5. 3) Extensive, very thin clouds are also widespread [3]. Found at high altitudes (above 35 km), their opacities are typically a few hundredths. At times, such as in northern spring, these clouds are limited in their northern extent only by the southern edge of the polar vortex. We describe the distribution, infrared optical properties, and seasonal trends of these systems during the first martian year of TES operations.

Pearl, John C.; Smith, M. D.; Conrath, B. J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

1999-01-01

69

Recent results from CHAMP plasma parameter and magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-year data base of magnetic field and ionospheric measurements from the CHAMP satellite contains an enormous potential to investigate the behaviour and the origin of currents in the F region. Very prominent phenomena are the post-sunset equatorial plasma irregularities (commonly known as "bubbles", or "Equatorial Spread-F" (ESF)) which cause also signatures in the total magnetic field due to diamagnetic currents. The continuous magnetic observations, available at a 1Hz rate, have allowed for the compilation of a comprehensive climatology of the magnetic signatures due to ESF. It reveals a distinct seasonal/longitudinal (S/L) distribution, and the occurrence rate reduces considerably with decreasing solar flux. The (S/L) distribution of bubbles has been found to correlate very well, up to 90 percent, with the pre-reversal enhancement vertical plasma drift peak. This provides strong evidence for the close relation between these phenomena. Since the amplitude of the diamagnetic effect depends on the ambient magnetic field strength and on the background electron density, the global distribution shows also slight differences to the ESF climatology based on plasma depletions. Although electron density readings are only available every 15s, CHAMP data suggest that the plasma irregularities are less structured at places where the ambient magnetic field is strong (e.g. East Asia, Indonesia). In these regions the bubble statistic based on magnetic signatures is systematically lower than that from plasma measurements.

Stolle, Claudia; Luehr, Hermann; Park, Jaeheung; Xiong, Chao; Fejer, B. G.

70

Observational Results from the 2007 March 18 Pluto Stellar Occultation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our consortium observed the 5-minute occultation by Pluto of the star we call P445.3 (2UCAC 25823784, UCAC magnitude 15.3; McDonald and Elliot, 2000, AJ 120, 1599) from sites in the American southwest on 2007 March 17/18 (18 March, UT). Shadow velocity was 6.8 km/s. The 2007 occultation grazed the atmosphere. We were able to use one of the 8.4-m mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, still in its engineering stage, though only with its facility guide camera and not with our Portable Occultation, Eclipse, and Transit System (POETS) CCD/GPS/computer instruments (Souza et al., 2006, PASP 118, 1550). Because of the accurate GPS timing, we were able to align the light curve obtained, which included only the second half of the occultation, with results from other telescopes, including the visible, beamsplit light curve obtained by our group with the 6.5-m MMT (Person et al., 2007, this meeting). We also used, with POETS, the 2.4-m Magdalena Ridge Observatory near Socorro, New Mexico; a partial light curve was obtained despite variable cloudiness throughout the 80 min observation. The location of this telescope was the farthest into the occultation path, and thus led to the deepest incursion into Pluto's atmosphere of the starlight of the major telescopes we used. Light curves were generated by frame-by-frame synthetic-aperture photometry. The large increase in atmospheric pressure we had earlier measured at the 2002 occultation compared with measurements at the first successful Pluto occultation, in 1988, has ceased, as shown by both the 2006 and the current, 2007 measurements. Acknowledgments: We thank Richard Green for granting Director's Discretionary time for the LBT observations. This work was partially funded by NASA Planetary Astronomy grants NNG05GG75G, NNG04GE48G, NNG04GF25G, and NNH04ZSS001N to Williams College and to MIT.

Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Souza, S. P.; McKay, A. J.; Person, M. J.; Elliot, J. L.; Gulbis, A. A.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Hill, J. M.; Ryan, E. V.; Ryan, W. H.

2007-10-01

71

Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent papers have highlighted the strong statistical correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and total dissolved mercury (THgd) and/or dissolved methyl Hg (MeHgd). These relations of organic carbon with Hg species are often even stronger when a measurement that reflects some fraction of the DOC is used such as UV absorbance at 254 nm or the hydrophobic acid fraction. These strong relations are not surprising given the pivotal role DOC plays in binding and transporting Hg, which is otherwise relatively insoluble in dilute waters. In this study, we show data collected monthly and during some storms and snowmelt over 2.5 years from the 65 km2 Fishing Brook watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. This dataset is noteworthy because of a weak and statistically non-significant (p > 0.05) relationship between DOC and either of THgd or MeHgd over the entire study period. We believe that the lack of a strong DOC-Hg relation in Fishing Brook reflects the combined effects of the heterogeneous land cover and the presence of three ponds within the watershed. The watershed is dominantly (89.3%) hardwood and coniferous forest with 8% wetland area, and 2.7% open water. Despite the lack of a strong relation between DOC and Hg species across the annual hydrograph, the dataset shows strong within-season correlations that have different y-intercepts and slopes between the growing season (May 1 - Sept. 30) and dormant season (Oct. 1 - April 30), as well as strong, but seasonally varying DOC-Hg correlations at smaller spatial scales in data collected on several occasions in 10 sub-watersheds of Fishing Brook. We hypothesize that a combination of several factors can account for these annually weak, but seasonally and spatially strong DOC-Hg correlations: (1) seasonal variations in runoff generation processes from upland and wetland areas that may yield DOC with varying Hg-binding characteristics, (2) photo-induced losses of Hg species and DOC in ponded areas, and (3) the effects of the widely varying seasonal temperature and snow cover on the rates of microbial processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter and methylation of Hg. These results emphasize that not all watersheds show simple linear relations between DOC and Hg species on an annual basis, and provide a caution that measurements such as the optical properties of waters are not always a strong surrogate for Hg.

Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

2009-12-01

72

Peripheral obstructions influence marmot vigilance: integrating observational and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals generally allocate some time during foraging to detecting predators. We used a combination of observations and an experiment to examine how vegetation height and peripheral obstructions influence vigilance by foraging yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). First, we analyzed a large sample of observations of marmots foraging in nature. Marmots increased vigilance with vegetation height and reared on their hind legs

Peter A. Bednekoff; Daniel T. Blumstein

2009-01-01

73

Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring cellulases and other biomass-degrading enzymes to Bcell itself and in anchoring proteins other Gram-positive organisms. PMID:23593409

Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

74

ARM Observations Projected onto CCSM Results Projected onto  

E-print Network

National Laboratory, 2Texas A&M University, 3USDA Forest Service, 4NASA GISS A Cluster Analysis Approach for the time period April 2002­April 2007. Derived from observations from the Atmospherically Emitted Radiance

Mills, Richard

75

Memantine (Ebixa®) in Clinical Practice – Results of an Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In a post-marketing observational study, the efficacy and tolerability of memantine were examined in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: The patients were treated with 20 mg\\/day of memantine for a 6-month period. The efficacy of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Nurses’ Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) and the Explorationsmodul Demenz (EMD)

Pasquale Calabrese; Ute Essner; Hans Förstl

2007-01-01

76

Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng

2007-01-01

77

Stratospheric and tropospheric NO2 observed by SCIAMACHY: first results  

E-print Network

) of ­ 3 km and ex- tending up to $100 km. Spectrally, SCIAMACHY is an 8-channel grating spectrometer August 2003 Abstract Observations from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric encouraging. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) (Bovens- mann

Chance, Kelly

78

Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983  

SciTech Connect

The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

Frey, H.

1983-09-01

79

Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

Frey, H.

1983-01-01

80

Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

1979-01-01

81

WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HILDA POPULATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary analysis of 1023 known asteroids in the Hilda region of the solar system observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The sizes of the Hildas observed range from {approx}3 to 200 km. We find no size-albedo dependency as reported by other projects. The albedos of our sample are low, with a weighted mean value of p{sub V} = 0.055 {+-} 0.018, for all sizes sampled by the NEOWISE survey. We observed a significant fraction of the objects in the two known collisional families in the Hilda population. It is found that the Hilda collisional family is brighter, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.061 {+-} 0.011, than the general population and dominated by D-type asteroids, while the Schubart collisional family is darker, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.039 {+-} 0.013. Using the reflected sunlight in the two shortest WISE bandpasses, we are able to derive a method for taxonomic classification of {approx}10% of the Hildas detected in the NEOWISE survey. For the Hildas with diameter larger than 30 km, there are 67{sup +7}{sub -15}% D-type asteroids and 26{sup +17}{sub -5%} C-/P-type asteroids (with the majority of these being P-types).

Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [UCLA Astronomy, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-01-10

82

Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation  

E-print Network

transfection results to dc electroporation Yihong Zhan a , Zhenning Cao b , Ning Bao c,d , Jianbo Li e , Jun. In contrast, transfection efficiency with DNA reaches its maximum at medium frequencies (100­1000 Hz) in the range. We postulate that the relationship between the transfection efficiency and the ac frequency

Lu, Chang

83

Preliminary Results of ``World Month'' Observations at Jicamarca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The month of September 2005 has been devoted to the URSI Incoherent Scatter group as the World Month Campaign. This will be the first time that all the ISRs in the world run for such a long time. Although the whole month has been devoted for these coordinated observations, each facility will run in their ``best effort''. The main emphasis at all the facilities will be to support LTCS (Lower Thermosphere Coupling Studies), CAWSES and/or storms. At Jicamarca, the following modes have been scheduled: a) MST-ISR between September 5 and 8: This mode uses four pointing directions and measures the daytime lower atmospheric dynamics particularly at mesospheric heights, daytime ExB drifts from 150-km echoes, and F region ISR densities during the day and night. b) Differential Phase-Vertical Drift (DVD) between September 19 and 30: In this mode, we will measure vertical drifts and electron densities, between 150 and 1000 kms. In addition, during the day we will observe the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) echoes to infer zonal neutral wind profiles of the E region. c) JULIA Vertical mode the rest of the month: JULIA modes use the whole Jicamarca array combined with smaller arrays and low power transmitters to measure daytime ExB vertical drifts, E region zonal winds and density profiles from EEJ echoes, and the intensity as well as vertical and zonal drifts of equatorial spread F (ESF) echoes. At the time of the writing, we were just starting the campaign. We have already caught the effects of an extreme solar Flare (X17) on September 7 around 1740 UT. Briefly, EEJ echoes disappear, 150-km echoes appear at lower altitudes and stronger than usual, ISR echoes from the F region ``disappear'', ionograms traces disappear, ? H increases more than 150 nT. We expect to report and discuss this and other interesting events by the time of the conference.

Kudeki, E.; Milla, M. A.; Chau, J. L.; Condori, L.; Reyes, P. M.; Ilma, R.; Hysell, D. L.; Lehmacher, G.

2005-12-01

84

Strong Motion Observations In India-synthesis of Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last two decades strong motion arrays have been installed in the various parts of Himalaya including N-E India through the Department of Science &Technology. Several moderate earthquakes have been recorded by these networks, which have brought out interesting results about the pattern of attenuation of ground acceleration in these regions. The networks are being strengthened further covering the

B. K. Bansal; G. D. Gupta; H. N. Srivastava

2002-01-01

85

Notification of Detailed Observation and Model Results Using RSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision makers need relevant information delivered in time to affect the outcome of the decision under consideration. A Really Simple Syndication (RSS) service can deliver timely, detailed decision support information to a wide variety of decision makers while demanding minimal software and attention on the part of the decision maker. An RSS feed tailored to summarize a specific set of events, such as storm surge at a particular location being forecast to exceed a certain threshold, can provide notification of the event only when the condition occurs. A distinct advantage of RSS over alternate notification methods, such as email or SMS (Short Messaging Service), include frequent testing of the communication channel during non-event conditions. Other advantages of RSS include XML encapsulation of summary data, which enables standards-based specification a wide range of references back to services providing the data, including HTTP and OGC/SOS. This work demonstrates an RSS service for delivering notification and summary information of a wide variety of user-configurable observational and forecast-model events. pe6600-1.vims.edu/~drf/rss_abstract.html

Forrest, D. R.; Wang, H. V.; Friedrichs, C.

2006-12-01

86

Airborne microwave observations during SCIAMACHY validation campaigns: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airborne Submillimeter wave Radiometer ASUR is a passive microwave sensor designed to be operated on board an aircraft. By flying above the tropopause absorption by water vapor can be avoided. Stratospheric vertical profiles of many trace gases like O3, N2O, H2O, ClO, HNO3, NO and BrO can be derived from the pressure broadened molecular line spectra received between 604 and 662 GHz. ASUR takes part in the German validation campaigns SCIA VALUE on board the FALCON aircraft in September 2002 and February/March 2003. Both campaigns span from arctic latitudes to the equator in order to cover a wide range of different atmospheric conditions. Most of the flights are arranged to meet in time as many SCIAMACHY ground pixel as possible along the footprints of the ENVISAT satellite orbits. Synergies with other instruments on ground and on balloons are intended. The OLEX lidar and the AMAXDOAS UV/VIS sensor complete the FALCON payload. In the summer 2002 campaign during the underflights the measurements were focused on O3 and N2O. Results of the first profile retrievals will be shown. An attempt to compare with preliminary SCIAMACHY limb profiles will be made.

Kuellmann, H.; Bremer, H.; Kleinboehl, A.; Kuttippurath, J.; Rozanov, A.; Kuenzi, K.

2003-04-01

87

Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.  

PubMed

In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

2014-07-01

88

Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere  

E-print Network

Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere - 7 October 2009 Sandrine Guerlet Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere #12;Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Context Previous Observations Motivation Goal: Understand the distribution

Demoulin, Pascal

89

Partial solar eclipse of January 4, 2011 above Kharkiv: Observation and simulations results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incoherent scatter radar observation results of the geospace response to the partial solar eclipse (SE) of January 4, 2011 (magnitude 0.78) above Kharkiv are described. The response to the SE was observed in variations in the electron concentration, electron and ion temperatures, and the vertical component of the plasma motion velocity in a wide altitude range (190-420 km). Parameters of thermal and dynamic processes in the ionosphere are theoretically calculated for the SE. It is shown that the SE resulted in significant changes in the dynamic and thermal conditions in geospace. The results show good agreement with results of an analysis of the geospace plasma responses to SEs occurring above Kharkiv in 1999-2008.

Domnin, I. F.; Emelyanov, L. Ya.; Lyashenko, M. V.; Chernogor, L. F.

2014-09-01

90

"The Show"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

Gehring, John

2004-01-01

91

On the Dynamics of Hawaiian Cloud Bands: Comparison of Model Results with Observations and Island Climatology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed comparison study of three-dimensional model results with an aircraft wind field mapping for the island of Hawaii. Model runs were initialized using an aircraft sounding from 1 August 1985, and detailed predictions from the model are compared with observations from that day.The strength and location of the upwind convergence zone were well simulated, as well as the strong deflection and deceleration of the flow around the island and the geometry and location of the upstream cloud bands. The good agreement between the model results and observations supports the results of our previous study in which we show that the flow pattern and associated cloud processes around the island of Hawaii can be understood by considering the flow of a stably stratified fluid around a large three-dimensional obstacle.Model runs with different wind directions showed that increasing northerly tradewind flow resulted in the band clouds moving closer to the shore line, and the large scale flow pattern rotating counterclockwise. Model results were also compared with various aspects of the island climatology, and good agreement was found in both the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation on the island.

Rasmussen, Roy M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr; Warner, John

1989-06-01

92

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser-geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion  

E-print Network

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser- geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion when a recruit requires bereavement leave to attend a family

Kim, Duck O.

93

Sci Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Sci Show, an entertaining series of quirky YouTube videos, tackles topics ranging from âÂÂHow Do Polarized Sunglasses Workâ to âÂÂStrong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics.â Most episodes are less than five minutes long, but they pack a wallop of handy science info. Anyone short on time but long on big questions will benefit from the series. Episodes will be helpful to teachers and parents looking to spark enthusiasm in young minds. Viewers may want to start with recent episodes like âÂÂTodayâÂÂs Mass Extinction,â and the âÂÂWorldâÂÂs First See-Through Animalâ and âÂÂHow Do Animals Change Color?â before digging into the archives for gems like âÂÂThe Truth About Gingersâ and âÂÂThe Science of Lying.âÂÂ

94

Seoul National University Bright Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO) I: First Phase Observations and Results  

E-print Network

We present results from the first phase of the Seoul National University Bright Quasar Survey in Optical (SNUQSO) as well as its basic observational setup. Previous and current large-area surveys have been successful in identifying many quasars, but they could have missed bright quasars due to their survey design. In order to help complete the census of bright quasars, we have performed spectroscopic observations of new bright quasar candidates selected from various methods based on optical colors, near-infrared colors, radio, and X-ray data. In 2005/2006, we observed 55 bright quasar candidates using the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph (BOES) on the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea. We identify 14 quasars/Seyferts from our observation, including an optically bright quasar with i=14.98 mag at z=0.092 (SDSS J003236.59-091026.2). Non-quasar/Seyfert objects are found to be mostly stars, among which there are five M-type stars and one cataclysmic variable. Our result shows that there still exist bright quasars to be discovered. However, at the same time, we conclude that finding new bright quasars in high Galactic latitude regions is very challenging and that the existing compilation of optically bright quasars is nearly complete in the northern hemisphere.

Induk Lee; Myungshin Im; Minjin Kim; Eugene Kang; Hyunjin Shim; Gordon T. Richards; Alastair C. Edge; Myung Gyoon Lee; Changbom Park; Myeong-Gu Park

2008-03-04

95

Large-Scale Atmospheric Pollution Over Eastern China: Results From Ozone and Carbon Monoxide Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global CTM studies, satellite data analysis, and air pollution statistics have verified the large-scale atmospheric pollution over East Asia. Long-range transport studies of these air pollutants indicate that theirs effect could be observed even in the intercontinental or hemispherical scale. According to the models results and satellite data, the largest anthropogenic emission region is found over the mid-latitude eastern China. In this work, we investigated the present situation of large-scale atmospheric ozone and carbon monoxide pollution over eastern China. Since 2003, three regional ozone and carbon monoxide monitoring sites have been established at Mt. Tai (36 15N, 117 07E, 1524 m above sea level) in Shandon Province, Mt. Huang (30 10N, 118 11E, 1841 m asl) in Anhui Province, and Mt. Hua (34 20N, 110 05E, 2065 m asl) in Shaanxi Province. The results from observation show high mixing ratios and large variations of ozone and carbon monoxide, especially during spring and early-summer, at every observatory. Seasonal cycles of ozone and CO at these sites could be partly explained by the air mass climatology but the enhancements by regional anthropogenic emission are found to be dominant throughout the year. The large episodic ozone pollution events have been observed in early-summer for three consecutive years. Comparison of ozone and carbon monoxide in eastern China with the data from remote mid-latitude Northern Hemisphere background site in eastern Siberia show clearly different characteristics attributed to the regional sources. In this presentation, the sources and distribution of ozone and carbon monoxide in eastern China, theirs controlling factors, and their potential impact to environment will be discussed based mainly on observational results.

Pochanart, P.; Akimoto, H.; Li, J.; Wang, Z.

2005-12-01

96

Researching of sea waves influence on a coastal line transformation (based on field observation results)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long duration registrations of bottom pressure, temperature and meteorological data took place in June - October 2007 on the shelf near 104th - 110th kilometer of interstate road Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Okha. Sediment transport and abrasion processes are observed in this place, it is a dangerous factor for road and railroad constructions, it can also be threat for some buildings of Vzmorie town. Distributed network of autonomous pressure gauges was installed for wave structure studying. Gauges were installed in tree lines with 100, 150 and 200 meters far from each other. Gathered data contains information about different wave's regimes under different weather conditions, it's allowed us to make analysis. Different data rows for different wave regimes were taken for analysis. Transformation of wave field along shoreline and opposite was observed. The results of observation are showed that disposition of waves was determined by swell waves with period 8-9 second. Wind waves were weaker than swell waves, conceivably because of big depths in the studied area. Much more interesting results were found in the infragravity waves range (0.5 - 5 min). For example, peaks with period above 150 and 75 seconds are presented in the spectral estimation of record from gauge 23. The same peaks were not observed in other gauges to the North and to the South from 23. However, low frequency peak was much stronger at the storm weather, but 75 seconds peak was stayed non-changed under the different weather conditions. For understanding mechanism of infra-gravitation waves generation group structure of waves were studied. Spectrum characteristics of different data rows for different wave regimes and also for their envelopes were provided. Results of this research allow us to consider that wave packets with common period 7 - 8 seconds make infra-gravitation waves with period above 5 minutes which forcing sediment transport processes. Satellite images of studied place were used in this research. Beach cusps were found cusps (periodically forms of shore line) on these images, the cusps length place in diapason from 500 to 615 meters. Calculation and results of modeling showed that this cusps was generated by standing edge waves. Calculating of edge waves parameters for obtained bathymetry showed that period of edge waves which generated cusps must be about 4-5 minute. This period agree closely with spectrum estimation of data rows. This work is partly supported by RFBR grant 09-05-00447_? and The President of Russian Federation grant for young scientists MD-3024.2008.5.

Chernov, A.; Kouznetsov, K.; Kurkin, A.; Shevchenko, G.

2009-04-01

97

The Bulge Radial Velocity Assay: Three Years of Observations and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present continuing results of a large scale radial velocity survey of the Galactic bulge, using M giant stars selected from the 2MASS catalogue as targets for the CTIO 4m Hydra multi-object spectrograph. The purpose of this survey is to test dynamical models of the bulge and to detect the presence, if any, of cold stellar streams in the bulge and its vicinity. We report on over three years of observations of approximately 3500 stars which allow us to sample the kinematics the bulge major axis at -10observations of candidate stellar stream fields observed in 2006 are presented, along with disk field observations. Comparison of the data to current models shows disagreement with either predicted rotation, predicted dispersion, or both, and shall be discussed. RMR, DBR, and CDH acknowledge support from NSF grant AST-0709479 and grant GO-10868 from the Space Telescope Science Institute

Howard, Christian D.; Reitzel, D. B.; Rich, R. M.; Zhao, H.

2007-12-01

98

Discussion and Future Work Our results for the rainy season (Nov Mar) show that 30% of the moisture flux leaving the Amazon  

E-print Network

. The ratio of ET to total moisture flux shows a maximum of about 40% over Bolivia with a secondary maximum resolution preliminary results indicate that 40% of the precipitation over Bolivia and 30% of that over we have considered that in a quasi-equilibrium regime the vertical profiles of total water vapor

Barbosa, Henrique

99

Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE (McEwen et al., JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright “streamers” (Thomas et al., Icarus, 123, 536-556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al., JGR, 104, 9055-9068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP.

Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; McEwen, A. S.

2011-10-01

100

Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE (McEwen et al.; JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright streamers (Thomas et al.; Icarus, 123, 536556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al.; JGR, 104, 90559068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N.T.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.

2011-01-01

101

Comparisons of results from Hipparcos with ground-based and radio observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the linkage between the optical and the radio reference frames the radio stars are the important objects. Using the observations of radio stars with the astrolabes at Shanghai Observatory and the Hipparcos results, the authors study the following terms in this paper: (1) the rotation relations and the systematic differences between the FK5 and Hipparcos catalogues; (2) the comparisons between the results of the ground-based observations obtained at Shanghai Observatory and that of the Hipparcos and radio results; (3) the discussion of the observational errors of the ground-based observations.

Xu, Tongqi; Lu, Peizhen; Jin, Wejing

1997-07-01

102

Comparisons of Results from HIPPARCOS with Ground-Based and Radio Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the linkage between the optical and the radio reference frames the radio stars are the important objects. Using the observations of radio stars with the astrolabes at Shanghai Observatory and the Hipparcos results, we study the following terms in this paper: (i) the rotation relations and the systematic differences between the FK5 and Hipparcos catalogues; (ii) the comparisons between the results of the ground-based observations obtained at Shanghai Observatory and that of the Hipparcos and radio results; (iii) the discussion of the observational errors of the ground-based observations.

Tongqi, Xu; Peizhen, Lu; Wejing, Jin

1997-08-01

103

New Results from Space and Field Observations on the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New space observations from the MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite and analysis of POLDER data flown on the ADEOS satellite, show in great details the spatial and seasonal variability of the global aerosol system. These spaceborne instruments distinguish fine aerosol from man-made regional pollution and biomass burning from mostly natural coarse dust and sea salt aerosol. E.g. fine regional pollution in and around the Indian sub-continent, Europe and North America; smoke from biomass burning in Southern Africa and Southern America; coarse dust from West Africa and mixed dust pollution and smoke from West and central Africa and East Asia. These regions were also studied extensively in focused field experiments and by the distributed AERONET network. The results generate the first climatologies of the aerosol system, are used to derive the aerosol radiative effects and to estimate the anthropogenic component. The measurements are also used to evaluate each other and constrain aerosol transport models.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent

2002-01-01

104

Results of astrolabe observations made at Valinhos - Time and latitude, 1974 to 1977  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper contains results of time and latitude observations made with the Danjon astrolabe at Valinhos during the period from April 1974 to December 1977. The observing and reduction methods are standard (Debarbat and Guinot, 1970). The results are given in the FK4 system.

P. Benevides; R. Boczko; L. B. F. Clauzet; N. V. Leister

1979-01-01

105

The Relevance of External Quality Assessment for Molecular Testing for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from Two Pilot Rounds Show Room for Optimization  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012–2013. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images. Results Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images. Conclusion There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing. PMID:25386659

Tembuyser, Lien; Tack, Véronique; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Pauwels, Patrick; Miller, Keith; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kerr, Keith; Schuuring, Ed; Thunnissen, Erik; Dequeker, Elisabeth M. C.

2014-01-01

106

Database of the results of the Lunar occultation observations made in 1963--2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer database of the results of lunar occultation observations is compiled. The observations were collecte at the Astronomical Observatory of the Kyiv National University over the period when it was a regional coordination centre for the observations of this phenomenon. The base includes more than 24000 of observation results of 580 observers from 77 sites on the territory of Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Belorus', Moldova, Lithuania, Uzbekistan. The material is analyzed and compared to the similar data of the world bank. The access to the information can be realized on the site of the Astronomical Observatory http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/ or through the e-mail address likaz@observ.univ.kiev.ua.

Kazantseva, L. V.; Osipov, È. Ô.

2002-04-01

107

Some 5-13 micrometer airborne observations of Comet Wilson 1986l: Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comet Wilson was observed from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory approximately 23.6 and 25.7 Apr. 1987, UT (approx. 3 to 5 days after perihelion) using the NASA-Ames Faint Object Grating Spectrometer. Spectrophotometric data were observed with a 21 inch aperture between 5 and 13 micrometer and with a spectral resolution of 50 to 100. Spectra of the inner coma and nucleus reveal a fairly smooth continuum with little evidence of silicate emission. The 5 to 8 micrometer color temperature of the comet was 300 + or - 15 K, approx. 15 percent higher than the equilibrium blackbody temperature. All three spectra of the nucleus show a new emission feature at approx. 12.25 micrometer approx. two channels (.22 micrometer) wide. Visual and photographic observations made during the time of these observations showed a broad faint, possible two component tail. No outburst activity was observed.

Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Rank, D. M.; Cohen, M. C; Campins, Humberto C.

1988-01-01

108

Results from Two Years of Global Lightning Observation with the Optical Transient Detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) is an instrument designed specifically to detect and locate lightning during either daytime or nighttime. A predecessor of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), it has been in orbit for over two and half years. During this time global lightning activity has been observed on a quasi continuous basis. During this time an extensive effort has been under way to quantify and verify the OTD performance. OTD data has been compared with both the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) and the Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system at KSC. Results of these intercomparisons will be presented as well as estimates of OTD overall performance parameters. In addition, one year of OTD results will be presented showing the strong influence of the sun on global lightning activity. A month by month collage of global lightning maps will be used to demonstrate both the first order forcing and more subtle influences. Finally, initial results form the Lightning Imaging Sensor, an instrument on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) will be presented.

Christian, H. J.; Driscoll, K.; Boccippio, D. J.

1997-01-01

109

Observational Results of a Multi-telescope Campaign in Search of Interstellar Urea [(NH2)2CO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH2)2CO] observed toward the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from ~100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST). The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best-fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of two between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity of both (NH2)2CO and of Sgr B2(N) makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laboratory data, and models, and discuss our results in the context of a possible molecular detection of urea.

Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; McGuire, Brett A.; Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu; Lovas, Frank J.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

2014-03-01

110

Results of Processing of Leonids-2002 Meteor Storm TV Observations in Kyiv  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of double-station TV observations of Leonids-2002 meteor storm in Kyiv (Ukraine) have been presented. The observations were carried out from two observational stations of Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University, placed near Kyiv on distance between them 54 km, during five hours: from 23h 30m till 4h 30m UT on 18\\/19 November, 2002. In spite of the

P. Kozak; O. Rozhilo; V. Kruchynenko; A. Kazantsev; Y. Taranukha

2004-01-01

111

Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.

1997-01-01

112

Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager  

E-print Network

Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager. The electron and proton temperatures, which could not be measured in this region by Voyager, are T $ 2 eV at L plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L14S07, doi:10

Johnson, Robert E.

113

Consistent Satellite and Ground Based Observations and Model Simulations of Tides - CAWSES Global Tidal Campaign Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A persistent issue in the study of atmospheric tides has been differences in tidal signatures deduced from different observing systems and models. Recent analyses during the Second CAWSES Global Tidal Campaign Workshop show consistency between satellite observations (primarily from TIMED), ground based radars, lidar wind measurements and model analyses (likely) for the first time. This agreement required suitable reconstruction of components from the satellite and model analyses at the location of the ground based station. In this paper, we describe the campaigns and observations, summarize the analysis process and illustrate the extent to which tidal signatures from the various data types agree.

Ward, W. E.; Goncharenko, L.; Oberheide, J.; Nakamura, T.; Hoffmann, P.; Chang, L.; Du, J.; Greiger, N.; Haefele, A.; Wang, D.; Shei, C.; Yuan, T.

2007-12-01

114

How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches - a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n?=?208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n?=?305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n?=?156) and 11.6% (n?=?323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n?=?373) and 14.6% (n?=?357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n?=?279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n?=?307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n?=?201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n?=?283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n?=?1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n?=?6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n?=?3,100) with conduct disorder in outpatient health care. Conclusions Statistical and clinical case definition strategies show moderate concordance in depression and conduct disorder in a German national sample. Comparatively, lower rates of children and adolescents with diagnosed mental health problems in the outpatient health care setting support the assumptions that a small number of children and adolescents in need of treatment receive it. PMID:24597565

2014-01-01

115

Polarimetric Radar Observations of Arctic Clouds: Signal Processing and First Results from the may 2013 Iop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARM Climate Research Facility site at the North Slope of Alaska in Barrow provides polarimetric radar observations of Arctic clouds at X, Ka and W bands. During the May 2013 Scanning radar Intensive Observation Period, raw I and Q data were acquired with the X-SAPR and the Ka-W SACR for the purpose of validating existing, and testing new signal processing procedures specifically tailored for Arctic observations. The raw I and Q datasets were collected on May 3rd 2013 for the case of low-level boundary layer mixed-phase arctic clouds and on May 6th 2013 for the case of a synoptic low moving in from the west. http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/nsa2013nsasr The present paper describes the impact of signal processing procedures on the data, and establishes dual-polarization radar as a valuable tool for the microphysical characterization of ice clouds. In particular, the X-SAPR operates at STSR mode, making available differential reflectivity ZDR, copolar correlation coefficient ?hv, specific differential phase KDP and Degree of Polarization at Simultaneous Transmit DOPS. Low-level boundary layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds are characterized by layers of supercooled liquid water aloft, which present a stark polarimetric contrast with respect to the associated ice precipitation fallout. The ice particles falling from boundary layer Arctic clouds on May 2nd, 3rd and 4th 2013 (winds were very weak or absent) showed the remarkable property of being composed exclusively by large dendrites - fern-like, stellars, twelve-branched - indicating deposition as the main accretion mechanism. http://www.flickr.com/photos/michele_galletti/sets/72157633422079814/ Boundary Layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds provide an exceptional natural laboratory for the exploration of polarimetric signatures in presence of dendritic ice particles. The first-ever X-band analysis of differential reflectivity ZDR of mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented in [1]. For the May 6th case, ice particle populations associated with frontal systems underwent more significant vertical mixing, and therefore more significant break-up and aggregation, with the overall result that ice particles possessed less geometrical symmetry, and consequently less prominent polarimetric contrast was detected by the radars. [1] Oue, Galletti, Verlinde "Observations of X-band differential reflectivity in Arctic mixed-phase clouds", submitted.

Galletti, M.; Oue, M.; Verlinde, J.

2013-12-01

116

Deep Source Count Observations with SHARC II: Reduction Software and Latest Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present latest results from a year long campaign of deep observations at 350? m of various pre-selected fields (CUDSS3hr, MIPS14hr, SSA17) to a target 3? of 15mJy. These observations were taken with the SHARC II instrument at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and much effort has gone into characterizing the instrument, with different sets of reduction software being written. We detail our own IDL-based reduction software - CIRRUS - and the future work to be done on this front. The observation results will be used to place constraints on source count models.

Khan, S. A.; Arendt, R. G.; Benford, D. J.; Borys, C.; Dowell, C. D.; Kovacs, A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Silverberg, R. F.; Staguhn, J. G.

