Sample records for observations results showed

  1. Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

    Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

  2. 17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Building 202, observation room for test cell, showing panel, abort button, phones, and observation window. View looking northwest. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Carpenter Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 275 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  4. Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  5. Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the mine observation tower building, showing the steel compass ring in the tower. View facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waipio Peninsula, Waipo Peninsula, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. Observational astrochemistry - Recent results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, W. M.

    More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed.

  7. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

  8. 14. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF INADEQUATE TAMPING. THE SIZE OF THE GRANITE AGGREGATE USED IN THE DAMS CONCRETE IS CLEARLY SHOWN. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  9. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

  10. CASSINI VIMS OBSERVATIONS SHOW ETHANE IS PRESENT IN TITAN'S RAINFALL

    SciTech Connect

    Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnes, Jason W. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Clark, Roger N. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Philip D., E-mail: pauldalba@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent 'gentle rainfall' instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

  11. Observe an animation showing the formation of an arch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    This animation shows middle and high school students how weathering forms sandstone arches. Descriptive text explains that the process begins with a flat, sedimentary surface in which tectonic stress has produced cracks. Weathering widens these cracks, producing thin sandstone walls, and wind-propelled sand drives a hole through the wall. A photograph of an actual arch is provided. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, which can give students more time to read the text and connect it with the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  12. Observe an animation showing the formation of an unconformity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

    2003-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the development of an angular unconformity to high school Earth science students. The introduction defines an unconformity as a gap in sedimentary rock. The animation shows how the cycle of sedimentation and erosion can be interrupted by intrusion of igneous rock. Mountain-building then tilts the rock layers, causing uneven erosion, which leaves pockets of material that are covered by newer sediments. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, giving students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  13. Results of Spectroscopic Observations of Cygnus A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlo, Matthew J.; Perlman, E.; Packham, C.; Mason, R.; Levenson, N.; Radomski, J.; Aretxaga, I.; Imanishi, M.

    2010-01-01

    According to the unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGN), the central engine is obscured by optically thick clouds in a toroidal geometry. A significant fraction of the energy from the central engine is absorbed by this torus, and re-emitted at mid-infrared (MIR) wavelengths. Since the composition and geometry of the torus remain uncertain, MIR observations provides valuable insight into unification theories. We present the results of our MIR spectroscopic observations of the radio loud AGN Cygnus A using COMICS on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. While MIR space-based observations afford greatly superior sensitivity, ground-based observations on 8m-class telescopes, achieve improved spatial resolution approaching 0.3''. Of particular interest in the 10 micron band are the 9.7 micron silicate feature and the 10.5 micron [S IV] line. Our diffraction limited observations measure the silicate feature's optical depth of 1.28±0.42, compared with the 0.49±0.15 measured from Spitzer data. Splitting the nuclear region into three 0.66'' apertures, the central aperture gives an optical depth of 0.99±0.22 while the east and west offsets show differences in the spectral shape and differences in optical depths, 1.76±3.18 and 2.04±1.19 respectively. We can not conclude where the maximum optical depth occurs because of the large errors present in the offset data. The [S IV] line has an equivalent width of 0.25 microns, a flux of 2.66 mJy, and a FWHM of 0.06 microns. This data is compared to clumpy torus models to help constrain the structure and composition. We also compare and contrast the mid-IR features with features seen in the radio, optical, and x-ray bands to gain a more complete picture of structures present in Cyg A.

  14. Streaming Limit: New Observations and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. K.; Reames, D. V.; Tylka, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Solar energetic particle intensities at 1 AU often show an early temporal plateau where the intensity is limited. This early intensity limit may provide a valuable time window for astronauts to seek shelter before large shock-associated intensity increase (if any). The Ng and Reames (1994) time-dependent model of SEP transport through self-amplified Alfvén waves predicts a maximum proton intensity of ~ 250 particles /(cm^2 s str MeV) at ~ 1 MeV, in agreement within a factor of 2 with the observational survey by Reames and Ng (1998). In fact, streaming-limited intensity is implicit in the steady-state shock-acceleration solution of Bell (1978) and Lee (1983). Further studies on the effect of self-amplified waves on SEP intensity spectra have been made by Ng, Reames and Tylka (2003), Vanio (2003), and Lee (2005). Intensities exceeding the Ng and Reames (1994) limit have been reported (e.g., Lario et al. 2009). We present new observations of multi-species SEP spectra at the temporal intensity plateau. We also present new theoretical results on how the streaming limit depends on ion species and energy, ambient wave intensity spectrum, Alfvén speed, solar-wind speed, shock speed, and the presence of interplanetary shocks and interaction regions. Among the new interesting observations is the strong suppression of ion intensities near 1 MeV/amu in events that have high 10-100 MeV proton intensity. New modeling results confirm that this is due to these low-energy ions being strongly scattered at small pitch angles by waves amplified by 10-100 MeV protons at large pitch angles. As the high-energy protons travel upstream and scatter from small to large pitch-angles, they simultaneously amplify waves en route over a range of wavenumbers, including those that are resonant with low-energy protons. Thus, wave amplification by streaming protons and the pitch-angle dependence of the wave-particle resonance condition are essential factors in understanding the limiting behavior. We thank Glenn Mason for his advice on ACE/ULEIS observations. Work by CKN, DVR, and AJT are supported in part by NASA grants NNX09AU98G, NNX08AQ02G, and NNH09AK79I, respectively.

  15. Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates

    PubMed Central

    Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

    2010-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (? ? 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (? ? 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (? ? 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (? ? 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

  16. CMB Observational Techniques and Recent Results

    E-print Network

    E. L. Wright

    2003-12-31

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) consists of photons that were last created about 2 months after the Big Bang, and last scattered about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. The spectrum of the CMB is very close to a blackbody at 2.725 K and upper limits on any deviations of the CMB from a blackbody place strong constraints on energy transfer between the CMB and matter at all redshifts less than 2,000,000. The CMB is very nearly isotropic, but a dipole anisotropy of +/-3.346(17) mK shows that the Solar System barycenter is moving at 368+/-2 km/sec relative to the observable Universe. The dipole corresponds to a spherical harmonic index l=1. The higher indices l geq 2 indicate intrinsic inhomogeneities in the Universe that existed at the time of last scattering. While the photons have traveled freely only since the time of last scattering, the inhomogeneities traced by the CMB photons have been in place since the inflationary epoch only 10^{-35} sec after the Big Bang. These intrinsic anisotropies are much smaller in amplitude than the dipole anisotropy, with Delta T leq 100 microK. Electron scattering of the anisotropic radiation field produces an anisotropic linear polarization in the CMB with amplitudes less than 5 microK. Detailed studies of the angular power spectrum of the temperature and linear polarization anisotropies have yielded precise values for many cosmological parameters. This paper will discuss the techniques necessary to measure signals that are 100 million times smaller than the emission from the instrument and briefly describe results from experiments up to WMAP.

  17. A negative cloud-to-ground flash showing a number of new and rarely observed features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Mallick, S.

    2014-09-01

    An unusual natural lightning flash containing two branched negative strokes to ground was recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville, Florida, on 8 June 2013. The flash was apparently a bolt from the blue, whose first-stroke leader emerged from the side of the cloud at a height of about 3.5 km above ground level. The first leader showed profuse branching and what appears to be corona-like formations with spatial extent of 100 to 200 m (probably an intensified portion of radial corona sheath) at the upper part of the channel. Leader branching process facilitated by two simultaneous space stems was observed. The corresponding step lengths were estimated to be 14 and 15 m. The first-stroke attachment process involved a streamer zone about 50 m in length. One of the second-leader branches appeared to abruptly change its direction at the beginning of return stroke process.

  18. Radio observations of asteroids: Results and prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickel, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Radio observations of the asteroids can provide information on the thermal and dielectric properties of the surface materials and because the radio emission arises somewhat below the surface, the data give some indication of layering. Observational difficulty has limited the investigations to only 6 asteroids: 1 Ceres and 324 Bamberga appear to have a layer of dust covering a more compacted material; the data on 4 Vesta cannot be matched by any current models for the surface; and the results for 18 Melpomene, 31 Euphrosyne and 433 Eros are too incomplete for firm conclusions. Future possibilities include more accurate radiometry of a few selected asteroids of different taxonomic classes and actual resolution of some of the larger objects by aperture synthesis techniques.

  19. STS-44 Earth observation shows purplish twilight over the Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, shows twilight over the Atlantic Ocean. OV-104 was at a point in the north Atlantic located at 28 degrees north latitude and 37 degrees west longitude. The spacecraft has just passed sundown on the Earth's surface, but it was still daylight at an altitude of 195 nautical miles. During the mission, the astronauts noted that the limb of the Earth displayed a more purplish tint instead of its normal blue. This effect, according to NASA scientists, is attributed to the high altitude residue (mostly sulfuric acid particles) from the Mount Pinatubo eruptions of mid June 1991. Note the broad band of twilight in the center of the image. This band is another indicator of the upper atmospheric scattering of sunlight caused by this layer of haze that exists between 20 and 30 kilometers above Earth. Sunlight highlights the empty payload bay (PLB), the vertical tail, and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods against the black

  20. Hector's dolphin risk assessments: old and new analyses show consistent results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Slooten; N Davies

    2012-01-01

    We review results of previous research and present new estimates of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) bycatch. Before 2008, an estimated total of 110–150 individuals were caught annually, with 35–46 caught off the east coast South Island (ECSI). We estimate that 23 Hector's dolphins were caught off ECSI during 1 May 2009–30 April 2010 (CV 0.21) based on fisheries observer data.

  1. Hector's dolphin risk assessments: old and new analyses show consistent results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E Slooten; N Davies

    2011-01-01

    We review results of previous research and present new estimates of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) bycatch. Before 2008, an estimated total of 110–150 individuals were caught annually, with 35–46 caught off the east coast South Island (ECSI). We estimate that 23 Hector's dolphins were caught off ECSI during 1 May 2009–30 April 2010 (CV 0.21) based on fisheries observer data.

  2. Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, Michael C.

    The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered in less detail. Also evident in the results were topics for which improvement of instruction is needed. These factors and the ease with which the ADT can be administered constitute evidence of the usefulness of the ADT as an assessment instrument for introductory astronomy.

  3. Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate — a hypothesis generating observation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K

    2011-01-01

    Background A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. Objective To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: VA endoscopy center. Patients: creening colonoscopy. Interventions: From 1/2000–6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006–11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. Results The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). Limitations: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. Conclusion Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation. PMID:21686105

  4. Dysphoric students show higher use of the observer perspective in their retrieval of positive versus negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Sabine; Debeer, Elise; Holmes, Emily A; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are retrieved as images from either a field perspective or an observer perspective. The observer perspective is thought to dull emotion. Positive affect is blunted in depressed mood. Consequently, are positive events recalled from an observer perspective in depressed mood? We investigated the relationship between memory vantage perspective and depressive symptoms in a student sample. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) and assessed the perspective accompanying each memory. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II; Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) and the Responses to Positive Affect questionnaire (RPA; Feldman, Joormann, & Johnson, 2008) were administered. The results showed a small positive association between depressive symptoms and the use of an observer perspective for positive autobiographical memories, but not for negative memories. Furthermore, comparing a subgroup with clinically significant symptom levels (dysphoric students) with non-dysphoric individuals revealed that dysphoric students used an observer perspective more for positive memories compared with negative memories. This was not the case for non-dysphoric students. The observer perspective in dysphorics was associated with a dampening cognitive style in response to positive experiences. PMID:23083015

  5. X-ray observation of 3U 1700-37. [showing three categories of flux variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, K. O.; Branduardi, G.; Sanford, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    X-ray observations with Copernicus reveal three categories of flux variability in 3U 1700-37. High amplitude hourly variations are energy independent in the 3-11 keV range while a change in the low energy absorbing column causes variations in flux level on an orbital time scale. This absorption is most severe prior to eclipse ingress, suggesting that the distribution of absorbing material around the X-ray source is asymmetrical with respect to the line of centers of the binary system. The absorbing material may be identical with a high density region inferred from optical observations of HD 153919. In the third category, the maximum source intensity per binary cycle is variable by at least a factor of two between observations. Measurement of the eclipse duration on three occasions indicate that it is significantly less than when observed by Uhuru.

  6. Multi-site model-observations comparison shows the diurnal effects of hydrodynamic stress on evapotranspiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic limitations are known to control transpiration in forest ecosystems when the soil is drying or when the vapor pressure deficit between the air and stomata is very large, but they can also impact stomatal apertures under conditions of adequate soil moisture and lower evaporative demand. We use the NACP dataset of latent heat flux (LE) measurements and model observations for multiple site/model intercomparisons to evaluate the degree to which currently un-resolved high-frequency (sub-daily) hydrodynamic stresses affect the error in model prediction of latent heat flux. Particularly, we see that models have difficulty resolving the dynamics of intra-daily hysteresis. We hypothesize that this is a result of un-resolved afternoon stomata closure due to hydrodynamic stresses. We find that although no model or stomata parameterization was consistently best or worst in terms of ability to predict LE, errors in model-simulated LE were consistently largest and most variable when soil moisture and VPD were moderate to limiting. This suggests that models have trouble simulating the dynamics that cause stomata to close due to high VPD and moderate to low soil-water availability. Errors in LE occur most frequently when vegetative dynamics dominate. The majority of models tend to underestimate LE in the pre-noon hours and overestimate in the late evening. These diurnal error patterns are consistent with models' diminished ability to accurately simulate the natural hysteresis of transpiration. Nearly all models demonstrate a marked tendency to underestimate the degree of maximum hysteresis which, across all sites studied, is most pronounced during moisture limited conditions. The assumed empirical or semi-empirical coupling between stomatal conductance and soil moisture used by these current models does not resolve the hydrodynamic process of water movement from the soil to the leaves. This approach does not take advantage of advances in our understanding of water flow and storage in the trees, or of tree and canopy structure. A more thorough representation of the tree-hydrodynamic processes could potentially remedy this significant source of model error. We propose a framework to resolve such tree hydrodynamics in global and regional models. We introduce FETCH - a tree hydrodynamic model that can resolve the fast dynamics of stomatal conductance. We propose that coupling FETCH to other land-surface models would reduce intra-daily errors and improve atmospheric and hydrologic simulations.

  7. BATSE results on observational properties of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    1994-01-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) has observed over 600 gamma-ray bursts since its activation on 1991 April 21. We present here results on the global properties of the first 542 events. Their angular distribution is consistent with isotropy; their peak intensity distribution shows a depletion at low intensities, consistent with inhomogeneity in Euclidean space.

  8. Frequently Asked Questions Observations show that changes are occurring in the amount,

    E-print Network

    Oscillation have a substantial influence. Pronounced long- term trends from 1900 to 2005 have been observed and northern and central Asia, but drier in the Sahel, southern Africa, the Mediterranean and south- ern Asia Severity Index (see Figure 1), which is a measure of soil moisture using precipitation and crude estimates

  9. Televised medical talk shows—what they recommend and the evidence to support their recommendations: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Kolber, Michael R; McCormack, James; Lam, Vanessa; Overbo, Kate; Cotton, Candra; Finley, Caitlin; Turgeon, Ricky D; Garrison, Scott; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Banh, Hoan Linh; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the quality of health recommendations and claims made on popular medical talk shows. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Mainstream television media. Sources Internationally syndicated medical television talk shows that air daily (The Dr Oz Show and The Doctors). Interventions Investigators randomly selected 40 episodes of each of The Dr Oz Show and The Doctors from early 2013 and identified and evaluated all recommendations made on each program. A group of experienced evidence reviewers independently searched for, and evaluated as a team, evidence to support 80 randomly selected recommendations from each show. Main outcomes measures Percentage of recommendations that are supported by evidence as determined by a team of experienced evidence reviewers. Secondary outcomes included topics discussed, the number of recommendations made on the shows, and the types and details of recommendations that were made. Results We could find at least a case study or better evidence to support 54% (95% confidence interval 47% to 62%) of the 160 recommendations (80 from each show). For recommendations in The Dr Oz Show, evidence supported 46%, contradicted 15%, and was not found for 39%. For recommendations in The Doctors, evidence supported 63%, contradicted 14%, and was not found for 24%. Believable or somewhat believable evidence supported 33% of the recommendations on The Dr Oz Show and 53% on The Doctors. On average, The Dr Oz Show had 12 recommendations per episode and The Doctors 11. The most common recommendation category on The Dr Oz Show was dietary advice (39%) and on The Doctors was to consult a healthcare provider (18%). A specific benefit was described for 43% and 41% of the recommendations made on the shows respectively. The magnitude of benefit was described for 17% of the recommendations on The Dr Oz Show and 11% on The Doctors. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest accompanied 0.4% of recommendations. Conclusions Recommendations made on medical talk shows often lack adequate information on specific benefits or the magnitude of the effects of these benefits. Approximately half of the recommendations have either no evidence or are contradicted by the best available evidence. Potential conflicts of interest are rarely addressed. The public should be skeptical about recommendations made on medical talk shows. Additional details of methods used and changes made to study protocol PMID:25520234

  10. Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

    1998-01-01

    Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp -9) C, and average arc time of 1 msec, arcs can also occur with estimated arc currents approaching 10 milliamperes (mA). Discharges of this magnitude could interfere with the operation of sensitive electrical or electronic elements and logic circuits. Sojourner rover wheel tested in laboratory before launch to Mars. Before launch, we believed that the dust would become triboelectrically charged as it was moved about and compacted by the rover wheels. In all cases observed in the laboratory, the test wheel charged positively, and the wheel tracks charged negatively. Dust samples removed from the laboratory wheel averaged a few ones to tens of micrometers in size (clay size). Coarser grains were left behind in the wheel track. On Mars, grain size estimates of 2 to 10 mm were derived for the Martian surface materials from the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment. These size estimates approximately match the laboratory samples. Our tentative conclusion for the Sojourner observations is that fine clay-sized particles acquired an electrostatic charge during rover traverses and adhered to the rover wheels, carrying electrical charge to the rover. Since the Sojourner rover carried no instruments to measure this mission's onboard electrical charge, confirmatory measurements from future rover missions on Mars are desirable so that the physical and electrical properties of the Martian surface dust can be characterized. Sojourner was protected by discharge points, and Faraday cages were placed around sensitive electronics. But larger systems than Sojourner are being contemplated for missions to the Martian surface in the foreseeable future. The design of such systems will require a detailed knowledge of how they will interact with their environment. Validated environmental interaction models and guidelines for the Martian surface must be developed so that design engineers can test new ideas prior to cutting hardware. These models and guidelines cannot be validated without actual flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across t

  11. Aortic emboli show surprising size dependent predilection for cerebral arteries: Results from computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Ian; Schwartz, Robert; Shadden, Shawn

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac emboli can have devastating consequences if they enter the cerebral circulation, and are the most common cause of embolic stroke. Little is known about relationships of embolic origin/density/size to cerebral events; as these relationships are difficult to observe. To better understand stoke risk from cardiac and aortic emboli, we developed a computational model to track emboli from the heart to the brain. Patient-specific models of the human aorta and arteries to the brain were derived from CT angiography from 10 MHIF patients. Blood flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equations using pulsatile inflow at the aortic valve, and physiologic Windkessel models at the outlets. Particulate was injected at the aortic valve and tracked using modified Maxey-Riley equations with a wall collision model. Results demonstrate aortic emboli that entered the cerebral circulation through the carotid or vertebral arteries were localized to specific locations of the proximal aorta. The percentage of released particles embolic to the brain markedly increased with particle size from 0 to ~1-1.5 mm in all patients. Larger particulate became less likely to traverse the cerebral vessels. These findings are consistent with sparse literature based on transesophageal echo measurements. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, award number 1157041.

  12. Children of Senegal River Basin show the highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ever observed worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common intestinal protist found in human feces and considered an emerging parasite with a worldwide distribution. Because of its potential impact in public health, we reinforced the picture of Blastocystis sp. prevalence and molecular subtype distribution in Africa by performing the first survey of this parasite in Senegal. Methods Stool samples from 93 symptomatic presenting with various gastrointestinal disorders or asymptomatic children living in three villages of the Senegal River Basin were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by non-quantitative and quantitative PCR using primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene. Positive samples were subtyped to investigate the frequency of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in our cohort and the distribution of subtypes in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups of children. Results By the use of molecular tools, all 93 samples were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. indicating a striking parasite prevalence of 100%. Mixed infections by two or three subtypes were identified in eight individuals. Among a total of 103 subtyped isolates, subtype 3 was most abundant (49.5%) followed by subtype 1 (28.2%), subtype 2 (20.4%) and subtype 4 (1.9%). Subtype 3 was dominant in the symptomatic group while subtypes 1 and 2 were detected with equal frequency in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The distribution of subtypes was compared with those available in other African countries and worldwide. Comparison confirmed that subtype 4 is much less frequently detected or absent in Africa while it is commonly found in Europe. Potential sources of Blastocystis sp. infection including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmissions were also discussed. Conclusions The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in our Senegalese population was the highest prevalence ever recovered worldwide for this parasite by reaching 100%. All cases were caused by subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a predominance of subtype 3. More than half of the children infected by Blastocystis sp. presented various gastrointestinal disorders. Such high prevalence of blastocystosis in developing countries makes its control a real challenge for public health authorities. PMID:24666632

  13. Results of inpatient survey show the case for safe staffing is undeniable.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Susan

    2015-06-01

    When are we going to learn lessons from the national NHS inpatient survey, published at the end of last month by the Care Quality Commission, which shows standards are sub-optimal in our cherished NHS? PMID:26036398

  14. Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening

    Cancer.gov

    Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE).

  15. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help to resolve the problem of the 'missing heat' or 'missing energy', respectively, terms coined to grasp the observation that surface temperatures of planet Earth have stalled rising since about 15 years while radiation-affecting atmospheric CO2 concentrations continued to increase. Our results support the finding that excess energy which results from changes in the Earth' radiation balance is transferred into heating of the deep ocean, where it does not contribute to an increase of surface temperatures but inevitably enhances thermosteric sea level rise.

  16. What Gdel's Incompleteness Result Does and Does Not Show Haim Gaifman

    E-print Network

    Gaifman, Haim

    cannot fully grasp how it works. Gödel's result also points out a certain essential limitation of self-reflection this is related to self-reflection, will become clear at the end of this comment. I should add that the full

  17. Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

    2014-04-01

    Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice. PMID:24473120

  18. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri

    2013-04-01

    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also planet-wide phenomena and are a key observation for enhancing our understanding of the global atmospheric flows and CO2 cycle of the Martian atmosphere. The surface pressure is rising at this time of the Martian season, and this is clearly seen by the MSL pressure observations. The current surface pressure is slightly over 8 hPa, which represents a rise of a few % since the beginning of the mission. Our Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) produces similar results to the observations with some deviations. They are currently under investigation. References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [3] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13.

  19. InSAR and GPS Observations Show Seasonal Speedup of Ice Flow in Greenland Following the Onset of Summer Melting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Joughin; S. B. Das; M. A. King; B. Smith; I. Howat; T. Moon

    2007-01-01

    We have assembled a comprehensive set of InSAR and GPS observations that reveal both spatial and temporal changes in velocity during the summer melt season along a several-hundred kilometer stretch of the ice-sheet margin near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. In the bare ice zone, we obtain InSAR (speckle\\/feature tracking) results throughout the melt season that agree well with results from two

  20. ARM Observations Projected onto CCSM Results Projected onto

    E-print Network

    Mills, Richard

    ARM Observations Projected onto ARM States CCSM Results Projected onto ARM States 1Oak Ridge to Comparing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data with Global Climate Model (GCM) Results Atmospheric state contained only in model results Atmospheric states contained only in ARM observations ARM

  1. Mercury: Mid-infrared (7.3 - 13.5 microns) spectroscopic observations showing features characteristic of plagioclase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Sprague, A. L.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Wooden, D.; Snyder, K. D.

    1994-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the surface of Mercury are reported for the wavelength range 7.3 to 13.5 microns. The observed spectral radiance emanated from equatorial and low latitude regions between 110-130 deg Mercurian longitude. The area is primarily an intercrater plain. The spectra show distinct and recognizable features, the principal Christiansen emission peak being the most prominent. The Christiansen feature strongly suggests the presence of plagioclase (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)AlSi2O8, (in particular labradorite: Ab(50) - Ab(30)). In addition we have studied the effects of thermal gradients to gain insight into the effects of thermal conditions on the spectral radiance of rock samples. This simulates the thermophysical effects as the rotating surface of Mercury is alternately heated and cooled. The spectral features of the samples are retained; however, the relative and absolute amplitudes vary as illustrated by laboratory reflectance and emittance spectra from quartzite.

  2. Re-evaluation of Observations for the February 26, 2008 Substorm Reported to Show Tail Reconnection Triggering Substorm Expansion Onset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, A. T.

    2008-12-01

    A recent article from the THEMIS program reported that tail reconnection triggered a substorm expansion onset on February 26, 2008. We have re-examined the observations of that substorm with the following findings: (1) the conventional signatures of reconnection at P1 (at Xgsm = -21.5 Re) occurred later by ~1-2 min than the dipolarization activity onset at P4 (at Xgsm = -10.2 Re) and P3 (at Xgsm = -10.9 Re), indicating dipolarization onset in the near-Earth region preceded tail reconnection onset in the mid-tail; (2) the unconventional signatures used to indicate reconnection onset at P1 is subject to an alternative interpretation of plasma sheet thinning; (3) observations at P2 (at Xgsm = -17.2 Re) shortly after the claimed reconnection onset at P1 showed discrepancy from the expected reconnection signatures (positive excursion of Bz accompanied by tailward plasma flows); (4) the observed electron energy flux at P1 at reconnection onset was too weak to be responsible for the observed auroral intensity at Gillam, indicating that reconnection activity at P1 was not directly responsible for the auroral activity on the ground; (5) a substorm expansion started at ~0403 UT on that day and was centered around Iceland located in the midnight sector, suggesting the possibility that auroral activity at Gillam and reconnection onset at P1 might be related to substorm intensification at a later stage of this substorm. This re-evaluation shows that the reported event is not a compelling case of tail reconnection triggering substorm expansion onset. Furthermore, the reported case is more consistent with current disruption than with tail reconnection to be the trigger for the substorm expansion onset.

  3. NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

  4. News Note: Long-term Results from Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Shows Lower Toxicities of Raloxifene

    Cancer.gov

    Initial results in 2006 of the NCI-sponsored Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showed that a common osteoporosis drug, raloxifene, prevented breast cancer to the same degree, but with fewer serious side-effects, than the drug tamoxifen that had been in use many years for breast cancer prevention as well as treatment. The longer-term results show that raloxifene retained 76 percent of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, while remaining far less toxic – in particular, there was significantly less endometrial cancer with raloxifene use.

  5. Cassini observations of Saturn's inner plasmasphere: Saturn orbit insertion results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E SITTLERJR; M. Thomsen; R. E. Johnson; R. E. Hartle; M. Burger; D. Chornay; M. D. Shappirio; D. Simpson; H. T. Smith; A. J. Coates; A. M. Rymer; D. J. McComas; D. T. Young; D. Reisenfeld; M. Dougherty; N. Andre

    2006-01-01

    We present new and definitive results of Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) data acquired during passage through Saturn's inner plasmasphere by the Cassini spacecraft during the approach phase of the Saturn orbit insertion period. This analysis extends the original analysis of Sittler et al. [2005. Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: comparison with Voyager. Geophys. Res. Lett.

  6. Cassini observations of Saturn's inner plasmasphere: Saturn orbit insertion results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. C. Sittler Jr; M. Thomsenb; R. E. Hartlea; M. Burgera; D. Chornaya; M. D. Shappirioa; D. Simpsona; A. J. Coatesd; A. M. Rymere; D. J. McComasf; D. Reisenfeldg; M. Doughertyh; N. Andred

    We present new and definitive results of Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) data acquired during passage through Saturn's inner plasmasphere by the Cassini spacecraft during the approach phase of the Saturn orbit insertion period. This analysis extends the original analysis of Sittler et al. (2005. Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: comparison with Voyager. Geophys. Res. Lett.

  7. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCLA, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-11-20

    We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than {approx}10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 {+-} 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 {+-} 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.2, lower than the 1.6 {+-} 0.1 value derived by Szabo et al.

  8. Preliminary Results of ISO Observations of NGC 891

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whaley, Cynthia; Irwin, J.

    2006-09-01

    We present preliminary results of ISO observations of the edge-on galaxy NGC 891. We present images in 9 different wavebands corresponding to the central wavelengths: 4.5, 6.0, 6.7, 6.8, 7.7, 9.6, 11.3, 14.3, and 14.9um. Some of these illustrate characteristic PAH emission. We pay special attention to emission seen in the halo region of this galaxy, as NGC 891 is well known to have halo emission in H alpha, HI, and X-ray wavebands. These previous results indicate that there is diffuse ionized gas, neutral gas, and dust in the halo of NGC 891. We compare our results to these previous observations.

  9. Preliminary results of Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign /FHDOC/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czobor, A.; Adam, J.; Mihaly, Sz.; Vass, T.; Parm, T.

    The Finnish-Hungarian Doppler Observation Campaign, carried out in Finland during 13 days in August 1983, is discussed. It is shown that three Hungarian JMR-1A receivers and one Finnish JMR-4 receiver occupied 9 stations together with the first order triangulation network points of Finland. The processing of the data, performed in SGO, Penc, using two different program systems, GEODOP III and SADOSA, is described. The observation strategy and the results obtained by the two programs, as well as the S-transformations, are given. The data are presented in tables and graphs.

  10. Preliminary results of the amplitude retrieval from CHAMP observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H. J.; Zhang, G. X.; Guo, P.; Liu, M.; Hong, Z. J.

    2005-01-01

    Under the assumptions of geometric optics and thin phase screen the retrieval algorithms of amplitude in GPS/LEO occultation technique were listed in this paper. Geometric and physical decay sources producing observed signal amplitude variations were sorted according to their physical mechanisms. Using CHAMP observational data samples, the profiles of atmospheric bending, refractivity, pressure, and temperature were retrieved in tern by the series of signal noise ratio. The results were compared and discussed with that from phase process. The influences of both geometric and physical sources on the atmospheric retrievals were analyzed briefly.

  11. On the Onset of the Rainy Season in Amazonia: WHAT the Observations Show, and Why the Biases in Climate Models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, J. A.; Alves, L. M.; Fu, R.

    2014-12-01

    The onset of the Amazon rainy season shows a large temporal and spatial variability, delays on the date of the onset will have strong impacts on local agriculture, hydroelectric power generation as well as on the hydrology of large rivers. Two "once-in-a-century" droughts occurred in 2005 and 2010, and it was shown that in those events the rainy season started later than normal, and also that on the last 10 years the dry season has increased in length by about one month. These events highlight the urgency for improving our understanding and capability to model onset of the rainy season and drought variability, for the present and future. Most studies have attributed the variability of the rainy season onset over Amazonia to the variability of the tropical oceans whether other factors, such as climate change, land use and aerosols also contribute to the variability are not clear.. Global climate models run on seasonal climate forecast mode still show large uncertainties on the prediction of onset of seasonal rains. As for climate change, the CMIP3 and CMIP5 appear to underestimate the past variability, and also project virtually no future change of the onset of rainy season over the Amazon even when they are forced by strong greenhouse forcing under the RCP8.5 emission scenario. Why these models underestimate the variability of the rainy season onset, and whether this bias implies an underestimate of sensitivity of their dry season length to anthropogenic radiative forcing remain unclear. This FAPESP DOE grant 2013/50538 aims to explore use of the measurements provided by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facilities (AMF)-GoAmazon and the Cloud processes of the main precipitation systems in Brazil (CHUVA) Field Experiments, along with global and regional model experiments, to explore the sources of the above described uncertainty. The project will address several issues, i.e. the inadequate representation of the types of convection (i.e., maritime versus continental) and their relationships to aerosols, land surface and atmospheric circulation as represented in climate models We will present our initial results addressing the factors that control the variability of the wet season onset over Amazonia, the influence of convective types on atmospheric diabatic heating based on GoAmazon and CHUVA.

  12. Results from Magic Observations of Extragalactic Relativistic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Ulisses Barres

    The Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) experiment is an array of two 17-meter telescopes located in the Canary Island of La Palma that observes the very-high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sky in stereoscopic mode since 2009. MAGIC is distinguished by its low-energy threshold of approximately 50 GeV, which grants the system a unique potential in the study of distant extragalactic sources whose gamma-ray emission is significantly attenuated due to absorption by the extragalactic background light (EBL). The observation of non-thermal gamma rays in the GeV-TeV range from extragalactic sources is a characteristic signature of their relativistic nature and therefore fundamentally important for our understanding of the physics of these objects. Since the beginning of its stereo operation, MAGIC has observed a large number of active galactic nuclei (AGN) of different classes, including several blazars and distant quasars. In this paper we will review some of the most important results of these observations.

  13. Genetic correlations between field test results of Swedish Warmblood Riding Horses as 4-year-olds and lifetime performance results in dressage and show jumping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lena Wallin; Erling Strandberg; Jan Philipsson

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between traits of young sport horses (4 years old) evaluated in the Swedish Riding Horse Quality Test (RHQT) and later competition results in dressage and show jumping. The data comprised 3708 Warmblood horses born between 1968 and 1982 that had participated in the RHQT as 4-year-olds and 25?605 horses

  14. Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased by the observational technique?

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Observations of atmospheric gravity waves by radio interferometry: are results biased present a quantitative comparison between a large data base of medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves predictions. 1 Introduction Atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) are a neutral-air phenomenon, but most techniques

  15. First results from the Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, C.

    2014-07-01

    Comet ISON came fresh from the Oort Cloud as predicted, coming within 0.07 au of Mars, 0.24 au of Mercury, and 10^{6} km of the solar photospheric surface. It did not become the ''Comet of the Century'' in terms of its brightness in the Earth's night-time sky as predicted, but instead became one of the rare dynamically new Oort Cloud comets to graze the Sun's corona (these occur every few decades; the last one observed was C/Ikeya-Seki 1965). For an initially bright comet detected as far out as the orbit of Saturn in Sept 2011, the comet worried us all quite a bit with its flat-lining activity from 4 to 0.8 au (March to Oct 2013). It thus put on a somewhat disappointing showing at Mars in early October, but then defied predictions of its demise and a government shutdown, ramping up instead to become a beautiful early morning green ''lollipop'' as it passed Mercury in mid-November (Figure). ISON ultimately peaked at maximum Q_{gas} = 2 × 10^{30} mol/s of water [1] within the last few days before perihelion, then seemed to have almost no gas output the day of perihelion, 28 Nov 2013 [2] before spectacularly disrupting under the watchful eyes of the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft (Figure), after which its debris fan was tracked for days until it finally disappeared [3,4]. Over 19 NASA and ESA spacecraft ultimately pointed at the comet, with at least 14 reporting detections of it ranging from the X-rays through the infrared. More than 30 ground-based observatories observed ISON from at UV to radio wavelengths. Important findings concerning the comet's size, rotation state, dust to gas ratio, composition, and coma and tail structure were made during ISON'S apparition. Numerous observing groups produced evidence for a small and CO poor (but rich in solid carbon and CO_2) nucleus that was rapidly evolving. Throughout this time, parallels to the behavior of other dynamically new comets, like C/1973 E (Kohoutek), were readily apparent. In this talk I present an overview of the observational findings for ISON.

  16. Results of GPS Observations Across the Kenya Rift Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunja, W.; Kasahara, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kamamia, M.; Tanaka, H.; Miyazaki, K.; Suzuki, A.; Tanaka, K.