2003-12-01

117

Comparison of space-based lidar observations (CALIOP) with regional model results over Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A regional transport model (COSMO-MUSCAT: Consortium for Small-scale Modeling - MultiScale Atmospheric Transport Model) is used for simulations of aerosol optical properties within Europe. Based on the simulated concentrations of specific aerosol types together with mass extinction efficiencies, vertical profiles of the extinction coefficients (EXTs) are calculated from the model results. Vertical profiles of backscatter coefficients (BSCs) are computed using a lidar ratio. In the model version used here marine and dust aerosol types are not computed. Model simulations are performed for two short time periods: 19-26 July 2006 and 16-26 February 2007. The summer period is characterized by low wind speeds and a persistent meteorological situation. This caused the accumulation of particles within the atmosphere. For this time period an average aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.19 is simulated, whereas due to particle removal by several precipitation events during the winter period the average AOD is lower (0.14). In this investigation space-based observations of vertical profiles of BSCs are used for model evaluation. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) performs global aerosol profile measurements since April 2006 continuously. In addition to the BSC profiles information about the occurrence of particular aerosol types (smoke, polluted dust, clean continental, polluted continental, dust and clean marine) is available. Comparisons between observed and simulated BSC profiles for these two time periods show a relative model bias of -23%- -10% during summer and of -77%- -53% during winter between surface and 2 km altitude. Especially, during the winter period the bias is quite large caused in part by the tendency of the model to remove particles too efficiently due to wet deposition. Further, during 19-26 July 2006 Saharan dust was transported to Europe, which is not described by the model, and marine aerosol is only identified by CALIOP over sea surface. Eliminating BSC profiles where marine and dust aerosol types were detected by CALIOP improves the agreement between observed and simulated BSC profiles. A relative bias of -20% - -2% during summer and of -72% - -46% during winter is determined. The relatively large discrepancy during winter time can also be caused by the misinterpretation of the occurrence of marine aerosol. Marine aerosol was dominant during that time but CALIOP detects marine aerosol only over sea surface, whereas the transport of marine aerosol into continental regions is not considered. Additionally, differences regarding day- and night-time are found. In general comparisons between CALIOP and COSMO-MUSCAT lead to better results for night-time compared to day-time observations. This difference has also been found in comparisons of CALIOP BSC profiles with ground-based lidar profiles. The results point to the need to implement dust and marine aerosol type for characterizing aerosol distribution within the regional model for the European domain. Additionally, by using CALIOP data it is possible to analyze model ability to simulate the occurrence, the transport as well as the optical properties of specific aerosol types.

Tegen, I.; Meier, J.; Wandinger, U.; Mattis, I.; Wolke, R.

2012-12-01

118

North America Extreme Precipitation Changes under Global Warming: ATHENA model results and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate models have generally shown a more extreme climate under global warming scenarios. A quantitative assessment of precipitation extreme is crucial in light of the damage produced by recent Hurricane Sandy and for water resource management in general. We examined the spatial and temporal structure of extreme precipitation from climate models and compare them with observed datasets derived from satellite and rain gauge analyses. Results from the ATHENA project (for high resolution global climate simulations) at resolutions of T159 and T1279, corresponding to resolutions of about 128km and 16km, respectively, with 6 hourly output are analyzed. The high resolution T1279 data revealed fine scale dependence on topography, such as the mountain ranges in the west coast, which are not resolved in T159. The high resolution data also show higher and more variable annual maximum. Comparison of AMIP and Time Slice data also reveal that the return periods of heavy rainfall decrease, or more frequent recurrence of extreme events under a global warming scenario. A Generalized Extremely Value (GEV) distribution is used to examine the parametric dependence of annual maximum rainfall although other EV distributions, such as a Frechet (EV type II) or Gumble (EV type I) distribution often perform better than the GEV. The estimated shape parameter, which determines the skewness of the distribution, is generally small and in the range of less than 0.2. Assuming the shape parameter is zero, the GEV reduces to a two parameter distribution- the location and scale parameters. Annual maximum rainfall derived from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one degree daily (1dd) product and the TRMM Merged Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree and 3 hourly resolutions are compiled and analyzed. Comparison between the ATHENA and satellite-gauge products shows that their spatial pattern is quite similar while the models tend to underestimate annual maximum rainfall and their variability.

Chiu, L.; Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Feng, X.

2013-12-01

119

Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13 acquired near the landing site. We find that summer ice-free spectra at the Phoenix landing site are approximated by scattering properties similar to Gusev Crater soils. Summer spectra have the strong water absorption at 3 ?m, indicating a low level of hydration or adsorption of water, an effect previously observed throughout the northern hemisphere. Patches of permanent water ice appear on the shadowed sides of Heimdal Crater and on the shadowed sides of large mountains to the northeast. These patches were monitored throughout the summer and did not appear to grow or shrink; however, the ice patches darken between Ls~119 and Ls~160, possibly due to the sublimation or sintering of fine-grained ices cold-trapped onto the ice deposits during the spring defrost period. Mobile patches of summertime ice were observed to follow the shadow of a crater wall on an ~85-m crater located ~6.5 km northeast of the landing site. Widespread surface ice was first observed at the Phoenix landing site during the night (3 a.m. Local True Solar Time [LTST]) at Ls~104, and water ice was first observed in the afternoon (3 p.m. LTST) at Ls~154. CRISM observations show the first afternoon water ice clouds at Ls~157. Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) images first show evidence of afternoon (1 p.m. LTST) water ice in the shadows of large rocks on operations sol 80 (Ls~112), but did not observe widespread afternoon ice during the mission, which ended at Ls~149.

Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Wolff, M. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Lemmon, M. T.

2009-12-01

120

Interpreting the results of observational research: chance is not such a fine thing.  

PubMed Central

In a randomised controlled trial, if the design is not flawed, different outcomes in the study groups must be due to the intervention itself or to chance imbalances between the groups. Because of this tests of statistical significance are used to assess the validity of results from randomised studies. Most published papers in medical research, however, describe observational studies which do not include randomised intervention. This paper argues that the continuing application of tests of significance to such non-randomised investigations is inappropriate. It draws a distinction between bias and chance imbalance on the one hand (both randomised and observational studies can be affected) and confounding on the other (a unique problem for observational investigations). It concludes that neither the P value nor the 95% confidence interval should be used as evidence for the validity of an observational result. PMID:7950528

Brennan, P.; Croft, P.

1994-01-01

121

Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2013 Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in slightly less than two years, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Seasonal transport of volatiles should occur on Pluto, and this transport should be detectable through changes in its rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modeled. Giving the steady increase observed in Pluto's atmospheric pressure over the past two decades, associated sublimation of frost from the surface has likely occurred, as predicted by volatile transport models. Rotational light curves of Pluto through time have been created for static frost models based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. These models, which account for changes in viewing geometry, have been compared with observed light curves obtained between 1950 and 2013. No evidence for transport was evident prior to 2000. Observations from 2002 (Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128) and 2007-2008 (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460) suggest changes in the frost pattern on Pluto's surface. New observations of Pluto's light curve from the 2013 season from Table Mountain Observatory show no evidence for the large transport of volatiles on Pluto's surface. Our data are the first measurement of a large opposition surge on Pluto similar to that seen on other icy bodies. Both Buie et al. (2010) and our observations from the 2012-2013 seasons show that Pluto is becoming more red in color. This observation makes sense if nitrogen is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

Buratti, B. J.; Dalba, P. A.; Hicks, M.; Chu, D.; O'Neill, A.; Chesley, J. P.

2013-12-01

122

Results of the new reduction of positional observations of the asteroid Ceres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a new reduction of positional observations of the asteroid Ceres are presented. The observational material was obtained in the State Astronomical Institute using the wide-angle astrograph AFR-1. The interval of photographic observations is 30 years, from August 1956 to May 1986. Measurements of the relative coordinates of stars and the asteroid were submitted electronically. A new model of reduction and a modern catalogue of stellar positions, the reference catalogue Tycho, were used in the calculations. Right ascension and declination of the asteroid at the time of observations were obtained from the International Celestial Reference Frame. The estimate of the mean square error of one measurement is 0.25?.

Kuimov, K. V.; Romanova, G. V.; Solov'eva, O. D.; Chazov, V. V.

2014-07-01

123

A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally

1991-01-01

124

New results from old data - Lunar photometric anomalies in Wildey and Pohn's 1962 observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anomalies in V magnitude in photometric data on lunar features obtained by Wildey and Pohn (1964) are analyzed in the three colors of their UBV observations. The data have been averaged with respect to phase and graphed, and deviations from the average have been tabulated for each color. Sigma equal to or exceeding 3 for V, B-V, and U-B measures are shown on table. These variations are found to be similar to the much larger body of observations of lunar transient phenomena (LTP). The data for 25 features with 25 observations each show that in terms of individual measures the frequency of anomalies is approximately 3%, similar to frequencies obtained in other analyses of LTP data.

Cameron, W. S.

1980-01-01

125

Recent results and current challenges in observations of magnetic fields in Ap/Bp stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a survey of observational data of magnetic fields and physical parameters of CP stars acquired over the past 10-15 years. Analyses of new high-precision observations allows us to detect subtle phenomena such as pulsations through light and radial velocity changes, and any vertical stratification of chemical elements in their atmospheres. We derive a relationship between weak anomalies in continuum energy distribution and magnetic-field strength. The relationship was used successfully to search for new magnetic CP stars. An analysis of the profiles of the Stokes Q and U parameters in their spectral lines shows that the observations can be modelled by assuming a field of complex topology. We describe the special case of HD 37776, which cannot be represented by a form of low-order multipoles.

Romanyuk, I. I.

2014-11-01

126

First Observational Results from ALFA with Natural and Laser Guide Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium laser guide star adaptive optics system ALFA, which is installed at the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope, has been undergoing an intensive optimisation phase. Observations using natural guide stars that are presented in this paper, show that for bright stars (V~<8) it is now possible to reach K-band Strehl ratios in excess of 60% and to easily resolve binaries

R. I. Davies; W. Hackenberg; T. Ott; A. Eckart; S. Rabien; S. Anders

1999-01-01

127

First Observational Results from ALFA with Natural and Laser Guide Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sodium laser guide star adaptive optics system ALFA, which is installed\\u000aat the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope, has been undergoing an intensive\\u000aoptimisation phase. Observations using natural guide stars that are presented\\u000ain this paper, show that for bright stars (V~<8) it is now possible to reach\\u000aK-band Strehl ratios in excess of 60% and to easily resolve binaries

S. Hippler; M. Kaspar

1998-01-01

128

First results from the BARREL 2013 campaign; Observations of precipitation on drift echo timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the BARREL 2013 campaign and during previous balloon missions, electron precipitation has been observed to occur on many different time scales, from millisecond microbursts to minute-long ULF time scales to tens of minutes. These longer period oscillations have not been previously examined in detail because satellite data were unavailable to identify the nature of the longer period oscillations. In this study we will present BARREL observations of precipitation along with observations of drift echoes in electron data from the MagEIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes. One example occurred on January 26, 2013 where precipitation showed an approximate 20 -minute modulation and drift echoes were observed at similar timescales in the approximately 230-350 keV electrons by MagEIS. The precipitation also shows temporal structure at faster timescales including approximately 90-second ULF modulation and millisecond microbursts. This suggest that the drift echoes may determine when there are particles available to be precipitated by some other mechanism such as scattering by VLF waves.

Halford, A.; Millan, R. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.

2013-12-01

129

In-situ measurements of surface water pCO2 from commercial ships between 1994/5 and 2002 2005 show surprising results  

E-print Network

in surface water pCO2 the most? · Input data = 1 latitude by 1 longitude by 1 month Root Mean Square-2007 Root Mean Square of residual between MLR output and observations of surface water pCO2 for 2004 Root, the SST parameter influenced the lowest Root Mean Square region the most. · In summer, both

130

Energy transfer at the magnetopause: Cluster observations combined with GUMICS-4 global MHD simulation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the magnetopause energy conversion and transfer using Cluster spacecraft observations combined with large scale modeling results from GUMICS-4 global MHD simulation. We carry out both event studies observed by Cluster as well as perform a small statistical study to investigate energy transfer spatial dependence utilizing Cluster observations of flux transfer events (FTE's). In particular, we focus on the effect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) y-component that has earlier been found to control the spatial dependence of energy transfer. In both the event studies as well as in the small statistical data set, we find that the GUMICS-4 energy transfer agrees with the Cluster observations spatially and is about 30% lower in magnitude. According to the simulation, most of the the energy transfer takes place in the plane of the IMF (as previous modeling results have suggested), and the locations of the load and generator regions on the magnetopause are controlled by the IMF orientation. Assuming that the model results are as well in accordance with the in situ observations also on other parts of the magnetopause, we are able to pin down the total energy transfer during the two events. Here, we estimate that the instantaneous total power transferring through the magnetopause during the two events is at least 1500-2000 GW, agreeing with epsilon parameter scaled using the mean magnetopause area in the simulation. Hence the combination of the simulation results and the Cluster observations indicate that the epsilon parameter is probably underestimated by a factor of 2-3.

Palmroth, M. M.; Fear, R.; Laitinen, T. V.; Anekallu, C. R.; Honkonen, I. J.; Dunlop, M. W.; Lucek, E. A.; Dandouras, I. S.

2012-12-01

131

Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs.

Young, G.R.

1990-06-01

132

7 On the Flow Through Bering Strait: A Synthesis of Model1 Results and Observations2  

E-print Network

1 7 On the Flow Through Bering Strait: A Synthesis of Model1 Results and Observations2 J. Clement Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States9 10 KEYWORDS: Bering Strait, ocean modeling, Pacific water, numerical modeling11 Abstract12 Bering Strait is the only ocean

Zhang, Jinlun

133

The FSRQs 3c 279 and PKS 1510-089: Magic Latest Results and Multiwavelength Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV), we count only three blazars of the flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) type to date. The MAGIC experiment detected all three of them; here we present MAGIC observations of 3C 279 and PKS 1510-089. 3C 279 was observed in 2011, without a significant detection, hence upper limits on the differential flux have been computed. The MAGIC observations of PKS 1510-089 in 2012 were triggered by alerts of high activity states and resulted in a significant detection. MAGIC observations are complemented with simultaneous multiwavelength observations in high energy ? rays, X-rays, optical and radio wavelengths and polarization measurements. With the study of the spectral features and the variability observed, we aim to identify the physical processes responsible for the behavior of this source class. In particular, we propose coherent scenarios, which take into account both the modeling of the spectral energy distribution and the constraints obtained from the lightcurves.

de Caneva, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Lindfors, E.; Saito, K.; Schultz, C.; Sitarek, J.; Tavecchio, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Buson, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Hayashida, M.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Hovatta, T.; Mundell, C.; Steele, I.; Nilsson, K.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.

2014-03-01

134

Continued Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2014 Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its high eccentricity and obliquity, Pluto should exhibit seasonal volatile transport on its surface. This transport should be detectable through changes in its historical rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modelled. Observations of Pluto’s light curve between 1950 and 1999 suggest a stable albedo pattern. Starting in the early part of this millennium, both new Hubble Space Telescope maps and light curve measurements obtained at JPL’s Table Mountain Observatory show evidence of small changes in Pluto’s distribution of surface albedo (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460.; Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128). Supporting possible surface volatile transport is the doubling of Pluto’s atmospheric pressure over the past two decades (Young et al., 2013, Ap. J. 766, L22). With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in July 2015, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Rotational light curves of Pluto have been created in two recent epochs: 2007-2008, and 2012-2014. Both light curves show a smaller amplitude than that expected for a static frost model based on albedo maps from the earliest HST images (Stern et al. 1997, Astron. J. 113, 827). Observations of both Buie et al. (2010) and our own between 2007 and 2014 show that Pluto is becoming redder. This observation makes sense if nitrogen frost is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hicks, Michael D.; Dalba, Paul A.; Chu, Devin S.; O'Neill, Ariel; Hillier, John K.; Banholzer, Sophianna

2014-11-01

135

Observation VLBI Session RAPL02. the Results of the Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the data processing of the VLBI experiment, titled RAPL02, are presented. Those observations were made in February, 2011, with 5 antennas. All 3 antennas of Saint-Petersburg Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences were used in that session. Those were antennae in Svetloe, in Zelenchuck, and in Badary. Additionally, a 22-m antenna in Puschino, as well as a 32-m antenna in Medicina (Italy) were also included into observations. The raw data correlation was made at the software correlator of the Astro Space Center. The secondary data processing was made for 3 quasars: 3C273, 3C279, and 3C286.

Chuprikov, A. A.

136

Recent Results from High Energy Observations of Cataclysmic Variables: AM Canum Venaticorum and DW Ursae Majoris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results from high energy observations of two cataclysmic variables that are prototypes of the classes to which they belong. The first is AM Canum Venaticorum, prototype of the AM CVn class of interacting binary white dwarfs. We have obtained average and time-resolved far-ultraviolet spectra of AM CVn with FUSE. The second is DW Ursae Majoris, one of the four founding members of the SW Sextantis class of novalike cataclysmic variable. We have observed DW UMa using XMM.

Hoard, D. W.; Homer, L.; Szkody, P.; Wachter, S.

2006-09-01

137

Photographic zenith tube of the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory - Processing method and observation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the reduction of PZT plates which has been used at the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory since 1986 is described. The formulas used for computing the coordinates of the stellar image in the focal plane at the midpoint of the exposure are correct to 0.0024 arcsec. Observations from February 1986 to October 1988 are compared with data of BIH and IERS, and the results of the comparison are used to compute the amplitudes of the annual terms of nonpolar variations in the observed latitudes and Delta(UTI).

Yurov, E. A.

1992-10-01

138

Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

Bertera, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

139

First results from ARTEMIS lunar wake crossing: observations and hybrid simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and its conductivity is not sufficient to facilitate the development of an induced magnetosphere. The interaction of the Moon with the unperturbed solar wind (SW) is, hence, dominated by the absorption of SW particles on its surface and the consequent generation of a lunar wake on the night side. The SW magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon; the pressure imbalance in lunar wake, however, accounts for a slight increase in magnetic pressure in the lunar wake center. The wake is slowly filled up with SW particles due to their thermal motion, which generates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction wave propagating away from the wake in the SW frame of reference. Over the last 3 years the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) mission provided excellent data helping the scientific community in drawing a detailed picture of the physical processes associated with the development of substorms in the terrestrial magnetotail. Two of the five THEMIS spacecraft are currently being sent into stationary orbits around the Moon in a follow-up mission called Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS). The ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft (formerly THEMIS-B) has recently passed through the lunar wake in a flyby maneuver on February 13, 2010. We show first results of two hybrid code simulations with static and, for the first time, dynamically changing SW input. Adapted SW monitor data of the NASA OMNI database is used as input for the simulations. During the wake crossing the spin stabilized spacecraft P1 was in lunar shadow and, hence, its spin period cannot be determined from sun sensor data. Therefore, an eclipse-spin model is applied to bridge the gap of missing spin period data in order to recover vector measurements. A comparison of the simulation results with correctly despun magnetic field and particle measurements of ARTEMIS P1 allows for a separation of static lunar wake and, due to SW variations, transient features in the observations.

Plaschke, F.; Wiehle, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Georgescu, E.; Glassmeier, K.; Motschmann, U. M.; Sibeck, D. G.

2010-12-01

140

Boundary Layer Vertical Exchange Processes and the Mass Budget of Ozone: Observations and Model Results  

SciTech Connect

An Eulerian chemical model is used to assess the relative importance of a variety of processes associated with producing high surface ozone episodes during selected periods of the NARSTO 1995 field campaign over the northeastern United States. A comparison of the observed and predicted hourly surface ozone mixing ratios showed that the model qualitatively reproduced the observed ozone trends over the northeastern U.S. The model, however, over-predicted the surface concentrations by 10 to 15 ppb. The simulated mass budget tendency terms are compared for days with low ozone values immediately followed by days with high values. The later days showed observed and simulated ozone mixing ratios aloft to be of order twice that found on preceding days, although the associated chemical mix appeared to have relatively little potential for the subsequent generation of "new" ozone. Under conditions of shallow mixing over urban regions, simulated surface ozone production rates were negative (a net loss) throughout much of the day with convective mixing bringing newly produced ozone from aloft to the surface. It is noted that surface ozone levels appeared to be relatively insensitive to mixing layer growth rates.

Berkowitz, Carl M.; Fast, Jerome D.; Easter, Richard C.

2000-06-16

141

PHOTOMETRY OF VARIABLE STARS FROM DOME A, ANTARCTICA: RESULTS FROM THE 2010 OBSERVING SEASON  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a season of observations with the Chinese Small Telescope ARray, obtained over 183 days of the 2010 Antarctic winter. We carried out high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 9125 stars with i ?< 15.3 mag located in a 23 deg{sup 2} region centered on the south celestial pole. We identified 188 variable stars, including 67 new objects relative to our 2008 observations, thanks to broader synoptic coverage, a deeper magnitude limit, and a larger field of view. We used the photometric data set to derive site statistics from Dome A. Based on two years of observations, we find that extinction due to clouds at this site is less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag during 45% and 75% of the dark time, respectively.

Wang, Lingzhi; Zhu, Zonghong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ashley, Michael C. B.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Storey, John W. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Liu, Qiang; Shang, Zhaohui; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Nanjing 210008 (China); Pennypacker, Carl R. [Center for Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: wanglingzhi@bao.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2013-12-01

142

Results of Processing of Leonids-2002 Meteor Storm TV Observations in Kyiv  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of double-station TV observations of Leonids-2002 meteor storm in Kyiv (Ukraine) have been presented. The observations were carried out from two observational stations of Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University, placed near Kyiv on distance between them 54 km, during five hours: from 23h 30m till 4h 30m UT on 18/19 November, 2002. In spite of the bad weather conditions (we were not able to rich the storm maximum due to sunrise; very bright moon during the night) we registered 54 meteors in the first point of observations (48 of them were Leonids) and 60 meteors from another point (57 were Leonids). Total number of common meteors was 38. The number of meteors with images enabled for precise processing was 29. Analysis of complete statistical, kinematic and photometrical processing of observational results were carried out. Trajectory of meteors in Earth's atmosphere, radiant coordinates, heliocentric orbital elements etc. were obtained. The initial masses of meteoroids were calculated from photometrical processing. Distributions of meteors on begin heights, maximal brightness heights and masses are shown. Due to weather conditions we estimated the limit star magnitude of still registered meteors approximately as 4m. The calculated minimal mass of a meteoroid, which can produce the meteor with 4m is approximately equal to 1.54\\cdot 10-4 grams. We determined that ZHR for the meteors brighter than 4m were changed during observations from 350 to 1400. It is also estimated the spatial density of Leonid stream particles as 4.3\\cdot 10-8-1.7\\cdot 10-7 km-3.

Kozak, P.; Rozhilo, O.; Kruchynenko, V.; Kazantsev, A.; Taranukha, Y.

143

The topical problems of identifying the results of the observations in recent geodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the problems of identifying the results of deformational observations on the Earth, which arise from the new measurement technologies and lead to the ambiguity relationships such as the "spatial size of the anomaly—density of the observation sites" and the "duration of the anomalies—degree of temporal detail of the measurements." It is found that many "paradoxical" conclusions concerning the rates and scales of the recent geodynamical processes are removed if the parameters of the measurement system match the properties of the studied object and if the relative character of the observational means is taken into account. It is shown that the time variation in the uniaxial deviatoric stress leads to the variation in the volumetric strain and, consequently, to the variation in gravity. The ambiguity in determining the ground displacement vectors by SAR interferometry is demonstrated. It is concluded that the autonomous use of the interferometry data leads to the significant distortions of the results, and these data should be necessarily used in combination with the ground-based geodetic observations.

Kuzmin, Yu. O.

2014-09-01

144

MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

2014-05-01

145

Do AGN Outflows Cease Star Formation? Results from an Ultradeep Chandra HETG Observation of NGC 1068  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGN outflows are widely invoked as the key mediators between the co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. Yet, the key question remains: do the outflows actually deliver enough power to their environments to alter evolution in a meaningful way? To address this, we present results from a new 440-ks Chandra HETG GTO observation of the kpc-scale ionization cone

Daniel A. Evans; P. M. Ogle; H. L. Marshall; M. A. Nowak; S. Bianchi; M. Guainazzi; D. Dewey; N. S. Schulz; M. S. Noble; C. R. Canizares

2010-01-01

146

Recent results of X-ray observations from OSO-7 and SAS-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations bearing on the nature of compact X-ray sources obtained from the MIT instruments aboard OSO-7 and SAS-3 are discussed. Results on the X-ray sky survey, new ultralow-energy X-ray sources, X-ray sources in globular clusters, slow X-ray pulsars, and variability and position of compact X-ray sources in Cen A are discussed. Descriptions of the satellite-borne X-ray instruments are provided.

Clark, G. W.

1978-01-01

147

Conclusions from the discussions on observational results of heterodyne spectroscopy in astronomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental results in astronomy obtained with the aid of infrared heterodyne detection techniques are considered, taking into account the detection of thermal emission with no dispersion at the intermediate frequency and observations involving molecular line detection. The tuning range of a heterodyne spectrometer and of a Fourier transform spectrometer is considered and attention is given to the selection of the appropriate technique for a specific investigative problem.-

Mumma, M.

1975-01-01

148

Symmetries in observer design: review of some recent results and applications to EKF-based SLAM  

E-print Network

In this paper, we first review the theory of symmetry-preserving observers and we mention some recent results. Then, we apply the theory to Extended Kalman Filter-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (EKF SLAM). It allows to derive a new (symmetry-preserving) Extended Kalman Filter for the non-linear SLAM problem that possesses convergence properties. We also prove a special choice of the gains ensures global exponential convergence.

Bonnabel, Silvere

2011-01-01

149

Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses' Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

2014-01-01

150

Results concerning the modeled and observed tidal factors at Mt. Etna and Stromboli volcanoes (Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal gravity observations performed in the last few years, both at Mt Etna and Stromboli, have revealed the necessity of improving the tidal analysis in order to get the best corrected data for the detection of volcano related signals. On Mt. Etna the sites are very close to each other and the expected tidal factors differences are negligible. It is thus useful to try to unify the tidal analysis results of the different data sets on a unique tidal model. In order to get the best model for the gravity data tide correction, we compared the results and finally we normalized all the estimated tidal factors with respect to the best data set. The change in time of the gravimeters sensitivity is also an important issue to be checked since it affects the quality of the data and thus the results of tidal analysis. Conversely, if a good tidal model is available, the sensitivity variations can be accurately reconstructed such as to retune observed tidal records with the synthetic tide, since the tidal parameters are assumed as constant. Subsequently, we tried to check if a tidal modulation exists on the heat flow beneath the gravity station, by using two temperature signals recorded inside and outside it. This analysis suggests an unexpected correlation between thermometric observations and some lunar tidal components.

Panepinto, S.; Greco, F.; van Ruymbeke, M.; Ducarme, B.; Luzio, D.

2006-12-01

151

This in-depth survey of30 companies reveals actual goings-on in software production. Results show that, while practice is 10 years behind  

E-print Network

in the late 1960's to describe ways to develop, manage, and maintain software so that resulting products science community has created a need to assess the impact that numerous advances have had on actual of different program development environments in in- dustry to determine the state of the art in software

Basili, Victor R.

152

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between the atomic density derived from WMAP and the density inferred from the deuterium abundance is an important test of the standard big bang model. Determination of the acoustic scale at redshift z = 1090. Similarly, the recent measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the galaxy power spectrum (Eisenstein et al. 2005) has determined the acoustic scale at redshift z approx. 0.35. When combined, these standard rulers accurately measure the geometry of the universe and the properties of the dark energy. These data require a nearly flat universe dominated by dark energy consistent with a cosmological constant. Precise determination of the Hubble Constant, in conjunction with BAO observations. Even when allowing curvature (Omega(sub 0) does not equal 1) and a free dark energy equation of state (w does not equal -1), the acoustic data determine the Hubble constant to within 3%. The measured value is in excellent agreement with independent results from the Hubble Key Project (Freedman et al. 2001), providing yet another important consistency test for the standard model. Significant constraint of the basic properties of the primordial fluctuations. The anti-correlation seen in the temperature/polarization (TE) correlation spectrum on 4deg scales implies that the fluctuations are primarily adiabatic and rule out defect models and isocurvature models as the primary source of fluctuations (Peiris et al. 2003).

Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

2008-01-01

153

Results obtained by both techniques show a good correlation (three maxima are observed) and thus provide a study of cement microstructure  

E-print Network

, UK, c Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, USA, d Department of Physics the physical location of bubble formation and transport along the length of the column. Successful;178:308­17. [5] Wang R, Rosen MS, et al, Magn Reson Imaging 2005;23: 203­7. [6] Pavlin T, Wang R, et al, App Magn

Walsworth, Ronald L.

154

Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission of from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of 10(exp 11). As the pulsar is the youngest known neutron star with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further report on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge. The results of the spectral analysis has interesting implications for the composition of the interstellar medium.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R.; Kahn, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

155

Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission of from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of T(sub c) approx. 10(sup 11) K. As the pulsar is the youngest known neutron star with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further report on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge. The results of the spectral analysis has interesting implications for the composition of the interstellar medium.(c) 2000.: American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved

Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R.; Kahn, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.

2000-01-01

156

The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

157

Interactions among aerosols, tropospheric ozone, lightning and wildfire: observational evidence and modeling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline a conceptual link among aerosols, lightning, tropospheric ozone and wildfire activities. Using multiple satellite data sets we show strong evidence of this conceptual link in different climate regimes. Over the ocean, we show that lightning activity is highly sensitive to the concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere. Lightning flash rate increases 20-40 times for an increase of one aerosol optical depth unit. We show that as a result satellite measured tropospheric NOx and tropospheric ozone concentration is increased. Over the tropical continent, we show that lightning activity is also very sensitive to aerosol concentrations. We further demonstrate that human induced aerosol changes is highly related to lightning activity on a large scale. This aerosol-lightning link is therefore to have strong feedback on wildfire activity in the past and upcoming climate change. Using a global chemical transport model, we implemented the link between aerosol and tropospheric ozone and demonstrated that as a result of anthropogenic aerosol increase tropospheric ozone, especially in the upper troposphere, in the tropics has increased substantially. Our results strongly call for much more integrated chemistry-cloud-climate investigations. Schematic

Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.; Bian, H.; Pickering, K. E.; Albrecht, R. I.; Oreopoulos, L.; Goodman, S. J.; Ziemke, J. R.; Allen, D. J.

2013-12-01

158

RESULTS FROM TWO PHARMACOTHERAPY TRIALS SHOW ALCOHOLIC SMOKERS WERE MORE SEVERELY ALCOHOL DEPENDENT BUT LESS PRONE TO RELAPSE THAN ALCOHOLIC NON-SMOKERS  

E-print Network

Abstract — Aims: To assess the role of smoking on treatment outcome in quitting alcoholics on the background of the priming or coping hypothesis (Rohsenow et al., 1997). Methods: Data sets of placebo treated patients of the German phase III trial of naltrexone (Gastpar et al., 2002) and of acamprosate treated patients of a German phase IV trial (Soyka et al., 2002) were reanalyzed. Differences between smoking and non-smoking alcoholics were evaluated using ? 2-, t- or ANOVA-tests, relapse rates using survival techniques with Cox regression. Results: Smoking alcoholics differed significantly from non-smoking alcoholics regarding sociodemographic variables (e.g. more males, more often living alone) and severity indicators of alcoholism (e.g. quantity, onset, related problems). In the naltrexone study time to first relapse was significantly longer for smoking alcoholics compared to non-smoking alcoholics (hazard ratio = 2.26; P = 0.036). The same effect was seen in the acamprosate study (hazard ratio = 1.34; P = 0.015); estimated abstinencerates after 24 weeks were 38 % for smoking alcoholics compared to 28 % for non-smoking alcoholics (P alcoholics included in two pharmacotherapy trials. Although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear our findings are in favour of the coping hypothesis. The results challenge the validity of the dependence syndrome.

Lutz G. Schmidt; Michael N. Smolka

159

Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Special Observation Period (SOP1), part of the HyMeX campaign (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiments, 5 September-6 November 2012), was dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in the western Mediterranean, and three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were identified: Liguria-Tuscany, northeastern Italy and central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models, including hydrological models and marine models, allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen strong collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper an overview of the Italian organization during SOP1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in northeastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems, including the hydrological impacts. The usefulness of having different weather forecast operational chains characterized by different numerical weather prediction models and/or different model set up or initial conditions is finally shown for one of the events (IOP19).

Ferretti, R.; Pichelli, E.; Gentile, S.; Maiello, I.; Cimini, D.; Davolio, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Panegrossi, G.; Baldini, L.; Pasi, F.; Marzano, F. S.; Zinzi, A.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bartolini, G.; Loglisci, N.; Montani, A.; Marsigli, C.; Manzato, A.; Pucillo, A.; Ferrario, M. E.; Colaiuda, V.; Rotunno, R.

2014-05-01

160

Chromospheric heating and metal deficiency in cool giants: Theoretical results versus observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compute acoustic shock wave-heated chromosphere models for moderately cool giant stars which differ greatly in metallicity. Subsequently, we simulate the emerging Mg II k lines assuming partial redistribution. The initial acoustic energy fluxes and the wave periods are taken from acoustic wave generation calculations based on traditional convection zone models. We find that the Mg II and Ca II core emissions are close to the observed basal flux limits which are common for giants and dwarfs. In addition, we find that the Mg II core emission is independent of the metallicity, in agreement with observations. We argue that these results should be considered as further evidence that the basal flux limits are indeed due to acoustic shock heating. The acoustic heating mechanism seems to be dominant in all nonmagnetic nonpulsating late-type stars.

Cuntz, M.; Rammacher, W.; Ulmschneider, P.

1994-01-01

161

Preliminary Observational Results of Tidal Synchronization in Detached Solar-Type Binary Stars  

E-print Network

We present preliminary observational results on tidal synchronization in detached solar-type binary stars in the open clusters M35 (NGC2168; ~ 150 Myr) and M34 (NGC1039; ~ 250 Myr). M35 and M34 provide populations of close late-type binaries with ages that make them attractive observational tests of models of tidal synchronization during the early main-sequence phase. A combined dataset of stellar rotation periods from time-series photometry and binary orbital periods and eccentricities from time-series spectroscopy enables us to determine the angular rotation velocity of the primary star and the orbital angular velocity at periastron. Comparison of the stellar and orbital angular velocities provides information about the level of synchronization in individual binary stars.

S. Meibom

2004-12-15

162

Time-Series of Linear Spectropolarimetric Observations of Wolf-Rayet Stars: Results for WR 134  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a timeseries of spectropolarimetric observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 134. Our most striking observation so far is that in addition to the depolarization of spectral lines with respect to the continuum, already known to occur for this star, we find excess line polarisation in the red and blue wings at wavelengths clearly in excess of the terminal velocity of the wind. Also, contrary to expectations, we find no line depolarisation for the flat-topped He I ?5876 and C IV ?5804 lines. The excess polarization of the red wing is very likely a consequence of the well known red-shifted electron-scattering wing formed in expanding atmospheres, but the origin of the blue wing polarization still remains to be identified.

St-Louis, N.; de la Chevrotière, A.; Moffat, A. F. J.

2012-12-01

163

Determining Inclinations of Active Galactic Nuclei via their Narrow-line Region Kinematics. I. Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11243, 11611, and 12212.

Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.

2013-11-01

164

Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse. PMID:24877053

Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen

2014-01-01

165

Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8? declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

2013-07-01

166

The results of microseismic observations in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Baksan Neutrino Observatory, Institute for Nuclear Test of the Russian academy of sciences is the physical observatory for neutrino researches. The observatory is located in the Baksan canyon, Caucasus. Undersurface construction are located in two galleries which lengths are of 3670 and 4045 m. The area of Baksan Neutrino Observatory is characterized by rather high intensity of natural geodynamic processes. One of manifestation of them is amount of small seismic events that were formerly revealed in July 2006 during short-period observation. In June 2011 the stationary seismic network was installed in the mine. It includes 7 stations (one triaxial and six vertical) that aims to monitor both local and regional seismicity of Elbrus volcanic area. Observations show good conditions for microseismic monitoring. It was found very low level of ambient noises close to NLNM (Peterson, 1993) in frequency range up to 5 Hz. A lot of seismic events recorded during the first 6 months confirm a high tectonic activity of the region. All events may be divided into 2 groups. The first one includes regional events at the distance of tens and hundreds km. The second one collects all local events hypocentral distance of which doesn't exceed 3 km and local magnitude goes down to -3. Localization of the last events (about 80% of total amount) allows to distinct areas of different geodynamic activity.

Verkholantseva, T.; Shulakov, D.; Butyrin, P.; Verkholantsev, F.; Gabsatarova, I.

2012-04-01

167

Unification of the VW Arietis observation results obtained in multisite campaign.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the two-channel photometric observations of the ? Sct star VW Ari (BDS 1269 A) made at the Mt. Dushak-Erekdag Station of the Odessa Astronomical Observatory (Turkmenistan) were combined with the STEPHI network four-channel photometry made at the Xinglong Observatory (China) and Observatorio del Teide (Spain) during the same season. A five-frequency solution is proposed at the present stage of investigation. The suggestion that VW Ari belongs to the small group of peculiar ? Boo stars eliminates some discrepancies in the earlier results, and the existence of a binary system with a star with a peculiar abundance and a star with the normal abundance finds its natural explanation. A possible identification of pulsation modes is suggested.

Dorokhova, T. N.

168

Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

2001-01-01

169

Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

170

Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

2002-01-01

171

Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

172

Surface electromagnetic impedance and geomagnetic activity: results of long term observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetotelluric (MT) method is one of the most useful geophysical tool to discover even the deep subsurface structures. The target function of the MT data processing is the surface electromagnetic (EM) impedance. In case of practical MT exploration the surface EM impedance is computed based on a simplification related to the nature of the ionospheric source of the surface EM signals. Assuming that the ionospheric current systems result in homogeneous surface electromagnetic variations, the uncertainty of the computed surface electromagnetic impedance tensor depends only the duration of the EM observation. However the surface EM field can only be approached by plane waves in certain time periods and besides given uncertainty. The EM impedance may be sensitive to magnetospheric and -indirectly- interplanetary circumstances and solar activity. Four years continuous observation of telluric and surface geomagnetic components allowed to perform a representative survey to discover if geomagnetic activity has any effect on observed EM impedance tensor. Geomagnetic indices (Dst, ULF-index, ASY-H, SYM-H) have been used to classify dates according to geomagnetic activity. Processing to estimate the mean surface EM impedance tensor has been performed in each dataset, each class separately. The sensitivity and the characteristics of the answer of the EM impedance tensor to the geomagnetic disturbances seems to be definite. This presentation aims to briefly summarize the preliminary results of our study based on the unique dataset of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Obsevatory (Intermagnet code:NCK). In addition, pointing out the limitations of the routine way of practical MT data processing and interpretation is an important duty of this study. This study was supported by the TAMOP-4.2.2.C-11/1/KONV-2012-0015 (Earth-system) project sponsored by the EU and European Social Foundation.

Lemperger, István; Menvielle, Menvielle; Wesztergom, Viktor; Bencze, Pál; Szendr?i, Judit; Novák, Attila; Kis, Árpád; Szalai, Sándor

2014-05-01

173

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from preseismic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.

PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael

2013-08-01

174

Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in patients with psychiatric emergencies: Results of an observational trial  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional antipsychotics augmented with benzodiazepines have been the standard acute treatment for psychiatric emergencies for more than 50 years. The inability of patients to give informed consent limits randomised, controlled studies. This observational study on immediate therapy for aggression and impulse control in acutely agitated patients (IMPULSE) evaluated the short-term effectiveness and tolerability of atypical and typical antipsychotic medications (AP) in a non-interventional setting. Methods This was a comparative, non-randomised, prospective, open-label, observational study. Treatment over the first 5 days was classified according to whether any olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol was included or not. Documentations (PANSS-excited component, CGI-aggression, CGI-suicidality, tranquilisation score) were at baseline (day 1) and days 2–6 after start of AP. Results During the short treatment-period, PANSS-EC and CGI-aggression scores improved in all cohorts. 68.7% of patients treated with olanzapine, 72.2% of patients treated with risperidone, and 83.3% of patients treated with haloperidol received concomitant benzodiazepines (haloperidol vs. non-haloperidol: p < 0.001). More patients treated with olanzapine (73.8%) were fully alert according to a tranquilisation score and active at day 2 than patients treated with risperidone (57.1%) or haloperidol (58.0%). Conclusion Current medication practices for immediate aggression control are effective with positive results present within a few days. In this study, concomitant benzodiazepine use was significantly more frequent in patients receiving haloperidol. PMID:18647402

Wilhelm, Stefan; Schacht, Alexander; Wagner, Thomas

2008-01-01

175

HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT: UNRAVELING TARANTULA'S WEB. I. OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M{sub Sun }). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H{alpha} images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; De Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA-European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cignoni, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); De Marchi, G. [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gallagher, J. S. III; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tosi, M., E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

2013-09-15

176

Improving Wind Energy Forecasts through Assimilation of New Meteorological Observations: Results from the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a joint research project with NOAA and private industry to improve wind energy forecasts, called the Wind Forecast Improvement Project. The key elements of this program have been 1) a one-year deployment of extensive meteorological observing systems in two regions with significant wind energy production, from August 2011-September 2012; 2) assimilation of these observations into the hourly-updated NOAA Rapid Refresh (RAP), run nationwide each hour at 13 km resolution; and 3) evaluation of the benefits of these improved wind forecasts on electrical utility operations, especially for ramp-events in the 0-6 h forecast time-frame. The special observation data sets assimilated are concentrated over the two selected regions of the U.S. and include: 12 wind profiling radars, 12 sodars, 185 instrumented tall towers (40-200m tall), and 400 nacelle anemometers. In this presentation we will describe results from data denial experiments that have been run for limited periods within the WFIP project. The goal of the data denial experiments is to quantitatively document the precise impact that assimilation of the special WFIP data had on model accuracy, by comparing simulations from identical models run with and without the new data. Standard statistical measures show a significant improvement from the assimilation of the new data, and metrics for wind ramp events (including magnitude and phase of the ramps) show an even larger impact of the observations.

Bianco, L.; Wilczak, J. M.; Djalalova, I. V.; Olson, J. B.; Benjamin, S.; Finley, C. A.; Freedman, J. M.; DiMego, G.; Carley, J. R.; Orwig, K.; Cline, J.; Marquis, M.

2013-12-01

177

Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented.

S. Schanne

2006-06-22

178

Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study.  

PubMed

Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each condition. Physicians and parents were asked for a global assessment of efficacy and tolerability of the respective treatments at the end of therapy. A total of 309 children were treated (hamamelis n = 231; dexpanthenol n = 78). The treatment groups were comparable regarding demographic data and baseline total scores of signs and symptoms. In all three diagnosis groups, the efficacy of hamamelis and dexpanthenol was shown by a statistically significant and clinically relevant decrease of total scores from baseline to endpoint (p < 0.0001 for each group, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Overall, the results for the hamamelis and the dexpanthenol groups were similar. Descriptive advantages for the hamamelis group were observed for a number of parameters and diagnosis groups. Both treatments were well tolerated. Ratings of the tolerability of hamamelis were "excellent" or "good" in 99.1% (physicians) and 98.2% (parents) of cases, respectively. The corresponding ratings for dexpanthenol were 97.4 and 92.3%. In conclusion, hamamelis ointment is an effective and safe treatment for certain skin disorders in children up to the age of 11 years. The observed effects are similar to dexpanthenol. PMID:17177071

Wolff, Helmut H; Kieser, Meinhard

2007-09-01

179

Photometric Observations of Interstellar Hydrogen by HDAC: In-flight Calibration and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HDAC is part of the ultraviolet imaging spectrometer (UVIS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The instrument scans the Lyman-? emission lines of hydrogen and deuterium atoms. In the photometer mode only the CEM detector is used to register the signals within a 3 degree field of view. HDAC has been switched on in photometer mode most of the time producing a unique continuous data set for more than a decade. An analysis of the Lyman-? background data serves two purposes: determination of the parameters of the interstellar/interplanetary hydrogen and determination of the properties of the solar wind. The exhaustive pre-flight laboratory calibrations included evaluation of the absolute sensitivity of the instrument; evaluation of the instrument spectral sensitivity; evaluation of the off-axis response. During the mission these characteristics may change over time due to continuous time degradation of electronics and/or abrupt events. For example, three dramatic sensitivity breakdowns were observed in 2001. Thus the only chance to determine the current sensitivity of HDAC is to make in-flight comprehensive evaluation, e.g. measuring known fluxes from stars or other bodies. We systematically analyzed photometric observations of the star SPICA in order to perform in-flight calibrations. All three aspects listed above were explored. We found that the instrument is still in good condition. The current sensitivity of 12 count/s/Rayleigh is still sufficient to provide good signal to noise data. Off-axis responsivity is non-uniform and visibly differs from pre-flight determinations. At the same time the shape of the spatial sensitivity response is constant and can be used for all observations. The calibrated data are compared with sophisticated theoretical models describing the spatial distribution of interstellar/interplanetary hydrogen. First results will be reported.

Keller, Horst Uwe; Skorov, Y.; Katushkina, O.; Izmodenov, V.; Reulke, R.; Glassmeier, K.

2012-10-01

180

Efficacy and safety of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis: interim observational programme results  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials established the efficacy and safety of natalizumab. Data are needed over longer periods of time and in the clinical practice setting. Objective To evaluate long-term safety of natalizumab and its impact on annualised relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods The Tysabri (natalizumab) Observational Program (TOP) is an open-label, multinational, 10-year prospective study in clinical practice settings. Results In this 5-year interim analysis, 4821 patients were enrolled. Follow-up for at least 4?years from natalizumab commencement in 468 patients and at least 2?years in 2496 patients revealed no new safety signals. There were 18 cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy reported, following 11–44 natalizumab infusions. Mean annualised relapse rate decreased from 1.99 in the 12?months prior to baseline to 0.31 on natalizumab therapy (p<0.0001), remaining low at 5?years. Lower annualised relapse rates were observed in patients who used natalizumab as first MS therapy, in patients with lower baseline EDSS scores, and in patients with lower prenatalizumab relapse rates. Mean EDSS scores remained unchanged up to 5?years. Conclusions Interim TOP data confirm natalizumab's overall safety profile and the low relapse rate and stabilised disability levels in natalizumab-treated patients with RRMS in clinical practice. Trial registration number NCT00493298. PMID:24532785

Butzkueven, Helmut; Kappos, Ludwig; Pellegrini, Fabio; Trojano, Maria; Wiendl, Heinz; Patel, Radhika N; Zhang, Annie; Hotermans, Christophe; Belachew, Shibeshih

2014-01-01

181

Dome Fuji Seeing -the Summer Results and the Future Winter-over Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out the first seeing measurements at Dome Fuji in the 2010-2011 austral summer. From these observations, we found that the summer seeing at Dome Fuji was 1.2'' (mean), 1.1'' (median), 0.83'' (25th percentile) and 1.5'' (75th percentile), respectively. We also found that the seeing changed continuously and had a minimum around 0.7'' at ~18:00 hours daily. We compared the seeing with some weather parameters obtained from the 16 m mast, and found that the seeing had good correlations with atmosphere temperature and wind shear. These results suggest that the seeing is degraded by turbulence near the surface boundary layer. Because the data were obtained only over a short duration in summer, the general characteristics of Dome Fuji's seeing could not be evaluated. We plan to observe the seeing in winter with a stand-alone DIMM telescope. This new DIMM, which we named the Dome Fuji Differential Image Motion Monitor (DF-DIMM), will be installed at Dome Fuji in January 2013.

Okita, Hirofumi; Takato, Naruhisa; Ichikawa, Takashi; Bonner, Colin S.; Ashley, Michel C. B.; Storey, John W. V.

2013-01-01

182

Mainbelt Asteroids: Results of Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of 37 Objects During 1980-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detailed results of Arecibo and Goldstone radar observations of 30 mainbelt asteroids (MBAs) during 1980-1997. In addition to estimates of radar cross section, radar albedo, and circular polarization ratio, we obtain new pole constraints for several asteroids, with those for 21 Lutetia being particularly restrictive. We carry out statistical analyses of disc-integrated properties (radar albedo and polarization ratio) of all 37 radar-observed MBAs. There is good reason to believe that M asteroids tend to have higher radar albedos and a wider range of albedos than do the other taxonomic classes; there is no evidence that C and S MBAs have different albedo distributions; and there is some suggestion, worthy of future study, that primitive B, F, G, and P asteroids are not as radar-bright as C and S objects. There currently is no statistical evidence that different taxonomic classes have different polarization ratio distributions, despite suggestions to the contrary based on visual inspection of these distributions. The similarity between the C and S albedo distributions implies similar near-surface regolith bulk densities. If typical lunar porosities are assumed, then the hypothesis of ordinary chondritic composition for the S-class asteroids is more consistent with the radar data. Nevertheless, it is possible that some of these targets have high-porosity regoliths of stony-iron composition. Our M-class sample presumably contains both metallic objects (such as Kleopatra and, probably, Psyche) and less metallic objects, some of which might resemble enstatite chondrites.

Magri, C.; Ostro, S. J.; Rosema, K. D.; Thomas, M. L.; Mitchell, D. L.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I.; Giorgini, J. D.; Yeomans, D. K.

1998-12-01

183

Mainbelt Asteroids: Results of Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of 37 Objects during 1980-1995  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report detailed results of Arecibo and Goldstone radar observations of 30 mainbelt asteroids (MBAs) during 1980-1995. In addition to estimates of radar cross section, radar albedo, and circular polarization ratio, we obtain new constraints on pole direction for several asteroids, with those for 21 Lutetia being particularly restrictive. We carry out statistical analyses of disk-integrated properties (radar albedo and polarization ratio) of all 37 radar-observed MBAs. M asteroids seem to have higher radar albedos and a wider range of albedos than do asteroids from the other taxonomic classes; there is no evidence that C and S MBAs have different albedo distributions; and there is some suggestion, worthy of future study, that primitive B, F, G, and P asteroids are not as radar-bright as C and S objects. There is no statistically significant evidence that different taxonomic classes have different polarization ratio distributions, despite suggestions to the contrary based on visual inspection of these distributions. The similarity between the C and S albedo distributions implies similar near-surface regolith bulk densities. The hypothesis of ordinary chondritic composition for the S-class asteroids is reasonably consistent with the radar data, provided that these asteroids have typical lunar porosities. Nevertheless, it is possible that some of these targets have high-porosity regoliths of stony-iron composition. Our M-class sample presumably contains both metallic objects (such as 216 Kleopatra and, probably, 16 Psyche) and less metallic objects.

Magri, Christopher; Ostro, Steven J.; Rosema, Keith D.; Thomas, Michael L.; Mitchell, David L.; Campbell, Donald B.; Chandler, John F.; Shapiro, Irwin I.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Yeomans, Donald K.

1999-08-01

184

Evaporation over land surfaces - First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY Special Observing Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented from the May 7-July 15, 1986 Special Observing Period (SOP) of the HAPEX-MOBILHY program, which examines the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a 10,000 sq km GCM grid square to determine soil moisture, surface-energy budgets, and surface hydrology. The SOP used two highly instrumented remote sensing aircraft to obtain detailed measurements of atmospheric fluxes and surface properties. It is noted that the measurements are reliable at spatially local and short time scales, as well as on the monthly time scale. The data base obtained may be used in parametrization schemes against which land-surface water budgets can be tested.

Andre, Jean-Claude; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Perrier, Alain; Becker, Francois

1988-01-01

185

Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission: Observations and new results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the observations and recently obtained new results from the "Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)" mission, which was launched onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 rocket to study the solar flares. The state-of-the-art solid state detectors viz. Si PIN and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) were employed that operate at near room temperature (-20 0C). The dynamic energy range of the Si PIN and CZT detectors are 4-25 keV and 4-56 keV, respectively. The Si PIN has sub-keV energy resolution while the CZT has about 1.7 keV energy resolutions throughout the dynamic range. The high sensitivity and sub-keV energy resolution of Si PIN detector allows for measuring the intensity, and equivalent width (w) of the Fe-line and Fe/Ni-line complexes at approximately 6.7 and 8.0 keV as a function of time. We present the results related to the Fe-line complex obtained from the study of 10 M-class flares observed by the SOXS mission. We found that the equivalent width (w) of the Fe-line feature increases exponentially with temperature up to 25 MK but later it increases very slowly up to 35 Mk and then it remains constant up to 45 MK. We compare our measurements of w of the Fe line feature with calculations made earlier by various investigators and propose that these measurements may improve theoretical models. We interpret the variation of w with temperature as the changes in the ionization and recombination conditions in the plasma during the flare interval, and, as a consequence, the contribution from different ionic emission lines also varies.

Jain, R.; Bhatt, N. J.; Bharti, L.

186

First Results of Atmospheric Trace Gases in and around New Delhi using mobile MAX-DOAS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of air pollutants, greatly influence air quality and have direct influence on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI, in month of April 2010, we carried out mobile MAX-DOAS measurements in and around Delhi and made comparison with satellite data. The MAX-DOAS was mounted on a car. The aim of the project was to characterize and quantify pollutants. The mobile observations were conducted in and around New Delhi along circles of different radii. The analysis of MAX-DOAS, satellite observations and meteorological data, is used to quantify the total emissions of trace gases like NO2, HCHO or Glyoxal. The results obtained from the detailed analysis are first time compared with the satellite data. The ground and satellite data show a good correlation over Delhi, capital of India.

Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Marbach, T.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, R.

2010-12-01

187

Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children  

PubMed Central

Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

2013-01-01

188

NOVAC - Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, present status and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NOVAC project, funded by European Union, was started in October 2005 with the aim to establish a global network of stations for the quantitative measurement of volcanic gas emissions. The network is based on a novel type of instrument, the Scanning Dual-beam mini-DOAS. Primarily the instruments will be used to provide new parameters in the toolbox of observatories for gas emission estimates, geophysical research and hazard assessment. In addition, data are exploited for other scientific purposes, e.g. global estimates of volcanic gas emissions, regional to global statistical analysis, and studies of atmospheric chemistry. In particular large scale validation of satellite measurements of volcanic gas emissions will be possible, bringing spaceborne observation of volcanoes a significant step forward. The Scanning Dual-beam Mini-DOAS instrument is capable of real-time automatic, unattended measurement of the total emission fluxes of SO2 and BrO from a volcano with better then 5 minutes time resolution during daylight. The high time-resolution of the data enables correlations with other geophysical data, e.g. seismicity, thus significantly extending the information available for real-time hazard assessment and research. By comparing high time resolution gas emission data with emissions from neighboring volcanoes on different geographical scales, or with other geophysical events (earthquakes, tidal waves) mechanisms of volcanic forcing may be revealed. The spectra recorded by the instrument will also be used to derive data that complement global observation networks related to climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion research. The network today encompasses 55 instruments installed on 21 volcanoes, including some of the most active and strongest degassing volcanoes in the world. The project and its present status will be presented as well as results from some of the volcanoes.

Galle, Bo

2010-05-01

189

NOVAC - Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, First Installations and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NOVAC project, funded by European Union, was started in October 2005 with the aim to establish a global network of stations for the quantitative measurement of volcanic gas emissions. The network is based on a novel type of instrument, the Scanning Dual-beam mini-DOAS. Primarily the instruments will be used to provide new parameters in the toolbox of observatories for gas emission estimates, geophysical research and hazard assessment. In addition, data are exploited for other scientific purposes, e.g. global estimates of volcanic gas emissions, regional to global statistical analysis, and studies of atmospheric chemistry. In particular large scale validation of satellite measurements of volcanic gas emissions will be possible, bringing spaceborne observation volcanoes a significant step forward. The Scanning Dual-beam Mini-DOAS instrument is capable of real-time automatic, unattended measurement of the total emission fluxes of SO2 and BrO from a volcano with better then 5 minutes time resolution during daylight. The high time-resolution of the data enables correlations with other geophysical data, e.g. seismicity, thus significantly extending the information available for real-time hazard assessment and research. By comparing high time resolution gas emission data with emissions from neighboring volcanoes on different geographical scales, or with other geophysical events (earthquakes, tidal waves) mechanisms of volcanic forcing may be revealed. The spectra recorded by the instrument will also be used to derive data that complement global observation networks related to climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion research. The consortium encompasses observatories of 20 volcanoes from five continents, including some of the most active and strongest degassing volcanoes in the world. The project will be presented as well as first results from the recent installations on San Cristobal, Masaya, Tungurahua and Galeras volcanoes.

Galle, B.; Platt, U.; Vanroozendael, M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Hansteen, T.; Boudon, G.; Burton, M.; Delgado, H.; Strauch, W.; Duarte, E.; Garzon, G.; Pullinger, C.; Kasereka, M.; Molina, L.; Carn, S.; Samaniego, P.; Sanchez, E.; Inguaggiato, S.

2007-05-01

190

Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar: Results from Continuous Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PANSY radar has been installed at Syowa Station (69°00’S, 39°35’E) as the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic. It is a monostatic coherent pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz VHF, consisting of an active phased array of 1,045 Yagi antennas and the same number of transmitter/receiver (TR) modules obtaining a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar install was carried out in early 2011, and since April 2012 the radar has been continuously operated with 228 antennas and modules. The full radar system operation will start in 2015. The primary objectives of the radar to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere and middle atmosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric/stratospheric clouds. The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Furthermore, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. In this paper we will report the scientific objectives of the project, technical descriptions, and the results of observations in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere to date, including observations regarding severe snow storms, gravity waves, multiple tropopauses, and polar mesosphere summer/winter echoes.

Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Saito, Akinori; Sato, Toru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Sato, Kaoru; Kohma, Masaki

191

Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight of the controller which necessitates aircraft autonomy. An autonomous unmanned aircraft requires a significantly more complex command and control system and elicits more scrutiny by airspace regulatory agencies. Therefore, while the potential utility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, the unmanned aircraft along with the communications and logistics infrastructure required for their operation) for stormscale research may be obvious, the engineering and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome for their use are significant. Surmounting these engineering and regulatory hurdles was the principal objective of the UAS component of VORTEX-2. Regulatory hurdles prevented UAS operations in the first year of VORTEX-2. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (tasked with regulating all UAS operations) granted the UAS group certificates of authorization (CoA) to fly for all of year-2 over northeast CO, southwest NE, and northwest KS. The majority of the engineering hurdles involved the communication system necessary to 1) command and control the aircraft through its on-board autopilot and 2) direct ground-based vehicles required to remain compliant with FAA regulations. Testing during both year-1 and -2 yielded a robust communication system. Lessons learned from interactions with the FAA along with an overview of the communication system will be presented at the conference. Scientifically, the UAS in VORTEX-2 was tasked with collecting in-situ observations of the temperature and moisture above the surface across the rear flank gust front (RFGF) and within the rear flank downdraft (RFD). Despite the relatively small region approved for UAS operations, 6 flights were conducted in the vicinity of supercells during year-2 of VORTEX-2: 6 May, 26 May, 6 June, 7 June, 9 June, and 10 June. Of these flights, three (6 June, 9 June, and 10 June) collected observations across the RFGF and within the RFD. Results from the VORTEX-2 flights along with an outlook towards possible future applications of UAS for stormscale research will be presented at the conference.

Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B.; Frew, E.

2010-12-01

192

Renegotiating the Peer Review Process: Disseminating Observational Results in an Age of Instant Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and technology impact nearly every aspect of life in the developed world today. It is not surprising then, that events in science and technology make news. On the flip side, the scientific community is increasingly exhorted to make their research relevant, as well as to communicate their results to the broader public. On another front, a combination of forces, including the rise of advanced computing and telecommunications technologies, has dramatically increased the amount of scientific data and information that are available to the public. With increasing frequency, some types of observationally derived data are available more or less immediately upon creation. Given the nature of the news process, if the science community is to affect how the public interprets newly available information, they must be ready to explain interesting results as soon as the data become available. Yet, the science community expects that results will be published in the peer-reviewed literature prior to wide dissemination. The publication and peer review process takes time, even in this age of electronic access. Thus, the norms of science and the need for timely communication with the public are often in conflict. There may be areas of scientific work where resolving this inherent conflict is unimportant. However, in any arena where public interest in these data or their interpretation is large, resolution of the conflict is necessary if the special knowledge and skills of the science community are to play a role in the formation of public opinion or policy. The science community is only now beginning to address this fundamental conflict. This paper examines a newsworthy case from the recent past where the conflict between immediacy and the scientific process is clear in order to illuminate one resolution strategy currently in use within a portion of the science community a process akin to the normal literature review process.

Duerr, R.

2006-12-01

193

Long-term follow-up results of the observation program for neuroblastoma detected at 6-month mass screening.  

PubMed

We conducted an observation program of neuroblastoma in infants, detected by mass screening at 6 months of age; we followed up with them for 15 years. No recurrence was observed after disappearance of tumors, and persistent tumors showed no malignant transformation or metastasis. Histology of the resected tumors showed age-related differentiation. PMID:25091258

Arakawa, Ayumu; Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Akira; Hanada, Ryoji; Koh, Katsuyoshi

2014-10-01

194

MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results of the Australian bush fires of February 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on February 7, 2009, Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume remained north-eastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On February 17 the eastern part had reached southern South America and on February 20 the central Southern Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific. Between February 20 and the first week of March the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of February 11, followed by larger amounts on February 17 and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-17 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

Glatthor, Norbert; Höpfner, Michael; Semeniuk, Kirill; Lupu, Alexandru; Palmer, Paul; McConnell, Jack; Kaminski, Jacek; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Funke, Bernd; Kellmann, Sylvia; Linden, Andrea; Wiegele, Andreas

2013-04-01

195

A climatology of surface ozone in the extra tropics: cluster analysis of observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important aspects of the seasonal variations of surface ozone are discussed. The underlying analysis is based on the long-term (1990-2004) ozone records of the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) and the World Data Centre of Greenhouse Gases, which provide data mostly for the Northern Hemisphere. Seasonal variations are pronounced at most of the 114 locations at all times of the day. A seasonal-diurnal variations classification using hierarchical agglomeration clustering reveals 6 distinct clusters: clean background, rural, semi-polluted non-elevated, semi-polluted semi-elevated, elevated and polar/remote marine. For the "clean background" cluster the seasonal maximum is observed in March-April, both for night and day. For those sites with a double maximum or a wide spring-summer maximum, the spring maximum appears both for day and night, while the summer maximum is more pronounced for daytime and hence can be attributed to photochemical processes. The spring maximum is more likely caused by dynamical/transport processes than by photochemistry as it is observed in spring for all times of the day. We compare the identified clusters with corresponding data from the 3-D atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 covering the period of 1998-2005. For the model output as for the measurements 6 clusters are considered. The simulation shows at most of the sites a spring seasonal maximum or a broad spring-summer maximum (with higher summer mixing ratios). For southern hemispheric and polar remote locations the seasonal maximum in the simulation is shifted to spring, while the absolute mixing ratios are in good agreement with the measurements. The seasonality in the model cluster covering background locations is characterized by a pronounced spring (April-May) maximum. For the model clusters which cover rural and semi-polluted sites the role of the photochemical production/destruction seems to be overestimated. Taking into consideration the differences in the data sampling procedure, the comparison demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the main regimes of surface ozone variations quite well.

Tarasova, O. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Jöckel, P.; Zvyagintsev, A. M.; Kuznetsov, G. I.

2007-12-01

196

The Australian bushfires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on 7 February 2009, southeast Australia was devastated by large bushfires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products were transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the Envisat satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast southeastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days, the plume remained northeastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On 17 February the eastern part had reached southern South America and on 20 February the central South Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the South Pacific. Between 20 February and the first week of March, the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-20 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.; Palmer, P. I.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Wiegele, A.

2013-02-01

197

Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in tide gauge data north of 40N, in the subpolar SST and in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and in subpolar winter heat flux values. The decadal cycle is a well separated mode in a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for a time series of SST EOF mode 1 with a center over the Gulf Stream extension. Tide gauge and SST data are consistent in that both show a significant subdecadal periodicity exclusively in the subpolar gyre, but in subtropics the 12-14 year period is the prominent, but nonstationary, decadal signal. The main finding of this study is that this 12-14 year cycle can be constructed based on the leading mode of the surface heat flux. This connection to the surface heat flux implicates the participation of the thermohaline circulation in the decadal cycle. During the cycle starting from the positive index phase of NAO, SST and oceanic heat content anomalies are created in subtropics due to local heat flux and intensification of the thermohaline circulation. The anomalies advect to the subpolar gyre where they are amplified by local heat flux and are part of the negative feedback of thermohaline circulation on itself. Consequently the oceanic thermohaline circulation slows down and the opposite cycle starts. The oscillatory nature would not be possible without the active atmospheric participation in the cycle, because it provides the unstable interaction through heat flux, without it, the oceanic mode would be damped. This analysis suggests that the two principal modes of heat flux variability, corresponding to patterns similar to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Western Atlantic (WA), are part of the same decadal cycle and an indirect measure of the north-south movement of the storm tracks.

Hakkinen, Sirpa

1998-01-01

198

Comparison of Observed Spatio-temporal Aftershock Patterns with Earthquake Simulator Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complex nature of faulting in southern California, knowledge of rupture behavior near fault step-overs is of critical importance to properly quantify and mitigate seismic hazards. Estimates of earthquake probability are complicated by the uncertainty that a rupture will stop at or jump a fault step-over, which affects both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes. In recent years, earthquake simulators and dynamic rupture models have begun to address the effects of complex fault geometries on earthquake ground motions and rupture propagation. Early models incorporated vertical faults with highly simplified geometries. Many current studies examine the effects of varied fault geometry, fault step-overs, and fault bends on rupture patterns; however, these works are limited by the small numbers of integrated fault segments and simplified orientations. The previous work of Kroll et al., 2013 on the northern extent of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah rupture in the Yuha Desert region uses precise aftershock relocations to show an area of complex conjugate faulting within the step-over region between the Elsinore and Laguna Salada faults. Here, we employ an innovative approach of incorporating this fine-scale fault structure defined through seismological, geologic and geodetic means in the physics-based earthquake simulator, RSQSim, to explore the effects of fine-scale structures on stress transfer and rupture propagation and examine the mechanisms that control aftershock activity and local triggering of other large events. We run simulations with primary fault structures in state of California and northern Baja California and incorporate complex secondary faults in the Yuha Desert region. These models produce aftershock activity that enables comparison between the observed and predicted distribution and allow for examination of the mechanisms that control them. We investigate how the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks are affected by changes to model parameters such as shear and normal stress, rate-and-state frictional properties, fault geometry, and slip rate.

Kroll, K.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Dieterich, J. H.

2013-12-01

199

Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results  

SciTech Connect

In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy); Palazzo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Silk, J. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Slosar, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-03-01

200

EXOPLANETARY SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT: RESULTS FROM THE ENSEMBLE OF ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

One possible diagnostic of planet formation, orbital migration, and tidal evolution is the angle {psi} between a planet's orbital axis and the spin axis of its parent star. In general, {psi} cannot be measured, but for transiting planets one can measure the angle {lambda} between the sky projections of the two axes via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Here, we show how to combine measurements of {lambda} in different systems to derive statistical constraints on {psi}. We apply the method to 11 published measurements of {lambda}, using two different single-parameter distributions to describe the ensemble. First, assuming a Rayleigh distribution (or more precisely, a Fisher distribution on a sphere), we find that the peak value is less than 22{sup 0} with 95% confidence. Second, assuming that a fraction f of the orbits have random orientations relative to the stars, and the remaining fraction (1 - f) are perfectly aligned, we find f < 0.36 with 95% confidence. This latter model fits the data better than the Rayleigh distribution, mainly because the XO-3 system was found to be strongly misaligned while the other 10 systems are consistent with perfect alignment. If the XO-3 result proves robust, then our results may be interpreted as evidence for two distinct modes of planet migration.