    2001-12-01

    Since Feb 1998, GPS measurements have been carried out across the Kenya Rift Valley for the purpose of studying crustal dynamics associated with continental rifting within the East African Rift System. A network comprising of seven stations was established and has been observed periodically for the last three years. Originally, two of the stations were intended to be on a continuously operating mode, while the rest would be occupied on a temporal basis, at least twice to three times per year. However due to unmitigated operational problems there are some large data gaps for the two continuously operating stations. Past geophysical methods have confirmed the East African Rift to be an active divergent boundary. In this study, we present results from the ongoing GPS measurements carried out to determine the current spreading rate across the Kenya Rift. Three main baselines, Malindi-Eldoret, Malindi-KISM and Eldoret-KISM and a combination of other shorter lines were analyzed using ionosphere free double differenced data. Our results indicate some significant length changes of between 2-10mm/yr aligned_@in an East-West direction in two of the baselines. Despite the intermittent data outages, the results obtained so far presents a good pointer to the current dynamics within the Kenya Rift System.

  17. Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

  18. Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    El-Baz, F.

    1978-01-01

    Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

  19. Plasma observations near Neptune - Initial results from Voyager 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. Belcher; H. S. Bridge; B. Coppi; G. S. Gordon Jr.; A. J. Lazarus; R. L. McNutt Jr.; F. Bagenal; O. Divers; A. Eviatar; K. W. Ogilvie; L. Villanueva; M. Zhang; E. C. Jr. Sittler; G. L. Siscoe; V. M. Vasyliunas

    1989-01-01

    The plasma science experiment on Voyager 2 made observations of the plasma environment in Neptune's magnetosphere and in the surrounding solar wind. Because of the large tilt of the magnetic dipole and fortuitous timing, Voyager entered Neptune's magnetosphere through the cusp region, the first cusp observations at an outer planet. Thus the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere observed

  20. Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable transfection results to dc electroporation

    E-print Network

    Lu, Chang

    Low-frequency ac electroporation shows strong frequency dependence and yields comparable in the frequency range of 10 kHz­1 MHz. Based on Schwan equation, it was thought that with low ac frequencies (10 24061, USA d School of Public Health, Nantong University, Nantong, 226019, PR China e Department

  1. Peripheral obstructions influence marmot vigilance: integrating observational and experimental results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter A. Bednekoff; Daniel T. Blumstein

    2009-01-01

    Animals generally allocate some time during foraging to detecting predators. We used a combination of observations and an experiment to examine how vegetation height and peripheral obstructions influence vigilance by foraging yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). First, we analyzed a large sample of observations of marmots foraging in nature. Marmots increased vigilance with vegetation height and reared on their hind legs

  2. A collaborative accountable care model in three practices showed promising early results on costs and quality of care.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Richard B; Sanderson, Mark I; Walters, Barbara A; Kennedy, Karen; Flores, Robert C; Muney, Alan M

    2012-11-01

    Cigna's Collaborative Accountable Care initiative provides financial incentives to physician groups and integrated delivery systems to improve the quality and efficiency of care for patients in commercial open-access benefit plans. Registered nurses who serve as care coordinators employed by participating practices are a central feature of the initiative. They use patient-specific reports and practice performance reports provided by Cigna to improve care coordination, identify and close care gaps, and address other opportunities for quality improvement. We report interim quality and cost results for three geographically and structurally diverse provider practices in Arizona, New Hampshire, and Texas. Although not statistically significant, these early results revealed favorable trends in total medical costs and quality of care, suggesting that a shared-savings accountable care model and collaborative support from the payer can enable practices to take meaningful steps toward full accountability for care quality and efficiency. PMID:23129667

  3. Comparison of COSMIC ionospheric measurements with ground-based observations and model predictions: Preliminary results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuhou Lei; Stig Syndergaard; Alan G. Burns; Stanley C. Solomon; Wenbin Wang; Zhen Zeng; Qian Wu; Ying-Hwa Kuo; John M. Holt; Shun-Rong Zhang; David L. Hysell; Chien H. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Electron densities retrieved from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) radio occultation (RO) measurements are compared with those measured by incoherent scatter radars (ISR) and ionosondes in this paper. These results show that electron density profiles retrieved from COSMIC RO data are in agreement with the ISR and ionosonde measurements. The ionospheric characteristics (N mF2 and

  4. Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

  5. Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashino, Yuji; Ishida, Akio; Kuroda, Yoshifumi

    2005-09-01

    Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50'N, 126°43'E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s-1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m, and there was no evidence of a steady northward current (the Mindanao Undercurrent) at the study location. Compared with the large average velocity, MC variability was low (standard deviation <0.2 m s-1 for all directions). All the observed interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the MC were of comparable amplitude. The MC was strong during boreal summers and during the onset of the 2002-03 El Niño. The core velocity of the MC at approximately 100 m was correlated with the sea level difference between Cebu, Philippines and Malakal, Palau.

  6. 2003: PUBLICATIONS WITH RESULTS FROM USERS' IRAM OBSERVATIONS

    E-print Network

    RadioAstronomie Millimétrique, Institut de (IRAM)

    OBSERVATIONS OF THE EDGE OF THE HORSEHEAD NEBULA A. Abergel, D. Teyssier, J.P. Bernard, F. Boulanger, A, E.D. Skillman, C.E. Woodward 2003, A&A 397, 87 958. THE CHEMISTRY OF COMPACT PLANETARY NEBULAE E. Fouqué 2003, A&A 411, 381 975. SHOCKED GAS LAYERS SURROUNDING THE WR NEBULA NGC2359 J.R. Rizzo, J. Martín

  7. Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Frey

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States

  8. Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.

    1983-09-01

    The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

  9. Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H.

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

  10. Results from the First Observing Season of PIQUE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, M. M.; Barkats, D.; Gundersen, J. O.; Staggs, S. T.; Winstein, B.

    2000-12-01

    The Princeton IQU Experiment (PIQUE) is a ground-based telescope designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Between 19 January 2000 and 2 April 2000, this telescope observed one of the Stokes parameters (Q) on the ring at ? = 89o from the roof of Jadwin Hall, Princeton, NJ. The telescope had a beam full-width-half-maximum of 0.24o and the detector was a single correlation polarimeter operating at 90 GHz. These observations have yielded a new limit on the polarization of the CMB in the multipole range 100 < l < 600. This work was supported by NIST precision measurement grant #60NANB8D0061 and by NSF grant #PHY9600015. Additional support was provided by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and the Guggenheim Foundation through their fellowships for STS and BW respectively.

  11. Initial Pioneer Venus magnetic field results - Dayside observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Slavin, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Pioneer Venus magnetometer observations in the sunlit ionosphere indicate that the ionosphere is dynamic and very responsive to external solar wind conditions. Bow shock location, ionosphere location, the strength of the magnetic field just outside the ionopause, and the field strength in the ionosphere are found to be variable, and the properties of flux ropes in the ionospheric magnetic field are considered. Data on magnetic energy density and on magnetic field strength are presented.

  12. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HILDA POPULATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [UCLA Astronomy, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the preliminary analysis of 1023 known asteroids in the Hilda region of the solar system observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The sizes of the Hildas observed range from {approx}3 to 200 km. We find no size-albedo dependency as reported by other projects. The albedos of our sample are low, with a weighted mean value of p{sub V} = 0.055 {+-} 0.018, for all sizes sampled by the NEOWISE survey. We observed a significant fraction of the objects in the two known collisional families in the Hilda population. It is found that the Hilda collisional family is brighter, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.061 {+-} 0.011, than the general population and dominated by D-type asteroids, while the Schubart collisional family is darker, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.039 {+-} 0.013. Using the reflected sunlight in the two shortest WISE bandpasses, we are able to derive a method for taxonomic classification of {approx}10% of the Hildas detected in the NEOWISE survey. For the Hildas with diameter larger than 30 km, there are 67{sup +7}{sub -15}% D-type asteroids and 26{sup +17}{sub -5%} C-/P-type asteroids (with the majority of these being P-types).

  13. Observations of structure in the interstellar polarization curve Preliminary results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavko, G. E.; Hayes, D. S.; Greenberg, J. M.; Hiltner, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    We have measured the wavelength dependence of the interstellar polarization curve with higher wavelength resolution than has generally been used before. Our data show structure which has been previously unknown, and which may have important implications with respect to the composition of the interstellar grains. It is similar in general form to structure predicted on the basis of a theoretical model designed by us to give a detailed match to the extinction structure.

  14. Recent SETI Results with Observations at the ATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, G. R.; Backus, P. R.; Kilsdonk, T. N.; Jordan, J. C.; Tarter, J. C.

    2010-04-01

    The Allen Telescope Array is open for business and the SETI Institute is carrying out a variety of searches for exo-intelligence. Production-level searches for narrowband signals is underway. Results from these and searches using unconventional algorithms are presented.

  15. Partial solar eclipse of January 4, 2011 above Kharkiv: Observation and simulations results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domnin, I. F.; Emelyanov, L. Ya.; Lyashenko, M. V.; Chernogor, L. F.

    2014-09-01

    Incoherent scatter radar observation results of the geospace response to the partial solar eclipse (SE) of January 4, 2011 (magnitude 0.78) above Kharkiv are described. The response to the SE was observed in variations in the electron concentration, electron and ion temperatures, and the vertical component of the plasma motion velocity in a wide altitude range (190-420 km). Parameters of thermal and dynamic processes in the ionosphere are theoretically calculated for the SE. It is shown that the SE resulted in significant changes in the dynamic and thermal conditions in geospace. The results show good agreement with results of an analysis of the geospace plasma responses to SEs occurring above Kharkiv in 1999-2008.

  16. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  17. A processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed.

  18. Results of Lunar Impact Observations During Geminid Meteor Shower Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, R. J.; Suggs, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are natural particles with origins from comets, asteroids, and planets from within the solar system. On average, 33 metric tons (73,000 lb) of meteoroids hit Earth everyday with velocities ranging between 20 and 72 km/s. However, the vast majority of these meteoroids disintegrate in the atmosphere and never make it to the ground. The Moon also encounters the same meteoroid flux, but has no atmosphere to stop them from striking the surface. At such speeds even a small meteoroid has incredible energy. A meteoroid with a mass of only 5 kg can excavate a crater over 9 m across, hurling 75 metric tons (165,000 lb) of lunar soil and rock on ballistic trajectories above the lunar surface. Meteoroids with particle sizes as small as 100 micrometer (1 Microgram) can do considerable damage to spacecraft in Earth's orbit and beyond. Impacts can damage thermal protection systems, radiators, windows, and pressurized containers. Secondary effects might include partial penetration or pitting, local deformation, and surface degradation that can cause a failure upon reentry. The speed, mass, density, and flux of meteoroids are important factors for design considerations and mitigation during operations. Lunar operations (unmanned and manned) are also adversely affected by the meteoroid flux. Ejecta from meteoroid impacts is also part of the lunar environment and must be characterized. Understanding meteoroid fluxes and the associated risk of meteoroids impacting spacecraft traveling in and beyond Earth's orbit is the objective of the Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). One of the MEO's programs is meteoroid impact monitoring of the Moon. The large collecting area of the night side of the lunar disk provides statistically significant counts of meteoroids that can provide useful information about the flux of meteoroids in the hundreds of grams to kilograms size range. This information is not only important for characterizing the lunar environment associated with larger lunar impactors, but also provides statistical data for verification and improving meteoroid prediction models. Current meteoroid models indicate that the Moon is struck by a sporadic meteoroid with a mass greater than 1 kg over 260 times per year. This number is very uncertain since observations for objects in this mass range are few. Factors of several times, higher or lower, are easily possible. Meteor showers are also present to varying degrees at certain times of the year. The Earth experiences meteor showers when encountering the debris left behind by comets, which is also the case with 2 the Moon. During such times, the rate of shower meteoroids can greatly exceed that of the sporadic background rate for larger meteoroids. Looking for meteor shower impacts on the Moon at about the same time as they occur on Earth will yield important data that can be fed into meteor shower forecasting models, which can then be used to predict times of greater meteoroid hazard on the Moon. The Geminids are one such meteor shower of interest. The Geminids are a major meteor shower that occur in December with a peak intensity occurring usually during the 13th and 14th of the month and appearing to come from a radiant in the constellation Gemini. The Geminids are interesting in that the parent body of the debris stream is an asteroid, which along with the Quadrantids, are the only major meteor showers not originating from a comet. The Geminids parent body, 3200 Phaethon, is about 5 km in diameter and has an orbit that has a 22deg inclination which intersects the main asteroid belt and has a perihelion less than half of Mercury's perihelion distance. Thus, its orbit crosses those of Mars, Earth, Venus, and Mercury. The Geminid debris stream is by far the most massive as compared to the others. When the Earth passes through the stream in mid-December, a peak intensity of approx. equal 120 meteors per hour can be seen. Because of the Geminids' relatively large intensity and unique origin, it is important to monitor and gain information

  19. Distributed Permafrost Observation Network in Western Alaska: the First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Marchenko, S. S.; Panda, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The area of Western Alaska including the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) is generally underrepresented in terms of permafrost thermal monitoring. Thus, the main objective of this study was to establish a permafrost monitoring network in Western Alaska in order to understand the spatial variability in permafrost thermal regime in the area and to have a baseline in order to detect future change. Present and future thawing of permafrost in the region will have a dramatic effect on the ecosystems and infrastructure because the permafrost here generally has a high ice content, as a result of preservation of old ground ice in these relatively cold regions even during the warmer time intervals of the Holocene. Over the summers of 2011 and 2012 a total of 26 automated monitoring stations were established to collect temperature data from the active layer and near-surface permafrost. While most of these stations were basic and only measured the temperature down to 1.5 m at 4 depths, three of the stations had higher vertical temperature resolution down to 3 m. The sites were selected using an ecotype (basic vegetation groups) map of very high resolution (30 m) that had been created for the area in 2009. We found the Upland Dwarf Birch-Tussock Shrub ecotype to be the coldest with a mean annual ground temperature at 1 meter (MAGT1.0) of -3.9 °C during the August 1st, 2012 to July 31st, 2013 measurement period. This is also the most widespread ecotype in the SNWR, covering approximately 28.4% by area. The next widespread ecotype in the SNWR is the Lowland and Upland Birch-Ericaceous Low Shrub. This ecotype had higher ground temperatures with an average MAGT1.0 of -2.4 °C during the same measurement period. We also found that within some ecotypes (White Spruce and Alder-Willow Shrub) the presence or absence of moss on the surface seems to indicate the presence or absence of near surface permafrost. In general, we found good agreement between ecotype classes and permafrost characteristics such as temperature, active layer thickness, and freeze back duration. Thus, we believe it might be possible to translate the ecotype map into a very high spatial resolution (30 m) permafrost map using our measurements. Such a map would be useful in decision making with respect to land use and understanding how the landscape might change under future climate scenarios.

  20. Sci Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Sci Show, an entertaining series of quirky YouTube videos, tackles topics ranging from â??How Do Polarized Sunglasses Workâ? to â??Strong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics.â? Most episodes are less than five minutes long, but they pack a wallop of handy science info. Anyone short on time but long on big questions will benefit from the series. Episodes will be helpful to teachers and parents looking to spark enthusiasm in young minds. Viewers may want to start with recent episodes like â??Todayâ??s Mass Extinction,â? and the â??Worldâ??s First See-Through Animalâ? and â??How Do Animals Change Color?â? before digging into the archives for gems like â??The Truth About Gingersâ? and â??The Science of Lying.â?

  1. Observations of zodiacal light from the Pioneer 10 Asteroid-Jupiter probe - Preliminary results.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, J. L.; Hanner, M. S.; Mann, H. M.; Hutchison, P. B.; Fimmel, R.

    1973-01-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter on the Pioneer 10 Asteroid-Jupiter probe is being used to measure starlight and zodiacal light during the cruise phase of the mission. The 2.5-cm-diam telescope is used with a 2.3 deg field of view to spin/scan the sky in the region between 10 and 151 deg from the direction of motion of the spacecraft. Orthogonal components of brightness are measured in two wavelength bands: blue (3900 to 5000 A) and red (5950 to 7200 A). The gegenschein was observed on Mar. 14, 1972, when the earth-sun-spacecraft angle was 3.4 deg and the spacecraft was 9.2 million km from the earth and 1.011 AU from the sun. The distribution of brightness relative to the antisolar point is similar to that obtained from ground-based observations. Taken together, these results show that the gegenschein is not associated with the earth.

  2. Researching of sea waves influence on a coastal line transformation (based on field observation results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A.; Kouznetsov, K.; Kurkin, A.; Shevchenko, G.

    2009-04-01

    The long duration registrations of bottom pressure, temperature and meteorological data took place in June - October 2007 on the shelf near 104th - 110th kilometer of interstate road Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Okha. Sediment transport and abrasion processes are observed in this place, it is a dangerous factor for road and railroad constructions, it can also be threat for some buildings of Vzmorie town. Distributed network of autonomous pressure gauges was installed for wave structure studying. Gauges were installed in tree lines with 100, 150 and 200 meters far from each other. Gathered data contains information about different wave's regimes under different weather conditions, it's allowed us to make analysis. Different data rows for different wave regimes were taken for analysis. Transformation of wave field along shoreline and opposite was observed. The results of observation are showed that disposition of waves was determined by swell waves with period 8-9 second. Wind waves were weaker than swell waves, conceivably because of big depths in the studied area. Much more interesting results were found in the infragravity waves range (0.5 - 5 min). For example, peaks with period above 150 and 75 seconds are presented in the spectral estimation of record from gauge 23. The same peaks were not observed in other gauges to the North and to the South from 23. However, low frequency peak was much stronger at the storm weather, but 75 seconds peak was stayed non-changed under the different weather conditions. For understanding mechanism of infra-gravitation waves generation group structure of waves were studied. Spectrum characteristics of different data rows for different wave regimes and also for their envelopes were provided. Results of this research allow us to consider that wave packets with common period 7 - 8 seconds make infra-gravitation waves with period above 5 minutes which forcing sediment transport processes. Satellite images of studied place were used in this research. Beach cusps were found cusps (periodically forms of shore line) on these images, the cusps length place in diapason from 500 to 615 meters. Calculation and results of modeling showed that this cusps was generated by standing edge waves. Calculating of edge waves parameters for obtained bathymetry showed that period of edge waves which generated cusps must be about 4-5 minute. This period agree closely with spectrum estimation of data rows. This work is partly supported by RFBR grant 09-05-00447_? and The President of Russian Federation grant for young scientists MD-3024.2008.5.

  3. PFISR observations of the nightside Region-2 electrodynamics during substorm growth and expansion phases: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, S.; Lyons, L. R.; Nicolls, M. J.; Heinselman, C. J.; Mende, S. B.

    2008-12-01

    The nightside Region-2 (R2) electrodynamics, including the Harang reversal, has been shown recently to be closely related with substorm dynamics. The newly available Poker Flat Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR) is able to measure the ionospheric convection, as well as electron density and some other important plasma parameters, and thus can provide some new aspects to this problem. In the past one and a half years, more than 60 runs have been conducted when PFISR was on the nightside. By taking advantage of the THEMIS ground based all-sky camera array, substorm events, for which good all-sky camera measurements are available during the runs, have been selected and categorized by the location of the radar at the time of onset relative to that of the auroral onset. Preliminary results show consistency with our previous SuperDARN observations, that is the convection flows at nightside change significantly at onset and the way they evolve highly depends on their location relative to that of substorm onset. The electron density profiles measured by PFISR enable us to study the characteristics of the substorm arc brightening and the associated field-aligned current system. Preliminary results show evidence that the onset arc may be Alfvénic. Other ground based instruments, such as magnetometers and SuperDARN, are also studied as complementary to PFISR. These observations provide a unique ionospheric perspective on substorm process and can contribute to an integral understanding of the substorm dynamics.

  4. Modeling upward brine migration through faults as a result of CO2 storage in the Northeast German Basin shows negligible salinization in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, M.; Tillner, E.; Kempka, T.; Nakaten, B.

    2012-12-01

    The geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations may cause salinization of shallower freshwater resources by upward flow of displaced brine from the storage formation into potable groundwater. In this regard, permeable faults or fractures can serve as potential leakage pathways for upward brine migration. The present study uses a regional-scale 3D model based on real structural data of a prospective CO2 storage site in Northeastern Germany to determine the impact of compartmentalization and fault permeability on upward brine migration as a result of pressure elevation by CO2 injection. To evaluate the degree of salinization in the shallower aquifers, different fault leakage scenarios were carried out using a newly developed workflow in which the model grid from the software package Petrel applied for pre-processing is transferred to the reservoir simulator TOUGH2-MP/ECO2N. A discrete fault description is achieved by using virtual elements. A static 3D geological model of the CO2 storage site with an a real size of 40 km x 40 km and a thickness of 766 m was implemented. Subsequently, large-scale numerical multi-phase multi-component (CO2, NaCl, H2O) flow simulations were carried out on a high performance computing system. The prospective storage site, located in the Northeast German Basin is part of an anticline structure characterized by a saline multi-layer aquifer system. The NE and SW boundaries of the study area are confined by the Fuerstenwalde Gubener and the Lausitzer Abbruch fault zones represented by four discrete faults in the model. Two formations of the Middle Bunter were chosen to assess brine migration through faults triggered by an annual injection rate of 1.7 Mt CO2 into the lowermost formation over a time span of 20 years. In addition to varying fault permeabilities, different boundary conditions were applied to evaluate the effects of reservoir compartmentalization. Simulation results show that the highest pressurization within the storage formation with a relative pressure increase of up to 150 % after 20 years of injection is caused by strong compartmentalization effects if closed boundaries and closed faults are assumed. The CO2 plume is considerably smaller compared to those that develop when laterally open boundaries are applied. Laterally open boundaries and highly permeable faults lead to the strongest pressure dissipation and cause the CO2 plume to come up almost 3 km closer to the fault. Closed model boundaries in the lower aquifers and four highly permeable faults (> 1,000 mD) lead to the highest salinities in the uppermost Stuttgart formation with an average salinity increase of 0.24 % (407 mg/l) after 20 years of injection. Less salinity changes in the uppermost aquifers are observed with closed boundaries in the lower aquifers and only one major fault open for brine flow. Here, also fault permeability, unexpectedly does not significantly influence salinization in the uppermost Stuttgart formation. Salinity increases by 0.04% (75 mg/l) for a fault permeability of 1,000 mD and by at least 0.06 % (96 mg/l) for a fault permeability of 10,000 mD and until the end of injection. Taking into account the modeling results shallow aquifer salinization is not expected to be of concern for the investigated study area in the Northeastern German Basin.

  5. He+ dominance in the plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods: 1. Observational results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, M. H.; Bailey, G. J.; Wilford, C. R.; Rodger, A. S.; Venkatraman, S.

    2002-04-01

    Observations made by the DMSP F10 satellite during the recovery phase from geomagnetic disturbances in June 1991 show regions of He+ dominance around 830 km altitude at 09:00 MLT. These regions are co-located with a trough in ionisation observed around 55° in the winter hemisphere. Plasma temperature and concentration observations made during the severe geomagnetic storm of 24 March 1991 are used as a case study to determine the effects of geomagnetic disturbances along the orbit of the F10 satellite. Previous explanations for He+ dominance in this trough region relate to the part of the respective flux tubes that is in darkness. Such conditions are not relevant for this study, since the whole of the respective flux tubes are sunlit. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the He+ dominance in the trough region. This mechanism is based on plasma transport and chemical reaction effects in the F-region and topside ionosphere, and on the time scales for such chemical reactions. Flux tubes previously depleted by geomagnetic storm effects refill during the recovery phase from the ionosphere as a result of pressure differences along the flux tubes. Following a geomagnetic disturbance, the He+ ion recovers quickly via the rapid photoionisation of neutral helium, in the F-region and the topside. The recovery of the O+ and H+ ions is less rapid. This is proposed as a result of the respective charge exchange reactions with neutral atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Preliminary model calculations support the proposed mechanism.

  6. Comparison of pellet acceleration model results to experimentally observed penetration depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szepesi, T.; Kálvin, S.; Kocsis, G.; Lang, P. T.; Senichenkov, I.; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2009-06-01

    Cryogenic hydrogen isotope fuelling pellets were observed to undergo strong radial acceleration in the confined plasma. The reason for pellet acceleration is believed to originate from drift effects: the ionised part of pellet cloud is affected by the grad-B drift, therefore, the cloud becomes polarised. The E × B drift then deforms the pellet cloud so that it can no longer follow the original flux bundle - this results in a less efficient shielding on the pellet's HFS region, where the subsequently enhanced ablation pushes the pellet towards LFS, like a rocket. In order to study this effect, a simple and a comprehensive ablation model was developed. Results from both models show quantitatively acceptable agreement with ASDEX-Upgrade experiments concerning trajectory curvature, corresponding to radial acceleration in the range of 10 4-10 7 m/s 2.

  7. Recent progress in ocean bottom seismic observation and new results of marine seismology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanao Shinohara; Toshihiko Kanazawa; Hajime Shiobara

    2011-01-01

    For past ten years, the technology for ocean bottom seismic observation has been greatly developed. As a result, various seismic observations have been carried out around Japan and new geophysical findings are obtained. For sea floor seismic observation, Long-Term Ocean Bottom Seismometer (LT-OBS) and Broad Band OBS (BB-OBS) were developed. As a result of long term observations, precise seismicity in

  8. Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N.T.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.

    2011-01-01

    The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE (McEwen et al.; JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright streamers (Thomas et al.; Icarus, 123, 536556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al.; JGR, 104, 90559068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. NuSTAR Results and Future Plans for Magnetar and Rotation-Powered Pulsar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, H.; Kaspi, V. M.; Archibald, R.; Bachetti, M.; Bhalerao, V.; Bellm, E. C.; Beloborodov, A. M.; Boggs, S. E.; Chakrabarty, D.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dufour, F.; Forster, K.; Gotthelf, B. W.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hascoet, R.; Kitaguchi, T.; Kouveliotou, Ch.; Madsen, K. K.; Mori, K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Rana, V. R.; Stern, D.; Tendulkar, S.; Tomsick, J. A.; Vogel, J. K.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing hard X-ray mission in orbit and operates in the 3-79 keV range. NuSTAR's sensitivity is roughly two orders of magnitude better than previous missions in this energy band thanks to its superb angular resolution. Since its launch in 2012 June, NuSTAR has performed excellently and observed many interesting sources including four magnetars, two rotation-powered pulsars and the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii. NuSTAR also discovered 3.76-s pulsations from the transient source SGR J1745-29 recently found by Swift very close to the Galactic center, clearly identifying the source as a transient magnetar. For magnetar 1E 1841-045, we show that the spectrum is well fit by an absorbed blackbody plus broken power-law model with a hard power-law photon index of approximately 1.3. This is consistent with previous results by INTEGRAL and RXTE. We also find an interesting double-peaked pulse profile in the 25-35 keV band. For AE Aquarii, we show that the spectrum can be described by a multi-temperature thermal model or a thermal plus non-thermal model; a multi-temperature thermal model without a non-thermal component cannot be ruled out. Furthermore, we do not see a spiky pulse profile in the hard X-ray band, as previously reported based on Suzaku observations. For other magnetars and rotation-powered pulsars observed with NuSTAR, data analysis results will be soon available.

  10. The Relevance of External Quality Assessment for Molecular Testing for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from Two Pilot Rounds Show Room for Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Tembuyser, Lien; Tack, Véronique; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Pauwels, Patrick; Miller, Keith; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kerr, Keith; Schuuring, Ed; Thunnissen, Erik; Dequeker, Elisabeth M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012–2013. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images. Results Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images. Conclusion There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing. PMID:25386659

  11. Transport Timescales in the Lowermost Stratosphere: Observations and Results from ECHAM5/MESSy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoor, P.; Fischer, H.; Joeckel, P.; Lelieveld, J.; Brenninkmeijer, C.; Gurk, C.; Hegglin, M. I.; Brunner, D.; Krebsbach, M.; Schiller, C.; Bruehl, C.; Steil, B.

    2006-12-01

    We present a comparison of high resolution in-situ measurements in the lowermost stratosphere over Europe and model results obtained with the new chemistry circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy. Model calculations were performed using T42 spectral resolution and 90 vertical levels from the surface up to 80 km providing a vertical resolution of about 600 m in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere. The model was nudged in the troposphere up to 200 hPa using operational ECMWF data. We compare in particular CO, CO2, N2O and O3 data with in-situ observations from SPURT between 2001 and 2003 with corresponding model data interpolated in time and space. Trace gas profiles and correlations of in-situ observations and modelled data show a remarkable agreement. To deduce transport time scales we compare probability density functions of trace gases in different layers relative to the dynamical tropopause and on N2O-isopleths. To extend the data to a global scale and investigate transport time scales we will use NMVOC data from CARIBIC and compare them with model derived data. The CO2 seasonal cycle and its propagation in the stratosphere provides further information on transport timescales from the tropopause to the lowermost stratosphere. The good agreement between the model and the SPURT observations allows to investigate transport timescales in the UTLS region on global scales.

  12. Anisotropy in the Hubble constant as observed in the HST Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project results

    E-print Network

    M. L. McClure; C. C. Dyer

    2007-03-21

    Based on general relativity, it can be argued that deviations from a uniform Hubble flow should be thought of as variations in the Universe's expansion velocity field, rather than being thought of as peculiar velocities with respect to a uniformly expanding space. The aim of this paper is to use the observed motions of galaxies to map out variations in the Universe's expansion, and more importantly, to investigate whether real variations in the Hubble expansion are detectable given the observational uncertainties. All-sky maps of the observed variation in the expansion are produced using measurements obtained along specific lines-of-sight and smearing them across the sky using a Gaussian profile. A map is produced for the final results of the HST Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project for the Hubble constant, a comparison map is produced from a set of essentially independent data, and Monte Carlo techniques are used to analyse the statistical significance of the variation in the maps. A statistically significant difference in expansion rate of 9 km/s/Mpc is found to occur across the sky. Comparing maps of the sky at different distances appears to indicate two distinct sets of extrema with even stronger statistically significant variations. Within our supercluster, variations tend to occur near the supergalactic plane, and beyond our supercluster, variations tend to occur away from the supergalactic plane. Comparison with bulk flow studies shows some concordance, yet also suggests the bulk flow studies may suffer confusion, failing to discern the influence of multiple perturbations.

  13. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm. I - Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects. II - Model results versus observations involving electrical aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helsdon, John H., Jr.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-01-01

    Model results and the observed cloud behavior are examined in terms of nonelectrical and electrical aspects of a thunderstorm. The characteristics of the two-dimensional, time-dependent atmospheric electricity model used to simulate the cloud observations of July 19, 1981 in Miles City, Montana are described. The interactions of the dynamics and microphysics of the cloud with the charge separation mechanisms are analyzed. It is observed that the model accurately represents many of the observed characteristics of the cloud; however, the cloud base height, maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground are not accurately modeled. It is found that the model adequately represents the electrical field structure of the cloud and the electrical field strengths.

  14. Results of MODIS Band-to-Band Registration Characterization Using On-Orbit Lunar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal,Amit

    2011-01-01

    Since launch, lunar observations have been made regularly by both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used for a number of sensor calibration and characterization related applications, including radiometric stability monitoring, spatial characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparison. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 individual detectors. They are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations to characterize its band-to-band registration (BBR). In addition to BBR, the approach developed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) can be used to characterize MODIS detector-to-detector registration (DDR). Long-term BBR results developed from this approach are presented and compared with that derived from a unique on-board calibrator (OBC). Results show that on-orbit changes of BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and this approach can be applied to other remote sensing instruments.

  15. 74 MHz-VLA-Observation of Coma Berenices with Subarcminute Resolution -- Observation, Data Reduction, and Preliminary Results

    E-print Network

    T. A. Ensslin; Kronberg; R. A. Perley; N. E. Kassim

    1999-06-28

    We report on an ongoing project to map a 15 degree x 15 degree region in Coma Berenices with the new 74 MHz receiver system of the VLA. The field is centered on the Coma cluster of galaxies. Coma Berenices has been observed in all VLA configurations, which allowed us to resolve several hundred point sources with 35 arcsecond resolution. We have successfully detected the diffuse emission from the Coma cluster radio halo, radio relic, and radio bridge. Difficulties and strategies of the observation and data reduction are discussed. Preliminary results are given.

  16. New Results from Space and Field Observations on the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent

    2002-01-01

    New space observations from the MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite and analysis of POLDER data flown on the ADEOS satellite, show in great details the spatial and seasonal variability of the global aerosol system. These spaceborne instruments distinguish fine aerosol from man-made regional pollution and biomass burning from mostly natural coarse dust and sea salt aerosol. E.g. fine regional pollution in and around the Indian sub-continent, Europe and North America; smoke from biomass burning in Southern Africa and Southern America; coarse dust from West Africa and mixed dust pollution and smoke from West and central Africa and East Asia. These regions were also studied extensively in focused field experiments and by the distributed AERONET network. The results generate the first climatologies of the aerosol system, are used to derive the aerosol radiative effects and to estimate the anthropogenic component. The measurements are also used to evaluate each other and constrain aerosol transport models.

  17. Preliminary results of V440 Per and ? UMi observations with the Poznan Spectroscopic Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagas, M.; Baranowski, R.; Bartczak, P.; Borczyk, W.; Dimitrow, W.; Kaminski, K.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Ratajczak, R.; Rozek, A.; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A.

    2009-03-01

    Presented herein are preliminary radial velocity results for two classical Cepheids: V440 Per and ? UMi (Polaris). Both stars have been observed with the Poznan Spectroscopic Telescope (PST), operational since Aug 2007 at the Borowiec Station of Pozna? Astronomical Observatory in Poland. Data obtained for V440 Per suggest the presence of a low-amplitude secondary mode of pulsations. Results of ? UMi observations confirm further pulsation amplitude growth, as observed during the last decades.

  18. Aerosol indirect effects in tropical shipping corridors: global modeling corroborates results from observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaas, J.; Peters, K.; Stier, P.; Grassl, H.

    2012-12-01

    We use data from simulations performed with the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM to challenge the proposition obtained from observations that shipping emissions do not have a significant effect on water clouds over tropical oceans (Peters et al. (2011), P11). For this purpose we sample the model data according to the approach presented in P11, i.e. an approach aimed at separating "clean" from "polluted" oceanic regions based on i) the location of main shipping routes and ii) wind direction. We use data from the model simulations presented in Peters et al. (2012) where we found the upper estimate of aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) from shipping emissions to be -0.32 ± 0.01 Wm-2, i.e. about half of the previous upper estimate but still of substantial magnitude compared to the most recent multi-model estimate of total AIEs (-0.7 ± 0.5 Wm-2, Quaas et al. (2009)). The model data is complemented by additional sensitivity experiments, including one in which a the shipping emissions are scaled by a factor of 10 (AIE: -1.39 Wm-2). Our analysis shows that the boundary layer aerosol population indeed shows substantial changes in across corridor direction for the experiments yielding the highest AIEs. These changes are manifested in both aerosol numbers and CCN concentrations. However, we find the resulting effect on cloud properties to be non-significant, i.e. across-corridor profiles of cloud properties are very similar among all simulations. These results thus confirm our findings from observations (P11) and give room for speculations regarding implications for climate. On the one hand, these results highlight the effectiveness of compensating mechanisms on micro- and macroscopic scales, buffering possible aerosol induced cloud changes in shallow clouds over tropical oceans. On the other hand, even higher global AIEs from shipping emissions cannot be excluded as even such substantial perturbations as -1.39 Wm-2 are not discernible when using a sampling approach lending itself to satellite observations.

  19. Results of Chandra X-ray Observations of the GPS quasar sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Siemiginowska; T. L. Aldcroft; J. Bechtold; M. Blazejowski; M. Elvis

    2003-01-01

    We observed 11 Giga-Hertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) sources with Chandra\\/ACIS-S. Here we present the results of our observations with emphasis on the X-ray spectral properties of the sample. We detect all 11 sources and find that they are powerful X-ray emitters, with X-ray luminosities in the range L(0.1-2keV) ˜ 1044}-10{47 ergs s-1. We discuss the observed spectral parameters and the

  20. Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager 15 June 2005. [1] We present an analysis of Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) experiment during Cassini's initial entry into Saturn's magnetosphere when

  1. Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

  2. Observational results of the Berliner Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer Veraenderliche Sterne e.V. /BAV/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, W.; Huebscher, J.; Mundry, E.