Fabrycky, Daniel C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.com

2009-05-10

201

Atmospheric turbulence in complex terrain: Verifying numerical model results with observations by remote-sensing instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is situated in an area of complex terrain. Turbulent flow due to terrain disruption could occur in the vicinity of HKIA when winds from east to southwest climb over Lantau Island, a mountainous island to the south of the airport. Low-level turbulence is an aviation hazard to the aircraft flying into and out of HKIA. It is closely monitored using remote-sensing instruments including Doppler LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) systems and wind profilers in the airport area. Forecasting of low-level turbulence by numerical weather prediction models would be useful in the provision of timely turbulence warnings to the pilots. The feasibility of forecasting eddy dissipation rate (EDR), a measure of turbulence intensity adopted in the international civil aviation community, is studied in this paper using the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Super-high resolution simulation (within the regime of large eddy simulation) is performed with a horizontal grid size down to 50 m for some typical cases of turbulent airflow at HKIA, such as spring-time easterly winds in a stable boundary layer and gale-force southeasterly winds associated with a typhoon. Sensitivity of the simulation results with respect to the choice of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) parameterization scheme in RAMS is also examined. RAMS simulation with Deardorff (1980) TKE scheme is found to give the best result in comparison with actual EDR observations. It has the potential for real-time forecasting of low-level turbulence in short-term aviation applications (viz. for the next several hours).

Chan, P. W.

2009-03-01

202

MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF EDGE-ON PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We are undertaking a multi-frequency Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) survey of edge-on protoplanetary disks to probe the growth of solids in each disk, sedimentation of such material into the disk midplane, and the connection of these phenomena to the planet formation process. The projection of edge-on disk systems along our line of sight enables a study of the vertical stratification of large grains with fewer model dependencies than would be required for disks that are more face-on. Robust studies of the spatial distribution of grains up to {approx}1 cm in size are possible with the wavelength range and sensitivity of the EVLA. In this contribution, we describe target selection and observational strategies. First results concerning the Class 0 source IRAS 04368+2557 (L1527 IRS) are presented, including a study of this source's 8.46 GHz continuum variability over short and long time baselines and an indication that its protoplanetary disk may have a dearth of pebble-sized grains.

Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palmer, Patrick [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perrin, M. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Maddison, S. T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Duvert, G. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stapelfeldt, K., E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-900, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-09-20

203

Factors Associated with Persistence with Teriparatide Therapy: Results from the DANCE Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Determine patient-reported reasons for discontinuation with teriparatide. Methods. Patients taking teriparatide in a multicenter, prospective, and observational study were given three questionnaires: baseline, follow-up questionnaire 1 (QF1, 2 to 6 months), and follow-up questionnaire 2 (QF2, 12 months). Discontinuation reported at QF1 and QF2 was defined as “early” and “late,” respectively, and remaining patients were considered persistent. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to identify factors associated with discontinuation. Results. Side effects, concern about improper use, injection difficulties, and several patient-perceived physician issues were associated with early discontinuation. Low patient-perceived importance of continuing treatment, side effects, difficulty paying, and low patient-perceived physician knowledge were associated with late discontinuation. The most common specific reasons selected for discontinuing treatment were “concerns about treatment outweighing the benefits” (n = 53) and “difficulty paying” (n = 47). Conclusions. Persistence with teriparatide is dependent on managing side effects, addressing financial challenges, proper training, and obtaining support from the healthcare provider. PMID:22013544

Gold, Deborah T.; Weinstein, David L.; Pohl, Gerhardt; Krohn, Kelly D.; Chen, Yi; Meadows, Eric S.

2011-01-01

204

Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?Lambda-CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further.With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat Lambda-CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2013-01-01

205

NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C {sup –1} weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ?CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t {sub 0} = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H {sub 0} = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n{sub s} = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further. With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat ?CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Drive, Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Gold, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

2013-10-01

206

X-Ray Observations of Optically Selected, Radio-quiet Quasars. I. The ASCA Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the result of 27 ASCA observations of 26 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) from the Palomar-Green (PG) survey. The sample is not statistically complete, but it is reasonably representative of RQQs in the PG survey. For many of the sources, the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. All the RQQs were detected except for two objects, both of which contain broad absorption lines in the optical band. We find the variability characteristics of the sources to be consistent with Seyfert 1 galaxies. A power law offers an acceptable description of the time-averaged spectra in the 2-10 keV (quasar frame) band for all but one data set. The best-fitting values of the photon index vary from object to object over the range 1.5<~?2-10<~3, with a mean ~=2 and dispersion ?(?2-10)~=0.25. The distribution of ?2-10 is therefore similar to that observed in other RQ active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and seems to be unrelated to X-ray luminosity. No single model adequately describes the full 0.6-10 keV (observed frame) continuum of all the RQQs. Approximately 50% of the sources can be adequately described by a single power law or by a power law with only very subtle deviations. All but one of the remaining data sets were found to have convex spectra (flattening as one moves to higher energies). The exception is PG 1411+442, in which a substantial column density (NH,z~2x1023 cm-2) obscures ~98% of the continuum. We find only five (maybe six) of 14 objects with z<~0.25 to have ``soft excesses'' at energies <~1 keV, but we find no universal shape for these spectral components. The spectrum of PG 1244+026 contains a rather narrow emission feature centered at an energy ~1 keV (quasar frame). The detection rate of absorption due to ionized material in these RQQs is lower than that seen in Seyfert 1 galaxies. In part, this may be due to selection effects. However, when detected, the absorbers in the RQQs exhibit a similar range of column density and ionization parameter as Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find evidence of Fe K-shell emission in at least eight RQQs. These are all low-luminosity objects, and the line parameters are consistent with those of other low-luminosity RQ AGNs. However the construction of the mean data/model ratios for various luminosity ranges reveals a trend whereby the profile and strength of the Fe K-shell emission changes as a function of luminosity.

George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Netzer, H.; Laor, A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nandra, K.; Takahashi, T.

2000-03-01

207

Using Qualitative Observation To Document Group Processes in Accelerated Schools Training: Techniques and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the use of qualitative observation techniques for gathering and analyzing data related to group processes during an Accelerated Schools Model training session. The purposes for this research were to observe the training process in order better to facilitate present continuation and future training, to develop questions for…

McFarland, Katherine; Batten, Constance

208

Results from Infrared Spectral Observation of 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Hui Li and Jianqi You  

E-print Network

is close to that of other helium lines in optical waveband. In addition, spectra of the big prominence reasons, such as the low sensitivity of detector. There is no report so far about the observation of flash as the detector. We selected the observation waveband as 10712 Å¡ A--10972 Å¡ A in order to conduct the following

Li, Hui

209

Results from Infrared Spectral Observation of 1991 Total Solar Eclipse Hui Li and Jianqi You  

E-print Network

is close to that of other helium lines in optical waveband. In addition, spectra of the big prominence reasons, such as the low sensitivity of detector. There is no report so far about the observation of flash extended the red limit of observation wavelength to value greater than 10000°A by using CCD as the detector

Li, Hui

210

Fusing Observations and Model Results for Creation of Enhanced Ozone Spatial Fields: Comparison of Three Techniques  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents three simple techniques for fusing observations and numerical model predictions. The techniques rely on model/observation bias being considered either as error free, or containing some uncertainty, the latter mitigated with a Kalman filter approach or a spati...

211

Respiratory symptoms and cotton dust exposure; results of a 15 year follow up observation  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine chronic effects of long term exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin on incidence of respiratory symptoms and the effect of cessation of exposure. Methods: Respiratory health in 429 Chinese cotton textile workers (study group) and 449 silk textile workers (control group) was followed prospectively from 1981 to 1996. Byssinosis, chest tightness, and non-specific respiratory symptoms were assessed by means of identical standardised questionnaires at four time points. Exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin were estimated using area samples collected at each survey. Incidence and persistence of symptoms were examined in relation to cumulative exposure and exposure cessation using generalised estimating equations (GEE). Results: Among cotton workers, the cumulative incidence of byssinosis and chest tightness was 24% and 23%, respectively, and was significantly more common in smokers than in non-smokers. A high proportion of symptoms was found to be intermittent, rather than persistent. Among silk workers, no typical byssinosis was identified; the incidence of chest tightness was 10%. Chronic bronchitis, cough, and dyspnoea were more common and persistent in the cotton group than in the silk group. Significantly lower odds ratios for symptoms were observed in cotton workers who left the cotton mills; risk was also related to years since last worked. Multivariate analysis indicated a trend for higher cumulative exposure to endotoxin in relation to a higher risk for byssinosis. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to cotton dust is related to both work specific and non-specific respiratory symptoms. Byssinosis is more strongly associated with exposure to endotoxin than to dust. Cessation of exposure may improve the respiratory health of cotton textile workers; the improvement appears to increase with time since last exposure. PMID:14634185

Wang, X; Eisen, E; Zhang, H; Sun, B; Dai, H; Pan, L; Wegman, D; Olenchock, S; Christiani, D

2003-01-01

212

Is the quality of care in general medical practice improving? Results of a longitudinal observational study.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: The demand for increased accountability within health care has led to a myriad of government initiatives in the United Kingdom, with the aim of improving care, setting minimum standards, and addressing poor performance. AIM: To assess the quality of care in English general practice in the year 2001 compared with 1998, in terms of access, interpersonal care, and clinical care (chronic disease management, elderly care, and mental health care). DESIGN OF STUDY: Observational study in a purposive sample of general practices in England. SETTING: Twenty-three general practices in England--eight in North Thames, seven in the North West, and eight in the South West. RESULTS: Outcome measures were: quality of chronic disease management (angina, adult asthma and type 2 diabetes from practice questionnaires and medical record review), elderly care and mental health care (from practice questionnaires), access to care, continuity of care and interpersonal care (from practice and patient questionnaires) and costs (mean change in practice budget between 1998 and 2001). There were significant improvements in quality of care in terms of organisational access to services (P = 0.016), practice organisation of chronic disease management (P = 0.039), and the quality of angina care (P = 0.003). There were no significant changes in quality scores for mental health care, elderly care, access and interpersonal care. The mean practice budget rose by 3.4% between 1998 and 2001 (adjusted for inflation). CONCLUSION: These findings provide evidence of improvements in some aspects of the quality of care, achieved at modest cost. This was achieved during a time when the National Health Service was undergoing a series of reforms. However, primary care in England is characterised by variation in care, with significant improvements still possible. PMID:12879830

Campbell, Stephen; Steiner, Andrea; Robison, Judy; Webb, Dale; Raven, Ann; Roland, Martin

2003-01-01

213

Offshore advection of particles within the Cape Blanc filament, Mauritania: Results from observational and modelling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article will review major features of the ‘giant’ Cape Blanc filament off Mauritania with regard to the transport of chlorophyll and organic carbon from the shelf to the open ocean. Within the filament, chlorophyll is transported about 400 km offshore. Modelled particle distributions along a zonal transect at 21°N showed that particles with a sinking velocity of 5 m d -1 are advected offshore by up to 600 km in subsurface particle clouds generally located between 400 m and 800 m water depth, forming an Intermediate Nepheloid Layer (INL). It corresponds to the depth of the oxygen minimum zone. Heavier particles with a sinking velocity of 30 m d -1 are transported from the shelf within the Bottom Layer (BL) of more than 1000 m thickness, largely following the topography of the bottom slope. The particles advected within the BL contribute to the enhanced winter-spring mass fluxes collected at the open-ocean mesotrophic sediment trap site CB-13 (?200 nm offshore), due to a long distance advection in deeper waters. The lateral contribution to the deep sediment trap in winter-spring is estimated to be 63% and 72% for organic carbon and total mass, respectively, whereas the lateral input for both components on an annual basis is estimated to be in the order of 15%. Biogenic opal increases almost fivefold from the upper to the lower mesotrophic CB-13 trap, also pointing to an additional source for biogenic silica from eutrophic coastal waters. Blooms obviously sink in smaller, probably mesoscale-sized patches with variable settling rates, depending on the type of aggregated particles and their ballast content. Generally, particle sinking rates are exceptionally high off NW Africa. Very high chlorophyll values and a large size of the Cape Blanc filament in 1998-1999 are also documented in enhanced total mass and organic carbon fluxes. An increasing trend in satellite chlorophyll concentrations and the size of the Cape Blanc filament between 1997 and 2008 as observed for other coastal upwelling areas is not documented.

Fischer, G.; Reuter, C.; Karakas, G.; Nowald, N.; Wefer, G.

2009-12-01

214

Preliminary observation result of urban boundary layer at Taipei 101 Skyscraper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taipei 101 Skyscraper (508 m), the secondary tallest commercial building around the world, is the metropolis landmark of Taipei, Taiwan. The minute-resolution of wind field, air temperature and humidity sampled at the northeastern corner of 34th (151 m) and 82th (353 m) balconies are collected from January of 2011 until now for studying urban meteorological boundary layer. 31 sets of balloon-borne radiosondes near Taipei 101 Skyscraper were launched for comparison. Meanwhile, a CFD model (STREAM) was used to simulate the wind flow surrounding 101 Skyscraper. As expected, the measured wind field could be distorted strongly by the building. Comparing with radiosonde data, the wind direction measured at Taipei 101 skyscraper has 70~90 degrees clockwise turn (SN) under the prevailing northeastern (NE) wind flow. The measured wind speed at 101 Skyscraper also has ~50% reduction compared to radiosonde measurement, and the ratio of speed reduction from different wind directions was simulated by STREAM model well. In addition, the wind speed at 151m is larger than the measurement at 353m significantly. This near-surface wind jet phenomenon was diagnosed through STREAM model. We found the hill topographic effect 1.2 km Southeastern away 101 Skyscraper and the surrounding high buildings are the major factors to form this wind jet. Temperature measurement at 101 Skyscraper has highly linear regression (R > 0.98) with radiosonde temperature data. The minimum difference of air temperature between two-layer of 101 Skyscraper happens in the early morning, 04:00 LST (hot season) to 08:00 LST (cold season). Significant temperature inversion phenomena (below 353 m) were always observed at cloudless breeze days, no matter what the seasons. The Particulate Matter (PM) measured by Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Taipei Basin (15 sites) and our temporary measurements at 101 Skyscraper balconies near noon were collected, too. It showed that PM10 density at 353m height might reduce to ~70% of the ground level. But PM2.5 was seemed well-mixed in the near-surface urban boundary layer.

Lin, P. H.; Mei, K. C.; Chen, Y. C.

2012-04-01

215

Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

2004-05-01

216

Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M?1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and ?-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (?o = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (?o ? 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ? K ? 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

Mirhusen, Narziev

217

Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry  

E-print Network

.2 pc Observations - 13.03.2010 H filter 1.5 s. integration Defocused to 8 pix ring 200 images / cube W, easy to implement Price, Storn, and Lampinen (2005) Implementation Fortran, Python, NumPy, and Py

Pinfield, David J.

218

Telescopic Observations of Mars, 1996-1997: Results of the Marswatch Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1996-1997 apparition of Mars, Marswatch and the International Mars Patrol (IMP) of the Mars Section of the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers (ALPO) received 2750 observations from 70 observers in 14 countries. Approximately 40% of these observations are CCD images, many of which were obtained through filters covering a spectral range from 330 to 820 nm. In addition, a large number of high quality visual observations were performed through standard color filters, permitting more accurate assessments of surface and atmospheric phenomena. The apparition coverage extended through 249° (11° to 260°) of areocentric longitude ( Ls), permitting monitoring of the northern hemisphere spring/summer/autumn meterological activity, north polar cap (NPC) behavior, and albedo feature alterations. There were few significant changes in albedo feature morphology during the 1996-1997 apparition. The north polar cap rift, the Rima Tenuis, which had been observed and imaged during each aphelic apparition since 1980, was not observed, perhaps due to a slowing in the NPC regression after 80° Ls. The incidence of discrete clouds, orographic and localized, was higher than that predicted on the basis of the ALPO/IMP's martian meteorology study that spanned 14 previous apparitions from 1964 to 1993. Discrete clouds were more numerous than in 1993 or 1995, peaking in late northern spring, 30° Lsearlier than predicted. The Syrtis Blue Cloud was extensively observed and imaged between 66° and 115° Ls. The rate of occurrence of limb clouds was significantly lower than predicted for a given subseason. Their peak incidence occurred after aphelion, but their frequency decreased rapidly after 105° Ls, nearly two martian seasons earlier than observed during previous apparitions. Limb hazes, bright in blue and ultraviolet light, were more numerous and conspicuous throughout the northern summer, as predicted from the meteorology study. Arctic clouds increased in number around aphelion and were often large and bright during early northern summer. A variable north polar hood was observed after 160° Ls. We find clear evidence for the existence of extensive equatorial cloud bands, which became numerous between 50° and 120° Ls, peaking in early northern summer (105° Ls), and often merging into bright limb clouds. These bands were more frequent and prominent in 1996-1997 than during the 1993 or 1995 apparitions and were extensively imaged in blue and ultraviolet light by both groundbased observers and by the HST.

Parker, D. C.; Beish, J. D.; Troiani, D. M.; Joyce, D. P.; Hernandez, C. E.

1999-03-01

219

In ecliptic observations of Jovian radio emissions by Ulysses - Comparison with Voyager results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Ulysses inbound cruise to Jupiter the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave (URAP) experiment observed a variety of the planet's radio components in the frequency range below 1 MHz. Most of these emissions were already detected by the Voyager Radio Astronomy and Plasma Wave experiments, however, with much less sensitivity and different spectral coverage. These different radio components within the URAP dynamic spectra are identified, and their appearance with the previous Voyager observations are compared.

Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.; Zarka, PH.; Aubier, M. G.; Desch, M. D.; Farrell, W. M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Macdowall, R. J.; Stone, R. G.

1992-01-01

220

An Observing System Simulation Experiment using both MM5 and WRF: experiment configuration and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies suggest that the accurate representation of the low-level water vapor is crucial for quantitative precipitation forecast. However, mesoscale observations of moisture usually are not available for most regions around the world. An Infra-Red Sounding (IRS) Mission on the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) would provide high-resolution (in both space and time) temperature and water vapor information. Assimilating these observations

Xiang-Yu Huang; Hongli Wang; Yongsheng Chen; Xin Zhang; Stephen A. Tjemkes; Rolf Stuhlmann

221

Results from UVCS and LASCO Observation of the Sungrazing Comet C\\/2000 C6  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 2000 February 9-10, the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph and Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) instruments aboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory observed comet C\\/2000 C6, a member of the Kreutz family of sungrazing comets. A tail nearly 0.5 Rsolar in length was detected in Lyalpha emission. UVCS was able to observe the comet at four heights as it approached the

M. Uzzo; J. C. Raymond; D. Biesecker; B. Marsden; C. Wood; Y.-K. Ko; R. Wu

2001-01-01

222

First Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2012, instruments were deployed in over 50 lakes in northern Alaska as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to observe short- and long-term variability in physical, limnological and biogeochemical processes in Arctic lakes. The network currently consists of nine observation nodes on two parallel transects extending from the Arctic Ocean south to the Brooks Range Foothills. At each node, at least six representative lakes that vary by surface area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels: basic, enhanced and comprehensive. At each node we deployed a suite of instrumentation and collected a variety of field measurements. This approach allows for the study of lakes and their diversity across strong physical and biological gradients. To date we have established sites at a wide variety of Arctic lake types; 25 are thermokarst lakes set in ice-rich, fine-grained marine surficial sediments (Outer Coastal Plain), 6 lakes are in alluvial/aeolian sediments (Inner Coastal Plain) and 6 are in ice-rich silt (Arctic Foothills Yedoma), 5 are depressional lakes formed in a late Pleistocene sand sheet (Ikpikpuk Sand Sea), 6 represent glacial thermokarst or kettle lakes near the Brooks Range (Toolik region), 7 lakes are of fluvial or deltaic origin (Fish Creek basin, Ikpikpuk Delta), and Teshekpuk Lake, the largest lake in Arctic Alaska, is of a complex origin. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth were deployed through the ice cover, water samples were collected, and real-time time lapse cameras were installed to capture snow melt and ice-off. Sensors were recovered from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording lake regimes and events from ice decay and snowmelt influx to open-water warming and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude; in lakes deeper than 2 m, ice was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the coast of the Arctic Ocean with inter-lake variability related to snow depth. Rapid warming follows ice-off, with water temperature responding synchronously to synoptic weather variations across the area. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, but with high inter-lake variability related to lake depth and area. Inland lakes are warmer in mid-summer than those near the coast, reflecting the regional climate gradient and the maritime effect. All lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with some thermal stratification occurring during calm, sunny periods in deeper lakes. This project also involves measurement of carbon and nutrient dynamics and inorganic geochemistry of the lakes. Preliminary data indicate that brown colored lakes have greater dissolved methane concentrations under ice in winter than clear-water lakes, which is promising for remote sensing applications. Through a collaborative effort between the USGS-Alaska Science Center, the BLM Arctic Field Office, the NSF and other partners, we have established the Teshekpuk Lake Observatory as part of the CALON project in order to assess the past, present, and future response of Teshekpuk Lake ecosystem to environmental stressors and change. All data resulting from this 4-year project will be stored at CADIS and a specially designed web portal, and is currently accessible through the CALON web page at https://sites.google.com/a/giesn.com/nsf-calon/.

Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Frey, K. E.; Lenters, J. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

2012-12-01

223

HLA-DPB1 mismatching results in the generation of a full repertoire of HLA-DPB1-specific CD4+ T cell responses showing immunogenicity of all HLA-DPB1 alleles.  

PubMed

Clinical studies have indicated that HLA-DPB1 functions as a classical transplantation antigen in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Mismatching for HLA-DPB1 was associated with an increased risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), but also a decreased risk of disease relapse. However, specific HLA-DPB1 mismatches were associated with poor clinical outcome. It was suggested that this unfavorable effect was caused by a difference in immunogenicity between HLA-DPB1 alleles. To analyze whether immunogenicity of HLA-DPB1 mismatches could be predicted based on the presence or absence of specific amino acid sequences we developed a model to generate allo-HLA-DPB1 responses in vitro. We tested in total 48 different stimulator/responder combinations by stimulating CD4(+) T cells from 5 HLA-DPB1 homozygous individuals with the same antigen-presenting cells transduced with different allo-HLA-DPB1 molecules. HLA-DPB1 molecules used for stimulation comprised 76% to 99% of HLA-DPB1 molecules present in different ethnic populations. We show that all HLA-DPB1 mismatches as defined by allele typing resulted in high-frequency immune responses. Furthermore, we show that crossrecognition of different HLA-DPB1 molecules is a broadly observed phenomenon. We confirm previously described patterns in crossrecognition, and demonstrate that a high degree in similarity between HLA-DPB1 molecules is predictive for crossrecognition, but not for immunogenicity. PMID:20350610

Rutten, Caroline E; van Luxemburg-Heijs, Simone A P; van der Meijden, Edith D; Griffioen, Marieke; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Willemze, Roel; Falkenburg, J H Frederik

2010-09-01

224

Vertical Mixing and Chemistry Over an Arid Urban Site: First Results from Aircraft Observations Made During the Phoenix Sunrise Campaign  

SciTech Connect

A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. A typical flight began with sampling in the residual boundary layer of the preceding afternoon, showing a large vertical gradient in both chemical and meteorological species. With the development of the convective boundary layer, these gradients disappeared, and a more uniform value was found at all altitudes in the more slowly reacting species. Ozone levels were typically observed to be greatest aloft during the early morning hour s, with values typically twice those found near the surfaces. NOy was inversely related to ozone at the start of the flights, as would be expected from the O3+ NO reaction, suggesting the upward mixing of NOx rich air with the downward transport of NOx-poor, O3 rich air. The timing of the development of the convective boundary layer, as measured by the weakening of chemical stratification, appeared to be related to the intensity of the residual nocturnal stable layer.

Berkowitz, Carl M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Springston, Stephen R. (Brookhaven National Laboratory); Doran, J Christopher (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fast, Jerome D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2002-01-17

225

Neogene transtensive faulting in the Rawil axial depression (SW Switzerland): preliminary results from field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helvetic nappe stack in the Rawil depression between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs is affected by dominantly dextral transtensional faults developed or reactivated during the Neogene. This area shows the evolution of a fault system from partially ductile to brittle conditions and is currently one of the most seimogenically active zones in Switzerland. This field study aims to establish which fault sets have been activated during the Neogene and possibly Quaternary to Recent, to better constrain their relative age and kinematics, and to study the transition from ductile to brittle behaviour. The observed faults can be assigned to three general sets on the basis of their strike orientation. The first set (1) strikes NE-SW. Faults with distinctly different ages of initial activity are part of this set: Cretaceous normal faults with syn-sedimentary features; thrusts due to nappe-stacking; and later normal to oblique faults. All of these faults dip mainly to the SE. Paleo-tectonic features exposed in Plaine des Roses, les Audannes and Plaine Morte suggest that faults with this general orientation were already active during Cretaceous sedimentation. The post Aptian Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence is influenced by paleo-escarpments directly related to syn-sedimentary faults. These surfaces are marked in many places by karstification and silicification, sedimentary dykes and onlap of basinal younger formations. Some of these faults have been subsequently reactivated during Neogene syn- and post-collisional extension with normal to oblique kinematics. Transtensive reactivation of Cretaceous faults initially developed a ductile mylonitic fabric (expecially in limestones) that is overprinted by cataclasites and more discrete faults surfaces. Similarly oriented NE-striking veins were also developed under transitional brittle-ductile conditions in the limestones and, from relative age relationships, are the oldest veins developed in the area. The transtensive fault sets striking (2) E-W and (3) NW-SE generally dip at a low to moderate angle to the S or SW. The two sets are broadly coeval, as indicated in the Rawil-Plaine Morte area by many examples of branching and bending of one set into the other and by similar displacement directions and deformation fabrics. Transtensional movements must largely post-date folding, because faults of sets (2) and (3) obliquely crosscut the fold system and the fold geometry can be matched to either side. Folding and the initial stage of normal to oblique faulting developed under very low grade metamorphic conditions, with exhumation during the Neogene related to extension that was parallel or slightly oblique to the main Alpine fold axis-trend. Also for these fault sets there is locally a transition from an initial more ductile mylonitic fabric to cataclasite. Calcite slickenlines and fibres on these Neogene fault planes indicate two main stretching directions. The older one is WSW-directed and generally plunges around 25°, whereas the younger one plunges S, with a steeper, mainly dip-slip movement. Crosscutting vein relationships and bending of vein tails planes indicate a counter-clockwise rotation of the stretching direction, from WSW toward S. The WSW-directed orogen-parallel stretching is similar in orientation to that associated with the Simplon-Rhône Fault and is probably coeval, implying possible activity throughout much of the Neogene. The orientation of the transtensive faults outcropping in the Rawil depression is consistent with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the Rhone Valley. Establishing the kinematics and mechanics of these faults developed at depth in this seismically active region can therefore help in understanding earthquake processes.

Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Mancktelow, Neil

2010-05-01

226

A New Method for Meteor Entry Dynamics Determination Based on Observations and Results of Calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A great amount of photographic data of meteoroid trajectories in the Earth's atmosphere has been collected. Most images have been obtained by four fireball networks, which operated in USA, Canada, Europe, and Spain in different time periods. The approximation of the data by theoretical relations makes it possible to obtain additional estimates which do not directly follow from observations. In the present paper, I suggest the algorithm to find such parameters of theoretical relation between the height and the velocity of the bolide motion to fit observations along the luminous trajectories. The main difference to the previous works is that the given observations are approximated using the analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. The model presented in this paper was applied here to a number of bright meteors observed by the Canadian MORP camera network and to the Benesov bolide, which is one of the the brightest well observed fireballs registered by the European network. The correct mathematical modelling of meteor events in the atmosphere is necessary for further estimates of key parameters, including the extra-atmospheric mass, the ablation coefficient, and the effective enthalpy of evaporation of entering bodies. This information is needed by some applications, namely those aimed to study the problems of asteroid and comet security, to develop measures of planetary defense, and to determine the bodies that can reach the Earth's surface.

Gritsevich, M. I.

2010-12-01

227

Twelve thousand laser-AO observations: first results from the Robo-AO large surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Robo-AO is the first AO system which can feasibly perform surveys of thousands of targets. The system has been operating in a fully robotic mode on the Palomar 1.5m telescope for almost two years. Robo-AO has completed nearly 12,000 high-angular-resolution observations in almost 20 separate science programs including exoplanet characterization, field star binarity, young star binarity and solar system observations. We summarize the Robo-AO surveys and the observations completed to date. We also describe the data-reduction pipeline we developed for Robo-AO—the first fully-automated AO data-reduction, point-spread-function subtraction and companion-search pipeline.

Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed L.

2014-07-01

228

Observing atmospheric rivers from the Global Hawk: HAMSR results from WISPAR11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicles recently acquired by NASA was flown in a NOAA-sponsored field campaign to study atmospheric rivers and winter storms approaching the US west coast from the Pacific. The focus of the field campaign, the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR), was to test out a new dropsonde system and the Global Hawk long-duration observing platform and their ability to provide observations with better coverage over a longer duration. NASA contributed the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) microwave sounder developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We will present an overview of the instrument and the campaign as well as observations of the vertical structure across two atmospheric river events deduced from HAMSR retrieved profiles of atmospheric temperature and water vapor. We also present a quantitative comparison to the co-incident dropsonde profiles.

Brown, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.

2011-12-01

229

A Comparison of TWP-ICE Observational Data with Cloud-Resolving Model Results  

SciTech Connect

Observations made during the TWP-ICE campaign are used to drive and evaluate thirteen cloud-resolving model simulations with periodic lateral boundary conditions. The simulations employ 2D and 3D dynamics, one- and two-moment microphysics, several variations on large-scale forcing, and the use of observationally derived aerosol properties to prognose droplet numbers. When domain means are averaged over a 6-day active monsoon period, all simulations reproduce observed surface precipitation rate but not its structural distribution. Simulated fractional areas covered by convective and stratiform rain are uncorrelated with one another, and are both variably overpredicted by up to a factor of {approx}2. Stratiform area fractions are strongly anticorrelated with outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) but are negligibly correlated with ice water path (IWP), indicating that ice spatial distribution controls OLR more than mean IWP. Overpredictions of OLR tend to be accompanied by underpredictions of reflected shortwave radiation (RSR). When there are two simulations differing only in microphysics scheme or large-scale forcing, the one with smaller stratiform area tends to exhibit greater OLR and lesser RSR by similar amounts. After {approx}10 days, simulations reach a suppressed monsoon period with a wide range of mean precipitable water vapor, attributable in part to varying overprediction of cloud-modulated radiative flux divergence compared with observationally derived values. Differences across the simulation ensemble arise from multiple sources, including dynamics, microphysics, and radiation treatments. Close agreement of spatial and temporal averages with observations may not be expected, but the wide spreads of predicted stratiform fraction and anticorrelated OLR indicate a need for more rigorous observation-based evaluation of the underlying micro- and macrophysical properties of convective and stratiform structures.

Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Hill, A.; Jones, T. R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Liu, G.; Minnis, Patrick; Morrison, H.; Nguyen, L.; Park, S.; Petch, Jon C.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Schumacher, Courtney; Shipway, Ben; Varble, A. C.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua

2012-03-13

230

Observational Results of the ChangE-1 Solar X-Ray Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the primary observations of the Solar X-ray Monitor (SXM) payload onboard the ChangE-1 lunar exploration satellite, which was launched on 24 October 2007. The SXM payload uses a solid-state silicon P-I-N photo-diode (Si-PIN) whose dynamic energy ranges from 1 keV to 10 keV. The long-term integrated spectra at different solar-activity levels as observed by the SXM are presented. By fitting these spectra with an optically thin plasma model, the two-minute temperature variation of the solar coronal plasma during a solar flare is also presented.

Cui, X. Z.; Wang, H. Y.; Peng, W. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Liang, X. H.; Wang, J. Z.; Gao, M.; Yang, J. W.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wu, M. Y.; Chang, J.; Sun, H. X.; OuYang, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y. L.; Li, C. L.

2014-05-01

231

CRISM Limb Observations of Mars Mesospheric Ice Clouds: Two New Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars mesospheric (z=50-90km) ice clouds are observed in CRISM 2009-2014 visible-near-IR limb scans for two distinct cases, for an equatorial CO2 cloud (Reff~1.5 um) and fine (Reff~0.4 um) H2O clouds associated with southern perihelion cloud trails.

Clancy, R. T.; Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.; Murchie, S. L.; Nair, H.; Seelos, K. D.

2014-07-01

232

Single baseline GLONASS observations with VLBI: data processing and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several tests to observe signals transmitted by GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) satellites have been performed using the geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique. The radio telescopes involved in these experiments were Medicina (Italy) and Onsala (Sweden), both equipped with L-band receivers. Observations at the stations were performed using the standard Mark4 VLBI data acquisition rack and Mark5A disk-based recorders. The goals of the observations were to develop and test the scheduling, signal acquisition and processing routines to verify the full tracking pipeline, foreseeing the cross-correlation of the recorded data on the baseline Onsala-Medicina. The natural radio source 3c286 was used as a calibrator before the starting of the satellite observation sessions. Delay models, including the tropospheric and ionospheric corrections, which are consistent for both far- and near-field sources are under development. Correlation of the calibrator signal has been performed using the DiFX software, while the satellite signals have been processed using the narrow band approach with the Metsaehovi software and analysed with a near-field delay model. Delay models both for the calibrator signals and the satellites signals, using the same geometrical, tropospheric and ionospheric models, are under investigation to make a correlation of the satellite signals possible.

Tornatore, V.; Haas, R.; Duev, D.; Pogrebenko, S.; Casey, S.; Molera Calvés, G.; Keimpema, A.

2011-07-01

233

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical

W. D. Carter

1981-01-01

234

Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX2  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight

A. L. Houston; B. Argrow; E. Frew

2010-01-01

235

Results of a Deep Chandra Observation of the Crab Nebula and Pulsar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Crab Nebula and pulsar were observed for a total of 150 ksec with the LETG/HRC-S combination aboard the Chandra X-Ray Observatory in 2000, January and February. One of the principal aims of the experiment was to study the emission from the pulsar as a function of pulse phase. Neutron stars are believed to be formed with core temperatures of 10(exp 11) K. As the pulsar is the best studied of the young known neutron stars with an age of only 940 yrs, it should be possible to observe thermal emission from the hot stellar surface which in turn constrains equations of state. The pulsar, on the other hand, is a powerful non-thermal emitter, powering an X-ray bright synchrotron nebula which, in Einstein and ROSAT observations, overshadowed the fainter thermal surface emission. Making use of the high angular resolution provided by Chandra we were able to detect X-rays from the Crab-pulsar at all pulse phases. We discuss whether this detection is indeed of thermal emission or of a faint synchrotron component of the pulsed emission from the magnetosphere. We further comment on dynamical effects observed in the pulsar-wind outflow and the analysis of the LETG spectral data, especially near the oxygen edge.

Weisskopf, M. C.; Becker, W.; Elsner, R. F.; Juda, M.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Murray, S. S.; ODell, S.; Paerels, F.; Shibazaki, N.; Swartz, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

236

Evaluating 4 years of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) over Europe using IASI satellite observations and LOTOS-EUROS model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring ammonia (NH3) concentrations on a global to regional scale is a challenge. Due to the limited availability of reliable ground-based measurements, the determination of NH3 distributions generally relies on model calculations. Novel remotely sensed NH3burdens provide valuable insights to complement traditional assessments for clear-sky conditions. This paper presents a first quantitative comparison between Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite observations and LOTOS-EUROS model results over Europe and Western Russia. A methodology to account for the variable retrieval sensitivity of the measurements is described. Four years of data (2008-2011) highlight three main agricultural hot spot areas in Europe: the Po Valley, the continental part of Northwestern Europe, and the Ebro Valley. The spatial comparison reveals a good overall agreement of the NH3 distributions not only in these source regions but also over remote areas and over sea when transport is observed. On average, the measured columns exceed the modeled ones, except for a few cases. Large discrepancies over several industrial areas in Eastern Europe and Russia point to underestimated emissions in the underlying inventories. The temporal analysis over the three hot spot areas reveals that the seasonality is well captured by the model when the lower sensitivity of the satellite measurements in the colder months is taken into account. Comparison of the daily time series indicates possible misrepresentations of the timing and magnitude of the emissions. Finally, specific attention to biomass burning events shows that modeled plumes are less spread out than the observed ones. This is confirmed for the 2010 Russian fires with a comparison using in situ observations.

Van Damme, M.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; Schaap, M.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Dammers, E.; Dolman, A. J.; Erisman, J. W.

2014-08-01

237

Results of the Workshop on Impact Cratering: Bridging the Gap Between Modeling and Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 7-9,2003, approximately 60 scientists gathered at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas, for a workshop devoted to improving knowledge of the impact cratering process. We (co-conveners Elisabetta Pierazzo and Robert Herrick) both focus research efforts on studying the impact cratering process, but the former specializes in numerical modeling while the latter draws inferences from observations of planetary craters. Significant work has been done in several key areas of impact studies over the past several years, but in many respects there seem to be a disconnect between the groups employing different approaches, in particular modeling versus observations. The goal in convening this workshop was to bring together these disparate groups to have an open dialogue for the purposes of answering outstanding questions about the impact process and setting future research directions. We were successful in getting participation from most of the major research groups studying the impact process. Participants gathered from five continents with research specialties ranging from numerical modeling to field geology, and from small-scale experimentation and geochemical sample analysis to seismology and remote sensing.With the assistance of the scientific advisory committee (Bevan French, Kevin Housen, Bill McKinnon, Jay Melosh, and Mike Zolensky), the workshop was divided into a series of sessions devoted to different aspects of the cratering process. Each session was opened by two invited t a b , one given by a specialist in numerical or experimental modeling approaches, and the other by a specialist in geological, geophysical, or geochemical observations. Shorter invited and contributed talks filled out the sessions, which were then concluded with an open discussion time. All modelers were requested to address the question of what observations would better constrain their models, and all observationists were requested to discuss how their observations can constrain modeling efforts.

Herrick, Robert (Editor); Pierazzo, Elisabetta (Editor)

2003-01-01

238

Radio Recombination Line (RRL) Observations: Primordial Helium Determination and First Results at 408 MHz with the Croce del Nord Radiotelescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New results of the Primordial Helium abundance (Y p ) measurement by radio recombination line (RRL) observations from five galactic HII regions are presented. The RRL observations were carried out with two telescopes: RT32 (22.4 and 8.3 GHz, Medicina, Italy) and RT22 (36.5 and 22.4 GHz, Pushchino, Russia). The results of the first run of the low frequency RRL observations (408 MHz) with the Croce del Nord radiotelescope (Medicina Observatory, Italy) are also presented.

Tsivilev, A. P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Poppi, S.; Montebugnoli, S.

239

First results of CryoSat-2 observations of Pine Island Glacier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antarctica's ice sheets contain enough water to raise global sea levels by some 60 m, were they to be rapidly discharged. Satellite radar altimeters have monitored changes in the surface elevation of the Antarctic continent since 1992 and up to the present day. These data have permitted us to estimate that, overall, Antarctica is losing about 25 GT of ice per year, potentially contributing some 0.07 mm per year to the present rate of 3.0 mm per year global sea level rise. The greatest thinning has been observed to occur at the margins of the ice sheet, through accelerated drainage of glaciers into the ocean. Yet, due to the roughness and steepness of these fast-changing surfaces, these fast-changing areas have proven difficult to survey with conventional pulse-limited satellite radar altimetry. A striking example of rapid retreat and ice sheet thinning is the Pine Island Glacier, the central trunk of which has been observed to be losing volume at an accelerating rate, increasing from 2.6 ± 0.3 cubic kilometres per year in 1995 to 10.1 ± 0.3 cubic kilometres per year in 2006. Since the successful launch of CryoSat-2 in April, 2010, we have observed the ice sheet margins and glaciers with a nadir pointing interferometric SAR altimeter that has the capacity to measure steeply sloping terrain and, hence, increase the density of observations over these critical areas of the Antarctic ice sheet. In this paper we extend the time series of ice sheet elevation change observations at the Pine Island Glacier using the first full-year of calibrated CryoSat-2 data. Using these data, we demonstrate that CryoSat-2 is able to deliver a higher spatial density of observations, each of which exhibit higher accuracy in elevation retrieval, relative to past conventional pulse-limited altimeters. In addition, we provide an update on the current rate of thinning of the PIG.

Galin, N.; Shepherd, A.; Wingham, D.; Muir, A.; Ridout, A.; Laxon, S.; Cullen, R.

2012-12-01

240

New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3-6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which had not yet been mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

1976-01-01

241

New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3 to 6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which was not mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

1975-01-01

242

Results of the First Coincident Observations by Two Laser-Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors  

E-print Network

We report an upper bound on the strain amplitude of gravitational wave bursts in a waveband from around 800Hz to 1.25kHz. In an effective coincident observing period of 62 hours, the prototype laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors of the University of Glasgow and Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, have set a limit of 4.9E-16, averaging over wave polarizations and incident directions. This is roughly a factor of 2 worse than the theoretical best limit that the detectors could have set, the excess being due to unmodelled non-Gaussian noise. The experiment has demonstrated the viability of the kind of observations planned for the large-scale interferometers that should be on-line in a few years time.

D. Nicholson

1996-05-22

243

NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

244

Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age\\u000a 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received\\u000a either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared\\u000a the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each

Helmut H. Wolff; Meinhard Kieser

2007-01-01

245

Comparison of the Genesis solar wind regime algorithm results with solar wind composition observed by ACE  

SciTech Connect

Launched on 8 August 2001, the NASA Genesis mission is now collecting samples of the solar wind in various materials, and will return those samples to Earth in 2004 for analysis. A primary science goal of Genesis is the determination of the isotopic and elemental composition of the solar atmosphere from the solar wind material returned. In particular, Genesis will provide measurements of those species that are not provided by solar and in situ observations. We know from in situ measurements that the solar wind exhibits compositional variations across different types of solar wind flows. Therefore, Genesis exposes different collectors to solar wind originating from three flow types: coronal hole, coronal mass ejection (CME), and interstream flows. Flow types are identified using in situ measurements of solar wind protons, alphas, and electrons from electrostatic analyzers carried by Genesis. The flow regime selection algorithm and subsequent collector deployment on Genesis act autonomously. We present an assessment of composition variations of O, He, and Mg ions observed by ACE/SWICS concurrent with Genesis observations, and compare these to the Genesis algorithm decisions. Not only does this serve as a test of the algorithm, the compilation of composition vs. regime will be important for comparison to the abundances determined from sample analysis at the end of the mission.

Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Steinberg, J. T (John T.); Barraclough, B. L. (Bruce L.); Dors, E. E. (Eric E.); Weins, R. C. (Roger C.); Neugebauer, Marcia; Reinard, A. (Alysha)

2002-01-01

246

Planck intermediate results. XXIX. All-sky dust modelling with Planck, IRAS, and WISE observations  

E-print Network

We present all-sky dust modelling of the high resolution Planck, IRAS and WISE infrared (IR) observations using the physical dust model presented by Draine & Li in 2007 (DL). We study the performance of this model and present implications for future dust modelling. The present work extends to the full sky the dust modelling carried out on nearby galaxies using Herschel and Spitzer data. We employ the DL dust model to generate maps of the dust mass surface density, the dust optical extinction AV, and the starlight intensity heating the bulk of the dust, parametrized by Umin. We test the model by comparing these maps with independent estimates of the dust optical extinction AV . In molecular clouds, we compare the DL AV estimates with maps generated from stellar optical observations from the 2MASS survey. The DL AV estimates are a factor of about 3 larger than values estimated from 2MASS observations. In the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) we compare the DL optical extinction AV estimates with optical est...

Ade, P A R; Alves, M I R; Aniano, G; Arnaud, M; Ashdown, M; Aumont, J; Baccigalupi, C; Banday, A J; Barreiro, R B; Bartolo, N; Battaner, E; Benabed, K; Benoit-Levy, A; Bernard, J -P; Bersanelli, M; Bielewicz, P; Bonaldi, A; Bonavera, L; Bond, J R; Borrill, J; Bouchet, F R; Boulanger, F; Burigana, C; Butler, R C; Calabrese, E; Cardoso, J -F; Catalano, A; Chamballu, A; Chiang, H C; Christensen, P R; Clements, D L; Colombi, S; Colombo, L P L; Couchot, F; Crill, B P; Curto, A; Cuttaia, F; Danese, L; Davies, R D; Davis, R J; de Bernardis, P; de Rosa, A; de Zotti, G; Delabrouille, J; Dickinson, C; Diego, J M; Dole, H; Donzelli, S; Dore, O; Douspis, M; Draine, B T; Ducout, A; Dupac, X; Efstathiou, G; Elsner, F; Ensslin, T A; Eriksen, H K; Falgarone, E; Finelli, F; Forni, O; Frailis, M; Fraisse, A A; Franceschi, E; Frejsel, A; Galeotta, S; Galli, S; Ganga, K; Ghosh, T; Giard, M; Gjerlow, E; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Gorski, K M; Gregorio, A; Gruppuso, A; Guillet, V; Hansen, F K; Hanson, D; Harrison, D L; Henrot-Versille, S; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C; Herranz, D; Hildebrandt, S R; Hivon, E; Holmes, W A; Hovest, W; Huffenberger, K M; Hurier, G; Jaffe, A H; Jaffe, T R; Jones, W C; Keihanen, E; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T S; Kneissl, R; Knoche, J; Kunz, M; Kurki-Suonio, H; Lagache, G; Lamarre, J -M; Lasenby, A; Lattanzi, M; Lawrence, C R; Leonardi, R; Levrier, F; Liguori, M; Lilje, P B; Linden-Vornle, M; Lopez-Caniego, M; Lubin, P M; Macias-Perez, J F; Maffei, B; Maino, D; Mandolesi, N; Maris, M; Marshall, D J; Martin, P G; Martinez-Gonzalez, E; Masi, S; Matarrese, S; Mazzotta, P; Melchiorri, A; Mendes, L; Mennella, A; Migliaccio, M; Miville-Deschenes, M -A; Moneti, A; Montier, L; Morgante, G; Mortlock, D; Munshi, D; Murphy, J A; Naselsky, P; Natoli, P; Norgaard-Nielsen, H U; Novikov, D; Novikov, I; Oxborrow, C A; Pagano, L; Pajot, F; Paladini, R; Paoletti, D; Pasian, F; Perdereau, O; Perotto, L; Perrotta, F; Pettorino, V; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Plaszczynski, S; Pointecouteau, E; Polenta, G; Ponthieu, N; Popa, L; Pratt, G W; Prunet, S; Puget, J -L; Rachen, J P; Reach, W T; Rebolo, R; Reinecke, M; Remazeilles, M; Renault, C; Ristorcelli, I; Rocha, G; Roudier, G; Rubio-Martin, J A; Rusholme, B; Sandri, M; Santos, D; Scott, D; Spencer, L D; Stolyarov, V; Sudiwala, R; Sunyaev, R; Sutton, D; Suur-Uski, A -S; Sygnet, J -F; Tauber, J A; Terenzi, L; Toffolatti, L; Tomasi, M; Tristram, M; Tucci, M; Umana, G; Valenziano, L; Valiviita, J; Van Tent, B; Vielva, P; Villa, F; Wade, L A; Wandelt, B D; Wehus, I K; Ysard, N; Yvon, D; Zacchei, A; Zonca, A

2014-01-01

247

Using auroral hiss to search for electron beams at Enceladus: Results from RPWS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enceladus' southern plume ejects water vapor and dust that fill the Saturnian system, a small percentage of which are ionized near the moon. These ionized particles slow the local plasma and perturb the magnetic field near the moon. This kind of interaction is well understood from studies at comets and Jupiter's moon Io, but Enceladus differs from these examples due to the importance of the dust and the physical separation between the center of the perturbation and the solid moon. It is not possible to make in situ observations at all points around Enceladus, however Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) can remotely sense aspects of the interaction. If the thermal plasma cannot provide the currents required by the magnetic perturbations, electrons can be accelerated along the field to carry them. If this acceleration creates an electron beam, a plasma wave called "auroral hiss" may be generated and then propagate away from the source region. RPWS has observed this emission on flybys where Cassini crossed through the Enceladus flux tube. Using ray tracing techniques, we combine all of the RPWS auroral hiss observations to map out locations of electron beams near Enceladus. We find that electron beams, both parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, are generated near the flanks of the solid body. These generation regions appear to be restricted to the leading and trailing half of the Saturnward and anti-Saturnward flanks, respectively, of the solid body.

Leisner, J. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

2012-12-01

248

Assessing the Crustal Stratigraphy of Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Orbital Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby images revealed subtle color variations across Mercury's surface, many of which are associated with impact craters and basins. Impact craters that excavated material spectrally distinct from the surrounding pre-impact surface serve as windows into the subsurface, allowing observations of material at depth that would otherwise remain hidden to remote observations. Previous localized studies of spectrally distinct, excavated material suggested the presence of buried volcanic plains and a heterogeneous crustal stratigraphy and support the important role of volcanism in the evolution of the crust. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has since acquired global color (1 km/pixel) and high-resolution monochrome (250 m/pixel) base maps of the innermost planet, taken under illumination and observation geometries optimized for observing both color and morphology. These base maps, along with detailed targeted observations (up to 80 m/pixel color and 10 m/pixel monochrome), allow detailed co-mapping of geologic and spectral features across Mercury's surface. Such mapping, along with the use of scaling laws and melt-volume calculations to bound the depth of origin of crater ejecta and central peak structures, allows us to investigate many aspects of Mercury's crustal stratigraphy, including, but not limited to, the following topics: (1) The stratigraphy of four of Mercury's younger large basins: Caloris (1550 km in diameter), Rembrandt (720 km), Beethoven (630 km), and Tolstoj (360 km), which have all been flooded by spectrally distinct volcanic plains. Post-flooding craters of varying sizes enable an estimation of the thickness of the volcanic fill and the nature of the pre-flooding basin floor. These measurements will help to constrain models for subsequent compensation, uplift, and deformation; and incorporation of topography and gravity data link basin fill with the broader lithospheric evolution of Mercury. (2) The depth of origin and distribution of low-reflectance material (LRM), a likely compositional end-member. LRM centers are often associated with large crater and basin ejecta, implying that this material must originate at substantial depth. In previous studies, LRM was found to be the color unit with the greatest depth of origin. A more complete knowledge of LRM distribution in the crust will enable a better assessment of the nature of the material's pre-excavation origin. (3) The location and thickness of pre-Tolstojan (> 4.0 Ga) volcanic plains. Such plains tend to be located beneath younger intermediate plains and may be used to assess the extent of an older generation of volcanic activity.

Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.

2011-12-01

249

The First Result of the Precursors Observation in Karymshina Observatory (Kamchatka, Russia) for Moderate Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999 the complex geophysical observatory was created in Kamchatka, Russia under mutual Russian-Japanese scientific project. The main purpose of this project is to investigate electromagnetic and other phenomena in connection with earthquakes. The observatory is sited in the place without any sources of industrial noise. The seismic waveforms, acoustic emission, telluric currents, magnetic pulsation and chemical composition of underground water are measured continuously. The measurements of three components of ground displacement velocity is realized by seismometer in the frequency band 0.5-40 Hz with sensitivity threshold 10-8 m/s and dynamic range of 90 dB. Triaxial induction magnetometer measures geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range 0.003-30 Hz with sensitivity threshold 20 pT/Hz1/2 at frequency 0.01 Hz and 0.02 pT/Hz1/2 at frequencies higher than 10 Hz. Dynamic range of the magnetometer is 90 dB. Measurements of NS and EW components of telluric currents with maximum distance between electrodes of about 500 m are carried out. The acoustic emission receiver (high-frequency seismometer) based on mechanical pendulum with ceramic transducer is installed in 30 m borehole. The output signals are filtered by 4 filters with central frequencies equal to 30, 160, 500 and 1000 Hz. In the same borehole was installed high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) piezoceramic sensor with very narrow band around 30 Hz and sensitivity threshold 10-12 m. The chemical components Cl, HCO3, SO4, Na, K, Ca, H3BO3, H4SiO4, gases CH4, N2, O2, CO2, Ar, He, H2 and hydrocarbonates C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6, C4H10, C4H10i are analysed in a few wells nearby the observatory. The atmospheric pressure, direction and velocity of the wind, humidity, precipitation, air and ground temperature are measured using meteorological station installed at observatory. Since June 2000 CGO Karymshina has started regular simultaneous monitoring of the above-mentioned parameters. Processing and analysis of the data include different methods (correlation, spectrum, wavelet and polarization). Weekly quick- looks (72 graphs) and monthly reviews are regularly distributed to Russian and Japanese collaborators. Many interesting facts are revealed from the initial scientific analysis. Rather promising results on co-seismic changes of electric and magnetic fields, on an increase of ULF noise polarization ratio 2-7 days before the large seismic shocks, and corresponding intensification of VLF signals could be mentioned in this connection. The chemical composition of underground water shows many variations in hydrocarbonates, but was not found any clear anomalies connected with earthquakes.

Gordeev, E.; Uyeda, S.; Nagao, T.; Molchanov, O.; Hattori, K.; Lutikov, A.; Gladyshev, V.; Schekotov, A.; Chebrov, V.

2001-12-01

250

Observation of lake current patterns using satellite images and comparison with results from numerical simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six LANDSAT TM images of Lake Suwa, Japan, were processed to extract current patterns. The lake was almost completely covered with Aoko (phytoplankton bloom) in three summer images. But two spring images, which were after rainfall, showed dispersion patterns of suspended particles from a river. The directions of dispersion were the same as the local wind at the mouth of

T. Matsunaga; Y. Okubo; Y. Inouchi

1993-01-01

251

The REFLEX Cluster Survey: Observing Strategy and First Results on Large-Scale Structure  

E-print Network

We give a general description of the optical observing strategy of the ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-ray (REFLEX) cluster survey. This presently includes 460 clusters of galaxies selected from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey in the Southern hemisphere, to a flux limit of 3 10^{-12} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2}. Redshifts are now measured for 95% of this sample. Work is in progress to complete this coverage, and then extend the sample to fainter fluxes. A few highlights on the large-scale distribution of REFLEX clusters and their clustering properties are also discussed.

L. Guzzo; H. Boehringer; P. Schuecker; C. A. Collins; S. Schindler; D. M. Neumann; S. De Grandi; R. Cruddace; G. Chincarini; A. C. Edge; P. A. Shaver; W. Voges

1999-03-25

252

Densification of the International Celestial Reference Frame: Results of EVN Observations  

E-print Network

The current realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) comprises a total of 717 extragalactic radio sources distributed over the entire sky. An observing program has been developed to densify the ICRF in the northern sky using the European VLBI network (EVN) and other radio telescopes in Spitsbergen, Canada and USA. Altogether, 150 new sources selected from the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey were observed during three such EVN+ experiments conducted in 2000, 2002 and 2003. The sources were selected on the basis of their sky location in order to fill the "empty" regions of the frame. A secondary criterion was based on source compactness to limit structural effects in the astrometric measurements. All 150 new sources have been successfully detected and the precision of the estimated coordinates in right ascension and declination is better than 1 milliarcsecond (mas) for most of them. A comparison with the astrometric positions from the Very Long baseline Array Calibrator Survey for 129 common sources indicates agreement within 2 mas for 80% of the sources.

P. Charlot; A. L. Fey; C. S. Jacobs; C. Ma; O. J. Sovers; A. Baudry

2004-12-17

253

MARIE: Current Status and Results from 20 Months of Observations at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MARIE instrument aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft detects energetic charged particles in the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and during solar particle events (SPE) [1]. As of this writing (January 2004), MARIE has been turned off, after losing communication with the spacecraft during the large SPE of October 28, 2003. However, during the prior 20 months, MARIE collected data almost continuously, observing several solar events and the nearly-constant GCR. There is still a possibility the instrument can be recovered, and troubleshooting efforts are scheduled to begin in May 2004, following the completion of the primary missions of MER-A (Spirit) and MER-B (Opportunity). At present, Odyssey is acting as a telecommunications relay for the rovers and only routine science operations are permitted in this mode.

Zeitlin, C.; Andersen, V.; Atwell, W.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L.; Saganti, P.

2004-01-01

254

New results on the microstructure of amorphous silicon as observed by internal friction  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the low temperature internal friction (Q{sup {minus}1}) of amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Electron-beam evaporation leads to the well-known temperature-independent Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} plateau common to all amorphous solids. For hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with about 1 at.% H produced by hot wire chemical vapor deposition, however, the value of Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} is over two hundred times smaller than for e-beam a-Si. This is the first observation of an amorphous solid without any significant low energy excitations. This finding offers the opportunity to study amorphous solids containing controlled densities of tunneling defects, and thus to explore their nature.

Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Jones, K.M.; Liu, X.; White, B.E. Jr.; Pohl, R.O.

1997-07-01

255

New Variable Stars Discovered by the APACHE Survey. I. Results After the First Observing Season  

E-print Network

We present more than 80 new variable stars discovered during the first observing season of the APACHE survey. APACHE is a project aimed at detecting extrasolar planets transiting nearby, bright M dwarfs by using an array of small-aperture telescopes. Despite the fact that the survey is targeted to a well-defined sample of cool stars, we also reduce and analyze data for all the detected field stars. Since July 2012 dozens of different stellar fields have been monitored, leading to the detection of several variables for which we propose a classification and estimate a period, when a periodicity is evident in the data. Thanks to the SuperWASP public archive, we have also retrieved and analyzed photometric data collected by the SWASP survey, which helped us to refine the classification and the period estimation of many variables found in the APACHE database. Some of the variables present peculiarities and thus are discussed separately.

Damasso, M; Bertolini, E; Calcidese, P; Carbognani, A; Cenadelli, D; Christille, J-M; Giacobbe, P; Lanteri, L; Lattanzi, M G; Smart, R; Sozzetti, A

2014-01-01

256

Observations of Fabric Development in Polycrystalline Ice at Basal Pressures: Methods and Initial Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding and predicting the flow of polycrystalline ice is crucial to ice sheet modeling and paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Ice flow rates depend strongly on the fabric (i.e. the distribution of grain sizes and crystallographic orientations) which evolves over time and enhances the flow rate in the direction of applied stress. The mechanisms for fabric evolution in ice have been extensively studied at atmospheric pressures, but little work has been done to observe these processes at the high pressures experienced deep within ice sheets where long-term changes in ice rheology are expected to have significance. We conducted compressive creep tests on a 917 kg m-3 polycrystalline ice specimen at 20 MPa hydrostatic pressure, thus simulating ~2,000 m depth. Initial specimen grain orientations were random, typical grain diameters were 1.2 mm, and the applied creep stress was 0.3 MPa. Subsequent microstructural analyses on the deformed specimen and a similarly prepared, undeformed specimen allowed characterization of crystal fabric evolution under pressure. Our microstructural analysis technique simultaneously collected grain shape and size data from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs and obtained crystallographic orientation data via Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Combining these measurements allows rapid analysis of the ice fabric over large numbers of grains, yielding statistically useful numbers of grain size and full c- and a-axis grain orientation data. The combined creep and microstructural data demonstrate pressure-dependent effects on the mechanical and microstructural evolution of polycrystalline ice. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed phenomena, and future directions for hydrostatic creep testing.

Breton, D. J.; Baker, I.; Cole, D. M.

2012-12-01

257

Ratio of the Greenland to global temperature change: Comparison of observations and climate modeling results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature changes over Greenland are of special interest due to a possible melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and resulting sea level rise. General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict that the temperature changes in Greenland should proceed at a faster rate than the global temperature change. Until now there has been no confirmation that Greenland's long-term temperature changes are related to

Petr Chylek; Ulrike Lohmann

2005-01-01

258

Preliminary results on SAS-2 observations of greater than 30 MeV gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the SAS-2 detector and its measurements of gamma ray sources greater than 30 MeV. Results indicate that gamma rays come from discrete energetic sources, the galactic plane, and diffuse presumably extragalactic regions not associated with the galactic plane.

Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.

1963-01-01

259

A climatology of surface ozone in the extra tropics: cluster analysis of observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important aspects of the seasonal variations of surface ozone are discussed. The underlying analysis is based on the long-term (1990-2004) ozone records of Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) and the World Data Center of Greenhouse Gases which do have a strong Northern Hemisphere bias. Seasonal variations are pronounced at most of the 114 locations for any time of the day. Seasonal-diurnal variability classification using hierarchical agglomeration clustering reveals 5 distinct clusters: clean/rural, semi-polluted non-elevated, semi-polluted semi-elevated, elevated and polar/remote marine types. For the cluster "clean/rural" the seasonal maximum is observed in April, both for night and day. For those sites with a double maximum or a wide spring-summer maximum, the one in spring appears both for day and night, while the one in summer is more pronounced for daytime and hence can be attributed to photochemical processes. For the spring maximum photochemistry is a less plausible explanation as no dependence of the maximum timing is observed. More probably the spring maximum is caused by dynamical/transport processes. Using data from the 3-D atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 covering the period of 1998-2005 a comparison has been performed for the identified clusters. For the model data four distinct classes of variability are detected. The majority of cases are covered by the regimes with a spring seasonal maximum or with a broad spring-summer maximum (with prevailing summer). The regime with winter-early spring maximum is reproduced by the model for southern hemispheric locations. Background and semi-polluted sites appear in the model in the same cluster. The seasonality in this model cluster is characterized by a pronounced spring (May) maximum. For the model cluster that covers partly semi-elevated semi-polluted sites the role of the photochemical production/destruction seems to be overestimated. Taking into consideration the differences in the data sampling procedure the carried out comparison demonstrates the ability of the model to reproduce the main regimes of surface ozone variability quite well.

Tarasova, O. A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Jöckel, P.; Zvyagintsev, A. M.; Kuznetsov, G. I.

2007-08-01

260

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

Turner, David D.

2005-04-01

261

Geographical statistical assessments of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China: Results from upscaling network observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantifying the magnitudes and distributions of carbon budgets is helpful for strategies in mitigating global climate change. Based on spatial patterns of carbon fluxes (gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and their drivers, we constructed geographical statistical assessment schemes and quantified the magnitudes of carbon fluxes in China. The optimal assessment scheme was then validated with observed eddy covariance data to analyze the spatial distributions of carbon fluxes. Using climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes, our estimates of GEP, ER and NEP in China during 2000s were 7.51 ± 0.51, 5.82 ± 0.16 and 1.91 ± 0.15 PgC yr- 1, corresponding to 4.29%-6.80%, 5.65%-6.06% and 9.10%-12.73% of global annual carbon fluxes, respectively. The spatial distributions of GEP, ER and NEP, generated from the optimal scheme, were similar, following a southeast-northwest decreasing gradient. The maximum values for GEP, ER and NEP were 1790, 1300 and 490 gC m- 2 yr- 1, respectively, which occurred in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics. Climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes provided an independent dataset for the regional carbon budget assessment, which can be deemed as the potential carbon fluxes. Meanwhile, most areas in China were potential carbon sink especially Eastern China and the largest potential carbon sink appeared in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics.

Zhu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Gui-Rui; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li; Fu, Yu-Ling; Wen, Xue-Fa; Liu, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min

2014-07-01

262

Long-acting paliperidone palmitate - interim results of an observational study of its effect on hospitalization  

PubMed Central

Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently introduced long-acting atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotic. Published data on PP are currently limited to controlled trials and case reports. In this observational study, we followed up 200 consecutive patients prescribed PP in normal practice. After 1 year, 65% of patients were still receiving PP. The number of admissions to hospital in the year following PP initiation was 0.49/patient compared with 0.69/patient/year, 3 years before initiation (P=0.0001). The mean number of bed days fell from 38.78 to 23.09/patient/year over the corresponding period (P=0.0001). The median number of bed days 3 years before PP initiation was 21.50/year and in the year following PP initiation, it was 0. Outcomes were numerically but not statistically better in those continuing PP than in those who ceased PP within a year of initiation. PP was effective and well-tolerated and, given its positive effect on hospital bed days, broadly cost-effective. PMID:24419004

Olofinjana, Olubanke

2014-01-01

263

Transfer Paths of Research Results to the Practice: Observations From the Receiving End  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered especially useful. Conferences and special symposia offer the opportunity to practicing professionals to find out what is the latest in different subject areas, but many view such meetings as having either a practical or a research character, and expressed the desire for more meetings that would bring together the practitioners and the researchers. Commercialization is another path for bringing research results to the practice, but is limited to areas where the size of the market for the commercial application of research findings makes it economically viable. The extent of the adoption of research findings in the practice varies across subjects. The results of research in subjects driven by pressing practical needs, such as remediation of contaminated groundwater or hydraulic testing have been passed quickly to the practice. Using the results of research in subjects such as fracture flow and stochastic hydrogeology seems more elusive.

Findikakis, A. N.

2005-12-01

264

Satellite observation of lake ice as a climate indicator - Initial results from statewide monitoring in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research reported herein focused on the general hypothesis that satellite remote sensing of large-area, long-term trends in lake ice phenology (formation and breakup) is a robust, integrated measure of regional and global climate change. To validate this hypothesis, we explored the use of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to discriminate the presence and extent of lake ice during the winter of 1990-1991 on the 45 lakes and reservoirs in Wisconsin with a surface area greater than 1,000 hectares. Our results suggest both the feasibility of using the AVHRR to determine the date of lake ice breakup as well as the strong correlation (R= -0.87) of the date so derived with local surface-based temperature measurements. These results suggest the potential of using current and archival satellite data to monitor changes in the date of lake ice breakup as a means of detecting regional 'signals' of greenhouse warming.

Wynne, Randolph H.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

1993-01-01

265

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts: Implications of the Recent Observational Results by Milagro  

E-print Network

It has been speculated earlier that Gamma Ray Bursts are sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Recently, the search for high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts by Milagro group has put limits on the isotropic luminosity of these transient sources in very high energy photons. The implications of the results obtained by Milagro to our understanding of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum from these sources have been discussed in the present work.

Nayantara Gupta

2004-06-03

266

Full non-linear treatment of the global thermospheric wind system. Part 2: Results and comparison with observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inclusion effects of the nonlinear parts of the convective derivative on the resulting wind pattern are considered. A comparison is made with earlier theoretical work and with winds deduced from observations.

Blum, P. W.; Harris, I.