    Results of observations of variable stars derived from 10,000 individual evaluations are presented for the years 1978 and 1979. Included are 172 minima of 75 eclipsing binaries; 70 maxima of 17 RR Lyrae stars; 309 results on 93 Mira stars; 90 results on 19 long-period, semi-regular, irregular and RV Tauri stars; and 6 results on 5 eruptive variable stars.

  3. A brief description of observational results from the supersoft X-ray detector aboard Shenzhou-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, Heng-rong; Zhang, Nan; Yu, Min

    2003-10-01

    Observational results from the supersoft X-ray detector (SD) aboard the spacecraft Shenzhou-2 are briefly described. The resultspertain to cosmic ?-ray bursts solar x-ray bursts, high-energy charged particles and soft X-ray background radiation. The detector is a proportional counter with a polypropylene thin-film window of 50 mm diameter, it operates in the energy range 0.23-3.0keV covered by six energy channels. Two grades of time resolution are used: 40 ms for recording burst events and 520 ms when there is no triggering signal resulted from a burst event. Figures 1 and 2 show the light curves and energy spectra of two cosmic ?-ray bursts (starting time 2001 Jan 17, 09:37:25.21 UT and 2001 Mar 9, 12:33:55.692 UT), and Figures 3 and 4, the results on two solar X-ray burst (2001 Apr 6, 19:14:09.11 UT, and 2001 May 20, 06:02:12.58 UT). The detector records the ambient high-energy charged particles when there is no burst event and the shutter of the window is closed. 110 data sets of high-energy charged particles along the spacecraft orbit have been collected. As examples, the variations of the particle counting rate along the orbit are shown in Figs. 6a, 6b, 8e, 8f and 7. More than 10 events of particle precipitation induced by solar proton events have also been recorded, some of which are displayed in Figs.6c-6f and 7. Some of the data of soft X-ray background radiation shown in Fig. 8 were obtained when the shutter was open, and they are important for the data processing of the burst events.

  4. The Vela Pulsar: Results from the First Year of Fermi LAT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Dormody, M.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hobbs, G.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-04-01

    We report on analysis of timing and spectroscopy of the Vela pulsar using 11 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The intrinsic brightness of Vela at GeV energies combined with the angular resolution and sensitivity of the LAT allows us to make the most detailed study to date of the energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectra, using a LAT-derived timing model. The light curve consists of two peaks (P1 and P2) connected by bridge emission containing a third peak (P3). We have confirmed the strong decrease of the P1/P2 ratio with increasing energy seen with EGRET and previous Fermi LAT data, and observe that P1 disappears above 20 GeV. The increase with energy of the mean phase of the P3 component can be followed with much greater detail, showing that P3 and P2 are present up to the highest energies of pulsation. We find significant pulsed emission at phases outside the main profile, indicating that magnetospheric emission exists over 80% of the pulsar period. With increased high-energy counts the phase-averaged spectrum is seen to depart from a power law with simple exponential cutoff, and is better fit with a more gradual cutoff. The spectra in fixed-count phase bins are well fit with power laws with exponential cutoffs, revealing a strong and complex phase dependence of the cutoff energy, especially in the peaks. By combining these results with predictions of the outer magnetosphere models that map emission characteristics to phase, it will be possible to probe the particle acceleration and the structure of the pulsar magnetosphere with unprecedented detail.

  5. HgMn stars observed at CASLEO: preliminary results for HR4817

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintado, O. I.

    2008-04-01

    We present the preliminary results of a spectral analysis of the HgMn star HR4817. The abundance calculation is obtained by comparing observed with synthetic spectra. We compare the results with our previous analyses of the same star. The abundances are more accurate and we found elements we didn't find in our previous analyses.

  6. COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF SCM RESULTS AGAINST OBSERVATIONS , L. Donner2

    E-print Network

    COMPARISON AND EVALUATION OF SCM RESULTS AGAINST OBSERVATIONS H. Song1 , W. Lin1 , L. Donner2 , Y and quantify the influences of these uncertainties on the SCM results with a focus on cloud macrophysics sensitivity factors of different large-scale meteorological parameters, to drive ensemble SCM simulations

  7. A longitudinal observational study of Salmonella shedding patterns by commercial turkeys during rearing and fattening, showing limitations of some control measures.

    PubMed

    Morris, V K; Carrique-Mas, J J; Mueller-Doblies, D; Davies, R H; Wales, A D; Allen, V M

    2015-01-01

    1. The onset and progression of Salmonella infections was investigated in commercial turkey flocks from placement at 1 d old until slaughter in "brood and move" systems using a longitudinal observational approach based on faeces and environmental sampling with subsequent culture of Salmonella. 2. Persistent Salmonella Newport contamination was found within rearing houses and on their external concrete aprons after cleaning and disinfection between crops of heavily shedding young birds. 3. Salmonella shedding was often detected by 5 d of age and the frequency of positive samples peaked at 14-35 d. Thereafter Salmonella isolations declined, especially in the later (fattening) stages. Samples were still Salmonella-positive at low prevalence in half of the intensively sampled houses at slaughter age. 4. A number of management interventions to combat Salmonella infection of flocks, including sourcing policy, competitive exclusion cultures and cleaning and disinfection, were inadequate to prevent flock infection, although improved disinfection on one unit was associated with a delay in the onset of flock infection. PMID:25654335

  8. Preliminary Results of Polarization Observables T and F in the p-> (?-> ,?0) p Reaction from CLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao

    2015-04-01

    The theory which describes the interaction of quarks is Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), but how quarks are bound inside a nucleon is not yet well understood. Pion photoproduction experiments reveal important information about the nucleon excited states and the dynamics of the quarks within it and thus provide a useful tool in the study of QCD. Detailed information about this reaction can be obtained in experiments which utilize polarized photon beams and polarized targets. Pion photoproduction in the ?p -->?0 p reaction has been measured in the FROST experiment at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. In this experiment circularly polarized photons with energies up to 3 GeV impinged on a transversely polarized frozen-spin target. Final-state protons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer. Preliminary results of the polarization observables T and F have been extracted. The data generally agree with predictions of present partial wave analyses, but also show marked differences. The data will constrain further partial wave analyses and improve the extraction of proton resonance properties. This work is supported in parts by the U.S. National Science Foundation: NSF PHY-1205782.

  9. Comparison of space-based lidar observations (CALIOP) with regional model results over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegen, I.; Meier, J.; Wandinger, U.; Mattis, I.; Wolke, R.

    2012-12-01

    A regional transport model (COSMO-MUSCAT: Consortium for Small-scale Modeling - MultiScale Atmospheric Transport Model) is used for simulations of aerosol optical properties within Europe. Based on the simulated concentrations of specific aerosol types together with mass extinction efficiencies, vertical profiles of the extinction coefficients (EXTs) are calculated from the model results. Vertical profiles of backscatter coefficients (BSCs) are computed using a lidar ratio. In the model version used here marine and dust aerosol types are not computed. Model simulations are performed for two short time periods: 19-26 July 2006 and 16-26 February 2007. The summer period is characterized by low wind speeds and a persistent meteorological situation. This caused the accumulation of particles within the atmosphere. For this time period an average aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 0.19 is simulated, whereas due to particle removal by several precipitation events during the winter period the average AOD is lower (0.14). In this investigation space-based observations of vertical profiles of BSCs are used for model evaluation. CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) performs global aerosol profile measurements since April 2006 continuously. In addition to the BSC profiles information about the occurrence of particular aerosol types (smoke, polluted dust, clean continental, polluted continental, dust and clean marine) is available. Comparisons between observed and simulated BSC profiles for these two time periods show a relative model bias of -23%- -10% during summer and of -77%- -53% during winter between surface and 2 km altitude. Especially, during the winter period the bias is quite large caused in part by the tendency of the model to remove particles too efficiently due to wet deposition. Further, during 19-26 July 2006 Saharan dust was transported to Europe, which is not described by the model, and marine aerosol is only identified by CALIOP over sea surface. Eliminating BSC profiles where marine and dust aerosol types were detected by CALIOP improves the agreement between observed and simulated BSC profiles. A relative bias of -20% - -2% during summer and of -72% - -46% during winter is determined. The relatively large discrepancy during winter time can also be caused by the misinterpretation of the occurrence of marine aerosol. Marine aerosol was dominant during that time but CALIOP detects marine aerosol only over sea surface, whereas the transport of marine aerosol into continental regions is not considered. Additionally, differences regarding day- and night-time are found. In general comparisons between CALIOP and COSMO-MUSCAT lead to better results for night-time compared to day-time observations. This difference has also been found in comparisons of CALIOP BSC profiles with ground-based lidar profiles. The results point to the need to implement dust and marine aerosol type for characterizing aerosol distribution within the regional model for the European domain. Additionally, by using CALIOP data it is possible to analyze model ability to simulate the occurrence, the transport as well as the optical properties of specific aerosol types.

  10. Abundances of PAHs in the ISM: confronting observations with experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gredel, R.; Carpentier, Y.; Rouillé, G.; Steglich, M.; Huisken, F.; Henning, Th.

    2011-06-01

    Context. The identification of the carriers of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) is the longest standing problem in the study of the interstellar medium. Here we present recent UV laboratory spectra of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explore the potential of these molecules as carriers of the DIBs. Whereas, in the near IR range, the PAHs exhibit vibrational bands that are not molecule-specific, their electronic transitions occurring in the UV/vis provide characteristic fingerprints. The comparison of laboratory spectra calibrated in intensity with high signal-to-noise observational data in the UV enables us to establish new constraints on PAH abundances. Aims: From a detailed comparison of the gas-phase and Ne-matrix absorption spectra of anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, 2,3-benzofluorene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and hexabenzocoronene with new interstellar spectra, we aim to infer the abundance of these PAHs in the interstellar medium. Methods: We present spectra of PAHs measured at low temperature in the gas phase and in an Ne matrix, and present methods to derive absolute absorption cross sections for the matrix and gas phase spectra. We have obtained high signal to noise (S/N > 100) absorption spectra toward five lines of sight with reddenings of EB-V = 1-1.6 mag. The spectra cover the 3050-3850 Å wavelength region where the PAHs studied here show prominent absorption features. Results: From the observations, we infer upper limits in the fractional abundances of the PAHs studied here. Upper limits in the column densities of anthracene of 0.8-2.8 × 1012 cm-2 and of pyrene and 2,3-benzofluorene ranging from 2-8 × 1012 cm-2 are inferred. Upper limits in the column densities of benzo[ghi]perylene are 0.9-2.4 × 1013 and 1014 cm-2 for phenanthrene. The measurements indicate fractional abundances of anthracene, pyrene, and 2,3-benzofluorene of a few times 10-10. Upper limits in the fractional abundance of benzo[ghi]perylene of a few times 10-9 and of phenanthrene of few times 10-8 are inferred. Toward CPD -32°1734, we found near 3584 Å an absorption line of OH+, which was discovered in the interstellar medium only very recently. Conclusions: The fractional abundances of PAHs inferred here are up to two orders of magnitude lower than estimated total PAH abundances in the interstellar medium. This indicates that either neutral PAHs are not abundant in translucent molecular clouds or that a PAH population with a wide variety of molecules is present. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (079.C-0597(A)).

  11. The NIKA 2013-2014 observation campaigns: control of systematic effects and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, A.; Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J.-F.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

    2014-07-01

    The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) is a dual-band camera operating with frequency multiplexed arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) cooled to 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the intensity and polarisation of the sky at 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the improvements on the control of systematic effects and astrophysical results made during the last observation campaigns between 2012 and 2014.

  12. Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Wolff, M. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Lemmon, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13 acquired near the landing site. We find that summer ice-free spectra at the Phoenix landing site are approximated by scattering properties similar to Gusev Crater soils. Summer spectra have the strong water absorption at 3 ?m, indicating a low level of hydration or adsorption of water, an effect previously observed throughout the northern hemisphere. Patches of permanent water ice appear on the shadowed sides of Heimdal Crater and on the shadowed sides of large mountains to the northeast. These patches were monitored throughout the summer and did not appear to grow or shrink; however, the ice patches darken between Ls~119 and Ls~160, possibly due to the sublimation or sintering of fine-grained ices cold-trapped onto the ice deposits during the spring defrost period. Mobile patches of summertime ice were observed to follow the shadow of a crater wall on an ~85-m crater located ~6.5 km northeast of the landing site. Widespread surface ice was first observed at the Phoenix landing site during the night (3 a.m. Local True Solar Time [LTST]) at Ls~104, and water ice was first observed in the afternoon (3 p.m. LTST) at Ls~154. CRISM observations show the first afternoon water ice clouds at Ls~157. Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) images first show evidence of afternoon (1 p.m. LTST) water ice in the shadows of large rocks on operations sol 80 (Ls~112), but did not observe widespread afternoon ice during the mission, which ended at Ls~149.

  13. Results of the Analysis of Several Galactic Sources Observed by MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costado, M. T.; Delgado, C.; García López, R. J.

    One of the tasks carried out by the Astroparticle Physics Group of the IAC is the analysis of objects observed by the MAGIC telescope looking for very high energy gamma-ray emission. The main goal of these observations is to search for acceleration of cosmic rays sites and the identification of accelerated species. We have analyzed MAGIC data of five observed objects, and the results are presented here. These objects are: three Supernova Remnants (IC 443, W44, W66), the globular cluster M 13 and the region of star formation M 42. High energy ?-ray emission has been found in one of these objects.

  14. Evaluation of observation-driven evaporation algorithms: results of the WACMOS-ET project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, Diego G.; Jimenez, Carlos; Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew F.; Michel, Dominik; Hirschi, Martin; Seneviratne, Sonia I.; Jung, Martin; Wood, Eric F.; (Bob) Su, Z.; Timmermans, Joris; Chen, Xuelong; Fisher, Joshua B.; Mu, Quiaozen; Fernandez, Diego

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial evaporation (ET) links the continental water, energy and carbon cycles. Understanding the magnitude and variability of ET at the global scale is an essential step towards reducing uncertainties in our projections of climatic conditions and water availability for the future. However, the requirement of global observational data of ET can neither be satisfied with our sparse global in-situ networks, nor with the existing satellite sensors (which cannot measure evaporation directly from space). This situation has led to the recent rise of several algorithms dedicated to deriving ET fields from satellite data indirectly, based on the combination of ET-drivers that can be observed from space (e.g. radiation, temperature, phenological variability, water content, etc.). These algorithms can either be based on physics (e.g. Priestley and Taylor or Penman-Monteith approaches) or be purely statistical (e.g., machine learning). However, and despite the efforts from different initiatives like GEWEX LandFlux (Jimenez et al., 2011; Mueller et al., 2013), the uncertainties inherent in the resulting global ET datasets remain largely unexplored, partly due to a lack of inter-product consistency in forcing data. In response to this need, the ESA WACMOS-ET project started in 2012 with the main objectives of (a) developing a Reference Input Data Set to derive and validate ET estimates, and (b) performing a cross-comparison, error characterization and validation exercise of a group of selected ET algorithms driven by this Reference Input Data Set and by in-situ forcing data. The algorithms tested are SEBS (Su et al., 2002), the Penman- Monteith approach from MODIS (Mu et al., 2011), the Priestley and Taylor JPL model (Fisher et al., 2008), the MPI-MTE model (Jung et al., 2010) and GLEAM (Miralles et al., 2011). In this presentation we will show the first results from the ESA WACMOS-ET project. The performance of the different algorithms at multiple spatial and temporal scales for the 2005-2007 reference period will be disclosed. The skill of these algorithms to close the water balance over the continents will be assessed by comparisons to runoff data. The consistency in forcing data will allow to (a) evaluate the skill of these five algorithms in producing ET over particular ecosystems, (b) facilitate the attribution of the observed differences to either algorithms or driving data, and (c) set up a solid scientific basis for the development of global long-term benchmark ET products. Project progress can be followed on our website http://wacmoset.estellus.eu. REFERENCES Fisher, J. B., Tu, K.P., and Baldocchi, D.D. Global estimates of the land-atmosphere water flux based on monthly AVHRR and ISLSCP-II data, validated at 16 FLUXNET sites. Remote Sens. Environ. 112, 901-919, 2008. Jiménez, C. et al. Global intercomparison of 12 land surface heat flux estimates. J. Geophys. Res. 116, D02102, 2011. Jung, M. et al. Recent decline in the global land evapotranspiration trend due to limited moisture supply. Nature 467, 951-954, 2010. Miralles, D.G. et al. Global land-surface evaporation estimated from satellite-based observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 15, 453-469, 2011. Mu, Q., Zhao, M. & Running, S.W. Improvements to a MODIS global terrestrial evapotranspiration algorithm. Remote Sens. Environ. 115, 1781-1800, 2011. Mueller, B. et al. Benchmark products for land evapotranspiration: LandFlux-EVAL multi- dataset synthesis. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 17, 3707-3720, 2013. Su, Z. The Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) for estimation of turbulent heat fluxes. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 6, 85-99, 2002.

  15. The 2014 March 29 X-Flare: Results from the Best-Ever Flare Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, P.

    2014-12-01

    An X1 class solar flare occurred on 2014 March 29, peaking at 17:48 UT, and producing a filament eruption and EUV wave. It was observed as part of a Sac Peak-IRIS-Hinode observing program, delivering unprecedented coverage at all layers of the solar atmosphere. This talk will summarize new results obtained for this flare, with a particular focus on spectroscopic results obtained from IRIS and Hinode/EIS. Topics include mass flows prior and during the filament eruption, dynamics of 10 MK plasma during the flare rise phase, and the evolution of the flare ribbons

  16. Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2013 Observing Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Dalba, P. A.; Hicks, M.; Chu, D.; O'Neill, A.; Chesley, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in slightly less than two years, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Seasonal transport of volatiles should occur on Pluto, and this transport should be detectable through changes in its rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modeled. Giving the steady increase observed in Pluto's atmospheric pressure over the past two decades, associated sublimation of frost from the surface has likely occurred, as predicted by volatile transport models. Rotational light curves of Pluto through time have been created for static frost models based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. These models, which account for changes in viewing geometry, have been compared with observed light curves obtained between 1950 and 2013. No evidence for transport was evident prior to 2000. Observations from 2002 (Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128) and 2007-2008 (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460) suggest changes in the frost pattern on Pluto's surface. New observations of Pluto's light curve from the 2013 season from Table Mountain Observatory show no evidence for the large transport of volatiles on Pluto's surface. Our data are the first measurement of a large opposition surge on Pluto similar to that seen on other icy bodies. Both Buie et al. (2010) and our observations from the 2012-2013 seasons show that Pluto is becoming more red in color. This observation makes sense if nitrogen is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

  17. timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser-geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion

    E-print Network

    Kim, Duck O.

    drug/alcohol-related crisis resulted or someone got killed? not rely upon the opinion of your employee"). The result is cover-up and protection of the drug user. Most people understand enabling as protecting am sure there are em- ployees in our work or- ganization using illicit substances. I understand

  18. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  19. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  20. New results from old data - Lunar photometric anomalies in Wildey and Pohn's 1962 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The anomalies in V magnitude in photometric data on lunar features obtained by Wildey and Pohn (1964) are analyzed in the three colors of their UBV observations. The data have been averaged with respect to phase and graphed, and deviations from the average have been tabulated for each color. Sigma equal to or exceeding 3 for V, B-V, and U-B measures are shown on table. These variations are found to be similar to the much larger body of observations of lunar transient phenomena (LTP). The data for 25 features with 25 observations each show that in terms of individual measures the frequency of anomalies is approximately 3%, similar to frequencies obtained in other analyses of LTP data.

  1. Recent results and current challenges in observations of magnetic fields in Ap/Bp stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    We present a survey of observational data of magnetic fields and physical parameters of CP stars acquired over the past 10-15 years. Analyses of new high-precision observations allows us to detect subtle phenomena such as pulsations through light and radial velocity changes, and any vertical stratification of chemical elements in their atmospheres. We derive a relationship between weak anomalies in continuum energy distribution and magnetic-field strength. The relationship was used successfully to search for new magnetic CP stars. An analysis of the profiles of the Stokes Q and U parameters in their spectral lines shows that the observations can be modelled by assuming a field of complex topology. We describe the special case of HD 37776, which cannot be represented by a form of low-order multipoles.

  2. Estimating a model of dynamic activity generation based on one-day observations: Method and results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo A. Arentze; Dick Ettema; Harry J. P. Timmermans

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we develop and explore an approach to estimate dynamic models of activity generation on one-day travel-diary data. Dynamic models predict multi-day activity patterns of individuals taking into account dynamic needs as well as day-varying preferences and time-budgets. We formulate an ordered-logit model of dynamic activity-agenda-formation decisions and show how one-day observation probabilities can be derived from the

  3. THE NEW GLOBAL HIGHRESOLUTION H NETWORK: FIRST OBSERVATIONS AND FIRST RESULTS M. Steinegger1

    E-print Network

    1 THE NEW GLOBAL HIGH­RESOLUTION H NETWORK: FIRST OBSERVATIONS AND FIRST RESULTS M. Steinegger1 Astronomical Observatory, P. O. Box 110, Kunming 650011, P. R. China ABSTRACT A new global network for high weather predictions. Key words: solar activity; space weather; full­disk ob- servations; flare monitoring

  4. 7 On the Flow Through Bering Strait: A Synthesis of Model1 Results and Observations2

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jinlun

    1 7 On the Flow Through Bering Strait: A Synthesis of Model1 Results and Observations2 J. Clement Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States9 10 KEYWORDS: Bering Strait, ocean modeling, Pacific water, numerical modeling11 Abstract12 Bering Strait is the only ocean

  5. Early results on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierks, H.; Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.; Küppers, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Hviid, S.; Mottola, S.; Osiris Team

    2014-07-01

    67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is the target comet of the ESA Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014. After 36 months of deep space hibernation, Rosetta is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 au from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with wavelength range 250--1000 nm and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240--720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20×2.22 deg) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of the surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has much lower spatial resolution but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35×12.11 deg). This allows observations of the 3-dimensional flow field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide long-term monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other hand, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning in March 2014, OSIRIS took first images of comet 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when 67P was in the same orbital arc as it will be in March/April 2014, show that the comet was already active at 4.3 au inbound and that its behavior was repetitive during the last three apparitions (Snodgrass et al. 2013). We therefore expect to detect early comet activity by OSIRIS in March/April 2014. At this time, Rosetta will be at about 4 million kilometers from the comet and 67P will still be unresolved. We present results about the early cometary activity based on OSIRIS images. Orange-filter images (central wavelength 649.2 nm) will be used to determine the dust environment of 67P, since this wavelength range is quite free from gas emission lines. Moreover, a series of lightcurves will be taken to compare with the existing ones and look for possible changes in the rotational period due to its last perihelion passage.

  6. First results from the BARREL 2013 campaign; Observations of precipitation on drift echo timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, A.; Millan, R. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Throughout the BARREL 2013 campaign and during previous balloon missions, electron precipitation has been observed to occur on many different time scales, from millisecond microbursts to minute-long ULF time scales to tens of minutes. These longer period oscillations have not been previously examined in detail because satellite data were unavailable to identify the nature of the longer period oscillations. In this study we will present BARREL observations of precipitation along with observations of drift echoes in electron data from the MagEIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes. One example occurred on January 26, 2013 where precipitation showed an approximate 20 -minute modulation and drift echoes were observed at similar timescales in the approximately 230-350 keV electrons by MagEIS. The precipitation also shows temporal structure at faster timescales including approximately 90-second ULF modulation and millisecond microbursts. This suggest that the drift echoes may determine when there are particles available to be precipitated by some other mechanism such as scattering by VLF waves.

  7. Observe an animation showing how geysers erupt

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dave McFarland

    This Flash animation uses a cross section to explain geyser eruption. As groundwater enters fractured bedrock, it is heated by nearby magma but is prevented from boiling by the pressure of overlying water. Eventually, the water becomes superheated and is forced upward, pushing water to the surface. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points.

  8. Results of Prospective Cohort Study on Symptomatic Cerebrovascular Occlusive Disease Showing Mild Hemodynamic Compromise [Japanese Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass Trial (JET)-2 Study].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroharu; Miyamoto, Susumu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Iihara, Koji; Takahashi, Jun C; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Inoue, Tooru; Mori, Etsuro; Ogawa, Akira

    2015-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the true threshold of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) for subsequent ischemic stroke without extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in patients with hemodynamic ischemia due to symptomatic major cerebral arterial occlusive diseases. Patients were categorized based on rest CBF and CVR into four subgroups as follows: Group A, 80% < CBF < 90% and CVR < 10%; Group B, CBF < 80% and 10% < CVR < 20%; Group C, 80% < CBF < 90% and 10% < CVR < 20%; and Group D, CBF < 90% and 20% < CVR < 30%. Patients were followed up for 2 years under best medical treatment by the stroke neurologists. Primary and secondary end points were defined as all adverse events and ipsilateral stroke recurrence respectively. A total of 132 patients were enrolled. All adverse events were observed in 9 patients (3.5%/year) and ipsilateral stroke recurrence was observed only in 2 patients (0.8%/year). There was no significant difference among the four subgroups in terms of the rate of both primary and secondary end points. Compared with the medical arm of the Japanese EC-IC bypass trial (JET) study including patients with CBF < 80% and CVR < 10% as a historical control, the incidence of ipsilateral stroke recurrence was significantly lower in the present study. Patients with symptomatic major cerebral arterial occlusive diseases and mild hemodynamic compromise have a good prognosis under medical treatment. EC-IC bypass surgery is unlikely to benefit patients with CBF > 80% or CVR > 10%. PMID:26041628

  9. A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

    1987-05-01

    A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

  10. Map Showing Earthquake Shaking and Tsunami Hazard in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as a Result of an M8.0 Earthquake on the Lesser Antilles Megathrust

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Earthquake shaking (onland) and tsunami (ocean) hazard in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as a result of anM8.0 earthquake on the Lesser Antilles megathrust adjacent to Guadeloupe. Colors onland represent scenario earthquake shaking intensities calculated in USGS ShakeMap software (Wald et al. 20...

  11. Continued Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2014 Observing Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hicks, Michael D.; Dalba, Paul A.; Chu, Devin S.; O'Neill, Ariel; Hillier, John K.; Banholzer, Sophianna

    2014-11-01

    With its high eccentricity and obliquity, Pluto should exhibit seasonal volatile transport on its surface. This transport should be detectable through changes in its historical rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modelled. Observations of Pluto’s light curve between 1950 and 1999 suggest a stable albedo pattern. Starting in the early part of this millennium, both new Hubble Space Telescope maps and light curve measurements obtained at JPL’s Table Mountain Observatory show evidence of small changes in Pluto’s distribution of surface albedo (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460.; Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128). Supporting possible surface volatile transport is the doubling of Pluto’s atmospheric pressure over the past two decades (Young et al., 2013, Ap. J. 766, L22). With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in July 2015, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Rotational light curves of Pluto have been created in two recent epochs: 2007-2008, and 2012-2014. Both light curves show a smaller amplitude than that expected for a static frost model based on albedo maps from the earliest HST images (Stern et al. 1997, Astron. J. 113, 827). Observations of both Buie et al. (2010) and our own between 2007 and 2014 show that Pluto is becoming redder. This observation makes sense if nitrogen frost is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

  13. Photometry of Variable Stars from Dome A, Antarctica: Results from the 2010 Observing Season

    E-print Network

    Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Lifan; Ashley, Michael C B; Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Lawrence, Jon S; Liu, Qiang; Luong-Van, Daniel; Pennypacker, Carl R; Shang, Zhaohui; Storey, John W V; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; York, Donald G; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi; Zhu, Zonghong

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a season of observations with the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR), obtained over 183 days of the 2010 Antarctic winter. We carried out high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 20,000 stars with i<15.3 mag located in a 23 square-degree region centered on the south celestial pole. We identified 188 variable stars, including 67 new objects relative to our 2008 observations, thanks to broader synoptic coverage, a deeper magnitude limit and a larger field of view. We used the photometric data set to derive site statistics from Dome A. Based on two years of observations, we find that extinction due to clouds at this site is less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag during 45% and 75% of the dark time, respectively.

  14. Results from two years of superconducting observations at the Hsinchu (HS) station, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, C.; Kao, R.; Cheng, C. C.; Huang, J. F.; Lee, C. W.; Sato, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Hsinchu (HS) superconducting gravimeter (SG, serial No. T48) station is a newly established site in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP). Simultaneous observations of T48, three FG5 absolute gravimeters and GPS at four stations are studied. GPS shows few mm/year of horizontal and vertical motions around HS. The calibration factor and drifting rate of T48 are -75.944±0.070 ?gal/V and 0.597±0.705 ?gal/year. Both the SG and absolute gravity records contain a trend of about 2 ?gal/year. The ocean tide gravity effects (OTGEs) were estimated from NAO.99b, FES2004 and CSR4.0, and their amplitudes agree with the SG observations at the sub-?gal level, but their phases differ from the observations up to 10°. The Newtonian effect of ocean tide contributes 20% to the total OTGE at HS, and it is larger at islands in the Taiwan Strait. The inelastic body tide model of DDW is more consistent with the SG observations than the elastic model. Modeled gravity-atmosphere admittances based on an exponential distribution of air mass explain well the observed admittances. The average gravity-atmosphere admittance during typhoons is 30% larger than that in a non-typhoon time. A list of co-seismic gravity changes from T48 caused by earthquakes over 2006-2007 is given for potential studies of fault parameters. The modeled effects of atmospheric pressure, ground water, soil moisture, and polar motion explain the FG5 observed gravity trend to 0.50 ?gal/year. Seasonally, the groundwater-induced gravity change contributes the most to the SG residual gravity, but its phase leads the latter by 63 days.

  15. REFIR/BB initial observations in the water vapour rotational band: Results from a field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Grieco, G.; Leone, L.; Restieri, R.; Serio, C.; Bianchini, G.; Palchetti, L.; Pellegrini, M.; Cuomo, V.; Masiello, G.; Pavese, G.

    2007-02-01

    There is a growing interest in the far infrared spectral region 17 50 ?m as a remote sensing tool in atmospheric sciences, since this portion of the spectrum contains the characteristic molecular rotational band for water vapour. Much of the Earth energy lost to space is radiated through this spectral region. The Radiation Explorer in the Far InfraRed Breadboard (REFIR/BB) spectrometer was born because of the quest to make observations in the far infrared. REFIR/BB is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a sampling resolution of 0.5 cm-1 and it was tested for the first time in the field to check its reliability and radiometric performance. The field campaign was held at Toppo di Castelgrande (40° 49? N, 15° 27? E, 1258 m a. s. l.), a mountain site in South Italy. The spectral and radiometric performance of the instrument and initial observations are shown in this paper. Comparisons to both (1) BOMEM MR100 Fourier Transform spectrometer observations and (2) line-by-line radiative transfer calculations for selected clear sky are presented and discussed. These comparisons (1) show a very nice agreement between radiance measured by REFIR/BB and by BOMEM MR100 and (2) demonstrate that REFIR/BB accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the water vapour rotational band.

  16. MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

  17. Results of observations of the Eta Aquarid and Orionid meteor showers in 1980-1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajduk, A.

    1987-01-01

    The main characteristics of meteor showers associated with Comet Halley were derived from the most recent radar observations carried out at the Ondrejov Astronomical Observatory during the periods of May 1 to 10 and October 15 to 30. The activity variations, the positions of activity maxima, the size distribution of particles, the particle flux variation within the stream and other characteristics were determined and compared with other results.

  18. A brief description of observational results from the supersoft X-ray detector aboard Shenzhou-2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heng-Rong Hang; Nan Zhang; Min Yu

    2003-01-01

    Observational results from the supersoft X-ray detector (SD) aboard the spacecraft Shenzhou-2 are briefly described. The resultspertain to cosmic ?-ray bursts solar x-ray bursts, high-energy charged particles and soft X-ray background radiation. The detector is a proportional counter with a polypropylene thin-film window of 50 mm diameter, it operates in the energy range 0.23–3.0keV covered by six energy channels. Two

  19. Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

  20. Third-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2012, 60 lakes in northern Alaska have been instrumented under the auspices of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten observation nodes along two latitudinal transects extending from the Arctic Ocean inland some 200 km to the Brooks Range foothills. At each node, a meteorological station is deployed, and six representative lakes of differing area and depth are instrumented and sampled at different intensity levels to collect basic field measurements. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and depth are deployed through the ice in each lake, ice and snow thickness recorded, and water samples are collected. Data are downloaded, lakes re-sampled, and bathymetric surveys are conducted in August. In 2014, the snow cover on inland lakes was thinner than in previous years but thicker on lakes located near the coast. Lake ice was generally thinner near the coast, but the difference diminished inland. Winters (Oct-March) have been progressively warmer over the 3-year period, which partially explains the thinner lake ice that formed in 2013-14. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. These regional lake and meteorological data sets, used in conjunction with satellite imagery, supports the wind-driven lake circulation model for the origin of thermokarst lakes. Results of biogeochemical analyses of lake waters generally show notably higher concentrations of cations/anions, chromophoric dissolved organic matter, and chlorophyll-a during April as compared with August. Dissolved methane concentrations are also much higher under ice than in open water during summer, although all lakes are a source of atmospheric methane. Interviews with indigenous elders in Anaktuvuk Pass indicate that mountain lakes are drying up. During the 2014 breakup period, 350 entrants participated in the 2nd Annual Toolik Lake Ice Classic including elementary school children, the general public, and international researchers. Ice off occurred on 23 June, and 11 people correctly guessed this day. All field data is archived at A-CADIS, and further information is at www.arcticlakes.org.

  1. Blending Model Results With Observations in the SBC/SMB Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Ohashi, K.

    2002-12-01

    The 1993-1999 Santa Barbara ­V Santa Maria Basin (SBC/SMB) circulation study, conducted by the Center for Coastal Study of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, represents a major research effort towards designing a coastal ocean observing system (COOS). During the 6-year period, at any time there were always about a dozen current meter and temperature moorings maintained in the study area. The moored measurements have continuous spatial and temporal coverage and are most trustworthy (compared to, say, shipboard observation and remote sensing), and thus are ideally suited as the ­\\x9Dabsolute­Ý reference in describing ocean states. On the other hand, the mooring observations are point measurements, and it is unlikely that the moored data alone will ever have adequate spatial resolution in a COOS. There is need for complementary data. Coastal circulation models could play a crucial role in filling this gap. Examples of using coastal ocean models in the SBC/SMB study to obtain ocean state estimation will be presented. A coastal ocean model typically is driven by the atmospheric forcing (which must be specified over the entire model domain) and the mass and momentum exchange across ­\\x9Dopen­Ý boundaries. In this study the atmospheric forcing is derived from a dozen met buoy observations plus numerous coastal weather stations collected during the SBC/SMB study. The need to specify open-ocean water mass exchange is circumvented by assimilating the moored temperature data. The possibility of impinging open-ocean eddy, however, is ruled out. Two research issues are addressed. First, an attempt is made to blend the model results with moored velocity observations. Second, the impact of data assimilation on model results is examined. These two issues, one dealing with the initialization in ocean forecasts and nowcasts and the other with the sampling design, are fundamental to any COOS. The comprehensive SBC/SMB study affords an excellent opportunity for a COOS feasibility study.

  2. Results from multi-frequency observations of PSR B0826-34

    E-print Network

    B. Bhattacharyya; Y. Gupta; J. Gil

    2007-11-04

    We report new results obtained from multi-frequency observations of PSR B0826-34 with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). (1) We find no evidence of weak emission during the typical long null state of this pulsar, simultaneously at 303 and 610 MHz, as well as individually at 157, 325, 610 and 1060 MHz at separate epochs. Our limit of non-detection is at ~ 1% or better of the peak of the active state profile, and corresponds to ~ 2 mJy at 610 MHz. (2) Significant correlation in the total intensity of the individual pulses between 303 and 610 MHz is reported from the simultaneous dual frequency observations, which is indicative of the broadband nature of the emission. We also report correlation between total energy in the main pulse and inter-pulse region from the high sensitivity single frequency observations at 610 and 1060 MHz. (3) Though we find the drift pattern to be very similar in the simultaneous 303 and 610 MHz data, we observe that the drift band separation (P2) evolves significantly between these two frequencies, and in a manner opposite to the average profile evolution. In addition, we confirm the dependence of P2 on pulse longitude at 303 MHz and find indications for the same at 610 MHz. We also present results for subpulse width at different frequencies, and as well as a function of pulse longitude. (4) As a natural out-come of the simultaneous dual frequency observations, we obtain an accurate DM value, equal to 52.2(6) pc/cc, for this pulsar.

  3. Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse. PMID:24877053

  4. The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

    2014-07-01

    The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

  5. Improving Wind Energy Forecasts through Assimilation of New Meteorological Observations: Results from the Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, L.; Wilczak, J. M.; Djalalova, I. V.; Olson, J. B.; Benjamin, S.; Finley, C. A.; Freedman, J. M.; DiMego, G.; Carley, J. R.; Orwig, K.; Cline, J.; Marquis, M.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a joint research project with NOAA and private industry to improve wind energy forecasts, called the Wind Forecast Improvement Project. The key elements of this program have been 1) a one-year deployment of extensive meteorological observing systems in two regions with significant wind energy production, from August 2011-September 2012; 2) assimilation of these observations into the hourly-updated NOAA Rapid Refresh (RAP), run nationwide each hour at 13 km resolution; and 3) evaluation of the benefits of these improved wind forecasts on electrical utility operations, especially for ramp-events in the 0-6 h forecast time-frame. The special observation data sets assimilated are concentrated over the two selected regions of the U.S. and include: 12 wind profiling radars, 12 sodars, 185 instrumented tall towers (40-200m tall), and 400 nacelle anemometers. In this presentation we will describe results from data denial experiments that have been run for limited periods within the WFIP project. The goal of the data denial experiments is to quantitatively document the precise impact that assimilation of the special WFIP data had on model accuracy, by comparing simulations from identical models run with and without the new data. Standard statistical measures show a significant improvement from the assimilation of the new data, and metrics for wind ramp events (including magnitude and phase of the ramps) show an even larger impact of the observations.

  6. Magnetic reconnection signatures in the solar atmosphere: results from multi-wavelength observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Romano, P.

    In the solar atmosphere magnetic reconnection is invoked as the main mechanism causing very energetic events (1028 - 1032 erg), like flares and coronal mass ejections, as well as other less energetic phenomena, like microflares, X-ray jets and chromospheric surges. In the last decade, thanks to high spatial resolution, multi-wavelength observations carried out by both ground-based telescopes (THEMIS, SST, VTT, DST) and space-born satellites (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, HINODE), it has been possible to study these phenomena and several signatures of the occurrence of magnetic reconnection have been singled out. In this paper, we describe some results obtained from the analysis of multi-wavelength observations carried out in the last years, with special emphasis on those events that were characterized by plasma outflows from the reconnection site. The events here discussed are relevant to some active regions observed on the Sun, characterized by the interaction of different bundles of magnetic flux tubes, as a consequence of phenomena of emergence of new magnetic flux from the subphotospheric layers and/or of cancellation of magnetic fragments. We report on these phenomena in order to give a contribution to the possibility to find a similarity with jets observed in AGNs.

  7. Lung cancer detection with digital chest tomosynthesis: first round results from the SOS observational study

    PubMed Central

    Viti, Andrea; Tavella, Chiara; Priotto, Roberto; Ghirardo, Donatella; Grosso, Maurizio; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective Baseline results of the Studio OSservazionale (SOS), observational study, a single-arm observational study of digital chest tomosynthesis for lung cancer detection in an at-risk population demonstrated a detection rate of lung cancer comparable to that of studies that used low dose CT scan (LDCT). We present the results of the first round. Methods Totally 1,703 out of 1,843 (92%) subjects who had a baseline digital chest tomosynthesis underwent a first round reevaluation after 1 year. Results At first round chest digital tomosynthesis, 13 (0.7%) subjects had an indeterminate nodule larger than 5 mm and underwent low-dose CT scan for nodule confirmation. PET/CT study was obtained in 10 (0.5%) subjects and 2 subjects had a low-dose CT follow up. Surgery, either video-assisted thoracoscopic or open surgery for indeterminate pulmonary nodules was performed in 10 (0.2%) subjects. A lung cancer was diagnosed and resected in five patients. The lung cancer detection rate at first round was 0.3% (5/1,703). Conclusions The detection rate of lung cancer at first round for tomosynthesis is comparable to rates reported for CT. In addition, results of first round digital chest tomosynthesis confirm chest tomosynthesis as a possible first-line lung cancer-screening tool. PMID:25992366

  8. Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher temperatures in small shallow lakes and more southern latitudes. Most lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with short periods of thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. Over the ice-free season, the majority of the available energy from net radiation goes into evaporation, followed by sensible heat flux and warming of bottom sediments. Thermal bands of MODIS and Landsat imagery were fused using a spatio-temporal cokriging method to generate daily surface temperature estimates at Landsat spatial resolution. The close correspondence between satellite-derived and in situ measured near-surface lake temperature suggests that this approach yields viable results. Biogeochemical and inorganic geochemical constituents measured include dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4, and N2O), inorganic N, DON and DOC, alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, major ions, and CDOM. The greatest difference in the dissolved CH4:CO2 ratio in summer was longitudinal, with several lakes in western Alaskan Arctic exhibiting CH4 concentrations hundreds of times more supersaturated than air. Stable isotope analyses of CH4 (?13C and ?2H) show that several of these lakes have natural gas methane sources. Methane concentrations under ice (April) were several thousand times higher than in open-water conditions (August). Data collected during this 4-year project are archived at A-CADIS.

  9. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; de Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M ?). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H? images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  10. Mineral and nitrogen balance study - Results of metabolic observations on Skylab II 28-day orbital mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whedon, G. D.; Lutwak, L.; Reid, J.; Rambaut, P.; Whittle, M.; Smith, M.; Leach, C.

    1975-01-01

    The prediction that various stresses of flight, particularly weightlessness, would bring about significant derangements in the metabolism of the musculoskeletal system has been based on various balance-study observations of long-term immobilized or inactive bed rest. The three astronauts of Skylab II consumed a planned dietary intake of major metabolic elements in mixed foods and beverages and provided virtually complete collections of excreta for 31 days preflight, 28 days inflight, and 17 days postflight. Analyses showed that, in varying degree among the crewmen, urinary calcium increased gradually during flight in a pattern similar to that observed in bed-rest studies. Fecal calcium excretion did not change significantly, but calcium balance, owing to the urinary calcium rise, became either negative or less positive than in preflight measurement. Increased excretion and negative nitrogen and phosphorus balances inflight indicated appreciable loss of muscle tissue in all three crewmen. Significant losses also occurred inflight in potassium, sodium, and magnesium. Based on the similarity in pattern and degree between these observations of calcium, phosphorus, and nitrogen loss, musculoskeletal integrity would not be threatened in space flights of up to at least 3 months. However, if similar changes occur in the planed Skylab flights for considerably more than 28 days, concern for capable musculoskeletal function should be serious for flights of very many months' duration.

  11. Mapping Department of Defense laboratory results to Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC).

    PubMed

    Lau, Lee Min; Banning, Pam D; Monson, Kent; Knight, Elva; Wilson, Pat S; Shakib, Shaun C

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has used a common application, Composite Health Care System (CHCS), throughout all DoD facilities. However, the master files used to encode patient data in CHCS are not identical across DoD facilities. The encoded data is thus not interoperable from one DoD facility to another. To enable data interoperability in the next-generation system, CHCS II, and for the DoD to exchange laboratory results with external organizations such as the Veterans Administration (VA), the disparate master file codes for laboratory results are mapped to Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) wherever possible. This paper presents some findings from our experience mapping DoD laboratory results to LOINC. PMID:16779076

  12. GPS Signal Surface Reflections and Signal Propagation In The Troposphere: First Results From Champ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyerle, G.; Hocke, K.; Pavelyev, A.; Marquardt, C.; Reigber, Ch.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

    Within the first year following the activation of the GPS radio occultation experiment aboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite more than 30,000 occultation events have been observed. Radio holographic analyses of 3783 occulta- tion events observed between 14 May and 10 June 2001 reveal that in about 20­30% the received signal contains contributions from components reflected at Earth's sur- face. This percentage number increases to about 70­80% at high latitudes. At low latitudes inhomogeneities in the refractivity field caused by the distribution of water vapor frequently lead to multipath propagation of the direct ray in the lower tropo- sphere. On the basis of geometrical ray tracing and multiple phase screen simulations charac- teristic frequency shifts in the radio holograms' power spectral densities are analyzed quantitatively. By correlating these frequency shifts with ground-level refractivity the events can be separated in three categories. First, the frequency shift depends almost linearly on reflection point elevation following about 0.22 km Hz-1. Second, within the subset of zero-elevation reflections an approximate correlation with specific hu- midity at ground-level is found. Thereby, specific humidities at the ground are de- rived on the basis of the GPS phase and amplitude observations, precise orbit data and ECMWF dry refractivities. The results are consistent with corresponding ECMWF values of specific humidity. Finally, in about 1.4% of the zero-elevation events the ob- served frequency shifts are inconsistent with the linear relationship between ground- level refractivity and the observed frequency shift. Comparisons with results from multiple phase screen simulations suggest that in these cases signatures caused by diffraction effects of layered structures in the refractivity field are present.

  13. ULF foreshock under radial IMF: THEMIS observations and global kinetic simulation Vlasiator results compared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmroth, Minna; Rami, Vainio; Archer, Martin; Hietala, Heli; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    For decades, a certain type of ultra low frequency waves with a period of about 30 seconds have been observed in the Earth's quasi-parallel foreshock. These waves, with a wavelength of about an Earth radius, are compressive and propagate with an average angle of 20 degrees with respect of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The latter property has caused trouble to scientists as the growth rate for the instability causing the waves is maximized along the magnetic field. So far, these waves have been characterized by single or multi-spacecraft methods and 2-dimensional hybrid-PIC simulations, which have not fully reproduced the wave properties. Vlasiator is a newly developed, global hybrid-Vlasov simulation, which solves the six-dimensional phase space utilising the Vlasov equation for protons, while electrons are a charge-neutralising fluid. The outcome of the simulation is a global reproduction of ion-scale physics in a holistic manner where the generation of physical features can be followed in time and their consequences can be quantitatively characterised. Vlasiator produces the ion distribution functions and the related kinetic physics in unprecedented detail, in the global scale magnetospheric scale with a resolution of a couple of hundred kilometres in the ordinary space and 20 km/s in the velocity space. We run Vlasiator under a radial IMF in five dimensions consisting of the three-dimensional velocity space embedded in the ecliptic plane. We observe the generation of the 30-second ULF waves, and characterize their evolution and physical properties in time. We compare the results both to THEMIS observations and to the quasi-linear theory. We find that Vlasiator reproduces the foreshock ULF waves in all reported observational aspects, i.e., they are of the observed size in wavelength and period, they are compressive and propagate obliquely to the IMF. In particular, we discuss the issues related to the long-standing question of oblique propagation.

  14. Hi-C Observations of Penumbral Bright Dots: Comparison with the IRIS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alpert, S. E.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Savage, S. L.; Winebarger, A. R.

    2014-01-01

    We observed bright dots (BDs) in a sunspot penumbra by using data acquired by the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C). The sizes of these BDs are on the order of 1 arcsecond (1') and are therefore hard to identify using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's (AIA) 0.6' pixel -1 resolution. These BDs become readily apparent with Hi-C's 0.1' pixel -1 resolution. Tian et al. (2014) found penumbral BDs in the transition region (TR) by using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). However, only a few of their dots could be associated with any enhanced brightness in AIA channels. In this work, we examine the characteristics of the penumbral BDs observed by Hi-C in a sunspot penumbra, including their sizes, lifetimes, speeds, and intensity. We also attempt to relate these BDs to the IRIS BDs. There are fewer Hi-C BDs in the penumbra than seen by IRIS, though different sunspots were studied and Hi-C had a short observation time. We use 193 A Hi-C data from July 11, 2012 which observed from 18:52:00 UT{18:56:00 UT and supplement it with data from AIA's 193 A passband to see the complete lifetime of the dots that were born before and/or lasted longer than Hi-C's 5-minute observation period. We use additional AIA passbands and compare the light curves of the BDs at different temperatures to test whether the Hi-C BDs are TR BDs. We find that most Hi-C BDs show clear movement, and of those that do, they move in a radial direction, toward or away from the sunspot umbra, sometimes doing both. BDs interact with other BDs, combining to fade away or brighten. The BDs that do not interact with other BDs tend to move less and last longer. We examine the properties of the Hi-C BDs and compare them with the IRIS BDs. Our BDs are similar to the exceptional values of the IRIS BDs: they move slower on average and their sizes and lifetimes are on the higher end of the distributions of IRIS BDs. We infer that our penumbral BDs are some of the larger BDs observed by IRIS.

  15. In-situ observations of young contrails - overview and selected results from the CONCERT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Jurkat, T.; Schäuble, D.; Schlager, H.; Petzold, A.; Gayet, J.-F.; Krämer, M.; Schneider, J.; Borrmann, S.; Schmale, J.; Jessberger, P.; Hamburger, T.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Gourbeyre, C.; Meyer, J.; Kübbeler, M.; Frey, W.; Eichler, H.; Butler, T.; Lawrence, M. G.; Holzäpfel, F.; Arnold, F.; Wendisch, M.; Döpelheuer, A.; Gottschaldt, K.; Baumann, R.; Zöger, M.; Sölch, I.; Rautenhaus, M.; Dörnbrack, A.

    2010-05-01

    Lineshaped contrails were detected with the research aircraft Falcon during the CONCERT - CONtrail and Cirrus ExpeRimenT - campaign in October/November 2008. Thereby the Falcon was equipped with a set of instruments to measure particle properties such as the particle size distribution, shape, extinction, chemical composition as well as trace gas concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2), reactive nitrogen and halogen species (NO, NOy, HNO3, HONO, HCl), ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). During 12 mission flights over Western Europe numerous contrails and cirrus clouds were probed at altitudes between 8.5 and 11.6 km and temperatures above 213 K. 22 contrails from 11 different aircraft were observed near and below ice saturation. The observed NO mixing ratios, ice crystal and soot number densities are compared to a process based contrail model. Further we investigate in detail the contrail from a CRJ-2 aircraft detected on 19 November 2008 in 10.1 km altitude. The contrail with an age of 1 to 2 min had average ice crystal concentrations of 128 cm-3 in the size range 0.4observation of particles with diameters larger than 100 ?m in the contrail suggests that natural cirrus particles were entrained in the contrail. We further investigate oxidation reactions in the CRJ-2 engine and the contrail. The observed average HONO/NO (HONO/NOy) ratios of 0.037 (0.024) are in the range of previous measurements in the gaseous exhaust. With HONO/NO ratio we can derive a lower limit of the conversion efficiency (?S) of fuel sulfur into H2SO4 of 2.9%. In addition to individual contrails and aircraft plumes, regional stratospheric NO enhancements were detected in the lowest stratosphere. Simulations show that aviation NO emissions could have contributed by more than 40% to the observed NO levels. Besides contrails, also cirrus clouds and a volcanic aerosol layer were measured during the CONCERT campaign. The observations serve to investigate the chemical processing of trace gases on contrails and and help to better quantify the climate impact from contrails.

  16. The results of penicillin G Administration of chronic unrestrained cats: electrographic and behavioral observations.

    PubMed

    Rodin, E; Kitano, H; Nagao, B; Rodin, M

    1977-04-01

    Intramuscular administration of penicillin G was carried out in a series of 27 chronic cat preparations. In addition to the EEG, the high frequency components of cerebral electrical activity were also recorded from cortical and deep structures. Videotape recordings using split-screen technique allowed correlations of the animal's clinical state with the EEG. The results showed that 'spike-wave' type activity occurred earliest in the cortex. The discharges were also best formed in cortical and thalamic structures. The other deep structures showed characteristic bursting, but not of the 'spikewave' type variety. The cerebellum showed also early participation. Clinical expressivity of the bursts depended upon the state of alertness of the animal, the height of the spike components and the extent of depth participation. The high frequency recordings revealed characteristic alternation of decrease and increase in activity mostly in cortical structures and to a lesser extent in thalamus. Pontine and medullary reticular formation areas showed usually no changes in the high frequency records during the bursts. When major seizures were induced, they were always of focal onset rather than of the primary generalized type as one sees with pentylenetetrazol. Different cortical or deep structures served as the initiating site in different animals. It was concluded that systemic penicillin adminstration does not lead to a truly primary generalized form of epilepsy, but produces its effects by multifocal activation of various cerebral structures, with cortex and cerebullum usually showing earliest involvement. PMID:66135

  17. Depression and Oxidative Stress: Results From a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Palta, Priya; Samuel, Laura J.; Miller, Edgar R.; Szanton, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis that quantitatively tests and summarizes the hypothesis that depression results in elevated oxidative stress and lower antioxidant levels. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of studies that reported an association between depression and oxidative stress and/or antioxidant status markers. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1980 through December 2012. A random-effects model, weighted by inverse variance, was performed to pool standard deviation (Cohen’s d) effect size estimates across studies for oxidative stress and antioxidant status measures, separately. Results Twenty-three studies with 4980 participants were included in the meta-analysis. Depression was most commonly measured using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. A Cohen’s d effect size of 0.55 (95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.63) was found for the association between depression and oxidative stress, indicating a roughly 0.55 of 1-standard-deviation increase in oxidative stress among individuals with depression compared with those without depression. The results of the studies displayed significant heterogeneity (I2 = 80.0%, p < .001). A statistically significant effect was also observed for the association between depression and antioxidant status markers (Cohen’s d = ?0.24, 95% confidence interval = ?0.33 to ?0.15). Conclusions This meta-analysis observed an association between depression and oxidative stress and antioxidant status across many different studies. Differences in measures of depression and markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status markers could account for the observed heterogeneity. These findings suggest that well-established associations between depression and poor heath outcomes may be mediated by high oxidative stress. PMID:24336428

  18. MHD Model Results of Solar Wind Plasma Interaction with Mars and Comparison with MAVEN Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y. J.; Russell, C. T.; Nagy, A. F.; Toth, G.; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    The crustal remnant field on Mars rotates constantly with the planet, varying the magnetic field configuration interacting with the solar wind. It has been found that ion loss rates slowly vary with the subsolar longitude, anticorrelating with the intensity of the dayside crustal field source, with some time delay, using a time-dependent multispecies MHD model. In this study, we investigate in detail how plasma properties are influenced locally by the crustal field and its rotation. Model results will be compared in detail with plasma observations from MAVEN.

  19. Using ARM observations to evaluate NWP results of radiation and cloud fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.; Liu, Y.; O’Connor, E. J.; Hogan, R. J.; Betts, A. K.

    2010-03-29

    This poster will present the results from: (1) Evaluating NWP model performances in simulating surface cloud radiative forcing measured by effective cloud albedo and total cloud fraction by comparing three major reanalysis datasets (ERAInterim, NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis and NCEP/DOE Reanalysis) against decade-long ARM observations; (2) Examining the relationships between the model biases of the cloud properties and those of nearsurface relative humidity and temperature; (3) Evaluating NWP model performances in simulating vertical profiles of cloud fraction; and, (4) Evaluating NWP model skill scores of predicting cloud fraction.

  20. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter: An Overview of Early Results and Plans for Further Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, R. W.; Graf, J. E.; Smrekar, S.; Keating, G. M.; Malin, M.; McCleese, D. J.; McEwen, A. S.; Murchie, S. L.; Phillips, R. J.; Seu, R.; Zuber, M. T.

    2006-12-01

    Launched August 12, 2005, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) entered Mars orbit on March 10, 2006 and finished its aerobraking phase on August 30, 2006. Accelerometer measurements taken during each of nearly 420 aeropasses provided data collection for the first of the eight scientific investigations selected by NASA for MRO. Prior to solar conjunction, MRO deployed the SHARAD radar antenna and opened the cover to the CRISM imaging spectrometer telescope, thereby completing all instrument deployment activities. All instruments were powered on and a series of observations were taken over a week-long check-out period. During solar conjunction itself (in October), the two atmospheric monitoring instruments, MARCI and MCS, continued to observe. MRO then began its nominal Primary Science Phase on November 8. At the time of the AGU meeting, MRO will have completed the first 2 of the 55 two-week planning cycles that will span slightly more than one Mars year of primary science observations. This presentation will give an overview of early results from MRO, with more detailed presentations to follow for selected investigations, and provide a preview of upcoming activities. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate; the work reported here was done as part of the MRO Project under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children

    PubMed Central

    Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

  2. Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  3. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

  4. Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

  5. Recent Observational Results of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Sayanagi, K.; Kuno, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the tough, and major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. The 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes are the most recent significant earthquakes along the trough. Therefore, the 50-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes are estimated at 80-90% by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government. It is, therefore, necessary to start monitoring crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes where in the ocean area. We developed a new system composed of the precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques for monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. We had installed seven seafloor benchmarks for acoustic ranging at the Suruga-Nankai Trough region between 2002 and 2004. The water depths at the benchmarks are about 800 to 2000 m. We installed a new seafloor benchmark at the eastern margin of the Kumano Basin on June 23, 2008. Three seafloor benchmarks had been aligned perpendicular to the trough axis. In contrast, the new benchmark was installed eastward relative to the pre-installed benchmarks, and we can monitor lateral variations in crustal deformation at the region. We started the repeated measurements at four benchmarkes (two at the Kumano Basin named KMN and KMS, and the other two at the Suruga Bay named SNW and SNE) in 2005. The number of times we have measured are seven, eleven, three and nine times at KMN, KMS, SNW and SNE, respectively. Recent results of the repeated measurements show the following horizontal velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate: 6.4 cm/yr, N86W at KMN; 5.3 cm/yr, N71W at KMS; 3.3 cm/yr, N57W at SNE. The errors of the horizontal velocities are 1-3 cm/yr. Unfortunately, we have not detected any velocity at SNW benchmark because of the insufficient number of measurements as of August 2008. The orientations of the horizontal velocities is almost consistent to those derived from the on-land dense GPS observation network, GEONET of Geographical Survey Institute, Japan. Temporal and spatial variations in sound speed are major source of error in the benchmark positioning. Now we are developing other system with plural sea-surface transducers for positioning sea-bottom benchmarkes with acoustic tomography method to reduce the error caused by the sound speed variations. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the captain and crews of R/Vs "Hokuto," Tokai University and "Asama," Mie Prefecture Fisheries Research Institute, Japan. This study has been promoted by "Research Revolution 2002" and "DONET project" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  6. DETERMINING INCLINATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VIA THEIR NARROW-LINE REGION KINEMATICS. I. OBSERVATIONAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Schmitt, H. R., E-mail: fischer@chara.gsu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk.

  7. Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; De Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 Stellar Mass). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H(alpha) images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

  8. Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from preseismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael

    2013-08-01

    We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.

  9. The Evolution of Stellar Coronae: Initial Results from a ROSAT PSPC Observation of IC 2391

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patten, Brian M.; Simon, Theodore

    1993-01-01

    A 23 ks ROSAT PSPC image of the young star cluster, IC 2391, reveals 76 soft x-ray sources with L(sub x)(0.2-2.0 keV) greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s in the direction of the cluster center. Nineteen of these sources are associated with known cluster members. We find that x-ray emission from the IC 2391 B stars deviates widely from the L(sub x)/L(sub bol) = 10(exp -7) relation based on Einstein observations of O and early B stars. Instead, we observe a wide range in L(sub x) with an order of magnitude spread at any given mass and no apparent dependence on spectral type. A comparison of the spread of L(sub x) as a function of B-V for low-mass stars between IC 2391 and the much older Hyades cluster shows that despite the factor of approx. 10 difference in their ages, these two clusters exhibit very similar dispersions in levels of stellar activity. We conclude that the low-mass stars in IC 2391 have arrived on the ZAMS with a wide range of coronal activity levels, from very strong to very weak, and that existing empirical activity-age scaling laws therefore cannot be valid.

  10. Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL

    E-print Network

    S. Schanne

    2006-06-22

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented.

  11. Comparison of EMAC model results to satellite observations in the winter 2008/09 within the HEPPA-II intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versick, S.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; Stiller, G.; von Clarmann, T.; Kirner, O.

    2012-04-01

    The High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) initiative compares several satellite observations to results of different atmospheric models. In the current intercomparison the focus is on indirect effects due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) after the Major Stratospheric Warming during the winter 2008/09. After this event large amounts of NOx are transported downwards from the thermosphere into the mesosphere, despite low geomagnetic activity during this winter and therefore low thermospheric production of NOx. In the HEPPA-II study we focus on the assessment of the EPP source, vertical coupling and on composition changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere due to indirect EPP effects. In our presentation we will show mid-atmospheric composition changes in the model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) within the HEPPA-II intercomparison. Besides NOx we will show results for other NOy family members, some dynamical tracers and the meteorological conditions in EMAC. We performed a EMAC simulation with prescribed observed NOx vmr from MIPAS at the upper model boundary. Additionally we performed a model run without prescribed NOx to distinguish between indirect effects due to EPP and other atmospheric effects.

  12. Results of the Baikal experiment on observations of macroscopic nonlocal correlations in reverse time

    E-print Network

    S. M. Korotaev; V. O. Serdyuk; E. O. Kiktenko; N. M. Budnev; J. V. Gorohov

    2015-05-04

    Although the general theory macroscopic quantum entanglement of is still in its infancy, consideration of the matter in the framework of action-at-a distance electrodynamics predicts for the random dissipative processes observability of the advanced nonlocal correlations. These correlations were really revealed in our previous experiments with some large-scale heliogeophysical processes as the source ones and the lab detectors as the probe ones. Recently a new experiment has been performing on the base of Baikal Deep Water Neutrino Observatory. The thick water layer is an excellent shield against any local impacts on the detectors. The first annual series 2012/2013 has demonstrated that detector signals respond to the heliogeophysical processes and causal connection of the signals directed downwards: from the Earth surface to the Baikal floor. But this nonlocal connection proved to be in reverse time. In addition advanced nonlocal correlation of the detector signal with the regional source-process: the random component of hydrological activity in the upper layer was revealed and the possibility of its forecast on nonlocal correlations was demonstrated. But the strongest macroscopic nonlocal correlations are observed at extremely low frequencies, that is at periods of several months. Therefore the above results should be verified in a longer experiment. We verify them by data of the second annual series 2013/2014 of the Baikal experiment. All the results have been confirmed, although some quantitative parameters of correlations and time reversal causal links turned out different due to nonstationarity of the source-processes. A new result is displaying of the advanced response of nonlocal correlation detector to the earthquake. This opens up the prospect of the earthquake forecast on the new physical principle, although further confirmation in the next events is certainly needed.

  13. Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2014-05-01

    During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are available. Therefore it would be very useful to get more laboratory data and especially from Tran et al (2013), Mahjoub et al. (2012) and Imanaka et al. (2012) samples in these spectral regions since their refractive indexes match observational and theoretical data in other spectral ranges. This presentation will critically summarize these recent results and present detailled constraints on the optical constants Titan's aerosols. In addition, specific lacks of data will be highlighted as well as some possible investigations to be carried out to fill these gaps. References: Cable, M. L., et al., 2012. Titan Tholins: Simulating Titan Organic Chemistry in the Cassini-Huygens Era. Chemical Reviews. 112, 1882-1909. Imanaka, H., et al., 2012. Optical constants of Titan tholins at mid-infrared wavelengths (2.5-25 µm) and the possible chemical nature of Titan's haze particles. Icarus. 218, 247-261. Khare, B. N., et al., 1984. Optical-Constants of Organic Tholins Produced in a Simulated Titanian Atmosphere - from Soft-X-Ray to Microwave-Frequencies. Icarus. 60, 127-137. Kim, S. J., Courtin, R., 2013. Spectral characteristics of the Titanian haze at 1-5 micron from Cassini/VIMS solar occultation data. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 557, L6. Mahjoub, A., et al., 2012. Influence of methane concentration on the optical indices of Titan's aerosols analogues. Icarus. 221, 670-677. Raulin, F., et al., 2012. Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393. Sagan, C., Khare, B. N., 1979. Tholins - Organic-Chemistry of Inter-Stellar Grains and Gas. Nature. 277, 102-107. Tran, B. N., et al., 2003. Simulation of Titan haze formation using a photochemical flow reactor - The optical constants of the polymer. Icarus. 165, 379-390. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  14. Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Helmut H; Kieser, Meinhard

    2007-09-01

    Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each condition. Physicians and parents were asked for a global assessment of efficacy and tolerability of the respective treatments at the end of therapy. A total of 309 children were treated (hamamelis n = 231; dexpanthenol n = 78). The treatment groups were comparable regarding demographic data and baseline total scores of signs and symptoms. In all three diagnosis groups, the efficacy of hamamelis and dexpanthenol was shown by a statistically significant and clinically relevant decrease of total scores from baseline to endpoint (p < 0.0001 for each group, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Overall, the results for the hamamelis and the dexpanthenol groups were similar. Descriptive advantages for the hamamelis group were observed for a number of parameters and diagnosis groups. Both treatments were well tolerated. Ratings of the tolerability of hamamelis were "excellent" or "good" in 99.1% (physicians) and 98.2% (parents) of cases, respectively. The corresponding ratings for dexpanthenol were 97.4 and 92.3%. In conclusion, hamamelis ointment is an effective and safe treatment for certain skin disorders in children up to the age of 11 years. The observed effects are similar to dexpanthenol. PMID:17177071

  15. Early Results from the First Year of Observations by the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Sara M.; ABS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument, which began observation in February of 2012, is a crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5100 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile. The primary scientific goal of ABS is to measure the B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from multipole moments of about l=50 to l=500, a range that includes the primordial B-mode peak. Unlike most current polarization experiments, ABS features a cryogenic telescope and a warm half-wave plate used to modulate the polarization of the incoming light. The ABS focal plane array consists of 240 pixels designed for observation at 150 GHz by the TRUCE collaboration. Each pixel has its own individual, single-moded feedhorn and contains two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers sensitive to orthogonal polarizations. The detectors are read out using time domain multiplexing so that the thermal loading of the readout electronics does not heat the focal plane. I will present early results from the first year of ABS data.

  16. Observations of Scorpius X-1 with IUE - Ultraviolet results from a multiwavelength campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrtilek, S. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Penninx, W.; Verbunt, F.; Hertz, P.

    1991-01-01

    IUE UV results are presented for the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Models that predict UV continuum emission from the X-ray-heated surface from the companion star and from an X-ray illuminated accretion disk are adjusted for parameters intrinsic to Sco X-1, and fitted to the data. X-ray heating is found to be the dominant source of UV emission; the mass-accretion rate increases monotonically along the 'Z-shaped' curve in an X-ray color-color diagram. UV emission lines from He, C, N, O, and Si were detected; they all increase in intensity from the HB to the FB state. A model in which emission lines are due to outer-disk photoionization by the X-ray source is noted to give good agreement with line fluxes observed in each state.

  17. Optical constants of Titan aerosols and their tholins analogs: Experimental results and modeling/observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

    2015-05-01

    Since Bishun Khare's pioneer works on Titan tholins, many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of the optical constants of Titan tholins. The determination of the optical constants of Titan aerosols is indeed essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of the optical properties is also crucial to analyze and better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. This review paper critically summarizes these new results and presents constraints on Titan's aerosols optical constants. Finally, the information lacking in this field is highlighted as well as some possible investigations that could be carried out to fill these gaps.

  18. Titan below Saturn's magnetodisc: Results from 3D hybrid simulations and Cassini MAG observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S.; Motschmann, U. M.; Neubauer, F. M.; Wennmacher, A.; Saur, J. S.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    In the idealized picture of Titan's plasma interaction deduced from Voyager 1 data, the ambient magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular to the moon's orbital plane. However, Cassini observations suggest that the situation is significantly more complex: Titan is typically located below (above) its parent planet's warped and highly dynamic magnetodisc in southern (northern) summer. The magnetic field near Titan's orbit does not only possess a component towards Saturn, but Cassini MAG data obtained in southern summer also suggest the presence of a significant field component along the corotational flow direction. We present observations from the Cassini MAG instrument during the southern summer conditions of the prime mission, illustrating the high variability of the magnetic field conditions along Titan's orbit. Furthermore, by applying a three-dimensional hybrid model (kinetic ions, fluid electrons), we investigate systematically how Titan's plasma interaction is affected by a deviation of the ambient magnetic field from orthogonality. The model also takes into account the vertical gradient of the plasma composition in Saturn's magnetosphere: The heavy ion species are confined to the magnetic equator, whereas above and below, the impinging magnetospheric plasma mainly consists of light hydrogen ions. Our simulations show that introducing a flow-aligned magnetic field component goes along with an asymmetrization of Titan's magnetotail, in addition to the asymmetry that already arises from the large gyroradii of the ion species involved in the interaction. In the vicinity of Titan, the field lines become strongly twisted, permitting the wakeside magnetic lobe structure to even penetrate into the satellite's geometric plasma shadow. However, despite the increased complexity of Titan's magnetic environment, the overall characteristics of the pick-up ion tail remain practically the same as in the case of ideal magnetic field orientation.

  19. Ecological Controls on Biogeochemical Fluxes in the Western Antarctic Peninsula: Long-Term Observations and Inverse Food Web Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducklow, H. W.; Sailley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Saba, G. K.; Doney, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice in the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region is both highly variable and rapidly changing. In the Palmer Station region, the ice season duration has decreased by 92 days since 1978. The sea-ice changes affect ocean stratification and freshwater balance; and in turn impact every component of the polar marine ecosystem. Long-term observations from the WAP shelf region show a pattern of chlorophyll (Chl) variability with three to five years of negative Chl anomalies interrupted by one or two years of positive anomalies. Observations and results from an inverse food-web model show that these low and high Chl regimes differed significantly from each other, with high primary productivity and net community production (NCP) associated with the high Chl years and vice-versa. Gross primary production averaged 40 mmolC m-2 d-1 in the low Chl years and 100 mmolC m-2 d-1 in the high Chl years, with 30-40% going to NCP across regimes. Only the food web in the southern region in high Chl years was dominated by large phytoplankton and krill, whereas in in all other cases, foodwebs were dominated by small phytoplankton and microzooplankton. These contrasts were strongest between the northern, low Chl years and southern, high Chl years, consistent with earlier north to south observations of sea ice and ecosystem change along the WAP. The relative importance of major bulk carbon flows did not differ substantially between high and low Chl years. Both the northern/low Chl and southern/high Chl regimes had roughly equal proportions of NCP, although its composition reflected shifts in dominance by large versus small plankton. These results suggest that food webs dominated by smaller phytoplankton and grazers have pathways that funnel production into NCP, and likely, export.

  20. The longitudinal extent of 3He rich SEP events: A comparison of numerical calculation results and observations by STEREO and ACE spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, M.

    2012-12-01

    Impulsive 3He rich Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are usually produced by the solar flares. Previous observation results show the longitudinal extent for the impulsive events are usually near 40 degrees. New observations from the STEREO show that some impulsive 3He rich events can cover a much wider longitudinal extent than 40 degrees. It seems that SEPs can still be observed on the field lines disconnected far away from the source. As a result, the coverage of SEP events is much larger than the width of sources. One possibility of such a large longitude extent is through cross-field transport. We use a Fokker-Planck focus transport equation to calculate the transport of SEPs in three-dimensional Parker interplanetary magnetic field. We compare the numerical simulation results with the simultaneous spacecraft observations of STEREO A, B, and ACE. In this way, we can investigate how SEPs propagate in the heliospheric magnetic fields.