1973-01-01

267

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cloud Properties Observed by MODIS: Preliminary Level-3 Results from the Collection 5 Reprocessing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of operational algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, thermodynamic phase) have recently been updated and are being used in the new "Collection 5" processing stream being produced by the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) at NASA GSFC. All Terra and Aqua data are undergoing Collection 5 reprocessing with an expected completion date by the end of 2006. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. The cloud products have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In this talk, we will summarize the available Level-3 cloud properties and their associated statistical data sets, and show preliminary Terra and Aqua results from the available Collection 5 reprocessing effort. Anticipated results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Hubanks, Paul; Pincus, Robert

2006-01-01

268

Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter Lambda-CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities Omega(sub b)h(exp 2), Omega(sub c)h(exp 2)and Omega(sub Lambda), are each determined to a precision of approx. 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional Lambda-CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their Lambda-CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Omega(sub kappa) = (0.0027 (sub +0.0039) (sup -0.0038;) the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Sigma M(sub nu) < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0+/-40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N(sub eff) and the primordial helium abundance, Y(sub He), agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

2013-01-01

269

Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? b h 2, ? c h 2, and ??, are each determined to a precision of ~1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to \\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{- 0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m ? < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N eff and the primordial helium abundance, Y He, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

2013-10-01

270

NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? {sub b} h {sup 2}, ? {sub c} h {sup 2}, and ?{sub ?}, are each determined to a precision of ?1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to ?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m {sub ?} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Spergel, D. N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Page, L.; Jarosik, N. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gold, B. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kogut, A.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: hinshaw@physics.ubc.ca [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

2013-10-01

271

Dust Emissions Related to Convective Cold Pools along the Saharan Side of the Atlas Mountains: Observations, Climatology and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling by evaporation of convective precipitation in the deep and dry sub-cloud layer over desert regions can generate intense downdrafts, and long-lived and extensive atmospheric density currents. The strong gusts at their leading edges can cause so-called haboob dust storms. Despite their importance for the dust cycle, the climatology and the ability of state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models to realistically simulate the associated convective cold pools has been investigated very little to date. During the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco in May/June 2006 several density currents were observed. They were triggered by deep moist convection over the Atlas Mountains during the afternoon and propagated into the foothills in the course of the evening. The passage of the leading edge is associated with a marked increase in dew point, wind speed and pressure, a change in wind direction, and a decrease in temperature and visibility. Here we present numerical simulations of three of these density currents using the non-hydrostatic COSMO model with 2.8 km horizontal grid spacing, which allows an explicit treatment of deep convection. The model is capable of simulating the timely initiation of convective cells over the Atlas Mountains and the subsequent formation of long-lived, extensive cold pools with a realistic three-dimensional structure. Deviations from available surface and satellite observations are closely related to model deficiencies in simulating precipitating convection over the Algerian Sahara. Sensitivity studies with modified microphysics and boundary layer turbulence schemes reveal a large influence of raindrop size distributions on evaporation and surface rainfall, but a rather moderate influence on the cold pool evolution, while changes to the turbulence length scale affect all three parameters more substantially. In addition a climatology of density currents in southern Morocco is presented that is based upon 5 years of surface observation from the climate station network of the IMPETUS project (www.impetus.uni-koeln.de). The results show that density currents are predominantly a warm-season phenomenon with an occurrence maximum during the late afternoon and evening. Most systems reach southern Morocco from the Atlas Mountains, but on occasion density currents related to moist convection over the adjacent Mauritanian and Algerian Sahara are observed. The occurrence of density currents is linked with the passage of a weak disturbance across the region that allows a northward transport of moist tropical air along its eastern flank and then contributes to destabilizing the vertical column while over northwestern Africa.

Knippertz, P.; Deutscher, C.; Trentmann, J.; Seifert, A.; Kandler, K.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, L.

2009-04-01

272

Preliminary results from the retrieval and assimilation of GPS radio occultation refractivity observations during tropical storm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne GPS radio occultation (RO) data have been collected by the GNSS Instrument System for Multi-static and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) during the 2010 PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment to study developing Atlantic tropical storms. This airborne system is designed to receive and record radio signals from setting and rising GPS satellites. The additional phase delay of the GPS radio signals due to refraction in the atmosphere is used to retrieve vertical profiles of refractivity, which depend strongly on moisture. A large airborne RO dataset was acquired from twenty-six research flights and refractivity profiles have been derived from the GISMOS geodetic GPS receivers. The airborne RO profiles consistently agree within ~2% with refractivity profiles calculated from ECMWF model analyses above 5 km altitude and with nearby dropsonde profiles. Accurate refractivity results are an important first step in investigating the impact of assimilating moisture profiles within the mesoscale environment of developing storms. A case study is conducted for pre-Hurricane Karl. The evolution of refractivity derived from RO data over the five days leading to the genesis of tropical storm Karl are consistent with mid-tropospheric moistening in the vicinity of the storm center. The algorithm to assimilate airborne GPS observations has been implemented in the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) Data Assimilation (DA) system of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We use a non-local operator for the integrated excess phase, defined as the integrated value of refractivity along the GPS radio ray path. One observation per horizontal and vertical model grid point is assimilated instead of only one per vertical model level, so that the horizontal drift of the occultation points within each model level is considered. Three data assimilation experiments were conducted: 1) NONE: No data are assimilated during data cycling. 2) DRPS: Dropsonde observations are assimilated every three hours during data cycling. 3) DRPS+GPS: Refractivity retrieved from the airborne GPS system above 5 km is included in the data assimilation process used for the DRPS experiment. Preliminary numerical experiments show a positive impact from the assimilation of both dropsondes and airborne GPS observations on Karl simulations, with improvements in refractivity and moisture fields above ~2.5 km. GPS signals from the GISMOS radio frequency (RF) recording system are being analyzed with a more robust open loop tracking method than the real-time phase-locked loop tracking used in the conventional receivers, which is expected to provide many more profiles. A test case using open loop mode tracked ~2 km deeper into the troposphere than the conventional geodetic receiver.

Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Muradyan, P.; Nievinski, F. G.; Larson, K. M.; Garrison, J. L.; Wang, E. K.; Chen, S.

2012-12-01

273

Artificial cochlea and acoustic black hole travelling waves observation: Model and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inhomogeneous fluid structure waveguide reproducing passive behaviour of the inner ear is modelled with the help of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method. A physical setup is designed and built. Experimental results are compared with a good correlation to theoretical ones. The experimental setup is a varying width plate immersed in fluid and terminated with an acoustic black hole. The varying width plate provides a spatial repartition of the vibration depending on the excitation frequency. The acoustic black hole is made by decreasing the plate's thickness with a quadratic profile and by covering this region with a thin film of viscoelastic material. Such a termination attenuates the flexural wave reflection at the end of the waveguide, turning standing waves into travelling waves.

Foucaud, Simon; Michon, Guilhem; Gourinat, Yves; Pelat, Adrien; Gautier, François

2014-07-01

274

A summary of results from the first NIMBUS 7 SMMR observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selected data obtained during the first year of operation of the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the NIMBUS 7 satellite (launched in late October 1978) have been used to calculate, on a global basis, various geophysical parameters over open oceans, polar regions, and terrain. Over open oceans these calculations have provided values for sea surface temperatures, near-surface winds, atmospheric water vapor in a column, and rainfall rates. In polar regions, sea ice concentration, multiyear ice fraction, and radiating temperatures have been obtained. Finally, the extent and water equivalence of snow cover over terrain have been calculated. These parameters have been compared with in situ measurements of the same geophysical parameters, where available, and the results of these comparisons are described. The self-consistency of the global displays of all the parameters is discussed along with the plans for archiving them for subsequent research purposes. A description of the SMMR calibration and data processing scheme is also given.

Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.; Campbell, W. J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Katsaros, K. B.; Kunzi, K. F.; Ross, D. B.; Staelin, D.; Windsor, E. P. L.; Barath, F. T.; Gudmandsen, P.; Langham, E.; Ramseier, R. O.

1984-06-01

275

A summary of results from the first Nimbus 7 SMMR observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected data obtained during the first year of operation of the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 7 satellite (launched in late October 1978) have been used to calculate, on a global basis, various geophysical parameters over open oceans, polar regions, and terrain. Over open oceans these calculations have provided values for sea surface temperatures, near-surface winds, atmospheric water vapor in a column, and rainfall rates. In polar regions, sea ice concentration, multiyear ice fraction, and radiating temperatures have been obtained. Finally, the extent and water equivalence of snow cover over terrain have been calculated. These parameters have been compared with in situ measurements of the same geophysical parameters, where available, and the results of these comparisons are described. The self-consistency of the global displays of all the parameters is discussed along with the plans for archiving them for subsequent research purposes. A description of the SMMR calibration and data processing scheme is also given.

Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, A. T. C.; Campbell, W. J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Katsaros, K. B.; Kunzi, K. F.; Ross, D. B.; Staelin, D.

1984-01-01

276

Active layer thickness and thaw subsidence in permafrost terrain: results from long-term observations near Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of active-layer thickness (ALT) on the North Slope of Alaska are highly variable, both spatially and temporally. Although geographic patterns of ALT repeat themselves from year to year, ALT is an integrated response to a large number of parameters. Thaw penetration into an ice-rich layer at the base of the active layer is accompanied by loss of volume (thaw consolidation) and results in subsidence at the ground surface. Differential thaw settlement occurs annually in permafrost environments as the layer of annual thaw (the active layer) develops. Significant ice segregation can occur at the bottom of the active layer during "cold" periods, due predominantly to freezing from below in the autumn and winter. This study examines trends in seasonal thawing of soils and vertical movements of the ground surface associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table in the Barrow region. The core thaw depth data set consists of ALT measurements conducted under the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program. The Barrow CALM site, represented by a regular 1 km2 grid, was established in the early 1990s. The reported ALT observations were initiated in 1992 and are measured annually in late August. Additional ALT measurements are available from a series of 10 x 10 meter plots established in 1962 as part of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research program at Barrow. Annual observations were made between 1962 and 1970. Measurements were reestablished in 1991 under the CALM program, following the original methodology. Field investigations to track interannual vertical movements associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table were initiated in 2003. Measurements continue annually at several CRREL plots representative of different elements of the tundra landscape. Observations were made at the end of the thawing season using Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) technology. Results from data analysis indicate that long-term changes in ALT are accompanied by pronounced interannual variability. No significant trends are observed in the active-layer record over the last 20 years. The values from the 1960s are generally higher than in the 1990s and are very similar to those of the 2000s. Following below-average thaw in 1991-1993, there was a general increase in ALT, followed by stabilization in the thawing regime during 1999-2011. The sampled areas showed net subsidence of the ground surface over the period of observation (2003-2011), reducing average surface elevation by 0.13 m. To evaluate the integrated thermal response of this permafrost landscape to climatic forcing, site-average annual thaw depth values were correlated with the square root of DDT, estimated from site-specific air temperature records and accumulated by the date of thaw depth and surface elevation measurements. The linear best-fit regression equation was used, in conjunction with the DDT record, to estimate the vertical position of the ground surface years prior to 2003, when DGPS surveys were initiated. Results indicate that over the 18 year period the elevation of the permafrost table has decreased by 0.33 m. Only 36% (0.12 m) of this change is attributable to increased active-layer thickness, while 64% (0.21m) is attributable to subsidence of the ground surface.

Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.

2012-12-01

277

Geomorphic expression of strike-slip faults: field observations vs. analog experiments: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this project is to study the surface expression of strike-slip faults with main aim to find rules how these structures can be extrapolated to depth. In the first step, several basic properties of the fault architecture are in focus: (1) Is it possible to define the fault architecture by studying surface structures of the damage zone vs. the fault core, particularly the width of the damage zone? (2) Which second order structures define the damage zone of strike-slip faults, and how relate these to such reported in basement fault strike-slip analog experiments? (3) Beside classical fault bend structures, is there a systematic along-strike variation of the damage zone width and to which properties relates the variation of the damage zone width. We study the above mentioned properties on the dextral Altyn fault, which is one of the largest strike-slip on Earth with the advantage to have developed in a fully arid climate. The Altyn fault includes a ca. 250 to 600 m wide fault valley, usually with the trace of actual fault in its center. The fault valley is confined by basement highs, from which alluvial fans develop towards the center of the fault valley. The active fault trace is marked by small scale pressure ridges and offset of alluvial fans. The fault valley confining basement highs are several kilometer long and ca. 0.5 to 1 km wide and confined by rotated dextral anti-Riedel faults and internally structured by a regular fracture pattern. Dextral anti-Riedel faults are often cut by Riedel faults. Consequently, the Altyn fault comprises a several km wide damage zone. The fault core zone is a barrier to fluid flow, and the few springs of the region are located on the margin of the fault valley implying the fractured basement highs as the reservoir. Consequently, the southern Silk Road was using the Altyn fault valley. The preliminary data show that two or more orders of structures exist. Small-scale develop during a single earthquake. These finally accumulate to a several 100 m wide fault core, which is in part exposed at surface to arid climate and a km wide damage zone. The basic structures of analog experiments can be well transferred to nature, although along strike changes are common due to fault bending and fracture failure of country rocks.

Hsieh, S. Y.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2012-04-01

278

Venus surface and near surface anomalies on the Northern hemisphere observed by VIRTIS/VEX: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus nightside emission measurements of VIRTIS on Venus Express provide the opportunity of surface studies in the narrow near infrared atmospheric windows. The measurements as well as detailed new radiative transfer simulations show that radiance ratios in the emission windows between 1.0 and 1.35 m with respect to the 1.02 m window can be used to extract information about the surface elevation and temperature. Based on these analyses, first surface and near surface anomalies are identified on the Northern hemisphere of Venus, which are due to deviations of the elevation - temperature correlation in certain small areas. The data are selected from VIRTIS-M-IR nightside measurements. To ensure minimal atmospheric influence on the measured signatures, only pushbroom observations with small observation angles close to nadir are taken into account. The radiative transfer simulation technique considers absorption, emission, and multiple scattering by gaseous and particulate constituents of the atmosphere. Look-up tables of quasi-monochromatic gas absorption cross-sections are calculated using appropriate spectral line data bases and line profiles and a line-by-line procedure. Empirical continuum absorption coefficients are determined from a 'VIRTIS reference spectrum'. In order to derive the parameters of the H2SO4 clouds, Mie theory is applied. Multiple scattering is considered by a Successive Order procedure. The synthetic quasi-monochromatic intensity spectra at the model top level of the atmosphere are convolved with the VIRTIS spectral response function. The surface windows at 1.02, 1.10 and 1.18 m exhibit a clear dependence of transmitted radiation on topographical features and, thus, on surface thermal emission, since an elevation change of 12 km results in a temperature change of 100 K. In the first approximation, the radiance ratios are affine linear functions of the surface temperature. This is demonstrated by both measurements and simulations. In general, the ratio-based VIRTIS topography correlates well with the Magellan topography, but differences occur in localized areas. Different local surface anomalies do exist. These anomalies are probably a result of the lower atmosphere dynamics, errors in Magellan elevation determinations, or variations in the surface emissivity. Surface emissivity variations are important indicators of the nature of surface material. They may be due to variations in mineralogy and surface texture. While most of Venus' geologic units are thought to be basaltic in composition, some of them (tessera terrains) could be felsic. The 1 m emissivity of felsic materials is lower compared to basalts at similar texture conditions. Nevertheless, we found that anomalous areas comprise practically the same geologic units as adjacent non-anomalous terrains. The surface texture (grain size, packing density, surface roughness) is another important factor for emissivity anomalies. Grain size affects the spectral characteristics. Laboratory measurements of basalts and oxidized basalts show significant changes in the contrast of the 1 m reflectivity band. Although most of the surface of Venus is not very rough, roughness variations exist. Tesserae and rifts show a higher surface roughness compared to other areas. Finally, the Magellan radar data that represent the base of the topography information of the Venus surface result from a surface layer of about 1 m in thickness, whereas the VIRTIS-NIR data describe the optical upper surface layer only. The radiative transfer simulations show the capability of our algorithm to investigate the surface of Venus. Based on these simulations and the VIRTIS/VEX measurements, the extracted anomalies are discussed in the framework of these processes and influences mentioned above. Future improvements will contribute to eliminate the masking of the Venus nightside windows by far wing and pressure-induced absorptions of the deep atmosphere constituents. This will allow a better separation of deep atmosphere, temperature, and emissivity contributions to the Venus nightside e

Arnold, G.; Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Basilevski, A.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.

2009-04-01

279

[Biocenosis of the natural foci of sapronotic infections (the results of 15-year observations)].  

PubMed

The summarized results of original studies, carried out in 1988-2003 by scientists of the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, are discussed. The part dealing with the regularity and mechanisms of the circulation of pathogenic bacteria in the biocenosis of soil and water reservoirs includes the following subjects: population and intracellular interactions with protozoa; the evaluation of different representatives of hydrobios as hosts and the transmission along trophic biocenotic chains; the effect of algae and their metabolic products on bacterial populations; the possibility of the colonization of higher plants from the soil and the subsequent infection of rodents; the variability and clonal structure of bacterial population in its interaction with protozoa and plants; the chain of Yersinia circulation in agrocenosis. The part dealing with the mechanisms of the prolonged reservation of causative agents includes such subjects as the reversible transition of bacteria into the latent (uncultivable) state in soils and water reservoirs, as well as the biological inductors of this process; the prolonged preservation of latent bacteria in the cysts of protozoa and blue-green algae; the indication of causative agents in the natural foci of plague and pseudotuberculosis. On the basis of the original investigations and the data of literature new theoretical review in the field of the natural foci and the epidemiology of sapronotic infections have been formulated. PMID:15481938

Litvin, V Iu; Pushkareva, V I; Emel'ianenko, E N

2004-01-01

280

Spatiotemporal ecohydrological patterns and processes in temperate uplands: linking field observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are obvious surface expressions - in terms of vegetation patterning - of ecohydrological feedbacks on dryland and peatland hillslopes. Much less is known about subsurface ecohydrological patterns, and whether or not they 'map onto' surface patterns. Likewise, few attempts have been made to investigate how such ecohydrological patterns affect whole-hillslope hydrological behaviour or how widespread they are in non-dryland and non-peatland hillslopes. In this study we investigate surface and near- surface patterning in temperate hillslopes, which to date have been the focus of much hydrological work but little ecohydrological work. In particular, we consider the extent to which the direct and the indirect effects of past and present plant assemblages on local and whole-hillslope soil moisture conditions may contribute to patterning. We have conducted a field study of two temperate upland hillslopes in Northern Scotland, UK, on one of which human intervention plays a major part in shaping the landscape. Repeat measurements have been made of near- surface soil-moisture content, taken at lag distances of 0.25 m to 20 m, under different antecedent hydrological conditions together with characterisation of plant assemblages at the same points through both ground-based vegetation surveys of 1 m × 1 m plots and kite aerial photography (KAP) of > 20 m2 plots. Results from this have indicated that changes in ecohydrological patterns can occur over small spatial scales (< 1 m2) and short time scales (< 1 day). Comparison of values of near-surface soil moisture content with topographic wetness indices, calculated using 1 -m resolution topographic data collected in the field, has highlighted that topography does not explain all of the spatial variation in soil moisture content at this scale. KAP images allowed detection of vegetation patterns not obvious from the ground. Comparison of KAP images and historic aerial photographs has highlighted the persistence of vegetation patterns over time at both sites, and that the current structure of the landscape is clearly related to current and past vegetation management practices. Evidence of sustained patterning under relatively steady environmental conditions has prompted us to consider how internal system dynamics such as competition and facilitation between different plant assemblages, and persistence of ecological memory at a range of timescales may lead to a range of ecohydrological behaviours at the scale of whole hillslopes. To help conceptualize ways in which patterning may arise, we have built a two-dimensional cellular automata-type model in which local interactions between biotic and abiotic components have the potential to lead to emergence of larger-scale patterns within the model landscape. Results from the field study have been used to gauge how well temperate hillslope ecohydrological dynamics are represented in our model, and to check that local neighbourhood patterns in the model outputs resemble real-world patterning. Key words: temperate upland ecohydrology, plant assemblage dynamics, ecological memory, kite aerial photography, cellular automata.

Dodd, N. H.; Baird, A. J.; Wainwright, J.; Dunn, S. M.

2011-12-01

281

Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P?=?0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: ?0.10, 95% CI: ?0.15 to ?0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p?=?0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of openness were evaluated as less adequate feedback-givers. Non-surgical attending physicians who were conscientious seem to be good at evaluating residents. These insights could contribute to future work on development paths of attending physicians in medical education. PMID:24844725

Scheepers, Renee A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

2014-01-01

282

X-ray observations of characteristic structures and time variations from the solar corona: preliminary results from Skylab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples taken from the S-054 X-ray telescope observations made during ; the first Skylab mission show the hot coronal plasma tracing the configuration of ; the magnetic fields. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of the ; instrument has enabled the following two facts to be more firmly established: (a) ; that the quiet homogeneous corona'' is in fuct highly

G. S. Valana; J. M. Davis; R. Giacconi; A. S. Krieger; J. K. Silk; A. F. Timothy; M. Zombeck

1973-01-01

283

Solar Light Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

284

Japanese high-sensitivity borehole seismic observation network, Hi-net: overview and recent research results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NIED has deployed a nationwide high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) comprising around 800 borehole stations with a spacing of 20"|30km [Okada et al., 2004; Obara et al., 2005]. NIED Hi-net borehole stations are equipped with a three-component short-period velocity seismometer, three-component strong motion accelerometer and horizontal-component high-sensitivity accelerometer. The high-sensitivity accelerometer covers a wide response range from ground tilting to long-period seismic waves. There are four advantages of Hi-net; high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, broadband property of sensors and high density of stations. As a result, detection capability for micro earthquakes has been dramatically improved and some new geophysical phenomena have been discovered. One of remarkable discoveries from Hi-net is wide variety of slow earthquakes including non-volcanic deep low-frequency tremors [Obara, 2002], short- term slow slip events (SSE) [Obara et al., 2004], and very low-frequency (VLF) earthquakes [Ito et al., 2007]. These slow earthquakes lasting for several days occur simultaneously with a certain recurrence interval at the transition zone on the deeper plate interface along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, southwest Japan. The tremor is characterized by randomly wave trains having a predominant frequency of around 2 Hz. VLF earthquake has a predominant period of 20 s and occurs coincident with peak of tremors and SSEs. During the active stage, the source of these slow earthquakes migrates with a propagation velocity of around 10km/day along the strike of the plate geometry at the downdip side of the locked seismogenic zone. At the updip side of the seismogenic zone, another kind of VLF earthquake having a predominant period of 10s has been detected [Obara and Ito, 2005]. This shallow VLF earthquake mainly occurs inside the accretionary prism on the landward side of the Nankai trough. These slow earthquakes at updip and downdip sides of the seismogenic zone on the subducting plate interface reflect the stress relaxation process around the plate boundary. On the other hand, the Hi-net is a quite powerful tool to resolve the deep earth structure and the source process for huge earthquakes as an antenna or telescope. Receiver function analyses by using teleseismic signals from the Hi-net enabled to image the configuration of shallow subducting Philippine Sea plate [Shiomi et al., 2004] and the pathway for water into the deep mantle along the dipping Pacific plate [Kawakatsu and Watada, 2007]. The slant stack analysis of PKJKP phase detected by Hi-net from M7 shallow event in Mozambique derived constraints on inner-core compressional-wave velocity and shears attenuation and proposed a new model of shear-wave anisotropy in the inner core [Wookey and Helffrich, 2008]. Ishii et al. [2005] used the Hi-net seismic array data to map the progression of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake rupture by monitoring the direction of high-frequency radiation. Matsuzawa et al. [2008] detected a migrating long-period microtremor excited by the ocean swells generated by a cyclone in the Atlantic from the Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometer array data. As mentioned above, the Hi-net is useful for not only local seismology but also global geophysics.

Obara, K.

2008-12-01

285

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus 0.013, OMEGA(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.1358(sup +0.0037)(sub -0.0036), z reion = 10.9 plus or minus 1.4, and t(sub 0) = 13.72 plus or minus 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ration is r less than 0.22 (95% CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dn(sub s)/d ln k = -0.028 plus or minus 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 less than 1 + w less than 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 less than OMEGA(sub k) less than 0.0081 (95% CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N(sub eff) = 4.4 plus or minus 1.5 (69% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N(sub eff) = 0 are disfavored at greater than 99% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 less than f(sup local)(sub NL) less than 111 (95% CL) and -151 less than f(sup equal)(sub NL) less than 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.

Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2010-01-01

286

Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

2011-01-01

287

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

288

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

289

Hot Binaries: Observational Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Interferometric work on hot binary and multiple stars is summarized, from the earliest eyepiece interferometry to recent speckle and AO duplicity surveys. Multiplicity fractions for cluster, field, and runaway O stars are discussed.

W. I. Hartkopf

2010-01-01

290

A- and B-type star pulsations in the Kepler and CoRoT era: observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CoRoT and Kepler space missions have commenced a golden era in the field of asteroseismology. The precise and long-term uninterrupted photometric time series from space, now available for thousands of stars, enable the detection of low-amplitude frequencies, revealing new and surprising pulsational results. From the following overview of the most remarkable observational results for A- and B-type pulsators it becomes clear that space photometry is providing more questions than answers, as the observational results often pose challenges for the current pulsational models. Moreover, for these more massive pulsators on the main sequence it has become clear that complementary ground-based observations play a very important role in the interpretation of the space data.

Uytterhoeven, K.

2014-11-01

291

Show me the Monet.  

PubMed

Experts in the United States believe that observation of art can help healthcare professionals diagnose illnesses and injuries in patients. This article reports on an art observation programme involving the University of Chicago Medical Center and the Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois, and reflects on whether such programmes can be replicated in the U.K. PMID:19824527

Duffin, Christian

2009-10-01

292

Results from parallel observations of superconducting and absolute gravimeters and GPS at the Hsinchu station of Global Geodynamics Project, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hsinchu (HS) superconducting gravimeter (SG, serial T48) station is a newly established site in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP). Simultaneous observations of T48, three FG5 absolute gravimeters, and GPS at four stations are studied. GPS shows few mm a?1 of horizontal and vertical motions around HS. The calibration factor and drifting rate of T48 are ?75.96 ± 0.07 ?Gal

Cheinway Hwang; Ricky Kao; Ching-Chung Cheng; Jiu-Fu Huang; Chiung-Wu Lee; Tadahiro Sato

2009-01-01

293

Around the Clock Observations of the Q0957+561 A,B Gravitationally Lensed Quasar II: Results for the second observing season  

E-print Network

We report on an observing campaign in March 2001 to monitor the brightness of the later arriving Q0957+561 B image in order to compare with the previously published brightness observations of the (first arriving) A image. The 12 participating observatories provided 3543 image frames which we have analyzed for brightness fluctuations. From our classical methods for time delay determination, we find a 417.09 +/- 0.07 day time delay which should be free of effects due to incomplete sampling. During the campaign period, the quasar brightness was relatively constant and only small fluctuations were found; we compare the structure function for the new data with structure function estimates for the 1995--6 epoch, and show that the structure function is statistically non-stationary. We also examine the data for any evidence of correlated fluctuations at zero lag. We discuss the limits to our ability to measure the cosmological time delay if the quasar's emitting surface is time resolved, as seems likely.

Wesley N. Colley; Rudolph E. Schild; Cristina Abajas; David Alcalde; Zeki Aslan; Ilfan Bikmaev; Vahram Chavushyan; Luis Chinarro; Jean-Philippe Cournoyer; Richard Crowe; Vladimir Dudinov; Anna Kathinka; Dalland Evans; Young-Beom Jeon; Luis J. Goicoechea; Orhan Golbasi; Irek Khamitov; Kjetil Kjernsmo; Hyun Ju Lee; Jonghwan Lee; Ki Won Lee; Myung Gyoon Lee; Omar Lopez-Cruz; Evencio Mediavilla; Anthony F. J. Moffatt; Raul Mujica; Aurora M. Ullan; Alexander Oscoz; Myeong-Gu Park; Norman Purves; Nail Sakhibullin; Igor Sinelnikov; Rolf Stabell; Alan Stockton; Jan Teuber; Roy Thompson; Hwa-Sung Woo; Alexander Zheleznyak

2002-10-17

294

Further results on the observability in magneto-inertial navigation Pedro Batista, Nicolas Petit, Carlos Silvestre, and Paulo Oliveira  

E-print Network

Further results on the observability in magneto-inertial navigation Pedro Batista, Nicolas Petit assumption usually formulated to employ the magneto-inertial navigation (MINAV) technique. This technique "magneto-inertial navigation" (MINAV) [1], [2], [3]. As its name calls to mind, it relies on the combined

295

Glycemic variability in nondiabetic morbidly obese persons: results of an observational study and review of the literature.  

PubMed

Glycemic variability (GV) is correlated with oxidative stress which may lead to increased cardiovascular risk and poor clinical outcomes in people with prediabetes and diabetes. We sought to understand whether morbidly obese persons without diabetes by standard criteria have dysglycemia as measured by GV. We performed an observational study of GV metrics and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in 21 morbidly obese normoglycemic and 15 morbidly obese prediabetic applicants to The Biggest Loser television show. The results were compared to previously published studies in normoglycemic nonobese and obese individuals. Glucose was measured with a masked continuous glucose monitor (CGM) over 3 to 8 days and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) was determined by ultrasound. CGM-derived GV metrics for GV were coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation (SD), mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE), continuous overall net glycemic action-1 hour (CONGA1), and mean of daily differences (MODD). We found that morbidly obese subjects (n = 21) who were normoglycemic by standard criteria had higher GV (CV = 22%, SD = 24.2 mg/dl and MAGE = 48.6 mg/dl) than previous reports of normoglycemic, nonobese individuals (CV = 12-18%, SD = 11.5-15.0 mg/dl, and MAGE = 26.3-28.3 mg/dl). Morbidly obese prediabetic subjects (n = 15) had GV metrics indistinguishable from those morbidly obese subjects who were normoglycemic. CIMT was higher in both morbidly obese groups compared with historical age- and sex-matched controls. Normoglycemic and prediabetic morbidly obese individuals have higher GV compared with normal weight, nondiabetic individuals. We speculate that this may increase the risk for macrovascular disease through excessive oxidative stress. PMID:24876453

Salkind, Sara J; Huizenga, Robert; Fonda, Stephanie J; Walker, M Susan; Vigersky, Robert A

2014-09-01

296

The Art Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show

Scolarici, Alicia

2004-01-01

297

Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

2011-12-01

298

The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

299

Preliminary Results of the Observations of a Meteor Shower of Comet C/2012 s1 (ison) in January 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated researches on detection of possible meteoric activity in January 2014 connected with remains of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) have been conducted. This work is based on the observational material obtained at different points of the Earth by means of 10 CCD cameras equipped with <>-like lenses (<> camera) and FM radio observations. 43 meteor events were revealed by viewing 54,000 images from 10 to 17 January 2014. As a result of position measurements of CCD images, coordinates of the meteor radiant were found: ?_{R}=156°, ?_{R}=+38°. During this period (January 08 to January 24, 2014) an increase in the meteor activity above the level of the sporadic meteor background has been confirmed by FM-radio observations in Molodechno (Belarus) and Jaen (Spain)

Golubaev, A. V.; Bryukhanov, I. S.; Tabolich, A.; Tabolich, V.; Akulich, D.; Kulakovskaya, A.; Mechinsky, V. A.; Sergey, I. M.

2014-05-01

300

Comparison of satellite NO2 results with mobile MAX-DOAS observations and CHIMERE model simulations for Paris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of various air pollutants, having great impact on air quality and ultimately on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI we characterise and quantify the pollution levels and emissions using spectroscopic observations from satellite and ground based instruments mounted on a car. The mobile observations are conducted on circles with different radii around megacities. From the satellite observations the link from local to regional and global scales can be made. Especially the impact of important sources like megacities on the surrounding areas and also over longer distances can be studied. The combination with the mobile measurements adds information about the heterogeneity within a satellite pixel and the diurnal cycle, which are not well captured from satellite observations. The CHIMERE model is used to produce daily 3D fields of different trace gases, ozone and aerosols. We compare the CHIMERE model with mobile MAX-DOAS and OMI satellite observations. The mobile measurements are also used for validation of the satellite observations. We compare the tropospheric NO2 from OMI (TEMIS) with our mobile MAX-DOAS vertical column densities (VCDs). In general good agreement of the spatial patterns was found between differet data sets. However, the mobile MAX-DOAS measurements usually showed much finer details of the horizontal distributions than the satellite and model data. Also differences in the absolute values were found: The Chimere data are17x% lower and 45% lower than the mobile MAX-DOAS data in summer and winter, respectively. The satellite data are about 50 % lower than mobile MAX-DOAS.

Shaiganfar, Reza; Beirle, Steffen; Petetin, Herve; Zhang, Qiji; Beekmann, Matthias; Wagner, Thomas

2013-04-01

301

The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

302

Showing What They Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

303

Chemistry Game Shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

Susan Campbell; Jennifer Muzyka

2002-01-01

304

Obesity in show cats.  

PubMed

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

305

Do AGN Outflows Cease Star Formation? New Results Based on Ultradeep Chandra HETG Observations of NGC 1068  

Microsoft Academic Search

AGN outflows are widely invoked as the key mediators between the co-evolution of black holes and their host galaxies. Yet, the key question remains: do the outflows actually deliver enough power to their environments to alter evolution in a meaningful way? To address this, we present results from a new 440-ks Chandra HETG GTO observation of the kpc-scale ionization cone

Daniel A. Evans; P. M. Ogle; H. L. Marshall; S. Bianchi; K. A. Weaver; A. Longinotti; J. C. Lee; M. Guainazzi; M. A. Nowak

2010-01-01

306

Show-Me Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

307

Show-Me Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

308

The Truman Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Truman Show is hardly a film you would automatically speak about as a game. At first glance, it is tempting to interpret the story of\\u000a Truman Burbank — his perpetual subjection to the artificial (televisual) world of Seahaven and its gargantuan reality TV project,\\u000a his eventual escape from the “OmniCam Ecosphere” building and the paternalistic surveillance of director Christof

Rolf F. Nohr

309

The Graphing Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

2011-01-01

310

Stratospheric Assimilation of Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Pt. 2; Chi-Square Validated Results and Analysis of Variance and Correlation Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kalman filter system designed for the assimilation of limb-sounding observations of stratospheric chemical tracers, which has four tunable covariance parameters, was developed in Part I (Menard et al. 1998) The assimilation results of CH4 observations from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Sounder instrument (CLAES) and the Halogen Observation Experiment instrument (HALOE) on board of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are described in this paper. A robust (chi)(sup 2) criterion, which provides a statistical validation of the forecast and observational error covariances, was used to estimate the tunable variance parameters of the system. In particular, an estimate of the model error variance was obtained. The effect of model error on the forecast error variance became critical after only three days of assimilation of CLAES observations, although it took 14 days of forecast to double the initial error variance. We further found that the model error due to numerical discretization as arising in the standard Kalman filter algorithm, is comparable in size to the physical model error due to wind and transport modeling errors together. Separate assimilations of CLAES and HALOE observations were compared to validate the state estimate away from the observed locations. A wave-breaking event that took place several thousands of kilometers away from the HALOE observation locations was well captured by the Kalman filter due to highly anisotropic forecast error correlations. The forecast error correlation in the assimilation of the CLAES observations was found to have a structure similar to that in pure forecast mode except for smaller length scales. Finally, we have conducted an analysis of the variance and correlation dynamics to determine their relative importance in chemical tracer assimilation problems. Results show that the optimality of a tracer assimilation system depends, for the most part, on having flow-dependent error correlation rather than on evolving the error variance.