  1. Direct aerosol radiative forcing based on combined A-Train observations and comparisons to IPCC-2007 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Shinozuka, Y.; Vaughan, M.; Russell, P. B.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Livingston, J. M.; Torres, O.; Remer, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    We describe a technique for combining CALIOP aerosol backscatter, MODIS spectral AOD (aerosol optical depth), and OMI AAOD (absorption aerosol optical depth) measurements for the purpose of estimating full spectral sets of aerosol radiative properties, and ultimately for calculating the 3-D distribution of direct aerosol radiative forcing. As preparatory work, we carried out sensitivity studies, tested our methodology using suborbital observations, and investigated the consistency between various combinations of satellite input data sets. These studies were carried out largely to investigate the propagation of uncertainties in the multi-sensor input data into the aerosol radiative property estimates. We present results using one year of collocated CALIOP V3, MODIS and OMI data collected in 2007 and show comparisons of the aerosol radiative property estimates to collocated AERONET retrievals. An apparent bias in the input aerosol absorption optical depth and a related bias in the input aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) are removed after application of the multi-sensor aerosol retrieval. We surmise that the removal of the SSA bias from the input data is a consequence of requiring the multi-sensor retrievals to be consistent with all input data and that the multi-sensor retrievals may be better constrained than retrievals from individual A-Train sensors. Initial calculations of seasonal clear-sky aerosol radiative forcing based on our multi-sensor aerosol retrievals compare well with over-ocean and top of the atmosphere IPCC-2007 model-based results, and with more recent assessments in the "Climate Change Science Program Report: Atmospheric Aerosol Properties and Climate Impacts" (hereafter referred to as CCSP-2009). This is noteworthy, since the observationally based estimates in CCSP-2009 did not compare well with the model-based estimates. Our multi-sensor based forcing calculations compare well with observationally based CCSP-2009 estimates at the surface, indicating that differences in column aerosol absorption properties between our assessment and the CCSP-2009 observationally based estimates need to be investigated. We emphasize that our forcing estimates are purely observational, without use of aerosol transport model assumptions. As such, our results should be well suited for comparisons to initiatives such as AeroCom (Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models), that ultimately aim to understand the differences in the 3-D distribution of aerosol radiative properties and effects in global aerosol models.

  2. Surface Tension and Viscosity Measurements in Microgravity: Some Results and Fluid Flow Observations during MSL-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, Robert W.; Trapaga, G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    The viscosity of a liquid metal was successfully measured for the first time by a containerless method, the oscillating drop technique. This method also provides a means to obtain a precise, non-contact measurement of the surface tension of the droplet. This technique involves exciting the surface of the molten sample and then measuring the resulting oscillations; the natural frequency of the oscillating sample is determined by its surface tension, and the damping of the oscillations by the viscosity. These measurements were performed in TEMPUS, a microgravity electromagnetic levitator (EML), on the Space Shuttle as a part of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1), which flew in April and July 1997 (STS-83 and STS-94). Some results of the surface tension and viscosity measurements are presented for Pd82Si18. Some observations of the fluid dynamic characteristics (dominant flow patterns, turbulent transition, cavitation, etc.) of levitated droplets are presented and discussed together with magnetohydrodynamic calculations, which were performed to justify these findings.

  3. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

  4. Melt Undercutting and Calving from Tidewater Glaciers: Observations and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benn, D.; Cook, S.; Åström, J. A.; Luckman, A. J.; Zwinger, T.

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic models incorporating crevasse-depth calving laws have enjoyed considerable success in simulating observed behavior of tidewater glaciers. Such models are based on the assumption that longitudinal strain rates exert a first-order control on calving, and that penetration of surface and basal crevasses provides the ultimate constraint on glacier extent. However, 'second-order' processes such as melt undercutting may significantly amplify calving rates, initiating seasonal and longer-term glacier retreats. We present high temporal and spatial resolution TerraSAR-X data from Svalbard that indicate a strong annual cycle in calving rates, peaking in September-October coincident with maximum fjord temperatures. This pattern is consistent for all studied glaciers irrespective of glacier activity (fast, slow, surging or quiescent), and we conclude that in Svalbard calving is paced by melt-undercutting followed by mechanical destabilization of the ice tongue. Although parameterizations of melt undercutting are included in many models employing the crevasse-depth calving criterion, amplification of calving by melt undercutting (the 'O'Leary Effect') has not been rigorously analyzed or tested against observations. We take a novel approach to this problem, and couple the finite element model Elmer-Ice with a discrete particle model (DPM) to explore in detail the links between melt undercutting and failure of the ice tongue. Employing glacier front geometries representative of Kronebreen (Svalbard), Columbia Glacier (Alaska) and Helheim Glacier (Greenland), we use Elmer-Ice to simulate progressive undercutting of the ice front by melting. At selected time steps, the model geometry was exported into the DPM, and runs conducted to study fracturing and calving behavior using different values of the fracture stress. We quantify the O'Leary Effect for different geometries, and propose a modified calving law incorporating the effects of melt-undercutting. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the impact of melt undercutting on calving losses in dynamic calving models.

  5. On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

  6. Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B.; Frew, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight of the controller which necessitates aircraft autonomy. An autonomous unmanned aircraft requires a significantly more complex command and control system and elicits more scrutiny by airspace regulatory agencies. Therefore, while the potential utility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, the unmanned aircraft along with the communications and logistics infrastructure required for their operation) for stormscale research may be obvious, the engineering and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome for their use are significant. Surmounting these engineering and regulatory hurdles was the principal objective of the UAS component of VORTEX-2. Regulatory hurdles prevented UAS operations in the first year of VORTEX-2. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (tasked with regulating all UAS operations) granted the UAS group certificates of authorization (CoA) to fly for all of year-2 over northeast CO, southwest NE, and northwest KS. The majority of the engineering hurdles involved the communication system necessary to 1) command and control the aircraft through its on-board autopilot and 2) direct ground-based vehicles required to remain compliant with FAA regulations. Testing during both year-1 and -2 yielded a robust communication system. Lessons learned from interactions with the FAA along with an overview of the communication system will be presented at the conference. Scientifically, the UAS in VORTEX-2 was tasked with collecting in-situ observations of the temperature and moisture above the surface across the rear flank gust front (RFGF) and within the rear flank downdraft (RFD). Despite the relatively small region approved for UAS operations, 6 flights were conducted in the vicinity of supercells during year-2 of VORTEX-2: 6 May, 26 May, 6 June, 7 June, 9 June, and 10 June. Of these flights, three (6 June, 9 June, and 10 June) collected observations across the RFGF and within the RFD. Results from the VORTEX-2 flights along with an outlook towards possible future applications of UAS for stormscale research will be presented at the conference.

  7. Orbit and Gravity Field Solutions from Swarm GPS Observations - First Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, A.; Dahle, C.; Arnold, D.; Bock, H.; Flechtner, F.

    2014-12-01

    Although ESA's Earth Explorer Mission Swarm is primarily dedicated to measure the Earth's magnetic field, it may also serve as a gravity field mission. Equipped with GPS receivers, accelerometers, star-tracker assemblies and laser retro-reflectors, the three Swarm satellites are potentially capable to be used as a high-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (hl-SST) observing system, following the missions CHAMP (first single-satellite hl-SST mission), GRACE (twin-satellite mission with additional ultra-precise low-low SST and GOCE (single-satellite mission additionally equipped with a gradiometer). GRACE, dedicated to measure the time-variability of the gravity field, is the only mission still in orbit, but its lifetime will likely end before launch of its follow-on mission GRACE-FO in August 2017 primarily due to aging of the onboard batteries after meanwhile more than 12 years of operation. Swarm is probably a good candidate to provide time-variable gravity field solutions and to close a potential gap between GRACE and GRACE-FO. Consisting of three satellites, Swarm also offers to use inter-satellite GPS-derived baselines as additional observations. However, as of today it is not clear if such information will substantially improve the gravity field solutions. Nevertheless, the properties of the Swarm constellation with two lower satellites flying in a pendulum-like orbit and a slightly differently inclined third satellite at higher altitude still represent a unique observing system raising expectations at least compared to CHAMP derived time-variable gravity field solutions. Whatever processing method will be applied for Swarm gravity field recovery, its success strongly depends on the quality of the Swarm Level 1b data as well as the quality of the derived Swarm orbits. With first Level 1b data sets available since mid of May 2014 (excluding accelerometer data), first results for Swarm orbits and baselines, as well as Swarm gravity field solutions are presented here. The latter are also compared to GRACE GPS hl-SST solutions based on the same amount of data and processing methods.

  8. The Australian bushfires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.; Palmer, P. I.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Wiegele, A.

    2013-02-01

    Starting on 7 February 2009, southeast Australia was devastated by large bushfires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products were transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the Envisat satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast southeastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days, the plume remained northeastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On 17 February the eastern part had reached southern South America and on 20 February the central South Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the South Pacific. Between 20 February and the first week of March, the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-20 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

  9. Infrared Observations of Galaxies in the Local Universe. I. The Survey and Some Representative Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grauer, Albert D.; Rieke, Marcia J.

    1998-05-01

    This paper introduces a continuing survey of galaxies in the local universe. Consistent deep images are being acquired for a representative sample of 321 galaxies in the Uppsala General Catalogue down to 21.7 mag arcsec-2 at Ks (2.16 ?m) and 22.4 mag arcsec-2 at J (1.25 ?m) using a NICMOS camera with a 3.8 arcmin × 3.8 arcmin field of view attached to the 61 inch (1.5 m) telescope on Mount Bigelow. We provide some examples of the results being obtained by employing 64 deep images of a subset of 44 galaxies. Bulge-to-disk ratios are tabulated for 30 galaxies. The brightness of the central region of 44 galaxies declines approximately 5 mag from Hubble type S0 to Sm. An exponential vertical scale height at Ks is found to be 500 pc for the disk of UGC 5173. Arm amplitudes of four nearly face-on spiral galaxies are found to range between 11% and 88% compared to the interarm region. There is some evidence that the arm amplitude is larger at Ks than it is at J. Color gradients are measured for 15 galaxies with only one showing a significant nonzero result. A measurement of galactic symmetry applied to 64 deep images reveals an average asymmetry of 7.6% (? = 4.6%) for these galaxies.

  10. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: SKY MAPS, SYSTEMATIC ERRORS, AND BASIC RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Tucker, G. S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States)

    2011-02-01

    New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat {Lambda}CDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H{sub 0} from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are {Omega}{sub b} h {sup 2} = 0.02260 {+-} 0.00053, {Omega}{sub c} h {sup 2} = 0.1123 {+-} 0.0035, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.728{sup +0.015}{sub -0.016}, n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, {tau} = 0.087 {+-} 0.014, and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.809 {+-} 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles l {approx}< 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, {Omega}{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1334{sup +0.0056}{sub -0.0055}, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z{sub eq} = 3196{sup +134}{sub -133}, using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3{sigma} detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y{sub He} = 0.326 {+-} 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, {Sigma}M{sub {nu}} {<=} 0.58 eV(95%CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N{sub eff} = 4.34{sup +0.86}{sub -0.88}. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3{sigma}. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.

  11. Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Tonya S; Larson, Joseph C; Alghothani, Nora; Bout-Tabaku, Sharon; Cauley, Jane A; Chen, Zhao; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Jackson, Rebecca D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Magnesium is a necessary component of bone, but its relation to osteoporotic fractures is unclear. Objective: We examined magnesium intake as a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures and altered bone mineral density (BMD). Design: This prospective cohort study included 73,684 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Total daily magnesium intake was estimated from baseline food-frequency questionnaires plus supplements. Hip fractures were confirmed by a medical record review; other fractures were identified by self-report. A baseline BMD analysis was performed in 4778 participants. Results: Baseline hip BMD was 3% higher (P < 0.001), and whole-body BMD was 2% higher (P < 0.001), in women who consumed >422.5 compared with <206.5 mg Mg/d. However, the incidence and RR of hip and total fractures did not differ across quintiles of magnesium. In contrast, risk of lower-arm or wrist fractures increased with higher magnesium intake [multivariate-adjusted HRs of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.32) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.42) for quintiles 4 and 5, respectively, compared with quintile 1; P-trend = 0.002]. In addition, women with the highest magnesium intakes were more physically active and at increased risk of falls [HR for quintile 4: 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.16); HR for quintile 5: 1.15 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.20); P-trend < 0.001]. Conclusions: Lower magnesium intake is associated with lower BMD of the hip and whole body, but this result does not translate into increased risk of fractures. A magnesium consumption slightly greater than the Recommended Dietary Allowance is associated with increased lower-arm and wrist fractures that are possibly related to more physical activity and falls. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611. PMID:24500155

  12. First results from a high-speed infrared imaging system for the observation of gravity waves in OH airglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Michael; Hannawald, Patrick; Schmidt, Carsten; Wüst, Sabine

    2015-04-01

    The OH-airglow-layer is concentrated at a height of about 87 km with a half-width of approximately 3 km. Observing the infrared emissions of the vibrational-rotational excited OH moelcules offers a unique possibility for studying atmospheric dynamics. Especially, atmospheric gravity waves are prominent features in the measurements. Since December 2013 the new imaging system FAIm (Fast Infrared Imager) for the study of smaller-scale features (both in space and time)is operational at the NDMC (Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change, http://wdc.dlr.de/ndmc)station Oberpfaffenhofen. Covering the brightest OH vibrational bands between 1.3 and 1.7micrometer, the imaging system can acquire 2 frames per second. The field of view is approximately 50 km x 60 km at the mesopause height with a mean spatial resolution of 200 m. More than 370 nights of observation have successfully been performed already. The observations show a large variety of atmospheric waves with horizontal wavelengths down to less than 3km, different directions of propagation and phase velocities varying from nearly 0 m/s (quasi stationary waves) to more than 50 m/s. We present the experimental setup and will show first results. Especially, spatio-temporal sequences of the generation of smaller scale gravity wave fields as well as their turbulent dissipation will be shown. An outlook will be given to planned future simultaneous measurements from different stations in the alpine region in order to achieve some stereoscopic information about gravity wave fields.

  13. Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa

    1998-01-01

    The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in tide gauge data north of 40N, in the subpolar SST and in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and in subpolar winter heat flux values. The decadal cycle is a well separated mode in a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for a time series of SST EOF mode 1 with a center over the Gulf Stream extension. Tide gauge and SST data are consistent in that both show a significant subdecadal periodicity exclusively in the subpolar gyre, but in subtropics the 12-14 year period is the prominent, but nonstationary, decadal signal. The main finding of this study is that this 12-14 year cycle can be constructed based on the leading mode of the surface heat flux. This connection to the surface heat flux implicates the participation of the thermohaline circulation in the decadal cycle. During the cycle starting from the positive index phase of NAO, SST and oceanic heat content anomalies are created in subtropics due to local heat flux and intensification of the thermohaline circulation. The anomalies advect to the subpolar gyre where they are amplified by local heat flux and are part of the negative feedback of thermohaline circulation on itself. Consequently the oceanic thermohaline circulation slows down and the opposite cycle starts. The oscillatory nature would not be possible without the active atmospheric participation in the cycle, because it provides the unstable interaction through heat flux, without it, the oceanic mode would be damped. This analysis suggests that the two principal modes of heat flux variability, corresponding to patterns similar to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Western Atlantic (WA), are part of the same decadal cycle and an indirect measure of the north-south movement of the storm tracks.

  14. MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF EDGE-ON PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palmer, Patrick [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perrin, M. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Maddison, S. T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Duvert, G. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stapelfeldt, K., E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-900, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2011-09-20

    We are undertaking a multi-frequency Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) survey of edge-on protoplanetary disks to probe the growth of solids in each disk, sedimentation of such material into the disk midplane, and the connection of these phenomena to the planet formation process. The projection of edge-on disk systems along our line of sight enables a study of the vertical stratification of large grains with fewer model dependencies than would be required for disks that are more face-on. Robust studies of the spatial distribution of grains up to {approx}1 cm in size are possible with the wavelength range and sensitivity of the EVLA. In this contribution, we describe target selection and observational strategies. First results concerning the Class 0 source IRAS 04368+2557 (L1527 IRS) are presented, including a study of this source's 8.46 GHz continuum variability over short and long time baselines and an indication that its protoplanetary disk may have a dearth of pebble-sized grains.

  15. New results near {sup 100}Sn : observation of single-neutron states in {sup 101}Sn.

    SciTech Connect

    Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Gros, S.; Hecht, A. A.; Hoteling, N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Lotay, G.; Peterson, D.; Robinson, A. P.; Walters, W. B.; Wang, X.; Woods, P. J.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Edinburgh; Univ. of Notre Dame

    2009-03-01

    A search for in-beam {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 101}Sn, which contains only one neutron outside the {sup 100}Sn core, using a novel approach was carried out at the Argonne Tandem-Linac System. {sup 101}Sn nuclei were produced using the {sup 46}Ti({sup 58}Ni, 3n){sup 101}Sn fusion-evaporation reaction. Beta-delayed protons with energies and decay times consistent with previous {sup 101}Sn decay studies were observed at the focal plane of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. In-beam {gamma} rays were detected in the Gammasphere Ge-detector array and were correlated with the {sup 101}Sn {beta}-delayed protons using the Recoil-Decay Tagging method. As a result, a {gamma}-ray transition between the single-neutron {nu}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}d{sub 5/2} states situated at the Fermi surface was identified. The measured {nu}g{sub 7/2}-{nu}d{sub 5/2} energy splitting was compared with predictions corresponding to various mean-field potentials and was used to calculate multi-neutron configurations in light Sn isotopes. Similar approach can be used to study core excitations in {sup 101}Sn and other exotic nuclei near {sup 100}Sn.

  16. Generalizing Observational Study Results: Applying Propensity Score Methods to Complex Surveys

    PubMed Central

    DuGoff, Eva H; Schuler, Megan; Stuart, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    ObjectiveTo provide a tutorial for using propensity score methods with complex survey data. Data SourcesSimulated data and the 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Study DesignUsing simulation, we compared the following methods for estimating the treatment effect: a naïve estimate (ignoring both survey weights and propensity scores), survey weighting, propensity score methods (nearest neighbor matching, weighting, and subclassification), and propensity score methods in combination with survey weighting. Methods are compared in terms of bias and 95 percent confidence interval coverage. In Example 2, we used these methods to estimate the effect on health care spending of having a generalist versus a specialist as a usual source of care. Principal FindingsIn general, combining a propensity score method and survey weighting is necessary to achieve unbiased treatment effect estimates that are generalizable to the original survey target population. ConclusionsPropensity score methods are an essential tool for addressing confounding in observational studies. Ignoring survey weights may lead to results that are not generalizable to the survey target population. This paper clarifies the appropriate inferences for different propensity score methods and suggests guidelines for selecting an appropriate propensity score method based on a researcher’s goal. PMID:23855598

  17. The results of controlled observations on the prophylaxis of influenza with interferon

    PubMed Central

    Solov'ev, V. D.

    1969-01-01

    The results are reported of experimental investigations and epidemiological observations on the use of human leucocyte-produced interferon for influenza prophylaxis. Field trials with interferon were carried out during the outbreak of Hong Kong influenza in the USSR in January and February 1969. These covered about 14 000 people in comparable interferon-and placebo-treated groups and achieved an effectiveness of between 56.3% and 69.2% according to the age-group studied. The importance is shown, not only of artifically introduced interferon, but also of the interferon naturally produced by a subject in response to infection. The degree of such production varies both with each individual's capacity to form interferon and with the capacity of a particular strain of Hong Kong virus to elicit the productive response. The author suggests that isolated virus strains be subdivided into interferon-positive (I+) and interferon-negative (I-) strains according to the presence or absence of this phenotypic character. ImagesFIG. 4 PMID:5309493

  18. Coronae at 3 Gyr: First Results from a Chandra Observation of the Open Cluster Ruprecht 147

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, Steven H.; Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason

    2014-06-01

    Ruprecht 147 is the oldest nearby star cluster, with an age of 3 Gyr and a distance of 300 pc. This makes it an important benchmark in exploring activity-age-rotation relationships, bridging the gap between the Hyades and M67. We present the first results from a deep 250 ksec ACIS-I observation of the cluster. Analysis of the longest (81 ksec) pointing detects more than half of the known members in the field, with spectral types ranging from F6 to K5. The star most like the Sun in our sample, a G2V, has an X-ray luminosity (0.2-7 keV) of L_X ~ 1.1e28 ergs/s, which suggests a scaling with age t of log L_X ~ -b log t where 1.25 < b < 4, possibly steeper than seen at younger ages. This research was supported by Chandra grant G02-13022X.

  19. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Drive, Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Gold, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

    2013-10-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C {sup –1} weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ?CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t {sub 0} = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H {sub 0} = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n{sub s} = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further. With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat ?CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

  20. Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-10-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C -1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ?CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t 0 = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H 0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s-1 Mpc-1. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (ns = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (\\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{-0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further. With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat ?CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

  1. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?Lambda-CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further.With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat Lambda-CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

  2. The Results From 5 Years of Shipboard ADCP Observations on Georges Bank During the N.W. Atlantic GLOBEC Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flagg, C. N.; Dunn, M.

    2001-12-01

    ADCP data have been routinely collected on a total of 81 survey, mooring, and process cruises to Georges Bank between 1995 and 1999 during the GLOBEC program, yielding a total of ~660 days of current observations. These data have been carefully processed and edited and are available through a web site: www.oasdpo.bnl.gov.mosaic/globec. Georges Bank is a tidally dominated regime so the first requirement has been to develop an observationally based detiding method. This has been accomplished with an adaptation of the Candela, et al. (1992) with nine constituents as described by Dunn et al. (2001, in preparation). This methodology reduces the space-time barotropic current variance by between 85 and 95 percent. The residual currents have been investigated for the mean and seasonal signals using Gaussian basis functions and knots whose distribution is based upon a sufficient density of observations. The results show a detailed description of the expected clockwise gyre and its seasonal intensification during the late summer and early fall. Maximal along-isobath flow occurs around yearday 270 on the southern flank which correspond to the maximal northward recirculation flow in the Great South Channel. The seasonal fluctuations are shown to be greatest over the northern flank and in the Great South and Northeast Channels, with reduced variability over the southern flank. Extending the investigation to look at the synoptic scale variability, we have been able to explain a total of about 20 to 30 percent of the residual variance through a regression analysis between local wind stress and adjusted sea level fluctuations at Woods Hole and Halifax. Examination of various repeat transects across the Bank show details of the spatial and temporal variability of Bank structures. One section across the southern flank shows the tidal mixing front as a distinct alongshore jet with a cross-shelf scale of ~20 km and maximal speeds during the summer. The same section also shows the extreme variability of the shelf/slope front with currents varying between more than 1 m/s to the east when a warm ring impinged on the Bank, to a maximum of ~0.5 m/s to the west when rings were not present.

  3. The red planet shows off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beish, J. D.; Parker, D. C.; Hernandez, C. E.

    1989-01-01

    Results from observations of Mars between November 1987 and September 1988 are reviewed. The observations were part of a program to provide continuous global coverage of Mars in the period surrounding its opposition on September 28, 1988. Observations of Martian clouds, dust storms, the planet's south pole, and the Martian surface are discussed.

  4. Observation of flow processes in the vadose zone using ERT on different space and time scales: results, obstacles, and suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Lamparter, Axel; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Bachmann, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) observes the flow processes in the vadose zone indirectly. ERT has been used to estimate water flow in different soil types and under different flow conditions using active experiments or monitoring the natural process in many cases. Our experiments in sand and loess soil connected ERT with local soil probing using TDR devices and tensiometers in order to proof the reliability of the ERT inversion results in terms of infiltration velocity. Additionally, a colour tracer was used and sections through the infiltration zones were excavated in order to compare the shape of the dye -stained infiltration zone with the results of the ERT inversion. The data revealed the complicated infiltration pattern with a higher transport velocity in sand and a different shape than expected by classical soil hydraulic models. These results indicate the need for independent observations in order to correctly assess the water storage in the vadose zone with its hydrological consequences, the groundwater recharge and the contamination risk caused by rapid movement of water. ERT can be used for this purpose on different spatial- and time scales but for reliable results various obstacles need to be dealt with. Firstly, the ambiguity of the resistivity because soil resistivity depends on both, soil water content and electrical soil/water conductivity. This obstacle is less severe when the infiltration velocity is investigated, because then only the first onset of resistivity change is interpreted as the water arrival time. Our results show that the arrival of the water front as well as the final infiltration depth can be reliably detected. In contrast, this obstacle is very severe when the amount of water stored is observed using conductive tracer. The problem is not critical during a passive experiment when the natural rain fall and the waters fate through the vadose zone is monitored. The second obstacle is the limited resolution of ERT which deteriorates with depth. The resolution depends on the electrode distances and the depth resolution can be increased by using borehole electrodes. However, if one ha of land is to be observed with a reasonable number of electrodes (some 100) the resolution will be some 10 m. The structures, however, that influence the infiltration process, might be much smaller. Therefore, it is suggested to use ERT as the tool to observe and quantify the infiltration process with regard to time and space on a scale of some meters. For independent proof local TDR devices should be inserted within the investigated area for calibration. These results should then be used to establish a physical soil model that grasps the observed process correctly in time and space. The next step would then be to repeat these local measurements at different locations where the similarity of the processes is at doubt. Only when this is confirmed or discarded, further upscaling steps can be done reliably.

  5. Fusing Observations and Model Results for Creation of Enhanced Ozone Spatial Fields: Comparison of Three Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents three simple techniques for fusing observations and numerical model predictions. The techniques rely on model/observation bias being considered either as error free, or containing some uncertainty, the latter mitigated with a Kalman filter approach or a spati...

  6. Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Observations from TOGA COARE: Selected Results and Lightning Location Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter A. Petersen; Steven A. Rutledge; Richard E. Orville

    1996-01-01

    Recently, observations of electrified oceanic convection and associated cloud-to-ground ( CG ) lightning were obtained over the tropical western Pacific Ocean during TOGA COARE ( Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean - Atmosphere Response Experiment ) . During COARE, observations of convection were made using a variety of instrument platforms including ship and airborne Doppler radars, an advanced lightning direction

  7. Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Cull; R. E. Arvidson; R. V. Morris; M. J. Wolff; M. T. Mellon; M. T. Lemmon

    2009-01-01

    We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13

  8. Girls' interactions with teachers in mixed physics classes: results of classroom observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith S. Taber

    1992-01-01

    An observation schedule was developed to find out if girls have less interaction with teachers than boys in physics lessons. The schedule was intended to be used by a single observer with pencil and paper. It was also intended that the analysis of the data collected should be as straightforward as possible, without the need for video or audio playback,

  9. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifica Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hong, Jaesub [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg{sup 2} of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630–47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433–473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5–473332, CXOU J163350.9–474638, and CXOU J163355.1–473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5–473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9–474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1–473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  10. The brightest TGF ever observed? - New results from the RHESSI satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Nicole; Smith, David; Dwyer, Joseph; Splitt, Michael; Holzworth, Robert; Buzbee, Paul; Infanger, Alex; Lazarus, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are sub-millisecond bursts of gamma rays originating from thunderstorms. They were first discovered in 1994 by the BATSE instrument aboard the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory (CGRO). Since their discovery, thousands of TGFs have been detected by other gamma-ray satellites. A new class of super-bright terrestrial gamma-ray flashes has been found in the data from the Reuven-Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). These events are so bright that they cause the RHESSI instrumentation to become paralyzed during the peak of the TGF. While the instrument is paralyzed, all information about the TGF is lost. A new modeling method using the Compton tail of these TGFs is used to find their brightness. These events are modeled by using the relativistic feedback model and then propagating the gamma rays through the atmosphere and then through RHESSI. The TGFs are placed at different altitudes and distances from the spacecraft. Three TGFs were modeled using this method, one of which may be the brightest TGF ever observed. The range of possible luminosities for this event will be shown. For the other two events, a World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) lightning sferic match has been found so the distance from RHESSI is known. Using infrared (IR) data, the cloud top height can be estimated which, in the context of current in-cloud TGF models, places an upper limit on the altitude of the TGF. The brightness for these events, where the distance and altitude is known, will be reported. The benefits and limitations of this novel approach of using the Compton tails of TGFs will be discussed. Notably, the results obtained for the TGF luminosity at the source are nearly independent of the (unknown) original angular distribution of the bremsstrahlung radiation.

  11. Initial Results from NuSTAR Observations of the Norma Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William W.

    2014-08-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg2 of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630–47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433–473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5–473332, CXOU J163350.9–474638, and CXOU J163355.1–473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5–473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9–474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1–473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

  12. Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William

    2014-08-01

    Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 degrees-squared of sky area in the 3--79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw exposure time of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3--79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. We close by discussing some challenges inherent in imaging crowded regions with NuSTAR, and how the lessons learned in this pilot study can help scientists who wish to use NuSTAR to observe their favorite targets.

  13. Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+): First Results: Inner Galaxy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Yorke, H. W.

    2010-05-01

    To understand the lifecycle of the interstellar gas and star formation we need detailed information about the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas cloud properties. The ionized carbon [CII] 1.9 THz fine structure line is an important tracer of the atomic gas in the diffuse regions and the interface regions of atomic gas to molecular clouds. Furthermore, C+ is a major ISM coolant and among the Galaxy's strongest far-IR emission lines, and thus controls the thermal conditions throughout large parts of the Galaxy. Until now our knowledge of interstellar gas has been limited to the diffuse atomic phase traced by HI and to the dense molecular H2 phase traced by CO. However, we are missing an important phase of the ISM called "dark gas” in which there is no or little, HI, and mostly molecular hydrogen but with insufficient shielding of UV to allow CO to form. C+ emission and absorption lines at 1.9 THz have the potential to trace this gas. Galactic Observations of the Terahertz C+ Line (GOT C+) is a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study the diffuse interstellar medium by sampling [CII] 1.9 THz line emission throughout the Galactic disk. We discuss the broader perspective of this survey and the first results of GOT C+ obtained during the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) and Priority Science Phase (PSP) of HIFI, which focus on approximately 100 lines of sight in the inner galaxy. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  14. Impacts of organic nitrate chemistry on NOx and O3 in California: Model results and comparisons to observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, E. C.; Valin, L. C.; Cohen, R. C.; LaFranchi, B. W.; Min, K.; Perring, A. E.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Organic nitrates, formed by a minor channel of the NO + RO2 reaction, represent a termination step of ozone production. Organic nitrate formation becomes most significant in the cross-over regime between NOx saturated (VOC limited) and NOx limited ozone production and, therefore, may have a significant impact on ozone photochemistry in urban outflows. Although numerous observations show that organic nitrates can represent a significant fraction (up to ~20%) of oxidized nitrogen, current regional chemistry models contain an inadequate representation of organic nitrates. We have developed a more realistic parameterization of organic nitrate chemistry that treats monofunctional, multifunctional saturated, multifunctional unsaturated, aromatic, isoprene, and monoterpene nitrates as unique model species with appropriate lifetimes and NOx recycling efficiencies. This chemistry has been incorporated into the WRF-Chem three dimensional regional chemistry model. Using a combination of model results and organic nitrate observations from ground and airborne measurements, we investigate how organic nitrate concentration and composition vary throughout California. Additionally, we analyze how organic nitrate formation impacts NOx lifetime and ozone production.

  15. Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bay Hasager, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

  16. Observations of precipitating convective systems at 92 and 183 GHz: Aircraft results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. M. Hakkarinen; R. F. Adler

    1988-01-01

    Summary High spatial resolution data from an airborne microwave imaging radiometer operating at 92 and 183 GHz (0.32 and 0.16 cm wavelengths) are compared with ground-based radar data for a series of observations of precipitating convective systems. An inverse relationship between microwave brightness temperature (TB) and radar-derived rain rate (RR) is observed. Differences in the empirical curves between midlatitude and

  17. Comparison Between Simulated and Observational Results of Galaxy Formation for Large Scale Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; Scoville, N. Z.

    2009-10-01

    The Millennium simulation is the largest numerical simulation of how minor fluctuations in the density of the universe's dark matter distribution are amplified by gravity to develop into the large scale structures(LSS) and galaxy clusters seen today(Springel et al. 2005). Although the simulations have been compared with the astronomical observations of the local universe, the simulations have not been widely compared with high redshift, early universe observations. In our study we compare the simulation data(Wang et al. 2008; Guo et al. 2008(in preparation)) for the first time with observations from the COSMOS survey(Scoville et al. 2006). Three quantities are proposed to characterize the structures and the structures distribution, namely the percent area occupied by LSS at each redshift, the average area of LSS and the shapes as characterized by the square root of the area divided by the circumference. We calculate these quantities for both the observations and the simulations, and quantify discrepancies between the existing simulations and observations. In particular, the simulations exhibit earlier development of dense structures than is seen in the observational data.

  18. Encephalopathy in acute liver failure resulting from acetaminophen intoxication: New observations with potential therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brusilow, Saul W; Cooper, Arthur J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy associated with liver disease. It is now generally accepted that hyperammonemia leads to toxic levels of glutamine in astrocytes. However, the mechanism by which excessive glutamine is toxic to astrocytes is controversial. Nevertheless, there is strong evidence that glutamine-induced osmotic swelling, especially in acute liver failure (ALF), is a contributing factor – the osmotic gliopathy theory. The object of the current communication is to present evidence for the osmotic gliopathy theory in a hyperammonemic patient who overdosed on acetaminophen. Design Case report. Setting Johns Hopkins Hospital. Patient A 22-year old white female who, 36 hours prior to admission, ingested 15 grams of acetaminophen was admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Physical examination was unremarkable; her mental status was within normal limits and remained so until approximately 72 hours after ingestion when she became confused, irritable and agitated. Interventions She was intubated, ventilated and placed on lactulose. Shortly thereafter she was non-communicative, unresponsive to painful stimuli and exhibited decerebrate posturing. A clinical diagnosis of cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) was made. She improved very slowly until 180 hours after ingestion when she moved all extremities. She woke up shortly thereafter. Measurements and main results Despite the fact that hyperammonemia is a major contributing factor to the encephalopathy observed in ALF the patient’s plasma ammonia peaked when she exhibited no obvious neurological deficit. Thereafter, her plasma ammonia decreased precipitously in parallel with a worsening neurological status. She was deeply encephalopathic during a period when her liver function and plasma ammonia had normalized. Plasma glutamine levels in this patient were high, but began to normalize several hours after plasma ammonia had returned to normal. The patient only commenced to recover as her plasma glutamine began to return to normal. Conclusions We suggest that the biochemical data are consistent with the osmotic gliopathy theory – high plasma ammonia leads to high plasma glutamine – an indicator of excess glutamine in astrocytes (the site of brain glutamine synthesis). This excess glutamine leads to osmotic stress in these cells. The lag in recovery of brain function presumably reflects time taken for the astrocyte glutamine concentration to return to normal. We hypothesize that an inhibitor of brain glutamine synthesis may be an effective treatment modality for ALF. PMID:21705899

  19. New results on Saturn aurora and lightning observed by Cassini camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyudina, U.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Wellington, D.; Ewald, S. P.; Porco, C.; Fischer, G.

    2011-12-01

    In November 2010 Cassini camera observed the best visible spectrum of Saturn aurora to date. Aurora is now seen changing with time in nine different filters, including UV (240-280 nm and 300-380 nm bands). The data suggest that brighter aurora penetrates deeper in the atmosphere than the average aurora. We will discuss correlation of visible aurora with UV aurora observed by UVIS instrument in several past observations. New estimates of the energies, timing, and depth of visible lightning flashes in unpublished 2009 data will be presented. Some of these flashes appear simultaneously (within 15 seconds) in different parts of the same 3000-km-scale cloud. The flash timing is correlated with the radio signals (Saturn Electrostatic discharges, or SEDs) detected by the RPWS instrument. We will discuss how optical energy of the lightning is related to the SED energy, to the total energy released by the lightning flash, and to the convective powers of lightning storms on Saturn.

  20. Titan below Saturn's magnetodisc: Results from 3D hybrid simulations and Cassini MAG observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Simon; U. M. Motschmann; F. M. Neubauer; A. Wennmacher; J. S. Saur; M. K. Dougherty

    2009-01-01

    In the idealized picture of Titan's plasma interaction deduced from Voyager 1 data, the ambient magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular to the moon's orbital plane. However, Cassini observations suggest that the situation is significantly more complex: Titan is typically located below (above) its parent planet's warped and highly dynamic magnetodisc in southern (northern) summer. The magnetic field near

  1. Results of the Workshop on Impact Cratering: Bridging the Gap Between Modeling and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrick, Robert (Editor); Pierazzo, Elisabetta (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    On February 7-9,2003, approximately 60 scientists gathered at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas, for a workshop devoted to improving knowledge of the impact cratering process. We (co-conveners Elisabetta Pierazzo and Robert Herrick) both focus research efforts on studying the impact cratering process, but the former specializes in numerical modeling while the latter draws inferences from observations of planetary craters. Significant work has been done in several key areas of impact studies over the past several years, but in many respects there seem to be a disconnect between the groups employing different approaches, in particular modeling versus observations. The goal in convening this workshop was to bring together these disparate groups to have an open dialogue for the purposes of answering outstanding questions about the impact process and setting future research directions. We were successful in getting participation from most of the major research groups studying the impact process. Participants gathered from five continents with research specialties ranging from numerical modeling to field geology, and from small-scale experimentation and geochemical sample analysis to seismology and remote sensing.With the assistance of the scientific advisory committee (Bevan French, Kevin Housen, Bill McKinnon, Jay Melosh, and Mike Zolensky), the workshop was divided into a series of sessions devoted to different aspects of the cratering process. Each session was opened by two invited t a b , one given by a specialist in numerical or experimental modeling approaches, and the other by a specialist in geological, geophysical, or geochemical observations. Shorter invited and contributed talks filled out the sessions, which were then concluded with an open discussion time. All modelers were requested to address the question of what observations would better constrain their models, and all observationists were requested to discuss how their observations can constrain modeling efforts.

  2. Sub-crustal earthquakes beneath the Gulf of Cadiz - First results from seismological observations with the NEAREST OBS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, W. H.; Matias, L. M.; Monna, S.; Stich, D.; Iben Brahim, A.; Mancilla, F.; Zitellini, N.; Nearest Working Group

    2009-04-01

    The geophysical and geological investigations conducted so far in the Gulf of Cadiz allow us today to have an idea of the largest active faults that can generate destructive earthquakes and tsunamis comparable to the Nov 1st, 1755 Lisbon event. However, their kinematics and seismic activity are poorly known because the seismic networks based on land do not allow a precise hypocenter location and estimation of focal mechanisms for the smaller events. Therefore the EC project NEAREST (Integrated observation from NEAR shore sourcES of Tsunamis: towards an early warning system) was initiated (GOCE, contract n. 037110). One of the main objectives of the project is the characterisation of the tsunamigenic sources in the Gulf of Cadiz through seismological monitoring of natural seismicity by means of 24 BB seismometers deployed for 11 months in addition to the GEOSTAR multi-parameter deep-sea observatory. Together with the dense onshore seismic networks the temporary OBS network will allow the location and characterization of small seismic events more precisely than it can be done with onshore stations only. Spectrograms are used to identify previously unknown earthquakes. One of the major questions is the maximum depth of seismic activity beneath the Gulf of Cadiz. In the recording period from September 2007 to August 2008 about 300 events were located within the OBS network using the Portuguese onshore seismic stations. Magnitudes range from 1 to 4.7 (ML from Institute of Meteorology Lisbon, Portugal). Using the OBS network many events could be detected which are not located by the onshore stations. First results show that the events occur to approximately 50 km depth, often deeper than the locations by land stations, and confirming the results available from regional and teleseismic waveform modelling. Focal mechanisms show strike-slip and thrust-slip events.

  3. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 ?m) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 ?m. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm?1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm?1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm?1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). Data from these instruments, as well as from frequently launched radiosondes, were used to characterize the atmospheric state needed as input for line-by-line radiative transfer calculations. By comparing these calculations with the TAFTS and AERI-ER observations, it is possible to test the effectiveness of ice crystal size distribution parameterizations (which are generally derived from mid-latitude and tropical in-situ observations) when applied to Arctic cirrus. The influence of the assumed single scattering properties (here calculated for ice aggregates by A. Baran of the UK Met Office) on the calculated spectra is also considered in this work.

  4. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of equatorial spread F: Results and observations in the Pacific sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

    2012-03-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

  5. Results of the First Coincident Observations by Two Laser-Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors

    E-print Network

    D. Nicholson

    1996-05-22

    We report an upper bound on the strain amplitude of gravitational wave bursts in a waveband from around 800Hz to 1.25kHz. In an effective coincident observing period of 62 hours, the prototype laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors of the University of Glasgow and Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, have set a limit of 4.9E-16, averaging over wave polarizations and incident directions. This is roughly a factor of 2 worse than the theoretical best limit that the detectors could have set, the excess being due to unmodelled non-Gaussian noise. The experiment has demonstrated the viability of the kind of observations planned for the large-scale interferometers that should be on-line in a few years time.

  6. Results of seismological observations in the western Kaliningrad region and in the Baltic Sea water area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovachev, S. A.

    2008-09-01

    In 2006 2007, researchers of the IO RAS conducted seismological observations in the Baltic Sea and western Kaliningrad region with the use of ocean-bottom and land-based autonomous seismic stations. According to maps of general seismic zoning of the territory of Russia, the Kaliningrad region is aseismic. However, a series of seismic phenomena with magnitudes of about 5 and sources located near the Bay of Gdansk coast occurred here in September 2004. The total duration of the IO RAS seismological observations in five areas of the region under investigation was more than 200 days. The analysis of seismic records of the IO RAS network located sources of two local weak earthquakes with magnitudes M L = 3.4 3.5, which indicates that the seismic process in the western part of the Kaliningrad region continues and the region is far from being seismically stable.

  7. Fracture Risk Among Breast Cancer Survivors Results From the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao Chen; Michael Maricic; Tamsen L. Bassford; Mary Pettinger; Cheryl Ritenbaugh; Ana Maria Lopez; David H. Barad; Margery Gass; Meryl S. LeBoff

    2005-01-01

    Background:Breast cancer and its treatment may com- promise bone health. We tested the hypothesis in the Women'sHealthInitiativeObservationalStudythatpost- menopausal survivors of breast cancer have a higher risk for fractures compared with women who have no can- cer history. Methods: A prospective cohort (5.1 years' follow-up) study design was used. Breast cancer survivors were womenwhoreportedahistoryofbreastcancer(n=5298). A reference group included women who had

  8. Studying air pollution with kitt peak solar flux atlas — analysis method and results of observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianguo Niu; Hiroaki Kuze; Nobuo Takeuchi

    2000-01-01

    For the measurement of atmospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD), Kitt Peak Solar Flux Atlas can be substituted as an extraterrestrial solar radiation. Compared\\u000a with differential analysis method, the Taylor expansion of integrated transfer equation underestimates the VCD. This underestimation\\u000a is as large as 35% when the amount of NO2 is 1 1017 cm?2 and observation is conducted with an

  9. Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helmut H. Wolff; Meinhard Kieser

    2007-01-01

    Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age\\u000a 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received\\u000a either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared\\u000a the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each

  10. The Vela Pulsar: Results from the First Year of Fermi LAT Observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; A. Allafort; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; M. G. Baring; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; A. Bouvier; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; S. Carrigan; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; Ö. Çelik; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; C. D. Dermer; A. de Luca; F. de Palma; M. Dormody; E. do Couto e. Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; G. Giavitto; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; D. Hadasch; A. K. Harding; E. Hays; G. Hobbs; D. Horan; R. E. Hughes; M. S. Jackson; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; S.-H. Lee; M. Lemoine-Goumard; M. Llena Garde; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; A. Makeev; R. N. Manchester; M. Marelli; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; S. McGlynn; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; A. Noutsos; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; M. Ozaki; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; M. Pierbattista; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; P. S. Ray; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; L. S. Rochester; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; C. Sgrò; E. J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; T. L. Usher; A. Van Etten; V. Vasileiou; C. Venter; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; K. Watters; P. Weltevrede; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

    2010-01-01

    We report on analysis of timing and spectroscopy of the Vela pulsar using 11 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The intrinsic brightness of Vela at GeV energies combined with the angular resolution and sensitivity of the LAT allows us to make the most detailed study to date of the energy-dependent

  11. Satellite observations of thermospheric tides: Results from the Wind Imaging Interferometer on UARS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles McLandress; Gordon G. Shepherd; Brian H. Solheim

    1996-01-01

    Thermospheric winds measured by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite are analyzed for migrating solar tides. The data cover a 2-year period commencing February 1992 and are obtained from the atomic oxygen O(1S) 557.7-nm emission, which provides observations of the 90- to 200-km altitude range during daytime and the 90- to 110-km range at night.

  12. Using auroral hiss to search for electron beams at Enceladus: Results from RPWS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisner, J. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Enceladus' southern plume ejects water vapor and dust that fill the Saturnian system, a small percentage of which are ionized near the moon. These ionized particles slow the local plasma and perturb the magnetic field near the moon. This kind of interaction is well understood from studies at comets and Jupiter's moon Io, but Enceladus differs from these examples due to the importance of the dust and the physical separation between the center of the perturbation and the solid moon. It is not possible to make in situ observations at all points around Enceladus, however Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) can remotely sense aspects of the interaction. If the thermal plasma cannot provide the currents required by the magnetic perturbations, electrons can be accelerated along the field to carry them. If this acceleration creates an electron beam, a plasma wave called "auroral hiss" may be generated and then propagate away from the source region. RPWS has observed this emission on flybys where Cassini crossed through the Enceladus flux tube. Using ray tracing techniques, we combine all of the RPWS auroral hiss observations to map out locations of electron beams near Enceladus. We find that electron beams, both parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, are generated near the flanks of the solid body. These generation regions appear to be restricted to the leading and trailing half of the Saturnward and anti-Saturnward flanks, respectively, of the solid body.

  13. Comparison of the Genesis solar wind regime algorithm results with solar wind composition observed by ACE

    SciTech Connect

    Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Steinberg, J. T (John T.); Barraclough, B. L. (Bruce L.); Dors, E. E. (Eric E.); Weins, R. C. (Roger C.); Neugebauer, Marcia; Reinard, A. (Alysha)

    2002-01-01

    Launched on 8 August 2001, the NASA Genesis mission is now collecting samples of the solar wind in various materials, and will return those samples to Earth in 2004 for analysis. A primary science goal of Genesis is the determination of the isotopic and elemental composition of the solar atmosphere from the solar wind material returned. In particular, Genesis will provide measurements of those species that are not provided by solar and in situ observations. We know from in situ measurements that the solar wind exhibits compositional variations across different types of solar wind flows. Therefore, Genesis exposes different collectors to solar wind originating from three flow types: coronal hole, coronal mass ejection (CME), and interstream flows. Flow types are identified using in situ measurements of solar wind protons, alphas, and electrons from electrostatic analyzers carried by Genesis. The flow regime selection algorithm and subsequent collector deployment on Genesis act autonomously. We present an assessment of composition variations of O, He, and Mg ions observed by ACE/SWICS concurrent with Genesis observations, and compare these to the Genesis algorithm decisions. Not only does this serve as a test of the algorithm, the compilation of composition vs. regime will be important for comparison to the abundances determined from sample analysis at the end of the mission.

  14. 9 Validation of Results Using TCP/Dual and TCP/Vegas In this chapter, we show that the DCA algorithms associated with TCP/Vegas and TCP/Dual are not able to

    E-print Network

    Martin, Jim

    146 9 Validation of Results Using TCP/Dual and TCP/Vegas In this chapter, we show that the DCA algorithms associated with TCP/Vegas and TCP/Dual are not able to reliably avoid packet loss and consequently by examining the performance of a TCP/Vegas and TCP/Dual model. The performance metrics of interest

  15. Dust Emissions Related to Convective Cold Pools along the Saharan Side of the Atlas Mountains: Observations, Climatology and Modelling Results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knippertz, P.; Deutscher, C.; Trentmann, J.; Seifert, A.; Kandler, K.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, L.

    2009-04-01

    Cooling by evaporation of convective precipitation in the deep and dry sub-cloud layer over desert regions can generate intense downdrafts, and long-lived and extensive atmospheric density currents. The strong gusts at their leading edges can cause so-called haboob dust storms. Despite their importance for the dust cycle, the climatology and the ability of state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models to realistically simulate the associated convective cold pools has been investigated very little to date. During the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco in May/June 2006 several density currents were observed. They were triggered by deep moist convection over the Atlas Mountains during the afternoon and propagated into the foothills in the course of the evening. The passage of the leading edge is associated with a marked increase in dew point, wind speed and pressure, a change in wind direction, and a decrease in temperature and visibility. Here we present numerical simulations of three of these density currents using the non-hydrostatic COSMO model with 2.8 km horizontal grid spacing, which allows an explicit treatment of deep convection. The model is capable of simulating the timely initiation of convective cells over the Atlas Mountains and the subsequent formation of long-lived, extensive cold pools with a realistic three-dimensional structure. Deviations from available surface and satellite observations are closely related to model deficiencies in simulating precipitating convection over the Algerian Sahara. Sensitivity studies with modified microphysics and boundary layer turbulence schemes reveal a large influence of raindrop size distributions on evaporation and surface rainfall, but a rather moderate influence on the cold pool evolution, while changes to the turbulence length scale affect all three parameters more substantially. In addition a climatology of density currents in southern Morocco is presented that is based upon 5 years of surface observation from the climate station network of the IMPETUS project (www.impetus.uni-koeln.de). The results show that density currents are predominantly a warm-season phenomenon with an occurrence maximum during the late afternoon and evening. Most systems reach southern Morocco from the Atlas Mountains, but on occasion density currents related to moist convection over the adjacent Mauritanian and Algerian Sahara are observed. The occurrence of density currents is linked with the passage of a weak disturbance across the region that allows a northward transport of moist tropical air along its eastern flank and then contributes to destabilizing the vertical column while over northwestern Africa.

  16. Neogene transtensive faulting in the Rawil axial depression (SW Switzerland): preliminary results from field observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giovanni Luca Cardello; Neil Mancktelow

    2010-01-01

    The Helvetic nappe stack in the Rawil depression between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs is affected by dominantly dextral transtensional faults developed or reactivated during the Neogene. This area shows the evolution of a fault system from partially ductile to brittle conditions and is currently one of the most seimogenically active zones in Switzerland. This field study aims to

  17. Sterile neutrinos help reconcile the observational results of primordial gravitational waves from Planck and BICEP2

    E-print Network

    Jing-Fei Zhang; Yun-He Li; Xin Zhang

    2014-12-17

    We show that involving a sterile neutrino species in the $\\Lambda$CDM+$r$ model can help relieve the tension about the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ between the Planck temperature data and the BICEP2 B-mode polarization data. Such a model is called the $\\Lambda$CDM+$r$+$\

  18. Autumn shows roundup

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Bloss

    2002-01-01

    A report on three major American automation shows where innovative products and automated assembly technologies formed a focus. Products reviewed include grippers, actuators, assembly modules, dispensing controller and pneumatic components from a number of suppliers.

  19. Artemisinin combination therapy can result in clinical failure if oral therapy is not directly observed

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Wilson W; Virmani, Divya; Pillai, Dylan R

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous artesunate therapy is the first-line therapy for severe malaria, and is highly efficacious when used in combination with an oral partner drug such as doxycycline or atovaquone-proguanil. However, treatment failure occurs routinely with artesunate monotherapy due to the very short half-life of this drug. In North America, experience with artesunate is limited. With the pressure to discharge patients early, administration of the essential oral partner drug is often left to the discretion of the patient. Thus, treatment failure may be commonplace if nonadherence is a factor, as was observed in the case described in the present report. PMID:24489564

  20. New Variable Stars Discovered by the APACHE Survey. II. Results After the Second Observing Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damasso, M.; Gioannini, L.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Calcidese, P.; Carbognani, A.; Cenadelli, D.; Christille, J.-M.; Giacobbe, P.; Lanteri, L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R.; Sozzetti, A.

    2015-06-01

    Routinely operating since July 2012, the APACHE survey has celebrated its second birthday. While the main goal of the project is the detection of transiting planets around a large sample of bright, nearby M dwarfs in the northern hemisphere, the APACHE large photometric database, consisting of hundreds of different fields, represents a relevant resource to search for and provide a first characterization of new variable stars. We celebrate here the conclusion of the second year of observations by reporting the discovery of 14 new variables.

  1. New Variable Stars Discovered by the APACHE Survey. II. Results After the Second Observing Season

    E-print Network

    Damasso, M; Bernagozzi, A; Bertolini, E; Calcidese, P; Carbognani, A; Cenadelli, D; Christille, J M; Giacobbe, P; Lanteri, L; Smart, M G Lattanzi R; Sozzetti, A

    2015-01-01

    Routinely operating since July 2012, the APACHE survey has celebrated its second birthday. While the main goal of the Project is the detection of transiting planets around a large sample of bright, nearby M dwarfs in the northern hemisphere, the APACHE large photometric database for hundreds of different fields represents a relevant resource to search for and provide a first characterization of new variable stars. We celebrate here the conclusion of the second year of observations by reporting the discovery of 14 new variables.

  2. Processing results of digitized photographic observations of Pluto from the collections of the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, L. V.; Shatokhina, S. V.; Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Andruk, V. M.

    2015-01-01

    The catalogue of 59 equatorial coordinates and magnitudes of the Pluto-Charon system for the period 1961-1990 was created based on digitized photographic observations from collections of the Joint Digital Archive of the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory obtained from five telescopes of three Ukrainian observatories. Developed software and scan processing techniques were successfully used. Parametric processing models were analyzed. The mean accuracy for the equatorial coordinates of Tycho-2 reference stars on digitized astronegatives is ±90 mas. The mean error of Tycho-2 B T magnitudes is ±0.32 m . Pluto positions were compared with the ephemeris JPL PLU43-DE431.

  3. Analysis of student’s responses to contradictory results obtained by simple observation or controlling variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikgyun Kim

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated students’ responses to presentations of experimental results that conflicted with their preconceptions\\u000a regarding electric circuits, and how those responses varied according to the type of inquiry skills required to obtain the\\u000a results. One hundred and twenty students of both sexes were randomly selected from a science high school in Korea. They were\\u000a questioned about their preconceptions regarding

  4. Flight Test Results of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Advanced Land Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.

    2002-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 ?m. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.

  5. First Results from High Angular Resolution ALMA Observations Toward the HL Tau Region

    E-print Network

    Partnership, ALMA; Perez, L M; Hunter, T R; Dent, W R F; Hales, A S; Hills, R; Corder, S; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Akiyama, E; Chapillon, E; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Gueth, F; Kawamura, A; Lee, C -F; Luong, Q Nguyen; Mangum, J; Pietu, V; Sanhueza, P; Saigo, K; Takakuwa, S; Ubach, C; van Kempen, T; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Liu, H -Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.075 arcseconds (10 AU) to 0.025 arcseconds (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analogue HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46.72pm0.05 degrees) and position angle (+138.02pm0.07 degrees). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index ($\\alpha$), which ranges from $\\alpha\\sim2.0$ in the optically-thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3-3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for ...

  6. Atmosphere-Ionosphere Response to the M9 Tohoku Earthquake Revealed by Joined Satellite and Ground Observations. Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Romanov, Alexey; Tsybulya, Konstantin; Davidenko, Dimitri; Kafatos, Menas; Taylor, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The recent M9 Tohoku Japan earthquake of March 11, 2011 was the largest recorded earthquake ever to hit this nation. We retrospectively analyzed the temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters - outgoing long wave radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC, Low-Earth orbit tomography and critical frequency foF2. These changes characterize the state of the atmosphere and ionosphere several days before the onset of this earthquake. Our first results show that on March 8th a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed from the satellite data and an anomaly developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. Starting on this day in the lower ionospheric there was also confirmed an abnormal TEC variation over the epicenter. From March 3-11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground based ionosondes, which return to normal after the main earthquake. We found a positive correlation between the atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies and the Tohoku earthquake. This study may lead to a better understanding of the response of the atmosphere/ionosphere to the Great Tohoku earthquake.

  7. Low energy upflowing ion events observed by EXOS-D: Initial results

    SciTech Connect

    Sagawa, E.; Iwamoto, I.; Watanabe, S. (Communications Research Lab., Santa Ana, CA (USA)); Whalen, B.A.; Yau, A.W. (National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Fukunishi, H. (Tohoku Univ. (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    Initial observations of low-energy upflowing ion events from the Suprathermal Ion Mass Spectrometer (SMS) on EXOS-D are presented. The SMS instrument on EXOS-D measures the mass composition, energy and angular distributions of thermal and suprathermal ions in the 0.1-4,000 eV/q energy-per-charge and 0.8-70 amu/q mass-per-charge ranges. Two events are examined. The first features predominantly conical ion pitch-angle distributions and the second has mainly field-aligned distributions. Both events displayed small scale variations in upward flux, composition, and angular characteristics, and coincided with small-scale magnetic field fluctuations. In both events, the peak He{sup +} and H{sup +} fluxes were comparable; the O{sup +} flux was a factor of 5-10 larger. The pitch-angle distribution often switched rapidly between field-aligned and conical.

  8. New results on the microstructure of amorphous silicon as observed by internal friction

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Jones, K.M.; Liu, X.; White, B.E. Jr.; Pohl, R.O.

    1997-07-01

    The authors have measured the low temperature internal friction (Q{sup {minus}1}) of amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Electron-beam evaporation leads to the well-known temperature-independent Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} plateau common to all amorphous solids. For hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with about 1 at.% H produced by hot wire chemical vapor deposition, however, the value of Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} is over two hundred times smaller than for e-beam a-Si. This is the first observation of an amorphous solid without any significant low energy excitations. This finding offers the opportunity to study amorphous solids containing controlled densities of tunneling defects, and thus to explore their nature.

  9. Observations of ionospheric electron content near the geomagnetic equator in Nha Trang (SRV) - Early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakowski, N.; Jungstand, A.; Binh, T. T.; Khuang, T. X.; Tan, N. D.

    Faraday-rotation observations have been started in Nha Trang in September 1986 using the ETS-II geostationary satellite. The subionospheric point at 11.4 deg N, 110.8 deg E is located close to the geomagnetic equator. The daytime variation occurs as a broad noon-afternoon maximum, sometimes modified by the well known noontime biteout effect. The ionospheric electron content is closely related to changes in the low-level solar activity during the day as well as during night. A seasonal variation could not be derived from the data. During the declining phase, a period of reduced loss has been found around 19-21 LT, indicated by a shoulder in the Faraday records. This phenomenon is assumed to be caused by an eastward-directed electric field.

  10. The Metal Content of Dwarf Starburst Winds: Results from Chandra Observations of NGC 1569

    E-print Network

    Crystal Martin; Henry Kobulnicky; Timothy Heckman

    2002-03-28

    (Abridged) We present deep, Chandra spectral imaging of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. The unprecedented spatial resolution allows us to spatially identify the components of the integrated \\x spectrum. Fitted spectral models require an intrinsic absorption component and higher metal abundances than previous studies indicated. Our results provide the first direct evidence for metal-enriched winds from dwarf starburst galaxies.

  11. Do Elephants Show Empathy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy A. Bates; Phyllis C. Lee; Norah Njiraini; Joyce H. Poole; Katito Sayialel; Soila Sayialel; Cynthia J. Moss; Richard W. Byrne

    2008-01-01

    Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty

  12. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  13. Demonstration Road Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-04-06

    The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

  14. Earthquake Damage Slide Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This slide show presents examples of various types of damage caused by earthquakes. Photos include structural failures in bridges and buildings, landshifts, landslides, liquefaction, fires, tsunamis, and human impacts. Supplemental notes are provided to aid instructors about the photos presented on each slide.

  15. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  16. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  17. Observation and analysis of residual stress development resulting from OH impurity in optical fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Kim; D. Y. Kim; U. C. Paek; W.-T. Han

    2002-01-01

    We report experimental results on the development of residual stress due to OH impurity in optical fibers. The effect of OH impurity on residual stress is demonstrated by direct residual stress measurement. The residual stress at the outer-cladding\\/jacketing-tube boundary of the fiber drawn at 3.48 N was found to be -61 MPa. The residual compressive stress is attributed to the

  18. Preliminary results and status report of the Hawaiian Scientific Observation Hole program

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Harry J.; Deymonaz, John E.

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI), an institute within the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, at the University of Hawaii at Manoa has drilled three Scientific Observation Holes (SOH) in the Kilauea East Rift Zone to assess the geothermal potential of the Big Island of Hawaii, and to stimulate private development of the resource. The first hole drilled, SOH-4, reached a depth of 2,000 meters and recorded a bottom hole temperature of 306 C. Although evidence of fossil reservoir conditions were encountered, no zones with obvious reservoir potential were found. The second hole, SOH- 1, was drilled to a depth of 1,684 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 206.1 C and effectively defined the northern limit of the Hawaii Geothermal Project-Abbott--Puna Geothermal Venture (HGP-A/PGV) reservoir. The final hole, SOH-2, was drilled to a depth of 2,073 meters, recorded a bottom hole temperature of 350.5 C and has sufficient indicated permeability to be designated as a potential ''discovery''. The SOH program was also highly successful in developing slim hole drilling techniques and establishing subsurface geological conditions.

  19. Show-Me Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

  20. The Truman Show

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rolf F. Nohr

    The Truman Show is hardly a film you would automatically speak about as a game. At first glance, it is tempting to interpret the story of\\u000a Truman Burbank — his perpetual subjection to the artificial (televisual) world of Seahaven and its gargantuan reality TV project,\\u000a his eventual escape from the “OmniCam Ecosphere” building and the paternalistic surveillance of director Christof

  1. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Spergel, D. N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Page, L.; Jarosik, N. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gold, B. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kogut, A.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: hinshaw@physics.ubc.ca [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

    2013-10-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? {sub b} h {sup 2}, ? {sub c} h {sup 2}, and ?{sub ?}, are each determined to a precision of ?1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to ?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m {sub ?} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

  2. Cloud Observation and Modeling Test Bed for Air Force Weather Applications: Overview and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobis, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for real-time cloud analysis and short range cloud forecasts to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes the Cloud Depiction and Forecast System (CDFS) II system to develop a hourly cloud analysis and short range forecast. The system creates cloud masks from 16 different satellite sources and optimally merges them to create the analysis. This analysis then forms the initialization field for a short range 'advective' based cloud forecast. Northrop Grumman Corp. has recently delivered a CDFS II based Cloud Model Test Bed. This system offers the ability to test several aspects of the CDFS II system including: the effect of adding and subtracting sources of cloud imagery, the effect of changing source and skill of required external data sources, and the impact of changing the cloud information merge process among the various sources. In addition, the test bed offers a capability to generate a robust cloud modeling baseline against which to measure progress of a next generation Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) based advanced data assimilation system. Finally, the test bed allows the development and testing of new cloud modeling validation techniques (and sources) to provide greater confidence in results generated from the test bed. This presentation will provide a basic overview of the CDFS II system and of the newly developed Test Bed and will include results from the first series of experiments conducted using the Test Bed.

  3. Some observational aspects and modeling results of the Orissa super cyclone, October 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, N. J.; Rao, D. B.

    2001-05-01

    The super cyclone that crossed the Orissa coast near Paradeep port (20.3 N, 86.7 E) around 0600 UTC on 29 October 1999, caused enormous damage - death of 10,000 people and 400,000 cattle, property damage worth Ind. Rs. 10,000 crores ( about USD 2 billion), salinization of about 1.8 million hectares of agricultural land, destruction of paddy crop paddy crop worth Ind. Rs.1,500 crores (USD 300 million), and severe damage to transmission lines, power supply, roads and buildings sustained severe damages. This cyclone was identified as a low pressure in the Gulf of Thailand on 24th October 1999. It moved westwards and gradually intensified reaching the intensity of a severe cyclonic storm on 27 October. The cyclone further intensified reaching very high intensity to be called as a super cyclone when it crossed the Orissa coast near Paradeep around 0600 UTC of 29 October. The observational installations on the Orissa coast were severely damaged and failed to record. However rough estimates have been made using the satellite and radar pictures. Average speed of the storm was about 20 km/hour and increased to 30 km/hour while intensifying, but reduced before and after crossing the coast. The central surface pressure is estimated as 912 hPa on 29 October with the T-number as T7; correspondingly the maximum wind speed is estimated as 260 km/hour with the radius of the eye at 15 km. Heavy rainfall was reported on 29, 30 and 31 October with maximum amounts of 955 mm in Bhadrak district of Orissa and 600-800 mm in Mahanadi river basin. A storm surge of 5 to 6m above the astronomical tide is reported at Paradeep on 29 October. All the above parameters, namely, strong winds with gale, torrential rains with heavy rainfall rate and high storm surge, caused the devastation. An attempt has been made to simulate the intensification and movement of the cyclone using a high resolution mesoscale model. The simulation study indicated that the models are capable of predicting the intensification of the storm as well as the movement. However the model errors range below 50 km with respect to the track.

  4. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

  5. Some further observations on droplet combustion characteristics - NASA LeRC-Princeton results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Mun Y.; Cho, Seog Y.; Dryer, Frederick L.; Haggard, John B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies are reviewed which are designed to examine the effects of droplet/gas motion, product-intermediate absorption, extinction, and sooting on droplet combustion. The experimental work at the NASA-Lewis Research Center involves a 2.2-s droptower for investigating microgravitational effects of droplet combustion over a relatively extended range. The droplet-gas velocities are very low because the spherosymmetrical nature of the major combustion processes produces a quiescent environment. The refined experimental results are combined with numerical modeling based on a technique that is fully transient, comprehensive, and has few empirical simplifications. The combination of techniques improves the present understanding of convection-induced effects, reducing soot formation, and promoting quiescent droplet combustion.

  6. Nursing care complexity in a psychiatric setting: results of an observational study.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, C; Marcucci, G; Carpico, A; Lancia, L

    2014-02-01

    For nurses working in mental health service settings, it is a priority to perform patient assessments to identify patients' general and behavioural risks and nursing care complexity using objective criteria, to meet the demand for care and to improve the quality of service by reducing health threat conditions to the patients' selves or to others (adverse events). This study highlights that there is a relationship between the complexity of psychiatric patient care, which was assigned a numerical value after the nursing assessment, and the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events in the recent histories of the patients. The results suggest that nursing supervision should be enhanced for patients with high care complexity scores. PMID:23379833

  7. The longitudinal extent of 3He rich SEP events during the weak solar cycle 24: A comparison of simulation results and multi-spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Impulsive 3He rich Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are usually produced by solar flares. Early observational results showed that the longitudinal extent for impulsive events is usually near 40 degrees. New observations during the weak solar cycle 24 from multi-spacecraft, e.g., STEREO A, STEREO B, and ACE, show that some impulsive 3He rich events can cover a much wider longitudinal extent. It seems that SEPs can still be observed on field lines far away from those directly connected to the source. As a result, the spread in longitude of SEP events is much larger than the width of sources. Particles' perpendicular diffusion can be used to explain such a wide extent. In this work, we use a Fokker-Planck focused transport equation to calculate the transport of SEPs in the three-dimensional Parker interplanetary magnetic field. Furthermore, we compare the numerical simulation results with the simultaneous spacecraft observations of STEREO A, B, and ACE. In this way, we can investigate how SEPs propagate in the heliospheric magnetic fields.

  8. Geomorphic expression of strike-slip faults: field observations vs. analog experiments: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, S. Y.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this project is to study the surface expression of strike-slip faults with main aim to find rules how these structures can be extrapolated to depth. In the first step, several basic properties of the fault architecture are in focus: (1) Is it possible to define the fault architecture by studying surface structures of the damage zone vs. the fault core, particularly the width of the damage zone? (2) Which second order structures define the damage zone of strike-slip faults, and how relate these to such reported in basement fault strike-slip analog experiments? (3) Beside classical fault bend structures, is there a systematic along-strike variation of the damage zone width and to which properties relates the variation of the damage zone width. We study the above mentioned properties on the dextral Altyn fault, which is one of the largest strike-slip on Earth with the advantage to have developed in a fully arid climate. The Altyn fault includes a ca. 250 to 600 m wide fault valley, usually with the trace of actual fault in its center. The fault valley is confined by basement highs, from which alluvial fans develop towards the center of the fault valley. The active fault trace is marked by small scale pressure ridges and offset of alluvial fans. The fault valley confining basement highs are several kilometer long and ca. 0.5 to 1 km wide and confined by rotated dextral anti-Riedel faults and internally structured by a regular fracture pattern. Dextral anti-Riedel faults are often cut by Riedel faults. Consequently, the Altyn fault comprises a several km wide damage zone. The fault core zone is a barrier to fluid flow, and the few springs of the region are located on the margin of the fault valley implying the fractured basement highs as the reservoir. Consequently, the southern Silk Road was using the Altyn fault valley. The preliminary data show that two or more orders of structures exist. Small-scale develop during a single earthquake. These finally accumulate to a several 100 m wide fault core, which is in part exposed at surface to arid climate and a km wide damage zone. The basic structures of analog experiments can be well transferred to nature, although along strike changes are common due to fault bending and fracture failure of country rocks.

  9. Aircraft microwave observations and simulations of deep convection from 18 to 183 GHz. II - Model results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hwa-Young M.; Prasad, N.; Mack, Robert A.; Adler, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    In this June 29, 1986 case study, a radiative transfer model is used to simulate the aircraft multichannel microwave brightness temperatures presented in the Adler et al. (1990) paper and to study the convective storm structure. Ground-based radar data are used to derive hydrometeor profiles of the storm, based on which the microwave upwelling brightness temperatures are calculated. Various vertical hydrometeor phase profiles and the Marshall and Palmer (M-P, 1948) and Sekhon and Srivastava (S-S, 1970) ice particle size distributions are experimented in the model. The results are compared with the aircraft radiometric data. The comparison reveals that the M-P distribution well represents the ice particle size distribution, especially in the upper tropospheric portion of the cloud; the S-S distribution appears to better simulate the ice particle size at the lower portion of the cloud, which has a greater effect on the low-frequency microwave upwelling brightness temperatures; and that, in deep convective regions, significant supercooled liquid water (about 0.5 g/cu m) may be present up to the -30 C layer, while in less convective areas, frozen hydrometeors are predominant above -10 C level.

  10. American History Picture Show

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Bennion

    2009-11-23

    In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

  11. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2009-02-01

    We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, ?. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ?CDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): ? b h 2 = 0.02267+0.00058 -0.00059, ? c h 2 = 0.1131 ± 0.0034, ?? = 0.726 ± 0.015, ns = 0.960 ± 0.013, ? = 0.084 ± 0.016, and ?_{R}^2 = (2.445± 0.096)× 10^{-9} at k = 0.002 Mpc-1. From these we derive ?8 = 0.812 ± 0.026, H 0 = 70.5 ± 1.3 km s-1 Mpc-1, ? b = 0.0456 ± 0.0015, ? c = 0.228 ± 0.013, ? m h 2 = 0.1358+0.0037 -0.0036, z reion = 10.9 ± 1.4, and t 0 = 13.72 ± 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0.22(95%CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dns /dln k = -0.028 ± 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 < 1 + w < 0.12(95%CL) and -0.0179 < ? k < 0.0081(95%CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N eff = 4.4 ± 1.5 (68% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N eff = 0 are disfavored at >99.5% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f local NL < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f equil NL < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  12. First-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Preliminary Maps and Basic Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.; Barnes, C.; Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Peiris, H. V.; Verde, L.; Weiland, J. L.