Menard, Richard; Chang, Lang-Ping

1998-01-01

311

Obesity in show dogs.  

PubMed

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

Corbee, R J

2012-08-11

312

A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2-D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine tropospheric and stratospheric air masses. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify the mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The CLaMS simulation shows, that the lowermost stratospheric air masses in the intrusion where transported along the the subtropical jet. The tropospheric air masses around the intrusion originate from the vicinity of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the CRISTA-NF observations and the CLaMS simulation.

Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2012-09-01

313

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of European intergroup randomized trial comparing autografting versus observation.  

PubMed

We present results of a phase 3 randomized trial of autografting in chronic lymphocytic leukemia versus observation for responding patients after first- or second-line treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate that autografting improves the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) from 30% to 50%. There were 223 enrolled patients, 72% men and 28% women, 83% after first and 17% after second-line treatment. Binet stages were progressive A 13%, B 67%, C 20%; at randomization, 59% were in complete remission, and 41% in less than complete remission. Patients were randomized between autografting (n = 112) and observation (n = 111). Median EFS was 24.4 months (range, 16.7-32 months) in the observation group and 51.2 months (39.8-62.5 months) in the autografting group; the 5-year EFS was 24% and 42%, respectively (P < .001). Accordingly, the 5-year relapse incidence was 76% versus 54% (P < .001). Median time to relapse requiring therapy or death was 40 months (25-56 months) in the observation arm and 65 months (59-71 months) after autografting (P = .002). Cox modeling confirmed that autografting significantly improved EFS (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.65; P < .001). At 5 years, the probability of OS was 85.5% and 84.3% for autografting and observation, respectively (P = .77). In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, consolidating autografting reduces the risk of progression by more than 50% but has no effect on overall survival. PMID:21106985

Michallet, Mauricette; Dreger, Peter; Sutton, Laurent; Brand, Ronald; Richards, Sue; van Os, Marleen; Sobh, Mohamad; Choquet, Sylvain; Corront, Bernadette; Dearden, Claire; Gratwohl, Alois; Herr, Wolfgang; Catovsky, Daniel; Hallek, Michael; de Witte, Theo; Niederwieser, Dietger; Leporrier, Michel; Milligan, Donald

2011-02-01

314

Wave-induced boundary-layer separation: A case study comparing airborne observations and results from a mesoscale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave-induced boundary-layer separation (BLS) results from the adverse-pressure gradient forces that are exerted on the atmospheric boundary-layer by internal gravity waves in flow over orography. BLS has received significant attention in recent years, particularly so, because it is a key ingredient in the formation of atmospheric rotors. Traditionally depicted as horizontal eddies in the lee of mountain ranges, rotors originate from the interaction between internal gravity waves and the atmospheric boundary-layer. Our study focuses on the first observationally documented case of wave-induced BLS, which occurred on 26 Jan 2006 in the lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in SE Wyoming (USA). Observations from the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft, in particular, the remote sensing measurements with the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR), reveal strong wave activity, downslope winds in excess of 30 m/s, and near-surface flow reversal in the lee of the mountain range. The fine resolution of WCR data (on the order of 40x40 m2 for two-dimensional velocity fields) exhibits fine-scale vortical structures ("subrotors") which are embedded within the main rotor zone. Our case study intends to complete the characterisation of the observed boundary-layer separation event. Modelling of the event with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) provides insight into the mesoscale triggers of wave-induced BLS and turbulence generation. Indeed, the mesoscale model underpins the expected concurrence of the essential processes (gravity waves, wave breaking, downslope windstorms, etc.) leading to BLS. To exploit the recorded in situ and radar data to their full extent, a quantitative evaluation of the structure and intensity of turbulence is conducted by means of a power spectral analysis of the vertical wind component, measured along the flight track. An intercomparison of observational and modelling results serves the purpose of model verification and can shed some more light onto the limits of validity of airborne observations and mesoscale modelling. For example, the exact timing, magnitude, and evolution of the internal gravity waves present in the mesoscale model are carefully analysed. As for the observations, measures of turbulence gained from in situ and radar data, collected over complex topography within a limited period of time, must be interpreted with caution. Approaches to tackling these challenges are a matter of ongoing research and will be discussed in concluding.

Strauss, L.; Serafin, S.; Grubiši?, V.

2012-04-01

315

NPR: The Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.

316

Not a "reality" show.  

PubMed

The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

2013-01-01

317

Air Quality Observations from Space: Results from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Expected Results from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is one of the largest societal challenges, especially in large urbanized and industrialized regions of the world. Reduced air quality has adverse health effects, and also results in reduced crop yields. In addition, there are strong links between air quality and climate change. Air quality has traditionally been monitored by ground-based networks. In the previous decade the observation capabilities have been extended with measurements from space, most notable from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-1/2). Whereas the satellite instruments do not provide concentrations at the surface level, they provide unique global information on the spatial distribution and transport of pollutants. Over the last decade the quality of the satellite data for tropospheric species like nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols have matured rapidly. Several data products now contribute to the monitoring and forecasting of air quality through data assimilation techniques, as for example developed in the MACC (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/) project. Apart from directly contributing through data assimilation, satellite data are also used for the top-down quantification of emission sources and understanding of atmospheric processes, thus improving chemistry transport models. The OMI instrument, which was launched in July 2004, was the first instrument that combined daily global coverage with high spatial resolution of 13x24 km2 at nadir. The OMI data have attracted many new users and have resulted in several new applications. The TROPOMI instrument on the ESA/GMES Sentinel 5 precursor satellite, planned for launch in 2015, will be the first in a series of European satellite sensors dedicated for monitoring atmospheric composition changes in the timeframe 2015-2030. The TROPOMI instrument has a heritage to both OMI and SCIAMACHY. With a spatial resolution as high as 7x7 km2, higher signal-to-noise and extended spectral coverage, TROPOMI will provide exciting new information on the changing composition of the troposphere. The planned formation flying with the US afternoon NPP/JPSS satellites will enable important synergies, including the usage of high spatial resolution imager (VIIRS) data for enhanced cloud clearing of the TROPOMI data. The availability of the morning EUMETSAT MetOp (GOME-2 and IASI) operational observations will provide complementary information on the diurnal variability. In this contribution an overview will be given of successes of OMI for air quality monitoring and research. In addition, the European satellite missions for atmospheric composition within the ESA/GMES Sentinel programme will be presented, with a focus on the TROPOMI instrument design and performance status.

Veefkind, J. P.; Boersma, K. F.; van der A, R.; Eskes, H.; Kleipool, Q.; Krotkov, N.; Aben, I.; de Vries, J.; Ingmann, P.; Tamminen, J.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Levelt, P. F.

2012-04-01

318

Results of full-scale observations on the general displacements of the Krasnoyarsk dam and its rock foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a The results of measurements made by different methods of the general displacements of the dam, agree satisfactorily.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a Observations conducted during the period 1967–1970 on the settlements, horizontal displacements, and slopes of the dam indicate\\u000a a combined action of the dam and rock foundation, as well as satisfactory conditions of these two elements during the period\\u000a of first

É. K. Aleksandrovskaya; L. A. Vasilevskaya; Yu. N. Gusev; V. P. Urakhchin

1973-01-01

319

Short-Term Chromospheric Variability in alpha Tauri (K5 III): Results from IUE Time Series Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate time series observations of chromospheric lines (Mg II, Mg I, and C II) for the K giant alpha Tau obtained using the IUE LWP camera at high dispersion. These observations cover a time span of about 2 weeks in 1994 February-March and were designed to resolve variations occurring within hours, days, and weeks. We consider the observational results in relation to theoretical acoustic heating models, motivated by the fact that alpha Tau may exhibit a basal (i.e., minimum) level of chromospheric activity. The data reveal flux variations between the extremes of 8% in Mg II h+k and 15% in each emission component. These variations occur on timescales as short as 8 hr but not on timescales longer than approx.3 days. For the h and k components, flux variations occurring on a timescale as short as 1.5 hr are also found. These changes are often not correlated (and are sometimes even anticorrelated), leading to remarkable differences in the h/k ratios. We argue that these results are consistent with the presence of strong acoustic shocks, which can lead to variable Mg II line emission when only a small number of strong shocks are propagating through the atmosphere. We deduce the electron density in the C II lambda 2325 line formation region to be log(base e) of N. approx. equals 9.0, in agreement with previous studies. Our data provide evidence that the Mg II basal flux limit for K giants might be a factor of 4 higher than suggested by Rutten et al.

Cuntz, Manfred; Deeney, Bryan D.; Brown, Alexander; Stencel, Robert E.

1996-01-01

320

VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN.  

SciTech Connect

The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy.

BERKOWITZ,C.M.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; DORAN,J.C.; FAST,J.D.

2002-01-13

321

Comparison of Observations at ACE and Ulysses with Enlil Model Results: Stream Interaction Regions During Carrington Rotations 2016 - 2018  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the latitudinal alignment in 2004, ACE and Ulysses encountered two stream interaction regions (SIRs) each Carrington rotation from 2016 to 2018, at 1 and 5.4 AU, respectively. More SIR-driven shocks were observed at 5.4 AU than at 1 AU. Three small SIRs at 1 AU merged to form a strong SIR at 5.4 AU. We compare the Enlil model results with spacecraft observations from four aspects: i) the accuracy of the latest versions of models (WSA v2.2 and Enlil v2.7) vs. old versions (WSA v1.6 and Enlil v2.6), ii) the sensitivity to different solar magnetograms (MWO vs. NSO), iii) the sensitivity to different coronal models (WSA vs. MAS), iv) the predictive capability at 1 AU vs. 5.4 AU. We find the models can capture field sector boundaries with some time offset. Although the new versions have improved the SIR timing prediction, the time offset can be up to two days at 1 AU and four days at 5.4 AU. The models cannot capture some small-scale structures, including shocks and small SIRs at 1 AU. For SIRs, the temperature and total pressure are often underestimated, while the density compression is overestimated. For slow wind, the density is usually overestimated, while the temperature, magnetic field, and total pressure are often underestimated. The new versions have improved the prediction of the speed and density, but they need more robust scaling factors for magnetic field. The Enlil model results are very sensitive to different solar magnetograms and coronal models. It is hard to determine which magnetogram-coronal model combination is superior to others. Higher-resolution solar and coronal observations, a mission closer to the Sun, together with simulations of greater resolution and added physics, are ways to make progress for the solar wind modeling.

Jian, L. K.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; MacNeice, P. J.; Odstrcil, D.; Riley, P.; Linker, J. A.; Skoug, R. M.; Steinberg, J. T.

2011-10-01

322

Occurrence conditions of roll waves for three grain-fluid models and comparison with results from experiments and field observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the flow and deposition behaviour of debris flows, phenomena like particle sorting, levee formation and the development of roll waves are expected to be important processes. However, these processes are not well understood and hardly implemented in modelling approaches. In this study, we focus on the development of roll waves and derive advanced criteria separating stable and instable flow regimes for three debris flow models. These criteria are expressed using critical Froude numbers. Each of these simple flow models reflect different sources of flow resistance: laminar-viscous stress (Bingham type), dispersive stress due to particle collision (Bagnold type), and a model combining turbulent and dispersive stresses. Subsequently, we compare the predictions from these models with results from laboratory experiments with grain-fluid mixtures in a straight flume and with observations from a debris flow monitoring site at the Lattenbach creek in Austria. The experimental flows match with a turbulent flow model including particle collisions. For the natural flows the connection between models and observations is not clear due to limited field data. The results of our study contribute to an improved determination of critical flow conditions and provide data for model testing.

Arai, M.; Huebl, J.; Kaitna, R.

2013-12-01

323

Air Quality Observations from Space: Results from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Expected Results from the TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air quality is one of the largest societal challenges, especially in large urbanized and industrialized regions of the world. Reduced air quality has adverse health effects, and also results in reduced crop yields. In addition, there are strong links between air quality and climate change. Traditionally, air quality has been monitored by ground-based networks. In the previous decade the observation capabilities have been extended with measurements from space, most notable from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-1/2). Whereas the satellite instruments do not provide concentrations at the surface level, they provide unique global information on the spatial distribution and transport of pollutants. Over the last decade the quality of the satellite data for tropospheric species like nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde and aerosols have matured rapidly. Several data products now contribute to the monitoring and forecasting of air quality through data assimilation techniques, most notably as developed in the EU GEMS and MACC (http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/) projects. Apart from directly contributing through data assimilation, satellite data is also used for the top-down quantification of emission sources and understanding of atmospheric processes, thus improving chemistry transport models. The OMI instrument, which was launched in July 2004, was the first instrument that combined daily global coverage with high spatial resolution of 13x24 km2 at nadir. The OMI data have attracted many new users and has resulted in several new applications. The TROPOMI instrument, planned for launch in late 2014, will be the first in a series of European satellite sensors dedicated for monitoring atmospheric composition changes in the timeframe 2015-2030. The TROPOMI instrument has a heritage to both OMI and SCIAMACHY. With a spatial resolution as high as 7x7 km2, higher signal-to-noise and extended spectral coverage, TROPOMI will provide exciting new information on the changing composition of the troposphere. The planned formation flying with the US afternoon NPP/JPSS satellites will enable important synergies, including the usage of high spatial resolution imager data for enhanced cloud clearing of the TROPOMI data. The availability of the morning MetOp (GOME-2 and IASI) measurements will provide complementary information on the diurnal variability. In this contribution an overview will be given of successes of OMI for air quality monitoring and research. In addition, the European satellite missions for atmospheric composition within the ESA/GMES Sentinel programme will be presented, with a focus on the TROPOMI instrument design and performance status.

Veefkind, J. P.; Boersma, F. F.; van der A, R. J.; Eskes, H. J.; de Haan, J. F.; Kleipool, Q.; Krotkov, N. A.; Aben, I.; de Vries, J.; Ingmann, P.; Tamminen, J.; Joiner, J.; Bhartia, P. K.; Levelt, P.

2011-12-01

324

Observations of the galactic center with the GSFC low-energy gamma-ray spectrometer - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of measurements made of the gamma ray emission originating from the galactic center are reviewed. The data were gathered with balloon borne gamma ray spectrometers, with the scans centering on 511 keV. Minimum Chi-sq fits were calculated for the recorded emissions, assuming a constant source modulated by the detector response and superimposed on a constant background. A time history of the 511 keV line intensity demonstrated variability in the feature, whereas the continuum spectrum showed a high correlation with previous measurements. An excess in the continuum just below the 511 keV line was taken as an indication of positronium formation.

Paciesas, W. S.; Tueller, J.; Cline, T. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Durouchoux, P.; Hameury, J. M.

1982-01-01

325

The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results  

SciTech Connect

A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.

Skyllingstad, E.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Wijesekera, H.W.; Gregg, M.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Applied Physics Lab.] [and others

1995-03-01

326

Video Observations Encompassing the 2002 Leonid Storm: First Results and a Revised Photometric Procedure for Video Meteor Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 2001 Leonid storm, Marshall Space Flight Center, with the cooperation of the University of Western Ontario and the United States Air Force, deployed 6 teams of observers equipped with intensified video systems to sites located in North America, the Pacific, and Mongolia. The campaign was extremely successful, with the entire period of enhanced Leonid activity (over 16 hours) captured on video tape in a consistent manner. We present the first results from the analysis of this unique, 2 terabyte data set and discuss the problems involved in reducing large amounts of video meteor data. In particular, the question of how to determine meteor masses though photometric analysis will be re-examined, and new techniques will be proposed that eliminate some of the deficiencies suffered by the techniques currently employed in video meteor analysis.

Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.; Swift, Wesley; Gural, Peter S.; Brown, Peter; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

327

Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However, there are the following minor differences: there is no latitudinal dependence of the peak altitude for WACCM and the density maximum, passing the equatorial region during equinox conditions, is not reduced as for SCIAMACHY.

Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

2014-01-01

328

Cluster observations of the high-latitude magnetopause and cusp: initial results from the CIS ion instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launched on an elliptical high inclination orbit (apogee: 19.6 RE) since January 2001 the Cluster satellites have been conducting the first detailed three-dimensional studies of the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere, including the exterior cusp, neighbouring boundary layers and magnetopause regions. Cluster satellites carry the CIS ion spectrometers that provide high-precision, 3D distributions of low-energy (<35 keV/e) ions every 4 s. This paper presents the first two observations of the cusp and/or magnetopause behaviour made under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Flow directions, 3D distribution functions, density profiles and ion composition profiles are analyzed to demonstrate the high variability of high-latitude regions. In the first crossing analyzed (26 January 2001, dusk side, IMF-BZ < 0), multiple, isolated boundary layer, magnetopause and magnetosheath encounters clearly occurred on a quasi-steady basis for ~ 2 hours. CIS ion instruments show systematic accelerated flows in the current layer and adjacent boundary layers on the Earthward side of the magnetopause. Multi-point analysis of the magnetopause, combining magnetic and plasma data from the four Cluster spacecraft, demonstrates that oscillatory outward-inward motions occur with a normal speed of the order of +/- 40 km/s; the thickness of the high-latitude current layer is evaluated to be of the order of 900-1000 km. Alfvénic accelerated flows and D-shaped distributions are convincing signatures of a magnetic reconnection occurring equatorward of the Cluster satellites. Moreover, the internal magnetic and plasma structure of a flux transfer event (FTE) is analyzed in detail; its size along the magnetopause surface is ~ 12 000 km and it convects with a velocity of ~ 200 km/s. The second event analyzed (2 February 2001) corresponds to the first Cluster pass within the cusp when the IMF-BZ component was northward directed. The analysis of relevant CIS plasma data shows temporal cusp structures displaying a reverse energy-latitude saw tooth dispersion, typical for a bursty reconnection between the IMF and the lobe field lines. The observation of D-shaped distributions indicates that the Cluster satellites were located just a few RE from the reconnection site.

Bosqued, J. M.; Phan, T. D.; Dandouras, I.; Escoubet, C. P.; Rème, H.; Balogh, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Alcaydé, D.; Amata, E.; Bavassano-Cattaneo, M.-B.; Bruno, R.; Carlson, C.; Dilellis, A. M.; Eliasson, L.; Formisano, V.; Kistler, L. M.; Klecker, B.; Korth, A.; Kucharek, H.; Lundin, R.; McCarthy, M.; McFadden, J. P.; Möbius, E.; Parks, G. K.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

2001-10-01

329

Annual water-level measurements in observation wells, 1951-1955, and atlas of maps showing changes in water levels for various periods from beginning of record through 1954, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report tabulates the annual measurements of water level in the observation wells in the various irrigated areas, primarily from 1951 through 1955. It summarizes changes in water level by discussion and with an atlas of nearly all the maps of change of water level for the period of record to 1955 for each area in which observations are being made. Included also are hydrographs for the period of record through 1954 of several selected wells in the various areas irrigated from ground-water sources. The annual measurements of water level before 1951, seasonal measurements, and daily records of water levels in wells equipped with recording gages have been published in an annual series of U. S. Geological Survey water-supply papers.

Reeder, Harold O.

1959-01-01

330

New results of structured VLF emissions observed simultaneously at two closely located stations near L ~ 5.5  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simultaneous records of VLF (very low frequencies) emissions have been carried out at two ground-based stations located at similar geomagnetic latitudes near L ~ 5.5 and spaced in the longitude by ~ 400 km, Kannuslehto (KAN) in Finland and Lovozero (LOZ) in Russia, using quite similar VLF receivers with two calibrated orthogonal air-core loop antennas. We found that the general spectral properties of the VLF chorus emissions at these two stations were similar and typically have right-hand polarization. Contrary to VLF chorus, the short-period VLF emissions (periodic emissions, PE) in which separated spectral elements are repeated with the periodicity of 3-4 s were mostly left-hand polarized. Usually, these waves propagated in the north-south direction. We suppose that PEs are generated inside of the plasmasphere by the cyclotron instability under a quasi-linear relaxation of the energetic electron distribution function. However, sometimes PE occurred only at an individual station. We speculated that this could be due to the influence of the local inhomogeneities to the VLF waves during the propagation through the ionospheric trough to the ground. Unusual series of short-duration (10-100 s) bursts of VLF emissions, lasting several hours, were also found in the morning under very quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp ~ 0-1). Generally, these emissions were observed simultaneously at KAN and LOZ showing both right-hand and left-hand polarization, and different arrival directions provided the rather extended ionospheric exit area.

Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Bespalov, P. A.; Turunen, T.

2014-09-01

331

Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.  

PubMed

Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions. PMID:19105754

Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

2008-10-01

332

Fumarate treatment in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis: first results of a single-center observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Therapeutic options in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are still limited. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immunomodulatory properties but may also exert antioxidative cytoprotective effects. Hence, it may be a therapeutic option for progressive MS. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate safety, adherence and efficacy of fumarates in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) or secondary progressive MS. Methods: Patients with progressive MS whose condition had failed to respond to standard therapies and had worsened received the fumarate mixture Fumaderm, licensed for psoriasis therapy in Germany, or DMF by pharmaceutical preparation (Bochum ethics approval no. 4797-13). At regular follow-up visits, tolerability and disease course were assessed. Results: Twenty-six patients [age 54 ± 7.8 years; female = 13 (50%); PPMS = 12 (46.2%); Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) = 6.0 ± 0.4 (range 3.5–8.0); disease duration = 14.1 ± 8.7 years] were initiated on treatment with Fumaderm (n = 18) or pharmacy-prepared DMF (n=8). During a mean follow-up period of 13.2 ± 7.5 months (range 6–30) only five patients (19.2%) reported minor complaints. In 15 patients (57.7%) EDSS remained stable. In five cases (19.2%) there was even a decrease in EDSS while in six patients (23.1%) there was an increase in EDSS of more than 0.5 points, reflecting deterioration. Laboratory values were controlled for lymphopenia, renal and hepatic values, without any safety problems. We observed no significant differences between the two pharmaceutical forms. Conclusion: Our pilot data indicate that fumarate therapy appears to be safe and well tolerated by patients with progressive MS. In more than 75% of cases no further disease progression was evident. However, controlled studies are warranted to evaluate the detailed therapeutic potential of fumarates and their long-term effects in progressive MS. PMID:25342977

Strassburger-Krogias, Katrin; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Krogias, Christos; Altmeyer, Peter; Chan, Andrew

2014-01-01

333

Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: Results of a longitudinal observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective Doctors of chiropractic (DCs) use manual cervical distraction to treat patients with neck pain. Previous research demonstrates variability in traction forces generated by different DCs. This article reports on a training protocol and monthly certification process using bioengineering technology to standardize cervical traction force delivery among clinicians. Methods This longitudinal observational study evaluated a training and certification process for DCs who provided force-based manual cervical distraction during a randomized clinical trial. The DCs completed a 7-week initial training that included instructional lectures, observation, and guided practice by a clinical expert, followed by 3 hours of weekly practice sessions delivering the technique to asymptomatic volunteers who served as simulated patients. An instrument-modified table and computer software provided the DCs with real-time audible and visual feedback on the traction forces they generated and graphical displays of the magnitude of traction forces as a function of time immediately after the delivery of the treatment. The DCs completed monthly certifications on traction force delivery throughout the trial. Descriptive accounts of certification attempts are provided. Results Two DCs achieved certification in traction force delivery over 10 consecutive months. No certification required more than 3 attempts at C5 and occiput contacts for 3 force ranges (0–20 N, 21–50 N, and 51–100 N). Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of a training protocol and certification process using bioengineering technology for training DCs to deliver manual cervical distraction within specified traction force ranges over a 10-month period. PMID:25237767

Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.

2014-01-01

334

Strategies to observe JWST First Light objects at z=10--20 based on recent results from the HUDF XDF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reflect on the best observing strategies to see an optimum number of First Light objects at 10-20 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), based on recent results from the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 UltraDeep Field. First, we summarize the best available data to redshifts z<8 on how the Schechter UV Luminosity Function (LF) evolves in its faint-end slope [alpha(z)], its characteristic luminosity [M*(z)] and corresponding space density [phi*(z)], and use hierarchical models to explore how alpha(z) and phi*(z) may evolve for z>8. We use the strongly declining number of z=9-11 candidates in the HUDF-XDF compared to the large number of z=7-8 objects, to constrain the plausible range in evolution of M*(z) for z> 9. While hierarchical models suggest that alpha(z>8) converges to ~-2 and phi*(z>8) to ~< 10^-3/Mpc^3, the one plausible =10-12 candidate seen in the HUDF-XDF suggests that M*(z) may drop to fainter than M=--17.5 mag at z>10 in WMAP9/Planck cosmology. If so, this may have a significant impact on the optimal observing strategies of z>10 objects with JWST. If M*(z) and/or phi*(z) continue to decline significantly for z>9, only deep 200+-hr JWST surveys that reach to AB>31 mag will see a significant number of z>10 objects. Shallow or medium deep JWST surveys that reach to AB<30 mag will not see very many unlensed z>10 objects, since they will generally sample brighter than M* at z>10. Hence, in order to sample the brighter-end of the LF at z>10, and to average over the expected significant cosmic variance at z>10, JWST will either need to observe a larger number (>5) of deep JWST fields, and/or it will need to do a much larger number (>10-20) of medium-deep surveys on gravitational lensing foreground targets. The 6 Hubble Frontier Fields that started in 2013 are excellent lensing targets for JWST. We present a subset of 2400 galaxy groups from the GAMA spectroscopic survey to z=0.4 that have M>10^15 M_o and are sufficiently compact to also be excellent lensing targets for JWST medium-deep surveys of First Light objects at z>10.

Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Lange, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Cluver, M.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Barone-Nugent, Robert L.

2014-01-01

335

In situ observation of corrosion-enhanced dislocation emission and motion resulting in initiation of stress corrosion cracking  

SciTech Connect

A special constant deflection device for TEM was used to study the change in dislocation configuration ahead of a crack tip during stress corrosion cracking (XC) of brass in water and of Ti-24Al-11Nb alloy in methanol as well as the initiation of SCC. In situ tensile test in TEM for brass was carried out to compare. The results show that corrosion process itself during SCC can enhance dislocation emission, multiplication and motion as well as a dislocation free zone (DFZ) is formed. When the corrosion--enhanced dislocation emission and motion reaches certain a condition a nanocrack of SCC initiates in the DFZ or from the crack tip. Because of the action of the corrosion solution the nanocrack of SCC propagates into a cleavage or intergranular microcrack rather than blunts into a void like in situ tension in TEM.

Chu, W.Y.; Gu, B.; Gao, K.W.; Zhang, T.C.; Hsiao, C.M. [Univ. of Science Technology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Materials Physics

1998-12-31

336

Results from two studies in seismology: I. Seismic observations and modeling in the Santa Clara Valley, California. II. Observations and removal of the long-period noise at the Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from two projects are presented in this work. Following brief introductory Chapter 1 that provides general background, Chapter 2 describes the influence of the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) basin structure on the propagation of teleseismic waves. Teleseismic P-waves recorded during the 1998 deployment of the 41-station seismic array are used in the analysis. Observations are compared to synthetics computed by 3D finite-difference simulations using the University of California, Berkeley (UCB) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D velocity models. Chapter 3 includes further study of the ground-motion amplification in the SCV using microseisms recorded by the SCV seismic array in 1998. The obtained results are compared to the local earthquake amplification. Chapter 4 presents results of the 3D simulations using the most recent version of the USGS velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay Area. Results are compared to 1998 SCV seismic array observations and to simulations presented in Chapter 2. Results presented in Chapters 2 to 4 all show strong correlations between basin depth reported in the USGS 3D seismic velocity model and different relative measures of ground motion parameters. The teleseismic, local earthquake and microseism observations are also found to be strongly correlated with one another. Since the results suggest that all three datasets are sensitive to the basin structure, they can be used to improve the 3D velocity model. I started to develop a simultaneous inversion of the teleseismic, local, and microseism observations to refine the seismic velocity model. Chapter 5 presents preliminary results and future plans. Results from the second project are included in Chapters 6 to 9. Chapter 6 provides information about the Monterey ocean bottom broadband seismic station (MOBB). It explains why seismology is moving into the oceans, describes the MOBB location, provides details about the instruments that comprise the MOBB, and describes the deployment. Examples of data and preliminary analysis are also included. Chapter 7 presents observations of infragravity waves at MOBB. Combined with the information from the ocean buoys, the MOBB data show that the infragravity waves in the longer than 20 s period band are mainly locally generated from shorter-period ocean waves. Two types of the observed infragravity band signal modulation are presented and possible mechanisms for the modulation are discussed. Also included is the analysis of the ocean bottom seismic data from the temporary Oregon ULF/VLF deployment that also indicates that the infragravity waves are primarily locally generated. Chapter 8 describes analysis of data from another ocean bottom station. KEBB is located offshore Washington, in deeper water and further offshore than MOBB. Results suggests that in this case the infragravity waves are generated from shorter period ocean waves in the coastal region and not locally at KEBB. Chapter 9 focuses on the removal of the long-period background as well as signal-generated noise from the MOBB data. Methods used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the ocean bottom seismic data are presented.

Dolenc, David

337

Sea salt, sulfate, nitrate, chloride in Asian dust particles observed in Japan: results of individual particle analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric particles were collected in Japan during Asian dust storm events from 2000 to 2007. Dust particles were analyzed by using electron microscopes and the mixture state of individual dust particles with sea salt, sulfate, nitrate and chloride were investigated. About 60~85% of dust particles were internally mixed with sea salt, 91% or more dust particles contained sulfate, and 27% or less contained nitrate. Besides the coagulation of sea-salt and dust particles, chlorine could deposit onto dust particles through the absorption of chlorine-containing gases when the particles passed through the marine atmosphere between China and Japan. The quantitative estimation revealed that the chlorine deposition on many particles was not negligible compared to sulfur deposition. The preferential formation of chloride in Ca-rich dust particles in cases when the particles contain little or no sulfate was found. Most of the particles were in an amorphous state and nearly spherical even under high vacuum, implying the potential enhancement of dust hygroscopicity. Comparisons of the relative weight ratios of sodium, sulfur and chlorine in mixture particles and in sea salt particles showed that mineral materials could enhance particulate sulfate and nitrate formation and restrain chlorine depletion from the sea salt components in mixture particles. Size distributions of the particles segregated by the mixture degrees of mineral and sea salt in different dust storm events were similar and all distributions showed a diameter range of 1~8 ?m with maximum mode around 3 ?m. Out of 1~8 ?m, dust particles were rarely detected. It is confirmed that the size increase of dust particles had a strong correlation with their sea salt content but was independent from their non-sea-salt sulfur content, suggesting that the growth of dust particles in size during their dispersion in the marine atmosphere was dominated by the combination with sea salt rather than by other processes such as surface uptake of sulfate. Estimates of size shift of dust particles due to sea salt adhering indicated that mixing with sea salt had caused their size distributions to shift to larger ranges approximately by 0.4 ~ 0.8 ?m during the particles passed the marine atmosphere between China and Japan. Since size and density of a particle are two key parameters in determining its settling velocity, it is expected that the combination of dust particles with sea salt might largely change the settling velocity of dust particles to the surface and consequently the sedimental flux of mineral dust to sea surface in the marine atmosphere. Estimates with the observational data from six dust events revealed that, due to sea salt adhering, the gravitational settling flux of mineral dust increased approximately 14 ~ 17% in well-mixed events and 4 ~ 6% in less-mixed events, indicating the importance of considering this effect in the schemata of particle gravitational settling when mapping dust flux to the ocean. This presentation provides the data of Asian dust to the presentation (by K. Lieke et al.) about the comparison of African dust and Asian dust observed at islands close to the continents where they were originated.

Zhang, Daizhou; Yamada, Maromu; Tobo, Yutaka; Ogata, Hiroko; Hara, Kazutaka; Nagatani, Tetsuji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Lieke, Kirsten

2010-05-01

338

Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.

Crumpler, L. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F., III; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N. A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A. E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, R.; Guinness, E. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.

2011-01-01

339

Mixed phase cloud observation in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard: Preliminary results from the May-June 2011 experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds and aerosols are key elements having the potential to change climate by their radiative effects on the energy balance in the global climate system. In the Arctic, we have been continuing ground-based remote-sensing measurements for clouds and aerosols using a sky-radiometer, a micro-pulse lidar and an all-sky camera in Ny-Alesund (78.9N, 11.9E), Svalbard. In addition to the regular operations, we have performed an intensive observation campaign for mixed phase clouds in May-June 2011. This campaign aimed at low-level clouds to investigate cloud optical and microphysical properties and cloud-aerosol interaction processes in the Arctic, mainly from cloud radiation measurements and active remote-sensing at the surface, and in-situ microphysics measurements at the Norwegian Zeppelin Station located at a 474 meters high mountain-side. The instrumentation for in-situ measurements includes conventional cloud microphysics probes, i.e., DMT CAPS and Gerber PVM-100, and a newly developed cloud particle microscopic imager for cloud water/ice particle size distributions and the effective radius. The Rion KR-12A aerosol particle counter and the TSI 3007 condensation particle counter were placed in the ropeway cabin for measuring particle number and size distribution to see the difference between in-cloud and below-cloud conditions. We will present preliminary results from the in-situ cloud measurements for several days during the May-June 2011 field experiment.

Shiobara, M.; Uchiyama, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Kobayashi, H.

2011-12-01

340

Results of one year of observations of Solar Flares made by "Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)" Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first space borne solar astronomy experiment of India namely ``Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) mission has completed one year of its successful operation in geostationary orbit. The SOXS mission onboard GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched successfully by GSLV-D2 rocket on 08 May 2003 to study the energy release and particle acceleration in solar flares. We briefly present the scientific objectives and instrumentation of the SOXS mission. The SOXS is composed of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. We restrict our presentation to SLD payload that designed, developed and fabricated by Physical Research Laboratory (PRL) in collaboration with Space Application Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad and ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The SLD payload employs the state-of-the-art solid state detectors viz. Si PIN and Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) devices that operate at near room temperature (-20 ^0 C). The dynamic energy range of Si PIN and CZT detectors are 4-25 and 4-56 keV. The Si PIN provides sub-keV energy resolution while CZT reveals ˜ 2 keV energy resolution throughout the dynamic range. The instrument has onboard flare triggering logic software and 5 MB-memory bank. The data is transmitted to Master Control Facility (MCF), Hasan with 8 kbps telemetry rate. The observations are made in fixed energy windows (temporal) mode and in spectral mode with 100ms cadence during the flare. The SLD has observed more than 140 flares of C and M class since its commissioning in the orbit. We present the preliminary results and the X-ray emission characteristics of these flares, and a detailed study of a few typical solar flares, which are impulsive but associated with CMEs, in view of energy release and particle emission by them. The high sensitivity of the SLD and sub-keV energy resolution of Si PIN detector allows the intensity and mean energy of the Fe-line complex at approximately 6.7 keV to be measured as a function of time in all class of flares. The centroid energy and width of the iron-line complex at ˜ 6.7 keV, the intensity of the Fe/Ni line complex at ˜ 8 keV, and the line-to-continuum ratio enabled to estimate the plasma temperature and other plasma parameters. We also present how SLD is a potential instrument for the study of microflares.

Jain, R.; Dave, H.; Kumar, S.; Deshpande, M. R.

341

First results of CO2 and CH4 retrievals from GOSAT SWIR observations with PPDF-based algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present first applications of the PPDF (Photon Path-length probability Density Function) -based algorithm [1-3] for rapid GOSAT L1b data processing. The retrieval algorithm is based on application of the equivalence theorem with further parameterization of the PPDF. This method excludes time-consuming radiative transfer computations due to light scattering from the retrieval process, allowing rapid re-processing of the actual data. The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the predicted and observed signals in several spectral regions from 1.6 µm and/or 2.0 µm bands. The state vector includes vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios; correction factors for a priori temperature and water vapor profiles; altitudes of the cirrus cloud and aerosol layers. In addition, for each spectral region we retrieve three polynomial coefficients to account for low-frequency spectral variations; stretch factor to allow for wave number grid variation and from three to six PPDF parameters. Three-layered PPDF model was utilized to account for both aerosol and thin cloud impact on optical path modification. Surface pressure is taken from climatological data set. The efficiency of the retrieval algorithm to correct aerosol and cloud effects is first demonstrated by numerical simulations. Under weak aerosol loadings (AOT<0.1) simultaneous retrievals of PPDF and XCO2 from combined of 1.6 µm and 2.0 µm spectral regions provide effective correction of cirrus cloud effect for cloud optical depth up to 0.2 (retrieval precision is mostly within 1%). No a priori information on cloud optical/microphysical parameters is required. These results were obtained for both scalar and polarized synthesized signal. Under heavy aerosol loadings a priori aerosol information is of importance: aerosol PPDF parameters are to be retrieved under strong constraints to provide 1% retrieval precision. This retrieval algorithm was used to estimate atmospheric CO2 and CH4 from GOSAT SWIR spectra measured in April and May, 2009. Only clear sky scenes were considered for the retrievals (~300-400 scans per day). Two spectral regions were used (6200 - 6270 cm-1 from Band 2 and 4800 - 4880 cm-1 from Band 3). A priori information on aerosol from chemical transport model SPRINTERS was converted into PPDF parameters using retrieved surface albedo values. Bril, A., S. Oshchepkov, T. Yokota, and G. Inoue (2007), Parameterization of aerosol and cirrus cloud effects on reflected sunlight spectra measured from space: Application of the equivalence theorem, Appl. Opt., 46, 2460-2470. Bril, A., S. Oshchepkov, and T. Yokota (2008), Correction of atmospheric scattering effects in space-based observations of carbon dioxide: model study of desert dust aerosol, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 109, 1815-1827. Oshchepkov, S., A. Bril, and T. Yokota (2008), PPDF-based method to account for atmospheric light scattering in observations of carbon dioxide from space, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D23210, doi:10.1029/2008JD010061.

Bril, A.; Oshchepkov, S.; Yokota, T.

2009-12-01

342

Potential forecast impacts from space-based lidar winds: results from a regional observing system simulation experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nearly complete research effort has been focused on assessing the impact on regional model prediction skill from wind observations that would be provided by a Doppler-lidar wind profiling instrument flown aboard a polar orbiting satellite. This regional lidar observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) has been conducted over the Continental United States and coordinated with a companion global lidar OSSE.

S. Weygandt; S. Benjamin; S. Koch; T. Schlatter; A. Marroquin; J. Smart; B. Rye; A. Belmonte; M. Hardesty

2003-01-01

343

The Distant Tail at 200 R(sub E): Comparison Between Geotail Observations and the Results from a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports a comparison between Geotail observations of plasmas and magnetic fields at 200 R(sub E) in the Earth's magnetotail with results from a time-dependent, global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The study focuses on observations from July 7, 1993, during which the Geotail spacecraft crossed the distant tail magnetospheric boundary several times while the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and was marked by slow rotations of its clock angle. Simultaneous IMP 8 observations of solar wind ions and the IMF were used as driving input for the MHD simulation, and the resulting time series were compared directly with those from the Geotail spacecraft. The very good agreement found provided the basis for an investigation of the response of the distant tail associated with the clock angle of the IMF. Results from the simulation show that the stresses imposed by the draping of magnetosheath field lines and the asymmetric removal of magnetic flux tailward of the cusps altered considerably the shape of the distant tail as the solar wind discontinuities convected downstream of Earth. As a result, the cross section of the distant tail was considerably flattened along the direction perpendicular to the IMF clock angle, the direction of the neutral sheet following that of the IMF. The simulation also revealed that the combined action of magnetic reconnection and the slow rotation of the IMF clock angle led to a braiding of the distant tail's magnetic field lines along the axis of the tail, with the plane of the braid lying in the direction of the IMF.

Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.

1998-01-01

344

THOMAS 2.5 THz Measurements of Middle Atmospheric OH: Comparison With MAHRSI Observations and Model Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this work OH observations of the middle atmosphere performed by the improved 2.5 THz heterodyne spectrometer THOMAS (Tera Hertz OH Measurement Airborne Sounder) during the 1997 THOMAS/MAHRSI (Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph investigation...

B. A. Schimpf, C. R. Englert, F. Schreier, M. Birk, R. R. Conway

2000-01-01

345

N49: The site of a gamma-ray burst - Preliminary results from X-ray observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The error box of the unusual gamma-ray burst of Mar. 5, 1979 falls completely inside the optical and radio image of the supernova remnant N49 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This region was observed twice in X-rays with the High-Resolution Imager of the Einstein Observatory, six weeks and nearly two years after the gamma-ray burst. A comparison between the two observations is shown.

Pizzichini, G.; Cline, T. L.; Desai, U. D.; Teegarden, B. J.; Evans, W. D.; Fenimore, E. E.; Klebesadel, R. W.; Laros, J. G.; Hurley, K.; Niel, M.

1983-01-01

346

The Impulsive Phase in Solar Flares: Recent Multi-wavelength Results and their Implications for Microwave Modeling and Observations  

E-print Network

This short paper reviews several recent key observations of the processes occurring in the lower atmosphere (chromosphere and photosphere) during flares. These are: evidence for compact and fragmentary structure in the flare chromosphere, the conditions in optical flare footpoints, step-like variations in the magnetic field during the flare impulsive phase, and hot, dense 'chromospheric' footpoints. The implications of these observations for microwaves are also discussed.

Fletcher, Lyndsay

2013-01-01

347

OSSE observations of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation - Initial phase 1 results. [Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) has performed numerous observations of the Galactic plane and Galactic center region to measure the distribution of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation and to search for time variability of the emission. The initial 511 keV line fluxes for the observations performed during the first 18 months of the GRO mission are presented. The 511 keV line flux for a typical Galactic center observation is (2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm per sec, where the quoted uncertainty represents the 1 sigma statistical uncertainty. No statistically significant time variability of the line flux has been observed; the 3 sigma upper limit to daily variations from the mean is 3 x 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm per sec. The distribution of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation implied by the OSSE observations is discussed and compared with observations by other instruments.

Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Jung, G. V.

1993-01-01

348

Planetary-scale variability in the low-latitude E region field-aligned irregularities: First results from Gadanki observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present for the first time planetary-scale wave signatures in the low-latitude E region field-aligned irregularities (FAI) observed during June 2004 to May 2005 using the Gadanki mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar. We have observed a clear signature of 5-8 day variability in echo occurrence, in SNR, and also in Doppler velocity observed above 100 km. Concurrent temperature observations made using the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on board the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetic and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite have also clearly shown the presence of 5-8 day variability similar to that of FAI. The temperature variations have been characterized with zonal wave numbers of 3 and 4 and vertical wavelength of 15-20 km. These waves are found to have increasing amplitude with increasing height and phase progressing downward, suggesting that they were of lower atmospheric origin. It is emphasized that the planetary-scale characteristics of neutral atmosphere in the FAI observations are important in understanding the vertical coupling of the low-latitude ionosphere-atmosphere system. These observations and the pertinent issues are discussed in the light of current understanding of the planetary-scale role on the FAI variability.

Phanikumar, D. V.; Patra, A. K.; Ratnam, M. V.; Sripathi, S.

2009-01-01

349

iVINE - Ionization in the parallel tree/SPH code VINE: First results on the observed age-spread around O-stars  

E-print Network

We present a three-dimensional, fully parallelized, efficient implementation of ionizing UV radiation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) including self-gravity. Our method is based on the SPH/tree code VINE. We therefore call it iVINE (for Ionization + VINE). This approach allows detailed high-resolution studies of the effects of ionizing radiation from e.g. young massive stars on their turbulent parental molecular clouds. In this paper we describe the concept and the numerical implementation of the radiative transfer for a plain-parallel geometry and we discuss several test cases demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the new method. As a first application, we study the radiatively driven implosion of marginally stable molecular clouds at various distances of a strong UV source and show that they are driven into gravitational collapse. The resulting cores are very compact and dense exactly as it is observed in clustered environments. Our simulations indicate that the time of triggered collapse depends on the distance of the core from the UV source. Clouds closer to the source collapse several $10^5$ years earlier than more distant clouds. This effect can explain the observed age spread in OB associations where stars closer to the source are found to be younger. We discuss possible uncertainties in the observational derivation of shock front velocities due to early stripping of proto-stellar envelopes by ionizing radiation.

M. Gritschneder; T. Naab; A. Burkert; S. Walch; F. Heitsch; M. Wetzstein

2008-09-05

350

Troposphere - ionosphere coupling: results of the ground based observations in Antarctica and perspective for "Sich-1M" satellite experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of meteorological processes upon the ionosphere cannot be ignored in conceptual space weather models. The giant energy stored in motion of tropospheric air masses (weather fronts, cyclones, stream jets, penetrating convection, etc) serves as a powerful source of upward energy fluxes propagating from the lower to upper atmosphere. The prospective energy carrier might be associated with the middle-scale atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) traveling upwards to the ionospheric heights and producing the effects known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID's). We present the results of detailed experimental and theoretical study of these phenomena. The original data had been provided by experiments in the region of high meteorological activity, namely Antarctic coast of the Drake Passage, where the Ukrainian Antarctic station " Akademik Vernadsky" is located (UK's "Michael Faraday" till 1996). The permanent data sets were collected over the seven years from 1996 till 2002. The passing atmospheric fronts were in most cases accompanied by excitation of middle-scale AGW's and quasiperiodic variations of magnetic field components, showing the same time periods as the atmospheric pressure. As follows from the cross-correlation analysis of the magnetic field and pressure variations, the magnetic field normally lagged behind the pressure by few tens minutes. On this base we elaborate a quantitative model describing the AGW excitation by weather fronts, AGW propagation to the upper atmosphere and generation of geomagnetic pulsation in the ionospheric dynamo-region. We expect to carry out further experiments onboard Ukrainian remote sensing satellite "Sich-1M" (launch in 2004), which payload contains optical and radar equipment allowing to detect weather systems as well as a set of electromagnetic sensors ("Variant" experiment" for registration of the fine structure of fields and currents in the ionosphere. We are going to compare a ground based meteorological and magnetic data base from Antarctica with measurements on the board of "Sich-1M" satellite.

Lizunov, G.; Yampolski, Yu.; Korepanov, V.; Lytvynenko, L.; Zalizovsky, A.

351

Baseline characteristics of an incident haemodialysis population in Spain: results from ANSWER--a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background. The ANSWER study aims to identify risk factors leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a Spanish incident haemodialysis population. This paper summarizes the baseline characteristics of this population. Methods. A prospective, observational, one-cohort study, including all consecutive incident haemodialysis patients from 147 Spanish nephrology services, was conducted. Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2004. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics were collected. Results. Baseline characteristics are described for 2341 incident haemodialysis patients [mean (SD) age 65.2 (14.5) years, 63% males]. The main cause of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy (26%). The majority of patients (57%) had a Karnofsky score of 80–100 and 27% were followed up by a nephrologist for ?6 months. In total, 86% of the patients had hypertension, 43% had dyslipidaemia and 44% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Initial vascular access was obtained via a temporary catheter in 30% of patients, via a permanent catheter in 16% and via an arteriovenous fistula in 54%. Albumin levels were <3.5 g/dl in 43% of patients. Immediately prior to the onset of haemodialysis, the mean (SD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 7.6 (2.8) ml/min/1.73 m2, and only 6.7% of the patients were within the K/DOQI guidelines for all four bone mineral markers. In addition, a high proportion of patients had anaemia markers outside the EBPG guidelines (haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 59%, ferritin <100 or >500 ng/ml, 41% and saturated transferrin <20 or >40%, 50%) despite previous treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in 41% of cases. Conclusions. There is excessive use of temporary catheters and a high prevalence of uraemia-related cardiovascular risk factors among incident haemodialysis patients in Spain. The poor control of hypertension, anaemia, malnutrition and mineral metabolism and late referral to a nephrologist indicate the need for improving the therapeutic management of patients before the onset of haemodialysis. PMID:19028750

Perez-Garcia, Rafael; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; Llados, Fina; Lozano, Javier; Garcia, Fernando

2009-01-01

352

A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine the origin of air masses in the stratosphere or troposphere. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the CRISTA-NF observations and the CLaMS simulation.

Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2012-03-01

353

The S locus-linked Primula homeotic mutant sepaloid shows characteristics of a B-function mutant but does not result from mutation in a B-function gene.  

PubMed

Floral homeotic and flower development mutants of Primula, including double, Hose in Hose, Jack in the Green and Split Perianth, have been cultivated since the late 1500s as ornamental plants but until recently have attracted limited scientific attention. Here we describe the characterization of a new mutant phenotype, sepaloid, that produces flowers comprising only sepals and carpels. The sepaloid mutation is recessive, and is linked to the S locus that controls floral heteromorphy. The phenotype shows developmental variability, with flowers containing three whorls of sepals surrounding fertile carpels, two whorls of sepals with a diminished third whorl of sepals surrounding a fourth whorl of carpels, or three whorls of sepals surrounding abnormal carpels. In some respects, these phenotypes resemble the Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum homeotic B-function mutants apetala3/deficiens (ap3/def) and pistillata/globosa (pi/glo). We have isolated the Primula vulgaris B-function genes PvDEFICIENS (PvDEF) and PvGLOBOSA (PvGLO), expression of both of which is affected in the sepaloid mutant. PvGLO, like sepaloid, is linked to the S locus, whereas PvDEF is not. However, our analyses reveal that sepaloid and PvGLO represent different genes. We conclude that SEPALOID is an S-linked independent regulator of floral organ identity genes including PvDEF and PvGLO. PMID:18564384

Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret; Dudas, Brigitta; Cook, Holly; Manfield, Iain; Davies, Brendan; Gilmartin, Philip M

2008-10-01

354

New high-sensitivity, milliarcsecond resolution results from routine observations of lunar occultations at the ESO VLT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context. Lunar occultations (LO) are a very efficient and powerful technique that achieves the best combination of high angular resolution and sensitivity possible today at near-infrared wavelengths. Given that the events are fixed in time, that the sources are occulted randomly, and that the telescope use is minimal, the technique is very well suited for service mode observations. Aims: We

A. Richichi; O. Fors; W.-P. Chen; E. Mason

2010-01-01

355

Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-01-01

356

Vertical Mixing and Chemistry Over an Arid Urban Site: First Results from Skyscraper Observations Made During the Phoenix Sunrise Campaign  

SciTech Connect

We report here on combined meteorological and chemical trace-gas observations made from two levels of a skyscraper in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. These observations were made as part the U.S. Department of Energy's Phoenix Sunrise Campaign in June 2001. The motivation for this campaign developed from studies in other urban areas that found peak ozone values above the surface layer appeared to play an important role in governing the surface ozone concentrations in the early morning. The first examination of the data here suggests (a) the vertical extent of the boundary layer before sunrise is below 200 m and the concentrations of trace gases are very sensitive to the stability of the atmosphere, as shown by the observed gradients. Capturing these processes with an air quality model will require a very high degree of vertical resolution. (b) Typically at night, and sometimes during the day, we would see lower concentrations of ozone at the ground, as expected from the titration of O3 with N O. On June 26 this difference throughout much of the day was of order 10 to 15 ppb. It is not clear if this is a local effect associated with street canyons, or representative of what actually occurs over the entire city and environs. (c) DOAS observations highlight the relationship between the gradient structure of reactive trace gases and meteorology at night.

Berkowitz, Carl M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stutz, Jochen (California, Univ Of - Los Ange); Spicer, Chester W. (UNKNOWN); Doran, J Christopher (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fast, Jerome D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wang, Shuhui (California, Univ Of - Los Ange)

2002-01-17

357

The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental results showing its dependence on age, gender and health conditions  

E-print Network

Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main results are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...

Barra, Orazio A

2013-01-01

358

Mars surface mineralogy from Hubble Space Telescope imaging during 1994–1995: Observations, calibration, and initial results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visible to near-infrared observations of Mars were made with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during 1994-1995 with the goals of monitoring seasonal variability of the surface and atmosphere and mapping specific spectral units to constrain the planer's surface mineralogy. This paper presents the details of the collection and calibration of the data, concentrating specifically on the near-IR data that were

James F. Bell III; Michael J. Wolff; Philip B. James; R. Todd Clancy; Steven W. Lee; Leonard J. Martin

1997-01-01

359

Rotational state of the nucleus of Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1: Results from Hubble Space Telescope observations in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleus of Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1 was first observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in December 1997 [Lamy, P., Toth, I., A'Hearn, M.F., Weaver, H., Weissman, P.R., 2001. Icarus 154, 337–344], but the temporal coverage was insufficient to determine its rotational period. Because the success of the Deep Impact mission was critically dependent on understanding the rotational state and

Philippe L. Lamy; Imre Toth; Michael F. A'Hearn; Harold A. Weaver; Laurent Jorda

2007-01-01

360

Rotational state of the nucleus of Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1: Results from Hubble Space Telescope observations in 2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleus of Comet 9P\\/Tempel 1 was first observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in December 1997 [Lamy, P., Toth, I., A'Hearn, M.F., Weaver, H., Weissman, P.R., 2001. Icarus 154, 337 344], but the temporal coverage was insufficient to determine its rotational period. Because the success of the Deep Impact mission was critically dependent on understanding the rotational state

Philippe L. Lamy; Imre Toth; Michael F. A'Hearn; Harold A. Weaver; Laurent Jorda

2007-01-01

361

High definition clouds and precipitation for climate prediction -results from a unified German research initiative on high resolution modeling and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from the German BMBF initiative 'High Definition Cloud and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction -HD(CP)2'. This initiative addresses most of the problems that are discussed in this session in one, unified approach: cloud physics, convection, boundary layer development, radiation and subgrid variability are approached in one organizational framework. HD(CP)2 merges both observation and high performance computing / model development communities to tackle a shared problem: how to improve the understanding of the most important subgrid-scale processes of cloud and precipitation physics, and how to utilize this knowledge for improved climate predictions. HD(CP)2 is a coordinated initiative to: (i) realize; (ii) evaluate; and (iii) statistically characterize and exploit for the purpose of both parameterization development and cloud / precipitation feedback analysis; ultra-high resolution (100 m in the horizontal, 10-50 m in the vertical) regional hind-casts over time periods (3-15 y) and spatial scales (1000-1500 km) that are climatically meaningful. HD(CP)2 thus consists of three elements (the model development and simulations, their observational evaluation and exploitation/synthesis to advance CP prediction) and its first three-year phase has started on October 1st 2012. As a central part of HD(CP)2, the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) has been carried out in spring 2013. In this campaign, high resolution measurements with a multitude of instruments from all major centers in Germany have been carried out in a limited domain, to allow for unprecedented resolution and precision in the observation of microphysics parameters on a resolution that will allow for evaluation and improvement of ultra-high resolution models. At the same time, a local area version of the new climate model ICON of the Max Planck Institute and the German weather service has been developed that allows for LES-type simulations on high resolutions on limited domains. The advantage of modifying an existing, evolving climate model is to share insights from high resolution runs directly with the large-scale modelers and to allow for easy intercomparison and evaluation later on. Within this presentation, we will give a short overview on HD(CP)2 , show results from the observation campaign HOPE and the LES simulations of the same domain and conditions and will discuss how these will lead to an improved understanding and evaluation background for the efforts to improve fast physics in our climate model.

Rauser, F.

2013-12-01

362

National Assessment of Educational Progress, Report 1--Science: National Results. Observations and Commentary of a Panel of Reviewers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are five reviews of the National Assessment of Educational Progress results in science. Dr. Mildred Ballou discusses the objectives of the assessment by age level with concern over explanations for responses, social implications, and validity of testing exercises. Wilmer Cooksey comments on the results as viewed by the classroom teacher…

National Assessment of Educational Progress, Ann Arbor, MI.

363

Recent results from observations of 4U1700-37 using SAS-3. [X-ray source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SAS-3 observations of a complete orbital cycle (approximately 3.5 d) of the X-ray source 4U1700-37 are presented. A persistent, approximately sinusoidal modulation of approximately 60% amplitude is present in the data at 97 m. Satellite orbital effects are ruled out by using other detectors pointed away from the source but sampled at the same time. The effect of such a long rotation period (if indeed the period is rotational) on current ideas involving accretion torques and stellar wind is discussed.

Matilsky, T.

1978-01-01

364

Prognostic Factors for Long-Term Survival in Patients with Ampullary Carcinoma: The Results of a 15-Year Observation Period after Pancreaticoduodenectomy  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Although ampullary carcinoma has the best prognosis among all periampullary carcinomas, its long-term survival remains low. Prognostic factors are only available for a period of 10 years after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify factors that influence the long-term patient survival over a 15-year observation period. Methods. From 1992 to 2007, 143 patients with ampullary carcinoma underwent pancreatic resection. 86 patients underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (60%) and 57 patients underwent standard Kausch-Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (40%). Results. The overall 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 79%, 40%, 24%, and 10%, respectively. Within a mean observation period of 30 (0–205) months, 100 (69%) patients died. Survival analysis showed that positive lymph node involvement (P = 0.001), lymphatic vessel invasion (P = 0.0001), intraoperative administration of packed red blood cells (P = 0.03), an elevated CA 19-9 (P = 0.03), jaundice (P = 0.04), and an impaired patient condition (P = 0.01) are strong negative predictors for a reduced patient survival. Conclusions. Patients with ampullary carcinoma have distinctly better long-term survival than patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Long-term survival depends strongly on lymphatic nodal and vessel involvement. Moreover, a preoperative elevated CA 19-9 proved to be a significant prognostic factor. Adjuvant therapy may be essential in patients with this risk constellation. PMID:24723741

Jacob, Dietmar; Bahra, Marcus; Puhl, Gero; Krannich, Alexander; Andreou, Andreas; Gul, Safak; Guckelberger, Olaf

2014-01-01

365

Results of the Simulation and Assimilation of Doppler Wind Lidar Observations in Preparation for European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With the launch of the European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission in 2013, direct spaceborne measurements of vertical wind profiles are imminent via Doppler wind lidar technology. Part of the preparedness for such missions is the development of the proper data assimilation methodology for handling such observations. Since no heritage measurements exist in space, the Joint Observing System Simulation Experiment (Joint OSSE) framework has been utilized to generate a realistic proxy dataset as a precursor to flight. These data are being used for the development of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system utilized at a number of centers through the United States including the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA/NWS/NCEP) as an activity through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation. An update of this ongoing effort will be presented, including the methodology of proxy data generation, the limitations of the proxy data, the handling of line-of-sight wind measurements within the GSI, and the impact on both analyses and forecasts with the addition of the new data type.

McCarty, Will

2011-01-01

366

First results from the UHRF: ultra-high-resolution observations of atomic interstellar lines towards zeta Ophiuchi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ultra-high-resolution observations of optical interstellar lines towards zeta Oph obtained during the commissioning phase of the new Ultra-High-Resolution Facility (UHRF) at the AAT. The UHRF has achieved its design resolving power of R~=10^6, and has very clearly resolved hyperfine splitting in three of the 11 identified Na I D-line velocity components towards zeta Oph. In addition, the intrinsic line profiles of the 3s-4p Na I doublet at 3302 A have been measured for the first time. 12 velocity components are identified in the interstellar Ca II K-line absorption profile, of which seven have definite velocity counterparts in the Na I profile. Three of the Na I velocity components have b-values which correspond to a gas temperature of about 200 K, for the case of pure thermal broadening. The strongest component in the sightline (-14.8 km s^-1) was found to have a b-value of 0.6^+0.2_-0.1 km s^-1, corresponding to a temperature of 500 K. If a true gas kinetic temperature of 54 K is assumed to apply to this component, from the H_2 rotational excitation temperature previously measured for the zeta Oph sightline, then the observed Na I and Fe I line profiles both imply an rms turbulent velocity of 0.4 km s^-1 within the cloud, just less than the local sound speed. The observed Ca II linewidths are all significantly larger than those of the corresponding Na I components. The Ca IIcomponents are interpreted as arising from warm neutral material (intercloud medium) surrounding cooler clouds, while half of the Na I components arise from cool clouds and half arise from warm intercloud material. The measured Na I/CaII column density ratios, and the inferred temperatures, are consistent with a model in which calcium is heavily depleted on to grains in cool clouds but is restored to the gas phase by impact desorption in the warm intercloud medium.

Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Diego, F.; Dryburgh, M.; Fish, A. C.; Howarth, I. D.; Spyromilio, J.; Walker, D. D.

1995-01-01

367

Vaccination rules for a true-mass action SEIR epidemic model based on an observer synthesis. Preliminary results  

E-print Network

This paper presents a simple continuous-time linear vaccination-based control strategy for a SEIR (susceptible plus infected plus infectious plus removed populations) propagation disease model. The model takes into account the total population amounts as a refrain for the illness transmission since its increase makes more difficult contacts among susceptible and infected. The control objective is the asymptotically tracking of the removed-byimmunity population to the total population while achieving simultaneously the remaining population (i.e. susceptible plus infected plus infectious) to asymptotically converge to zero. A state observer is used to estimate the true various partial populations of susceptible, infected, infectious and immune which are assumed to be unknown. The model parameters are also assumed to be, in general, unknown. In this case, the parameters are replaced by available estimates to implement the vaccination action.

De la Sen, M; Alonso-Quesada, S

2011-01-01

368

Showing results, 3 Energy technology and energy planning  

E-print Network

­ Processes and cycling of matter in ecosystems, 16 Radioecology and tracers, 16 Trace analysis and limitation materials, 24 Surfaces and boundary layers, 25 ­ Structural materials, 26 Fundamental materials research, 26 and special research facilities, 30 Special research facilities, 30 Research departments, 30 Staff functions

369

The HyMeX Special Observation Period in Central Italy: precipitation measurements, retrieval techniques and preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mediterranean area concentrates the major natural risks related to the water cycle, including heavy precipitation and flash-flooding during the fall season. The capability to predict such high-impact events remains weak because of the contribution of very fine-scale processes and their non-linear interactions with the larger scale processes. These societal and science issues motivate the HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment, http://www.hymex.org/) experimental programme. HyMeX aims at a better quantification and understanding of the water cycle in the Mediterranean with emphasis on intense events. The observation strategy of HyMEX is organized in a long-term (4 years) Enhanced Observation Periods (EOP) and short-term (2 months) Special Observation Periods (SOP). HyMEX has identified 3 main Mediterranean target areas: North-West (NW), Adriatic (A) and South-East (SE). Within each target area several hydrometeorological sites for heavy rainfall and flash flooding have been set up. The hydrometeorological site in Central Italy (CI) is interested by both western and eastern fronts coming from the Atlantic Ocean and Siberia, respectively. Orographic precipitations play an important role due to the central Apennine range, which reaches nearly 3000 m (Gran Sasso peak). Moreover, convective systems commonly develop in CI during late summer and beginning of autumn, often causing localized hailstorms with cluster organized cells. Western fronts may heavily hit the Tiber basin crossing large urban areas (Rome), whereas eastern fronts can cause flash floods along the Adriatic coastline. Two major basins are involved within CI region: Tiber basin (1000 km long) and its tributary Aniene and the Aterno-Pescara basin (300 km long). The first HyMeX SOP1.1 was carried out from Sept. till Nov. 2012 in the NW target area. The Italian SOP1.1 was coordinated by the Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, a city located in the CI heart. The CI area was covered by a uniquely dense meteorological instrumentation thanks to a synergy between Italian institutions and NASA-GSFC. The following RADARs were operated: a Doppler single-polarization C-band radar located at Mt. Midia; the Polar 55C Doppler dual-polarization C-band radar located in Rome; a Doppler C-band polarimetric radar located at Il Monte (Abruzzo); a polarimetric X-band mini-radar in L'Aquila; a polarimetric X-band portable mini-radar in Rome; a single-polarization X-band mini-radar in Rome. DISDROMETERs were also deployed: 4 Parsivel optical disdrometers in Rome (at Sapienza, CNR-ISAC and CNR-INSEAN); 1 2D-video disdrometer in Rome; 3 Parsivels optical disdrometer respectively in L'Aquila (Abruzzo), Avezzano (Abruzzo) and Pescara (Abruzzo). Other INSTRUMENTS were available: 1 K-band vertically-pointing micro rain-radar (MRR), 2 Pludix X-band disdrometers, 1 VLF lightining sensor, 1 microwave radiometer at 23-31 GHz in Rome (at Sapienza); the raingauge network with more than 200 stations in Central Italy. Three overpasses in CI were also performed by the Falcon 20 aircraft equipped with the 95GHz cloud radar RASTA. Analysis of the SOP1.1 main events in CI will be described by focusing on the raindrop size distribution statistics and its geographical variability. Intercomparison of rainfall estimates from disdrometers, raingauges and radars will be illustrated with the aim to provide a quality-controlled and physically consistent rainfall dataset for meteorological modeling validation and assimilation purposes.

Silvio Marzano, Frank; Baldini, Luca; Picciotti, Errico; Colantonio, Matteo; Barbieri, Stefano; Di Fabio, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Vulpiani, Gianfranco; Roberto, Nicoletta; Adirosi, Elisa; Gorgucci, Eugenio; Anagnostou, Marios N.; Kalogiros, John; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Ferretti, Rossella; Gatlin, Patrick.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walt

2013-04-01

370

Preliminary results from permanent GPS array by the Geological Survey of Japan in conjunction with groundwater-level observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A regional continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) array, consisting of uniform antenna type, has been established by the Geological Survey of Japan (GSJ) mainly around the Kansai district. Geodetic results for 2.5 years data are as follows. In comparison with the solutions obtained from the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) continuous GPS array which employs different type of antenna from the

Ryu Ohtani; Naoji Koizumi; Norio Matsumoto; Eikichi Tsukuda

2000-01-01

371

Characterisation of Patients Receiving Moxifloxacin for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Clinical Practice: Results from an International, Observational Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

We conducted a prospective, non-controlled, multi-centre Phase IV observational cohort study of patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis who were treated with moxifloxacin in clinical practice in 19 countries in Asia Pacific, Europe and the Middle East. With the data collected we evaluated the presentation and course of the current disease episode, particularly in terms of the principal clinical signs and symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis and diagnostic procedures. A final assessment of moxifloxacin therapy was made to evaluate the impact of the sinusitis episode on activities of daily life and on sleep disturbance, and to evaluate the clinical outcome of treatment. A total of 7,090 patients were enrolled, of whom 3909 (57.6%) were included in the valid for clinical outcome and safety population. Regional differences were observed in the main symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis and, according to several characteristics, disease episodes appeared to be more severe in patients in Europe than in the Asia Pacific or Middle East regions. The sinusitis episode impacted on daily living for mean (SD) periods of 3.6 (3.2), 4.6 (3.9) and 3.1 (3.0) days and disturbed sleep for 3.6 (3.2), 4.6 (3.9) and 3.1 (3.0) nights in the Asia Pacific, Europe and Middle East regions, respectively. With moxifloxacin treatment, the mean (SD) time to improvement of symptoms was 3.0 (1.5), 3.4 (1.6) and 3.2 (1.5) days, and the time to resolution of symptoms was 4.8 (2.6) days, 5.7 (2.4) days and 5.5 (2.5) days, in the Asia Pacific, Europe and Middle East regions, respectively. In conclusion, acute rhinosinusitis remains a substantial health burden with significant impact on patients’ quality of life, and there are differences between global regions in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and clinical course of disease episodes. Moxifloxacin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in the overall population. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930488 PMID:23626752

Mösges, Ralph; Desrosiers, Martin; Arvis, Pierre; Heldner, Stephanie

2013-01-01

372

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads resulting from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we show that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as observed in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process towards the generation of only D-loops or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to observations made in biological ‘models’. We conclude that compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces towards a biased generation of D- or L-loops.

Männer, Jörg; Bayraktar, Meric

2014-04-01

373

Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads resulting from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. Observations on a physical simulation model  

PubMed Central

The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play im