    2003-09-01

    We present full-sky microwave maps in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz) from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) first-year sky survey. Calibration errors are less than 0.5%, and the low systematic error level is well specified. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is separated from the foregrounds using multifrequency data. The sky maps are consistent with the 7° FWHM Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) maps. We report more precise, but consistent, dipole and quadrupole values. The CMB anisotropy obeys Gaussian statistics with -58results will improve. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

  13. Role of Silica Redistribution in the Rate-State Behavior of Megathrusts: Field Observations and Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. M.; Den Hartog, S. A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Observations of ancient fault zones and results of high temperature friction experiments indicate that silica redistribution influences the rate (response to velocity increases) and state (time-dependent healing) behavior of megathrusts. The Kodiak Accretionary Complex in Alaska has four shear zones that record plate boundary deformation: the Ghost Rocks mélange, the Uganik thrust, the Uyak mélange, and the central belt of the Kodiak Formation. All these examples of underplated rocks represent top-toward-the-trench shear zones that extend along the plate margin for 100's of kms. The first three examples were accreted within the seismogenic zone and record a progressive history from stratal disruption and particulate flow to localized shearing on pervasive web-like arrays of scaly microfaults in shales. Microfaults show evidence for silica dissolution and local reprecipitation in dilational stepovers and in intensely veined sandstone blocks. The fourth example (the central belt) was accreted further downdip, and these rocks have pervasive, regularly spaced en echelon quartz vein systems. Microstructures within veins indicate periodic cracking and sealing during progressive simple shear. Silica depletion zones adjacent to veins indicate diffusive transport of silica in response to local chemical potential gradients. A simple 1-D transport-kinetics model indicates that cracks in this case could be filled with quartz in less than a year and in as little as a week. Rock friction experiments on lithologies similar to Kodiak examples depict three distinct regimes of frictional behavior as a function of increasing temperature, with velocity weakening in a T range that can be related to the seismogenic zone. These three regimes are predicted by a model for gouge deformation that includes thermally activated pressure solution during shear of quartz grains embedded in a foliated matrix. The slip instabilities that characterize the seismogenic zone may therefore be related in part to grain scale diffusive mass transfer of silica. The observations of Kodiak Fault zones indicate that silica redistribution also plays an important role in the interseismic period through crack healing and dissolution of silica, both along the plate interface and within the adjacent rocks that store elastic strain.

  14. Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

    2011-12-01

    From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

  15. Preliminary Results of the Observations of a Meteor Shower of Comet C/2012 s1 (ison) in January 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubaev, A. V.; Bryukhanov, I. S.; Tabolich, A.; Tabolich, V.; Akulich, D.; Kulakovskaya, A.; Mechinsky, V. A.; Sergey, I. M.

    2014-05-01

    Dedicated researches on detection of possible meteoric activity in January 2014 connected with remains of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) have been conducted. This work is based on the observational material obtained at different points of the Earth by means of 10 CCD cameras equipped with <>-like lenses (<> camera) and FM radio observations. 43 meteor events were revealed by viewing 54,000 images from 10 to 17 January 2014. As a result of position measurements of CCD images, coordinates of the meteor radiant were found: ?_{R}=156°, ?_{R}=+38°. During this period (January 08 to January 24, 2014) an increase in the meteor activity above the level of the sporadic meteor background has been confirmed by FM-radio observations in Molodechno (Belarus) and Jaen (Spain)

  16. New Results from the Magellan IMACS Spectroscopic Ly? Survey: NICMOS Observations of Ly? Emitters at z = 5.7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L.; Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick; Sawicki, Marcin

    2010-08-01

    We present NICMOS J 110 (rest-frame 1200-2100 Å) observations of the three z = 5.7 Ly? emitters discovered in the blind multislit spectroscopic survey by Martin et al. These images confirm the presence of the two sources that were previously only seen in spectroscopic observations. The third source, which is undetected in our J 110 observations, has been detected in narrowband imaging of the Cosmic Origins Survey, so our non-detection implies a rest-frame equivalent width >146 Å (3?). The two J 110-detected sources have more modest rest-frame equivalent widths of 30-40 Å, but all three are typical of high-redshift Ly? emitters. In addition, the J 110-detected sources have UV luminosities that are within a factor of 2 of L*UV, and sizes that appear compact (r hl~ 0farcs15) in our NIC2 images—consistent with a redshift of 5.7. We use these UV-continuum and Ly? measurements to estimate the i 775-z 850 colors of these galaxies and show that at least one and possibly all three would be missed by the i-dropout Lyman break galaxy selection. These observations help demonstrate the utility of multislit narrowband spectroscopy as a technique for finding faint emission-line galaxies. This work is based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal 11183.

  17. Results from parallel observations of superconducting and absolute gravimeters and GPS at the Hsinchu station of Global Geodynamics Project, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Kao, Ricky; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Huang, Jiu-Fu; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Sato, Tadahiro

    2009-07-01

    The Hsinchu (HS) superconducting gravimeter (SG, serial T48) station is a newly established site in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP). Simultaneous observations of T48, three FG5 absolute gravimeters, and GPS at four stations are studied. GPS shows few mm a-1 of horizontal and vertical motions around HS. The calibration factor and drifting rate of T48 are -75.96 ± 0.07 ?Gal V-1 and 0.2 ± 0.7 ?Gal a-1 (1 ?Gal = 10-8 m s-2). Both the SG and absolute gravity records contain trends of about 2-3 ?Gal a-1. The ocean tide gravity effects (OTGEs) were estimated from NAO.99b, FES2004, and CSR4.0, and their amplitudes agree with the SG observations at the submicroGal level, but their phases differ from the observations up to 10°. The Newtonian effect of ocean tide contributes 20% to the total OTGE at HS, and it is larger at islands in the Taiwan Strait. The inelastic body tide model of Dehant et al. (1999) is more consistent with the SG observations than the elastic model. Modeled gravity-atmosphere admittances based on an exponential distribution of air mass explain well the observed admittances. The average gravity-atmosphere admittance during typhoons is 30% larger than that in a nontyphoon time. A list of coseismic gravity changes from T48 caused by earthquakes over 2006-2007 is given for potential studies of fault parameters. The modeled effects of atmospheric pressure, groundwater, soil moisture, and polar motion explain the FG5 observed gravity trend to 1.1 ?Gal a-1. Seasonally, the groundwater-induced gravity change contributes the most to the SG residual gravity, but its phase leads the latter by 63 days.

  18. The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilinski, Christopher; Williams, G. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, N.; Milne, P.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Dessart, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. Preliminary results from the SNSPOL project provide support for the increasingly popular hypothesis that many supernovae are aspherical explosion events. Thus far, we have observed 27 different SNe, many over multiple epochs, over the course of the last three years. While the history and evolution of these events is often studied with photometric and spectroscopic information, most supernovae are not studied with the combined advantage that spectropolarimetric data provides. The use of polarimetry allows us to probe the extent of the asphericity of the explosions while the use of spectroscopy allows us to characterize this asphericity across a variety of chemical species individually and as a function of velocity. Modern 3-D model simulations favor an explosion mechanism that is often inherently asymmetric in nature. Here, we showcase some of our initial results for the nearby type-IIb SN 2011dh that demonstrate the unique information that spectropolarimetric observations provide.

  19. Palomar and Table Mountain Observations of 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact Encounter: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, James M.; Weissman, Paul R.; Choi, Young-Jun; Troy, Mitchell; Young, James W.; Lisse, Carey M.; Dekany, Richard; Hanner, Martha S.; Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of the Palomar Adaptive Optics observations taken during the Deep Impact encounter with 9P/Tempel 1 in July 2005. We have combined the Palomar near-IR imaging data with our visual wavelength images obtained simultaneously at JPL's Table Mountain Observatory to cover the total wavelength range from 0.4 to 2.3 micrometers in the B, V, R, I, J, H, and K filter bands, spanning the dates from 2005 July 03-07.We also include in our overall analysis images taken on the pre-encounter dates of June 1 and June 15, 2005. The broad wavelength range of our observations, along with high temporal resolution, near-IR sensitivity, and spatial resolution of our imaging, have enabled us to place constraints on the temperature of the impact flash and incandescent plume of greater than 700 K, and to provide mean dust velocities of order 197 +/- 16 m/s approximately 1.25 h after impact derived from our 1.64 micro observations. Our ejected dust mass estimates, as derived from our near-IR observations, are an order of magnitude less than those previously reported for visual wavelength observations.

  20. Palomar and Table Mountain observations of 9P\\/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact encounter: First results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Bauer; Paul R. Weissman; Young-Jun Choi; Mitchell Troy; James W. Young; Carey M. Lisse; Richard Dekany; Martha S. Hanner; Bonnie J. Buratti

    2007-01-01

    We present the first results of the Palomar Adaptive Optics observations taken during the Deep Impact encounter with 9P\\/Tempel 1 in July 2005. We have combined the Palomar near-IR imaging data with our visual wavelength images obtained simultaneously at JPL's Table Mountain Observatory to cover the total wavelength range from 0.4 to 2.3 ?m in the B, V, R, I,

  1. In favour of the definition "adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis": juvenile and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis braced after ten years of age, do not show different end results. SOSORT award winner 2014

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The most important factor discriminating juvenile (JIS) from adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the risk of deformity progression. Brace treatment can change natural history, even when risk of progression is high. The aim of this study was to compare the end of growth results of JIS subjects, treated after 10 years of age, with final results of AIS. Methods Design: prospective observational controlled cohort study nested in a prospective database. Setting: outpatient tertiary referral clinic specialized in conservative treatment of spinal deformities. Inclusion criteria: idiopathic scoliosis; European Risser 0–2; 25 degrees to 45 degrees Cobb; start treatment age: 10 years or more, never treated before. Exclusion criteria: secondary scoliosis, neurological etiology, prior treatment for scoliosis (brace or surgery). Groups: 27 patients met the inclusion criteria for the AJIS, (Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis treated in adolescence), demonstrated by an x-ray before 10 year of age, and treatment start after 10 years of age. AIS group included 45 adolescents with a diagnostic x-ray made after the threshold of age 10 years. Results at the end of growth were analysed; the threshold of 5 Cobb degree to define worsened, improved and stabilized curves was considered. Statistics: Mean and SD were used for descriptive statistics of clinical and radiographic changes. Relative Risk of failure (RR), Chi-square and T-test of all data was calculated to find differences among the two groups. 95% Confidence Interval (CI) , and of radiographic changes have been calculated. Results We did not find any Cobb angle significant differences among groups at baseline and at the end of treatment. The only difference was in the number of patients progressed above 45 degrees, found in the JIS group. The RR of progression of AJIS was, 1.35 (IC95% 0.57-3.17) versus AIS, and it wasn't statistically significant in the AJIS group, in respect to AIS group (p = 0.5338). Conclusion There are no significant differences in the final results of AIS and JIS, treated with total respect of the SRS and SOSORT criteria, in adolescence. Brace efficacy can neutralize the risk of progression. PMID:25031608

  2. Observations and Parameterizations of Particle Size Distributions in Deep Tropical Cirrus and Stratiform Precipitation Clouds: Results from In-Situ Observations in TRMM Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Field, Paul R.; Durden, Stephen L.; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Dye, James E.; Hall, William; Grainger, Cedric A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we report on the evolution of particle size distributions (PSDs) and habits as measured during slow, Lagrangian-type spiral descents through deep subtropical and tropical cloud layers in Florida, Brazil, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, most of which were precipitating. The objective of the flight patterns was to learn more about how the PSDs evolved in the vertical and to obtain information of the vertical structure of microphysical properties. New instrumentation yielding better information on the concentrations of particles in the size (D) range between 0.2 and 2 cm, as well as improved particle imagery, produced more comprehensive observations for tropical stratiform precipitation regions and anvils than have been available previously. Collocated radar observations provided additional information on the vertical structure of the cloud layers sampled. Most of the spirals began at cloud top, with temperatures (T) as low as -50 C, and ended at cloud base or below the melting layer (ML). The PSDs broadened from cloud top towards cloud base, with the largest particles increasing in size from several millimeters at cloud top to one centimeter or larger towards cloud base. Some continued growth was noted in the upper part of the ML. Concentrations of particles less than 1 mm in size decreased with decreasing height. The result was a consistent change in the PSDs in the vertical. Similarly, systematic changes in the size dependence of the particle cross-sectional area was noted with decreasing height. Aggregation-as ascertained from both the changes in the PSDs and evolution of particle habits as observed in high detail with the cloud particle imager (CPI) probe-was responsible for these trends. The PSDs were generally well-represented by gamma distributions of the form N = N0 gamma D microns e- lambda gamma D that were fitted to the PSDs over 1-km horizontal intervals throughout the spirals. The intercept (N0 gamma), slope (lambda gamma), and dispersion (microns) values were derived for each PSD. Exponential curves (N = N0e- lambdaD; micron = 0) were also fitted to the distributions. The lambda gamma values for given spirals varied systematically with temperature as did the values of lambda (exponential), and the data generally conformed to values found in previous studies involving exponential fits to size distributions in mid-latitude frontal and cirrus layers. Considerable variability often noted in the PSD properties during the loops of individual spirals was manifested primarily in large changes in N0 gamma and N0, but micron, lambda gamma and lambda remained fairly stable. Temperature is not found to be the sole factor controlling lambda gamma or lambda but is a primary one. Direct relationships were found between lambda gamma and N0 gamma or lambda gamma and micron for the gamma distributions and lambda and N0 for the exponential. The latter relationship was not found as distinctly in earlier studies; observed PSDs in this study had better fidelity with less scatter. The micron values changed monotonically with T over the range of temperatures and were directly related to N0 gamma or lambda gamma, thereby reducing the number of variables in the PSD functional equation to two. In the upper part of the ML, N0 and lambda continued to decrease, and in the lower part these values began to increase as the largest particles melted. We developed general expressions relating various bulk microphysical, radar, and radiative transfer-related variables to N0 gamma and lambda gamma, useful for both tropical and mid-latitude clouds. These relationships facilitate the specification of a number of bulk properties in cloud and climate models. The results presented in this paper apply best to temperatures between 0 and -40 C, for which the measured radar reflectivities fall in the range of 0 to 25 dBZe.

  3. Validation of first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new limb-imaging FTS GLORIA with correlative MIPAS-STR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, W.; Sumi?ska-Ebersoldt, O.; Oelhaf, H.; Höpfner, M.; Belyaev, G. V.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Grooß, J.-U.; Gulde, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schardt, G.; Schönfeld, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Sha, M. K.; Stroh, F.; Ungermann, J.; Volk, C. M.; Orphal, J.

    2015-06-01

    We report first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new airborne limb-imaging infrared FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) GLORIA (Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere) and comparisons with observations by the conventional airborne limb-scanning infrared FTS MIPAS-STR (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding - STRatospheric aircraft). For GLORIA, the flights aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the ESSenCe campaign (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) were the very first in field deployment after several years of development. The simultaneous observations of GLORIA and MIPAS-STR during the flight on 16 December 2011 inside the polar vortex and under conditions of optically partially transparent polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provided us the first opportunity to compare the observations by two different infrared FTS generations directly. We validate the GLORIA results with MIPAS-STR based on the lower vertical resolution of MIPAS-STR and compare the vertical resolutions of the instruments derived from their averaging kernels. The retrieval results of temperature, HNO3, O3, H2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 show reasonable agreement of GLORIA with MIPAS-STR and collocated in situ observations. For the horizontally binned hyperspectral limb images, the GLORIA sampling outnumbered the horizontal cross-track sampling of MIPAS-STR by up to 1 order of magnitude. Depending on the target parameter, typical vertical resolutions of 0.5 to 2.0 km were obtained for GLORIA and are typically a factor of 2 to 4 better compared to MIPAS-STR. While the improvement of the performance, characterization and data processing of GLORIA are the subject of ongoing work, the presented first results already demonstrate the considerable gain in sampling and vertical resolution achieved with GLORIA.

  4. Simultaneous observations of plasmaspheric and ionospheric variations during magnetic storms in 2011: First result from Chinese Meridian Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi; Zhang, Qingmei; Chi, P. J.; Li, Chuanqi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract<p label="1">The plasma transport between the plasmasphere and ionosphere during magnetic storms is a long-standing problem and is still not fully understood. Simultaneous <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the plasmasphere and ionosphere are vital to understand the coupling between the two regions. In this study, using the measurements from the newly developed Chinese ground-based space weather monitoring network (Meridian Project), we investigate the plasmaspheric density at L ? 2 inferred from ground magnetometers and the ionospheric electron density inferred by digital ionosondes and GPS signals during magnetic storms in 2011. Five moderate magnetic storms with minimum Dst index between -47 and -103 nT during this period have been investigated. The <span class="hlt">observations</span> <span class="hlt">show</span> that the plasmaspheric density drops significantly by more than half of the prestorm value. The ionospheric F2 layer electron density NmF2 and the total electron content (TEC) <span class="hlt">show</span> ~20-50% decreases, and the NmF2 and TEC reductions take place before the plasmaspheric density reaches its minimum. These findings suggest that the plasmaspheric depletion is very likely due to the reduced plasma supply from the ionosphere for the five moderate magnetic storms in 2011. Therefore, the plasmasphere dynamics seems to be controlled by the ionosphere during magnetic storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/92014"><span id="translatedtitle">Pig and the Poultry <span class="hlt">Show</span> </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sloan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>directed toward 1ncreasing d1gestibi11ty of the gra1n. Fitch and Wolberg (2l) found that 435 of the grain of Kansas Orange and 36K of the grain of Atlas Sorgo s1lage was voided intact in the animal's feces. Analysis of the vo1ded grains <span class="hlt">showed</span>... whole kernels, but the starchy endosperm had been digested. Davis and Waldern (14) <span class="hlt">observed</span> that 7. 1~~ of the kernels and 1. 2? of the whole s1lage DM appeared in the feces as whole kernels. The propor- tion of in v1tro digestible dry matter ( IVDDM...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.P43B1918S"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND <span class="hlt">Results</span> for about Three Years of <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Introduction: More than 50 years ago, it was sug-gested that some areas near the lunar poles are suffi-ciently cold to trap and preserve for a very long time (~Gy) hydrogen bearing volatiles, either primordial or produced at the Moon via solar wind interactions or brought to the Moon as water ice by comets and mete-oroids [1,2]. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of <span class="hlt">observations</span> made by radar onboard the Clementine spacecraft and by neutron (LPNS) and gamma-ray (LPGRS) spectrometers onboard the Lunar Prospector mission have been inter-preted as an enhancement of hydrogen abundance in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) [3]. Unfortu-nately, the spatial resolution of these instruments were much broader than the size of any largest PSRs [4] requiring model dependent data deconvolution to res-lve signal from PSRs itself. Data Analysis: We would like to present updated <span class="hlt">results</span> of analysis of Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data for about three years of lunar mapping. Data measured by collimated LEND detectors allows one to look at neutron flux distribution at Moon poles with much better spatial resolution then was achieved at previous space missions. Using the LEND data we had tested the hypothesis that all PSRs are contain a large amount of water ice permafrost and test for hydrogen presents in regolith of regions outside of PSRs. Discussion: Both analyses of individual PSRs and studies of groups of PSRs have shown that these spots of extreme cold at lunar poles are not associated with a strong effect of epithermal neutron flux suppression [5]. We found only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the South and Rozhdestvensky U in the North, which manifest significant neutron suppression, from -5.5% to -14.9%. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, no more than few percentages, if at all. Some PSRs even display excess of neutron emis-sion in respect to sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, <span class="hlt">show</span> a marginal effect of small average suppression, ~2%, with low statistical confidence. A ~2% suppression corresponds to ~125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous Hydrogen distribution in depth in the regolith [6]. References: [1] Arnold, J. R. (1979) JGR, 84, 5659-5668. [2] Watson, K., Murray B. C. and Brown H. (1961) JGR, 66, 3033-3045. [3] Feldman W. C. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23231-23252. [4] Maurice S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04, 40 PP. [5] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483. [6] Sanin A.B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.4595B"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Volatile Transport on Pluto: New <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the 2013 <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Season and Preparation for the New Horizons Encounter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buratti, Bonnie; Dalba, Paul; Hicks, Michael; Chu, Devin; O'Neill, Ariel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The New Horizons spacecraft will encounter Pluto in July 2015 for a fast flyby and close investigation of the dwarf planet and its five known moons. With a time-constrained mission it is essential to acquire ground-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> for context and for a longer temporal excursion. An <span class="hlt">observing</span> program at JPL's Table Mountain Observatory (TMO) has been in operation during the past decade and a half, with a goal of seeking temporal changes on Pluto's surface. This program, which has been largely implemented by undergraduate students, seeks changes in the color and albedo of Pluto. Seasonal transport of volatiles is predicted to occur on Pluto, and this transport should be detectable through changes in its rotational light curve as well as in color and albedo, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been accounted for. Occultation studies have shown that there has been a steady increase in Pluto's atmospheric pressure over the past two decades, so concomitant sublimation and recondensation of frost has likely occurred, as predicted by volatile transport models. Rotational light curves of Pluto through time have been created for static frost models based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. These models, which account for changes in viewing geometry, have been compared with <span class="hlt">observed</span> light curves obtained between 1950 and 2013. No evidence for transport was evident prior to 2000. However, starting in the early part of the millennium, evidence from new <span class="hlt">observations</span> by HST (Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128) and rotational light curves obtained in 2007-2008 (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460) suggest changes in the frost pattern on Pluto's surface. An extensive and dedicated <span class="hlt">observing</span> program at TMO was conducted over a period of five months in 2013 during Pluto's opposition. New <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Pluto's light curve from the 2013 <span class="hlt">show</span> continued volatile transport, but the most striking change is in Pluto's color. As the New Horizons encounter approaches, Pluto's surface appears to be reddening, which would be consistent with the removal of nitrogen frost from its surface and the uncovering of photolyzed, methane-rich substrate underneath. New Horizons will most likely encounter an active Pluto. Funded by NASA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AJ....149..160R"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical Spectroscopic <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Gamma-ray Blazar Candidates. IV. <span class="hlt">Results</span> of the 2014 Follow-up Campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ricci, F.; Massaro, F.; Landoni, M.; D’Abrusco, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Stern, D.; Masetti, N.; Paggi, A.; Smith, Howard A.; Tosti, G.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>The extragalactic ?-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified ?-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic <span class="hlt">observations</span> are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate ?-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: (1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and (2) whenever possible, determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic <span class="hlt">observations</span> will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the <span class="hlt">results</span> of <span class="hlt">observations</span> carried out in 2014 in the northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory and in the southern hemisphere with the Southern Astrophysical Research telescopes. We also report three sources <span class="hlt">observed</span> with the Magellan and Palomar telescopes. Our selection of blazar-like sources that could be potential counterparts of UGSs is based on their peculiar infrared colors and on their combination with radio <span class="hlt">observations</span> both at high and low frequencies (i.e., above and below ?1 GHz) in publicly available large radio surveys. We present the optical spectra of 27 objects. We confirm the blazar-like nature of nine sources that appear to be potential low-energy counterparts of UGSs. Then we present new spectroscopic <span class="hlt">observations</span> of 10 active galaxies of uncertain type associated with Fermi sources, classifying all of them as blazars. In addition, we present the spectra for five known ?-ray blazars with uncertain redshift estimates and three BL Lac candidates that were <span class="hlt">observed</span> during our campaign. We also report the case for WISE J173052.85?035247.2, candidate counterpart of the source 2FGL J1730.6?0353, which has no radio counterpart in the major radio surveys. We confirm that our selection of ?-ray blazars candidates can successfully indentify low-energy counterparts to Fermi unassociated sources and allow us to discover new blazars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3913K"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary <span class="hlt">Results</span> of The GPS and Gps/glonass <span class="hlt">Observations</span> Performed At The New Sites In Jozefoslaw</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kujawa, L.; Figurski, M.</p> <p></p> <p>The paper presents first <span class="hlt">results</span> of the GPS and GPS/Glonass <span class="hlt">observations</span> performed at the permanent station in Jozefoslaw. Since end of 2001 two new recivers: Trim- ble CORS Station with Dorne Margolin antenna and Ashtech dual system Z18 with GPS/Glonass Dorn Margolin antenna have been worked in the Observatory and older Trimble 4000SSE with Geodetic L1/l2 antenna at the known IGS/EUREF site JOZE. This situation creates new possibilities of monitoring and analyse local geophysical phenomena and also good conditions to determine instrumental errors. Presented pre- liminary analysis will be continuing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002JAtS...59.3457H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> and Parameterizations of Particle Size Distributions in Deep Tropical Cirrus and Stratiform Precipitating Clouds: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from In Situ <span class="hlt">Observations</span> in TRMM Field Campaigns.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Field, Paul R.; Durden, Stephen L.; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Dye, James E.; Hall, William; Grainger, Cedric A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>This study reports on the evolution of particle size distributions (PSDs) and habits as measured during slow, Lagrangian-type spiral descents through deep subtropical and tropical cloud layers in Florida, Brazil, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, most of which were precipitating. The objective of the flight patterns was to learn more about how the PSDs evolved in the vertical and to obtain information of the vertical structure of microphysical properties. New instrumentation yielding better information on the concentrations of particles in the size (D) range between 0.2 and 2 cm, as well as improved particle imagery, produced more comprehensive <span class="hlt">observations</span> for tropical stratiform precipitation regions and anvils than have been available previously. Collocated radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> provided additional information on the vertical structure of the cloud layers sampled.Most of the spirals began at cloud top, with temperatures (T) as low as 50°C, and ended at cloud base or below the melting layer (ML). The PSDs broadened from cloud top toward cloud base, with the largest particles increasing in size from several millimeters at cloud top, to 1 cm or larger toward cloud base. Some continued growth was noted in the upper part of the ML. Concentrations of particles less than 1 mm in size decreased with decreasing height. The <span class="hlt">result</span> was a consistent change in the PSDs in the vertical. Similarly, systematic changes in the size dependence of the particle cross-sectional area was noted with decreasing height. Aggregation-as ascertained from both the changes in the PSDs and evolution of particle habits as <span class="hlt">observed</span> in high detail with the cloud particle imager (CPI) probe-was responsible for these trends.The PSDs were generally well-represented by gamma distributions of the form N = N0DeD that were fitted to the PSDs over 1-km horizontal intervals throughout the spirals. The intercept (N0), slope (), and dispersion () values were derived for each PSD. Exponential curves (N = N0eD; = 0) were also fitted to the distributions. The values for given spirals varied systematically with temperature as did the values of <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif"> (exponential), and the data generally conformed to values found in previous studies involving exponential fits to size distributions in midlatitude frontal and cirrus layers. Considerable variability often noted in the PSD properties during the loops of individual spirals was manifested primarily in large changes in N0<IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/CAP/Gamma.gif"> and N0, but <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/muI.gif">, <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif"><IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/CAP/Gamma.gif">, and <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif"> remained fairly stable. Temperature is not found to be the sole factor controlling <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif"><IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/CAP/Gamma.gif"> or <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif">, but is a primary one. Direct relationships were found between <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif"><IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/CAP/Gamma.gif"> and N0<IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/CAP/Gamma.gif">, or <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/lambdaI.gif"><IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/CAP/Gamma.gif"> and <IMG border="0" src="/charent/GREEK/UNACCENTED/LOWERCASE/muI.gif">, for the gamma distributions, and <</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513467D"><span id="translatedtitle">Aircraft simultaneous measurements of NO2, total peroxy nitrate, total alkyl nitrate, and HNO3: <span class="hlt">observations</span> and main <span class="hlt">results</span> from UK, Boreal forest and Central Italy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Carlo, Piero; Aruffo, Eleonora; Busilacchio, Marcella; Giammaria, Franco; Dari-Salisburgo, Cesare; Biancofiore, Fabio; Visconti, Guido; Lee, James; Moller, Sarah; Reeves, Claire C.; Bauguitte, Stephane; Forster, Grant; Jones, Roderic; Ouyang, Bin; Palmer, Paul I.; Parrington, Mark; McQuaid, Jim; Krejci, Radek</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>A four-channel thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF) instrument for simultaneous measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total peroxy nitrate, total alkyl nitrate and nitric acid, was installed three years ago on the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe 146-301 atmospheric research aircraft. Since summer 2010 the TD-LIF has successfully flown in five field campaigns: RONOCO I (summer 2010, UK), SeptEx (summer 2010, UK), RONOCO II (winter 2011, UK), BORTAS (summer 2012, Canada) and SONATA (summer 2012, Italy). In this presentation will be <span class="hlt">show</span> the main characteristics of the TD-LIF and the <span class="hlt">observations</span> collected during the five campaigns above. The main <span class="hlt">results</span> achieved in each campaign will be reported and emphasis will be given to the role of NOx, total peroxy and total alkyl nitrates in the different environments <span class="hlt">observed</span> to date.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.00762.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids <span class="hlt">observed</span> by Pan-STARRS PS1 - preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vereš, Peter; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; Chastel, Serge; Wainscoat, Richard; Burgett, William; Chambers, Ken; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nick; Magnier, Eugen; Morgan, Jeff; Price, Paul; Tonry, John; Waters, Chris</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We present the <span class="hlt">results</span> of a Monte Carlo technique to calculate the absolute magnitudes (H) and slope parameters (G) of about 240,000 asteroids <span class="hlt">observed</span> by the Pan-STARRS1 telescope during the first 15 months of its 3-year all-sky survey mission. The system's exquisite photometry with photometric errors asteroid's rotation period, amplitude and color to derive the most-likely H and G, but its major advantage is in estimating realistic statistical+systematic uncertainties and errors on each parameter. The method was confirmed by comparison with the well-established and accurate <span class="hlt">results</span> for about 500 asteroids provided by Pravec et al. (2012) and then applied to determining H and G for the Pan-STARRS1 asteroids using both the Muinonen et al. (2010) and Bowell et al. (1989) phase functions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.1940H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea ice motion and open water area at the Ronne Polynia, Antarctica: Synthetic aperture radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> versus model <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hollands, T.; Haid, V.; Dierking, W.; Timmermann, R.; Ebner, L.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This study deals with <span class="hlt">observations</span> and simulations of the evolution of coastal polynias focusing on the Ronne Polynia. We compare differences in polynia extent and ice drift patterns derived from satellite radar images and from simulations with the Finite Element Sea Ice Ocean Model, employing three atmospheric forcing data sets that differ in spatial and temporal resolution. Two polynia events are analyzed, one from austral summer and one from late fall 2008. The open water area in the polynia is of similar size in the satellite images and in the model simulations, but its temporal evolution differs depending on katabatic winds being resolved in the atmospheric forcing data sets. Modeled ice drift is slower than the <span class="hlt">observed</span> and reveals greater turning angles relative to the wind direction in many cases. For the summer event, model <span class="hlt">results</span> obtained with high-resolution forcing are closer to the drift field derived from radar imagery than those from coarse resolution forcing. For the late fall event, none of the forcing data yields outstanding <span class="hlt">results</span>. Our study demonstrates that a dense (1-3 km) model grid and atmospheric forcing provided at high spatial resolution ( < 50 km) are critical to correctly simulate coastal polynias with a coupled sea-ice ocean model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1506.05577.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Peak Bagging of red giant stars <span class="hlt">observed</span> by Kepler: first <span class="hlt">results</span> with a new method based on Bayesian nested sampling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Corsaro, Enrico</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The peak bagging analysis, namely the fitting and identification of single oscillation modes in stars' power spectra, coupled to the very high-quality light curves of red giant stars <span class="hlt">observed</span> by Kepler, can play a crucial role for studying stellar oscillations of different flavor with an unprecedented level of detail. A thorough study of stellar oscillations would thus allow for deeper testing of stellar structure models and new insights in stellar evolution theory. However, peak bagging inferences are in general very challenging problems due to the large number of <span class="hlt">observed</span> oscillation modes, hence of free parameters that can be involved in the fitting models. Effciency and robustness in performing the analysis is what may be needed to proceed further. For this purpose, we developed a new code implementing the Nested Sampling Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm, a powerful statistical method well suited for Bayesian analyses of complex problems. In this talk we <span class="hlt">show</span> the peak bagging of a sample of high signal-to-noi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.3157W"><span id="translatedtitle">Ground based MAX-DOAS measurements of the total water vapor column and comparison with model <span class="hlt">results</span> and satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, T.; Mies, K.; Beirle, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Multi-AXis- (MAX-) DOAS instruments <span class="hlt">observe</span> scattered sun light under different, mostly slant elevation angles. From such measurements the tropospheric profile or column density of many atmospheric trace gases like e.g. NO2 or HCHO can be derived. Here we analyse the total atmospheric column density of water vapor from MAX-DOAS measurements made at Mainz, Germany in 2011. We performed measurements in the red spectral range, where water vapor <span class="hlt">shows</span> some very characteristic and strong absorption features. The determination of the atmospheric water vapor column density (the so called vertical column density, VCD) is performed in three steps: first the slant column density of H2O is analysed from the measured spectra of scattered sun light. Second, a correction for the saturation of the H2O absorption is performed, which arises from the fact that the narrow H2O absorption lines are not resolved by our instrument. Third, the geometric approximation is applied to deterine the H2O VCD from the retrieved H2O slant column densities. In contrast to <span class="hlt">observations</span> at shorter wavelengths, the application of the geometric approximation should lead to smaller errors because of the much weaker Rayleigh-scattering by air moilecules in the red spectral range. Also the effects of clouds are expected to be relatively mall, at least for mid and high level clouds. Information on the cloud properties can be derived from the simultaneously measured absorption of the oxygen molecule (O2) and oxygen dimer (O4). We compare our MAX-DOAS H2O VCD to indepenent data sets like satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> and model simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMOS23A..06D"><span id="translatedtitle">The New York Harbor <span class="hlt">Observation</span> System (NYHOS): Preliminary <span class="hlt">Results</span> on Real-Time Quality Control of Hourly Reported Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dardier, G. M.; Bruno, M. S.; Blumberg, A. F.; Fullerton, B. J.; Herrington, T. O.; Zagrai, E.; Turner, J. W.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>The New York Harbor <span class="hlt">Observation</span> System is a regional integrated system dedicated to monitoring the New York Harbor area through model-directed <span class="hlt">observations</span> and model forecast for security and surveillance purposes. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> encompass a unique combination of sensors, both at fixed stations and upon dynamic platforms. Measurements include surface and bottom CTD (YSI) from numerous shore-side and buoy stations, moored ADCP (RDI) and bottom CTD (SeaBird) from a cross river transect, High Frequency radars (CODAR) as well as surface CTD (Seabird) from a series of ferries. The combined data allow an optimal fine coverage of the studied area of the order of 50{km}2, within a time window of 60 min. Transmission is performed hourly via wireless transmission (both UHF conventional radio and cellular), cable or regular telephone lines. In order to insure the quality of the newly collected data, we proceed in two steps. First, we test our data for quality control using the NDBC man-machine mix data control protocols. These protocols concern in particular data associated with physical processes, such as sea level, water temperature, conductivity and salinity. They focus on transmission errors, gross range and time-continuity checks and wind gust to wind speed checks, following D.B. Gilhousen (1998) specifications. We then test our data for quality control using protocols based on static as well as dynamic checks as proposed by Miller et al. (2003). We address in particular spatial and temporal data disparity <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from the operational mode of the instrumented ferries using wavelets following Mallat, (1998). Assuming the physical data is temporally constant within a one hour time frame, the fine model grid, used by the system's nowcast and forecast model, is filled using simple data interpolation. The modified data persistence analysis can then be used as background for horizontal consistency checks. <span class="hlt">Results</span> of the two approaches are compared in terms of detection percentage and false alarm percentage. Shore-based and moored CTD are used as reference values to test the ferry data when possible. Then, <span class="hlt">results</span> on salinity and temperature disparities in the New York harbor as functions of space and time scales are shown. Adapted algorithms, derived from these <span class="hlt">results</span>, are discussed in details.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SoPh..288..117W"><span id="translatedtitle">The Greenwich Photo-heliographic <span class="hlt">Results</span> (1874 - 1976): Summary of the <span class="hlt">Observations</span>, Applications, Datasets, Definitions and Errors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Willis, D. M.; Coffey, H. E.; Henwood, R.; Erwin, E. H.; Hoyt, D. V.; Wild, M. N.; Denig, W. F.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The measurements of sunspot positions and areas that were published initially by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and subsequently by the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), as the Greenwich Photo-heliographic <span class="hlt">Results</span> ( GPR), 1874 - 1976, exist in both printed and digital forms. These printed and digital sunspot datasets have been archived in various libraries and data centres. Unfortunately, however, typographic, systematic and isolated errors can be found in the various datasets. The purpose of the present paper is to begin the task of identifying and correcting these errors. In particular, the intention is to provide in one foundational paper all the necessary background information on the original solar <span class="hlt">observations</span>, their various applications in scientific research, the format of the different digital datasets, the necessary definitions of the quantities measured, and the initial identification of errors in both the printed publications and the digital datasets. Two companion papers address the question of specific identifiable errors; namely, typographic errors in the printed publications, and both isolated and systematic errors in the digital datasets. The existence of two independently prepared digital datasets, which both contain information on sunspot positions and areas, makes it possible to outline a preliminary strategy for the development of an even more accurate digital dataset. Further work is in progress to generate an extremely reliable sunspot digital dataset, based on the programme of solar <span class="hlt">observations</span> supported for more than a century by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. This improved dataset should be of value in many future scientific investigations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900051311&hterms=acidity&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dacidity"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and vertical distribution of acidity and ionic composition in clouds - Comparison between modeling <span class="hlt">results</span> and <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Defelice, T. P.; Saxena, V. K.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Cyclic temporal variations of pH and ionic concentration in sampled clouds which traversed the Mt. Mitchell State Park (North Carolina) site during the summers of 1986, 1987, and 1988 are reported. These clouds typically had a measured pH minimum during their initial and final stages. The cause of this basic cylic pattern is attributed to sampling at different vertical levels of the cloud. This is substantiated by visual <span class="hlt">observations</span> made while sampling. The <span class="hlt">results</span> also suggest that the measured pH patterns do not always exhibit minima during the formative and dissipative stages of the cloud, apparently in response to the underlying dynamical processes. The relationship between temporal pH measurements made at a stationary site to vertical cloud levels provides insights into the physical processes (e.g., nucleation scavenging near cloud base, dry air entrainment near cloud top) influencing the <span class="hlt">observed</span> cloud-water chemistry on a real-time basis and would improve cloud chemistry models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21255161"><span id="translatedtitle">PKS 2155-304 in July 2006: H.E.S.S. <span class="hlt">results</span> and simultaneous multi-wavelength <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Boisson, Catherine; Sol, Helne; Zech, Andreas [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Meudon (France); Benbow, Wystan; Buehler, Rolf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Costamante, Luigi; Raue, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Giebels, Berrie; Superina, Giulia [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Pita, Santiago [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland); Punch, Michael [APC, CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); Volpe, Francesca [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France)</p> <p>2008-12-24</p> <p>The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest and best-studied VHE {gamma}-ray sources in the southern hemisphere. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has monitored PKS 2155-304 in 2006 and a multi-wavelength campaign involving X-ray, optical and radio observatories was triggered by the detection of an active state in July 2006, followed by the detection of two extraordinary flares on July, 28th and 30th, with peak fluxes {approx}100 times the usual values. We present <span class="hlt">results</span> from the spectral and flux variability analysis of the VHE and simultaneous X-ray <span class="hlt">observations</span> with Chandra during the second flare, as well as the detailed evolution of the VHE flux of PKS 2155-304 <span class="hlt">observed</span> by H.E.S.S. in 2006. A study of flux correlations in the different frequency ranges during the second flare and the adjacent nights is discussed. We also present an interpretation of the active state of PKS 2155-304 in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MNRAS.397.1177E"><span id="translatedtitle">Methods and <span class="hlt">results</span> of an automatic analysis of a complete sample of Swift-XRT <span class="hlt">observations</span> of GRBs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; O'Brien, P. T.; Willingale, R.; Starling, R. L. C.; Burrows, D. N.; Godet, O.; Vetere, L.; Racusin, J.; Goad, M. R.; Wiersema, K.; Angelini, L.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J. A.; Margutti, R.; Morris, D. C.; Mountford, C. J.; Pagani, C.; Perri, M.; Romano, P.; Tanvir, N.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>We present a homogeneous X-ray analysis of all 318 gamma-ray bursts detected by the X-ray telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite up to 2008 July 23; this represents the largest sample of X-ray GRB data published to date. In Sections 2-3, we detail the methods which the Swift-XRT team has developed to produce the enhanced positions, light curves, hardness ratios and spectra presented in this paper. Software using these methods continues to create such products for all new GRBs <span class="hlt">observed</span> by the Swift-XRT. We also detail web-based tools allowing users to create these products for any object <span class="hlt">observed</span> by the XRT, not just GRBs. In Sections 4-6, we present the <span class="hlt">results</span> of our analysis of GRBs, including probability distribution functions of the temporal and spectral properties of the sample. We demonstrate evidence for a consistent underlying behaviour which can produce a range of light-curve morphologies, and attempt to interpret this behaviour in the framework of external forward shock emission. We find several difficulties, in particular that reconciliation of our data with the forward shock model requires energy injection to continue for days to weeks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.3313.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Super-Droplet Approach to Simulate Precipitating Trade-Wind Cumuli - Comparison of Model <span class="hlt">Results</span> with RICO Aircraft <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Arabas, Sylwester</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In this study we present a series of LES simulations employing the Super-Droplet Method (SDM) for representing aerosol, cloud and rain microphysics. SDM is a particle-based and probabilistic approach in which a Monte-Carlo type algorithm is used for solving the particle collisions and coalescence process. The model does not differentiate between aerosol particles, cloud droplets, drizzle or rain drops. Consequently, it covers representation of such cloud-microphysical processes as: CCN activation, drizzle formation by autoconversion, accretion of cloud droplets, self-collection of raindrops and precipitation including aerosol wet deposition. Among the salient features of the SDM, there are: (i) the robustness of the model formulation (i.e. employment of basic principles rather than parametrisations) and (ii) the ease of comparison of the model <span class="hlt">results</span> with experimental data obtained with particle-counting instruments. The model set-up used in the study is based on <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the Rain In Cumulus over Oc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.3101B"><span id="translatedtitle">Inverting GPS Radio Occultation Data Using The Canonical Transform Method: <span class="hlt">Results</span> From Simulation Studies and Champ <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beyerle, G.; Gorbunov, M. E.; Marquardt, C.; Reigber, Ch.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.</p> <p></p> <p>Sounding Earth's atmosphere by GPS radio occultation is a key objective of the Chal- lenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite launched in July 2000. First <span class="hlt">results</span> from CHAMP indicate that temperature profiles with good accuracy (about 1.5 K) and high vertical resolution can be derived from the mid-troposphere to the upper strato- sphere. In the lower troposphere, however, the inversion process is frequently compli- cated by the occurrence of multi-path propagation rendering solutions using retrieval techniques based on single-ray propagation worthless. Recently, the canonical trans- form (CT) method has been introduced by one of us (M.E.G.) to solve the problem of calculating bending angle profiles within sub-caustic zones. The CT method uses the connection between geometrical and wave optics. The geometric optical rays are described by the Hamilton system in the corresponding phase space. In geometrical optics disentangling individual rays in multi-path zones can be performed by means of a canonical transform such that the projection of the ray manifold to the new ge- ometric coordinate is unique. The corresponding asymptotic transform of the wave field to the single ray representation is then given by the Fourier integral operator as- sociated with the canonical transform. Multiple phase screen simulation studies using refractivity profiles derived from radiosonde measurements demonstrate that the CT method accurately reproduces the true refraction angle profile. In contrast, the stan- dard single-ray retrieval yields dry temperatures deviating by more than 10 K from the <span class="hlt">observed</span> values. About 4000 CHAMP occultation profiles <span class="hlt">observed</span> between 14 May and 10 June 2001 have been processed with the CT method. We present first <span class="hlt">results</span> and compare these with corresponding profiles obtained by the standard retrieval.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990027438&hterms=BRAID&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DBRAID"><span id="translatedtitle">The Distant Tail at 200 R(sub E): Comparison Between Geotail <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and the <span class="hlt">Results</span> from a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports a comparison between Geotail <span class="hlt">observations</span> of plasmas and magnetic fields at 200 R(sub E) in the Earth's magnetotail with <span class="hlt">results</span> from a time-dependent, global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The study focuses on <span class="hlt">observations</span> from July 7, 1993, during which the Geotail spacecraft crossed the distant tail magnetospheric boundary several times while the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and was marked by slow rotations of its clock angle. Simultaneous IMP 8 <span class="hlt">observations</span> of solar wind ions and the IMF were used as driving input for the MHD simulation, and the <span class="hlt">resulting</span> time series were compared directly with those from the Geotail spacecraft. The very good agreement found provided the basis for an investigation of the response of the distant tail associated with the clock angle of the IMF. <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the simulation <span class="hlt">show</span> that the stresses imposed by the draping of magnetosheath field lines and the asymmetric removal of magnetic flux tailward of the cusps altered considerably the shape of the distant tail as the solar wind discontinuities convected downstream of Earth. As a <span class="hlt">result</span>, the cross section of the distant tail was considerably flattened along the direction perpendicular to the IMF clock angle, the direction of the neutral sheet following that of the IMF. The simulation also revealed that the combined action of magnetic reconnection and the slow rotation of the IMF clock angle led to a braiding of the distant tail's magnetic field lines along the axis of the tail, with the plane of the braid lying in the direction of the IMF.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H41E0856K"><span id="translatedtitle">Validation of SCS CN Method for Runoff Estimation with Field <span class="hlt">Observed</span> Regression Analysis <span class="hlt">Results</span> in Venna Basin, Central India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katpatal, Y. B.; Paranjpe, S. V.; Kadu, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Effective Watershed management requires authentic data of surface runoff potential for which several methods and models are in use. Generally, non availability of field data calls for techniques based on remote <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Soil Conservation Services Curve Number (SCS CN) method is an important method which utilizes information generated from remote sensing for estimation of runoff. Several attempts have been made to validate the runoff values generated from SCS CN method by comparing the <span class="hlt">results</span> obtained from other methods. In the present study, runoff estimation through SCS CN method has been performed using IRS LISS IV data for the Venna Basin situated in the Central India. The field data was available for Venna Basin. The Land use/land cover and soil layers have been generated for the entire watershed using the satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS). The Venna basin have been divided into intercepted catchment and free catchment. Run off values have been estimated using field data through regression analysis. The runoff values estimated using SCS CN method have been compared with yield values generated using data collected from the tank gauge stations and data from the discharge stations. The correlation helps in validation of the <span class="hlt">results</span> obtained from the SCS CN method and its applicability in Indian conditions. Key Words: SCS CN Method, Regression Analysis, Land Use / Land cover, Runoff, Remote Sensing, GIS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19105754"><span id="translatedtitle">Science <span class="hlt">results</span> from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science <span class="hlt">observations</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Science <span class="hlt">results</span> from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science <span class="hlt">observations</span> made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span>: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical <span class="hlt">results</span> were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote <span class="hlt">observations</span> based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions. PMID:19105754</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AnGeo..32.1163M"><span id="translatedtitle">New <span class="hlt">results</span> of structured VLF emissions <span class="hlt">observed</span> simultaneously at two closely located stations near L ~ 5.5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manninen, J.; Kleimenova, N. G.; Fedorenko, Yu. V.; Bespalov, P. A.; Turunen, T.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Simultaneous records of VLF (very low frequencies) emissions have been carried out at two ground-based stations located at similar geomagnetic latitudes near L ~ 5.5 and spaced in the longitude by ~ 400 km, Kannuslehto (KAN) in Finland and Lovozero (LOZ) in Russia, using quite similar VLF receivers with two calibrated orthogonal air-core loop antennas. We found that the general spectral properties of the VLF chorus emissions at these two stations were similar and typically have right-hand polarization. Contrary to VLF chorus, the short-period VLF emissions (periodic emissions, PE) in which separated spectral elements are repeated with the periodicity of 3-4 s were mostly left-hand polarized. Usually, these waves propagated in the north-south direction. We suppose that PEs are generated inside of the plasmasphere by the cyclotron instability under a quasi-linear relaxation of the energetic electron distribution function. However, sometimes PE occurred only at an individual station. We speculated that this could be due to the influence of the local inhomogeneities to the VLF waves during the propagation through the ionospheric trough to the ground. Unusual series of short-duration (10-100 s) bursts of VLF emissions, lasting several hours, were also found in the morning under very quiet geomagnetic conditions (Kp ~ 0-1). Generally, these emissions were <span class="hlt">observed</span> simultaneously at KAN and LOZ <span class="hlt">showing</span> both right-hand and left-hand polarization, and different arrival directions provided the rather extended ionospheric exit area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12598092"><span id="translatedtitle">Eu3+ uptake by calcite: preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span> from coprecipitation experiments and <span class="hlt">observations</span> with surface-sensitive techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stipp, S L S; Lakshtanov, L Z; Jensen, J T; Baker, J A</p> <p>2003-03-01</p> <p>A lack of information in databases for contamination risk assessment about the transport behaviour of the trivalent f-orbital elements in groundwater systems where calcite is at equilibrium motivated this study of Eu(3+) uptake. The free drift technique was used to examine the effects of Eu(3+) concentration, presence of Na(+) or K(+) and temperature, as well as calcite nucleation and precipitation kinetics, on the partitioning of calcite. Changes in surface composition and morphology <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from exposure of single crystals of Iceland spar to Eu(3+)-bearing solutions were <span class="hlt">observed</span> with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). First <span class="hlt">results</span> confirm that calcite has high affinity for Eu(3+). Rates of nucleation and precipitation strongly affect the extent of uptake but the presence of Na(+) and K(+) has no effect, suggesting formation of solid solution as CaCO(3)-EuOHCO(3). Surface-sensitive techniques prove that Eu(3+) is adsorbed to calcite even when the surface is dissolving and adsorption is not accompanied by precipitation of a separate Eu(3+)-solid phase. Adsorbed Eu modifies calcite's dissolution behaviour, roughening terraces and rounding step edges, and producing surface morphology where some surface sites appear blocked. <span class="hlt">Results</span> imply that Eu(3+) concentrations in natural calcites are limited by Eu(3+) availability rather than by a lack of ability to fit into calcite's atomic structure. This behaviour can probably be expected for other trivalent rare Earth elements (REE), actinides and fission products whose behaviour is similar to that of Eu(3+). These elements are likely to be incorporated within the calcite bulk in systems where it is precipitating and the demonstrated strong partitioning ensures some uptake even where calcite is at or under saturation. PMID:12598092</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003AcASn..44..270H"><span id="translatedtitle">A brief description of <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">results</span> from supersoft X-ray detector on board spacecraft Shenzhou-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hang, H. R.; Zhang, N.; Yu, M.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">results</span> from super soft x-ray detector (SD) belong to the space astronomy sub-system onboard spacecraft Shenzhou-2 (SZ-2) are briefly described. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts, solar x-ray bursts, high energy charged particles and soft x-ray background radiation are concerned. SD is a proportional counter with thin polypropylene foil window of 50 mm diameter and operates in an energy range between 0.23 --- 3.0 keV divided into six energy channels. Two time resolutions are used: 40 ms for recording the burst event; 520 ms when there are not trigger signal <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from burst event. The light curves and energy spectra of two cosmic gamma-ray bursts started at 010117/09:37:25.21UT and 010309/12:33:55.692UT are shown in Fig. 1a --- 2b. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of two solar X-ray bursts started at 010406/19:14:09.11UT and 010520/06:02:12.58UT are shown in Fig. 3a --- 4b. SD was recording the ambient high energy charged particles when there were no burst events and its shutter of window was closed. 110 data sets of high energy charged particles along the orbit of spacecraft have been obtained. The variations of counting rate of such data are shown in Fig.6a, 6b, 8e, 8f and 7 as examples. More than 10 events of particle precipitation induced by solar proton events were also recorded, some such events are shown in Fig.6c---6f and 7. Some soft x-ray background radiation were obtained as shown in Fig.8a---8d when the shutter of window was opened; it is import for processing the data of burst events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/nh0143.sheet.00003a/"><span id="translatedtitle">Plan <span class="hlt">Showing</span> Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section <span class="hlt">Showing</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Plan <span class="hlt">Showing</span> Cross Bracing Under Upper Stringers, Typical Section <span class="hlt">Showing</span> End Framing, Plan <span class="hlt">Showing</span> Cross Bracing Under Lower Stringers, End Elevation - Covered Bridge, Spanning Contoocook River, Hopkinton, Merrimack County, NH</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4206620"><span id="translatedtitle">Fumarate treatment in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis: first <span class="hlt">results</span> of a single-center <span class="hlt">observational</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Strassburger-Krogias, Katrin; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Krogias, Christos; Altmeyer, Peter; Chan, Andrew</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: Therapeutic options in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are still limited. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immunomodulatory properties but may also exert antioxidative cytoprotective effects. Hence, it may be a therapeutic option for progressive MS. The aim of this <span class="hlt">observational</span> study was to evaluate safety, adherence and efficacy of fumarates in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) or secondary progressive MS. Methods: Patients with progressive MS whose condition had failed to respond to standard therapies and had worsened received the fumarate mixture Fumaderm, licensed for psoriasis therapy in Germany, or DMF by pharmaceutical preparation (Bochum ethics approval no. 4797-13). At regular follow-up visits, tolerability and disease course were assessed. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: Twenty-six patients [age 54 ± 7.8 years; female = 13 (50%); PPMS = 12 (46.2%); Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) = 6.0 ± 0.4 (range 3.5–8.0); disease duration = 14.1 ± 8.7 years] were initiated on treatment with Fumaderm (n = 18) or pharmacy-prepared DMF (n=8). During a mean follow-up period of 13.2 ± 7.5 months (range 6–30) only five patients (19.2%) reported minor complaints. In 15 patients (57.7%) EDSS remained stable. In five cases (19.2%) there was even a decrease in EDSS while in six patients (23.1%) there was an increase in EDSS of more than 0.5 points, reflecting deterioration. Laboratory values were controlled for lymphopenia, renal and hepatic values, without any safety problems. We <span class="hlt">observed</span> no significant differences between the two pharmaceutical forms. Conclusion: Our pilot data indicate that fumarate therapy appears to be safe and well tolerated by patients with progressive MS. In more than 75% of cases no further disease progression was evident. However, controlled studies are warranted to evaluate the detailed therapeutic potential of fumarates and their long-term effects in progressive MS. PMID:25342977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25237767"><span id="translatedtitle">Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: <span class="hlt">Results</span> of a longitudinal <span class="hlt">observational</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D; Salsbury, Stacie A; Goertz, Christine M</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Objective : Doctors of chiropractic (DCs) use manual cervical distraction to treat patients with neck pain. Previous research demonstrates variability in traction forces generated by different DCs. This article reports on a training protocol and monthly certification process using bioengineering technology to standardize cervical traction force delivery among clinicians. Methods : This longitudinal <span class="hlt">observational</span> study evaluated a training and certification process for DCs who provided force-based manual cervical distraction during a randomized clinical trial. The DCs completed a 7-week initial training that included instructional lectures, <span class="hlt">observation</span>, and guided practice by a clinical expert, followed by 3 hours of weekly practice sessions delivering the technique to asymptomatic volunteers who served as simulated patients. An instrument-modified table and computer software provided the DCs with real-time audible and visual feedback on the traction forces they generated and graphical displays of the magnitude of traction forces as a function of time immediately after the delivery of the treatment. The DCs completed monthly certifications on traction force delivery throughout the trial. Descriptive accounts of certification attempts are provided. <span class="hlt">Results</span> : Two DCs achieved certification in traction force delivery over 10 consecutive months. No certification required more than 3 attempts at C5 and occiput contacts for 3 force ranges (0-20 N, 21-50 N, and 51-100 N). Conclusions : This study demonstrates the feasibility of a training protocol and certification process using bioengineering technology for training DCs to deliver manual cervical distraction within specified traction force ranges over a 10-month period. PMID:25237767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AAS...22324662W"><span id="translatedtitle">Strategies to <span class="hlt">observe</span> JWST First Light objects at z=10--20 based on recent <span class="hlt">results</span> from the HUDF XDF</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cohen, S. H.; Jansen, R. A.; Driver, S. P.; Robotham, A.; Alpaslan, M.; Lange, R.; Hopkins, A. M.; Cluver, M.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Barone-Nugent, Robert L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We reflect on the best <span class="hlt">observing</span> strategies to see an optimum number of First Light objects at 10-20 with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), based on recent <span class="hlt">results</span> from the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 UltraDeep Field. First, we summarize the best available data to redshifts z<8 on how the Schechter UV Luminosity Function (LF) evolves in its faint-end slope [alpha(z)], its characteristic luminosity [M*(z)] and corresponding space density [phi*(z)], and use hierarchical models to explore how alpha(z) and phi*(z) may evolve for z>8. We use the strongly declining number of z=9-11 candidates in the HUDF-XDF compared to the large number of z=7-8 objects, to constrain the plausible range in evolution of M*(z) for z> 9. While hierarchical models suggest that alpha(z>8) converges to ~-2 and phi*(z>8) to ~< 10^-3/Mpc^3, the one plausible =10-12 candidate seen in the HUDF-XDF suggests that M*(z) may drop to fainter than M=--17.5 mag at z>10 in WMAP9/Planck cosmology. If so, this may have a significant impact on the optimal <span class="hlt">observing</span> strategies of z>10 objects with JWST. If M*(z) and/or phi*(z) continue to decline significantly for z>9, only deep 200+-hr JWST surveys that reach to AB>31 mag will see a significant number of z>10 objects. Shallow or medium deep JWST surveys that reach to AB<30 mag will not see very many unlensed z>10 objects, since they will generally sample brighter than M* at z>10. Hence, in order to sample the brighter-end of the LF at z>10, and to average over the expected significant cosmic variance at z>10, JWST will either need to <span class="hlt">observe</span> a larger number (>5) of deep JWST fields, and/or it will need to do a much larger number (>10-20) of medium-deep surveys on gravitational lensing foreground targets. The 6 Hubble Frontier Fields that started in 2013 are excellent lensing targets for JWST. We present a subset of 2400 galaxy groups from the GAMA spectroscopic survey to z=0.4 that have M>10^15 M_o and are sufficiently compact to also be excellent lensing targets for JWST medium-deep surveys of First Light objects at z>10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820061309&hterms=electric+current&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528electric%2Bcurrent%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial <span class="hlt">results</span> on the correlation between the magnetic and electric fields <span class="hlt">observed</span> from the DE-2 satellite in the field-aligned current regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sugiura, M.; Maynard, N. C.; Farthing, W. H.; Heppner, J. P.; Ledley, B. G.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Initial <span class="hlt">results</span> of the electric and magnetic field <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the DE-2 satellite <span class="hlt">show</span> a remarkably good correlation between the north-south component of the electric field and the east-west component of the magnetic field in many passes of the field-aligned current regions. For a dayside cusp pass on August 15, 1981 the coefficient of correlation between these components was 0.996. A preliminary inspection of the available data from the first 6 months of the DE operation indicates that the similarity between the electric and magnetic field signatures of the field-aligned currents is a commonly <span class="hlt">observed</span> feature at all local times. This high correlation is interpreted to be an indication that the closure of the field-aligned current is essentially meridional. When the correlation between these components is not good, the closure current is likely to be flowing along the auroral belt. When the correlation between the electric and magnetic fields is high, it is possible to estimate the height-integrated Pedersen conductivity from the <span class="hlt">observed</span> field components.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMSA13A1082E"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft <span class="hlt">observations</span>: initial <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>England, S. L.; Immel, T. J.; Park, S. H.; Frey, H. U.; Mende, S. B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on-board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to <span class="hlt">observe</span> plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image analysis technique, Tracking Of Airglow Depletions (TOAD), has been developed. TOAD allows the objective identification and tracking of depletions. The automation of this process has also allowed for the tracking of a greater number of depletions than previously achieved without requiring any human input, which <span class="hlt">shows</span> that TOAD is suitable for use with large data sets and for future routine monitoring of the ionosphere from space. Furthermore, this allows the drift velocities of each depletion to be determined as a function of magnetic latitude as well as local time. Previous ground-based airglow <span class="hlt">observations</span> from a small number of locations have indicated that the drift velocities of depletions may vary rapidly with magnetic latitude. Here we shall present the first <span class="hlt">results</span> from TOAD of this shear in drift velocities from our global sample of depletion drift velocities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0809.0897v3"><span id="translatedtitle">iVINE - Ionization in the parallel tree/SPH code VINE: First <span class="hlt">results</span> on the <span class="hlt">observed</span> age-spread around O-stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>M. Gritschneder; T. Naab; A. Burkert; S. Walch; F. Heitsch; M. Wetzstein</p> <p>2008-11-10</p> <p>We present a three-dimensional, fully parallelized, efficient implementation of ionizing UV radiation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) including self-gravity. Our method is based on the SPH/tree code VINE. We therefore call it iVINE (for Ionization + VINE). This approach allows detailed high-resolution studies of the effects of ionizing radiation from e.g. young massive stars on their turbulent parental molecular clouds. In this paper we describe the concept and the numerical implementation of the radiative transfer for a plain-parallel geometry and we discuss several test cases demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the new method. As a first application, we study the radiatively driven implosion of marginally stable molecular clouds at various distances of a strong UV source and <span class="hlt">show</span> that they are driven into gravitational collapse. The <span class="hlt">resulting</span> cores are very compact and dense exactly as it is <span class="hlt">observed</span> in clustered environments. Our simulations indicate that the time of triggered collapse depends on the distance of the core from the UV source. Clouds closer to the source collapse several $10^5$ years earlier than more distant clouds. This effect can explain the <span class="hlt">observed</span> age spread in OB associations where stars closer to the source are found to be younger. We discuss possible uncertainties in the <span class="hlt">observational</span> derivation of shock front velocities due to early stripping of proto-stellar envelopes by ionizing radiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2580Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea salt, sulfate, nitrate, chloride in Asian dust particles <span class="hlt">observed</span> in Japan: <span class="hlt">results</span> of individual particle analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Daizhou; Yamada, Maromu; Tobo, Yutaka; Ogata, Hiroko; Hara, Kazutaka; Nagatani, Tetsuji; Matsuki, Atsushi; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Lieke, Kirsten</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric particles were collected in Japan during Asian dust storm events from 2000 to 2007. Dust particles were analyzed by using electron microscopes and the mixture state of individual dust particles with sea salt, sulfate, nitrate and chloride were investigated. About 60~85% of dust particles were internally mixed with sea salt, 91% or more dust particles contained sulfate, and 27% or less contained nitrate. Besides the coagulation of sea-salt and dust particles, chlorine could deposit onto dust particles through the absorption of chlorine-containing gases when the particles passed through the marine atmosphere between China and Japan. The quantitative estimation revealed that the chlorine deposition on many particles was not negligible compared to sulfur deposition. The preferential formation of chloride in Ca-rich dust particles in cases when the particles contain little or no sulfate was found. Most of the particles were in an amorphous state and nearly spherical even under high vacuum, implying the potential enhancement of dust hygroscopicity. Comparisons of the relative weight ratios of sodium, sulfur and chlorine in mixture particles and in sea salt particles <span class="hlt">showed</span> that mineral materials could enhance particulate sulfate and nitrate formation and restrain chlorine depletion from the sea salt components in mixture particles. Size distributions of the particles segregated by the mixture degrees of mineral and sea salt in different dust storm events were similar and all distributions <span class="hlt">showed</span> a diameter range of 1~8 ?m with maximum mode around 3 ?m. Out of 1~8 ?m, dust particles were rarely detected. It is confirmed that the size increase of dust particles had a strong correlation with their sea salt content but was independent from their non-sea-salt sulfur content, suggesting that the growth of dust particles in size during their dispersion in the marine atmosphere was dominated by the combination with sea salt rather than by other processes such as surface uptake of sulfate. Estimates of size shift of dust particles due to sea salt adhering indicated that mixing with sea salt had caused their size distributions to shift to larger ranges approximately by 0.4 ~ 0.8 ?m during the particles passed the marine atmosphere between China and Japan. Since size and density of a particle are two key parameters in determining its settling velocity, it is expected that the combination of dust particles with sea salt might largely change the settling velocity of dust particles to the surface and consequently the sedimental flux of mineral dust to sea surface in the marine atmosphere. Estimates with the <span class="hlt">observational</span> data from six dust events revealed that, due to sea salt adhering, the gravitational settling flux of mineral dust increased approximately 14 ~ 17% in well-mixed events and 4 ~ 6% in less-mixed events, indicating the importance of considering this effect in the schemata of particle gravitational settling when mapping dust flux to the ocean. This presentation provides the data of Asian dust to the presentation (by K. Lieke et al.) about the comparison of African dust and Asian dust <span class="hlt">observed</span> at islands close to the continents where they were originated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/0910.5137v1"><span id="translatedtitle">Casimir experiments <span class="hlt">showing</span> saturation effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bo E. Sernelius</p> <p>2009-10-27</p> <p>We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We <span class="hlt">show</span> that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment <span class="hlt">observed</span> in all these cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21316494"><span id="translatedtitle">Casimir experiments <span class="hlt">showing</span> saturation effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)</p> <p>2009-10-15</p> <p>We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We <span class="hlt">show</span> that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment <span class="hlt">observed</span> in all these cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=USGSPUBS&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70003790"><span id="translatedtitle">Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R.E.; Squyres, S.W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F., III; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Johnson, J.R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W., Jr.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops <span class="hlt">shows</span> that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground <span class="hlt">observations</span> and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.7014E..0TI"><span id="translatedtitle">FMOS: the fiber multiple-object spectrograph: Part VI. Onboard performances and <span class="hlt">results</span> of the engineering <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iwamuro, Fumihide; Maihara, Toshinori; Akiyama, Masayuki; Kimura, Masahiko; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Tait, Philip; Ohta, Kouji; Eto, Shigeru; Moritani, Yuuki; Dalton, Gavin B.; Lewis, Ian J.; Lee, Hanshin; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Froud, Tim R.; Murray, Graham J.; Blackburn, Colin; Bonfield, David G.; Gillingham, Peter R.; Smedley, Scott; Smith, Greg A.; Frost, Gabriella</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>FMOS: the Fiber Multiple-Object Spectrograph is the next common-use instrument of the Subaru Telescope, having a capability of 400 targets multiplicity in the near-infrared 0.9-1.8?m wavelength range with a field coverage of 30' diameter. FMOS consists of three units: 1) the prime focus unit including the corrector lenses, the Echidna fiber positioner, and the instrument-bay to adjust the instrument focus and shift the axis of the corrector lens system, 2) the fiber bundle unit equipping two fiber slits on one end and a fiber connector box with the back-illumination mechanism on the other end on the bundle, 3) the two infrared spectrographs (IRS1 and IRS2) to obtain 2×200 spectra simultaneously. After all the components were installed in the telescope at the end of 2007, the total performance was checked through various tests and engineering <span class="hlt">observations</span>. We report the <span class="hlt">results</span> of these tests and demonstrate the performance of FMOS.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A13B0246S"><span id="translatedtitle">Mixed phase cloud <span class="hlt">observation</span> in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard: Preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span> from the May-June 2011 experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiobara, M.; Uchiyama, A.; Yamazaki, A.; Kobayashi, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Clouds and aerosols are key elements having the potential to change climate by their radiative effects on the energy balance in the global climate system. In the Arctic, we have been continuing ground-based remote-sensing measurements for clouds and aerosols using a sky-radiometer, a micro-pulse lidar and an all-sky camera in Ny-Alesund (78.9N, 11.9E), Svalbard. In addition to the regular operations, we have performed an intensive <span class="hlt">observation</span> campaign for mixed phase clouds in May-June 2011. This campaign aimed at low-level clouds to investigate cloud optical and microphysical properties and cloud-aerosol interaction processes in the Arctic, mainly from cloud radiation measurements and active remote-sensing at the surface, and in-situ microphysics measurements at the Norwegian Zeppelin Station located at a 474 meters high mountain-side. The instrumentation for in-situ measurements includes conventional cloud microphysics probes, i.e., DMT CAPS and Gerber PVM-100, and a newly developed cloud particle microscopic imager for cloud water/ice particle size distributions and the effective radius. The Rion KR-12A aerosol particle counter and the TSI 3007 condensation particle counter were placed in the ropeway cabin for measuring particle number and size distribution to see the difference between in-cloud and below-cloud conditions. We will present preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span> from the in-situ cloud measurements for several days during the May-June 2011 field experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://offices.ext.vt.edu/botetourt/roanoke_area_jr_livestock_show.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Roanoke Area Junior Livestock <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Liskiewicz, Maciej</p> <p></p> <p>& Computations Tom Stanley, Chairman Tyler Painter Beth Hawse Katherine Carter Ribbons & Record Keeping Carolyn Supper at Arena 6:00 PM Hog <span class="hlt">Show</span>: Showmanship, Market Hog <span class="hlt">Show</span> and Breeding Gilt <span class="hlt">Show</span> 7:00 pm Check</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMNS42A..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary analysis <span class="hlt">results</span> of the Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Observation</span> by a High Resolution Along-Track Interferometric SAR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kojima, S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>There are many requirements to detect the moving targets such as cars and ships in SAR images as well as to measure their speed. In particular, there are strongly requirements to detect ships and measure the ocean waves and the sea surface currents regardless of the time or the weather in the case of the ship accidents or the oil spill accidents because the rescue operation should be operated at the anytime. To satisfy these requirements, NICT developed the airborne along-track interferometric SAR (AT-InSAR) system in 2011. Kojima[1][2] carried out the preliminary experiments using a truck and ship to check its function and clarify its capability for the detection of the moving targets, and confirmed that its performance was satisfied with its specifications. The purpose of this study is to make clear the relationship between the phenomena on the sea surface such as the ocean waves and the velocity estimated from the AT-InSAR data, and the capability of the sea surface measurement by the AT-InSAR. In addition, the method to estimate wave directional spectra from AT-InSAR data is developed. The sea surface <span class="hlt">observation</span> was carried out 3 km off the coast of Ooarai, the northeast of Tokyo, JAPAN on the 23th of August 2011. I <span class="hlt">observed</span> the sea surface in the fine special resolution (0.3 m) and took a special average (1 m) to reduce noise. First of all, I estimated the wave velocity from the AT-InSAR images and calculated the 2D wave number spectra from it. And then, I estimated the directional wave spectra using the dispersion relation. As a <span class="hlt">result</span>, it was clarified that the ocean waves could be measured by the AT-InSAR. In addition, it made clear that the bow waves and stern waves generated by a running ship could be detected by AT-InSAR. References [1] S. Kojima, T. Umehara, J. Uemoto, T. Kobayashi, M. Satake and S. Uratsuka, 'Development of Pi-SAR2 Along-Track Interferometric SAR System', IGARSS 2013, pp. 3159-3162, Aug. 2013. [2] S. Kojima, 'Evaluation of the Ship Detection by Dual Polarimetric Along-Track Interferometry', APSAR 2013, in printing, Sep. 2013. Acknowledgement I would like to acknowledge the support of Pi-SAR2 term for this experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ut0339.photos.159505p/"><span id="translatedtitle">6. VIEW <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> SEEPAGE CONTROL ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>6. VIEW <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> DOWNSTREAM FACE OF DAM, <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> SEEPAGE CONTROL REINFORCEMENT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, East Timothy Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 8.4 miles North of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca1937.photos.315841p/"><span id="translatedtitle">10. INTERIOR VIEW <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW <span class="hlt">SHOWS</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>10. INTERIOR VIEW <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> MOUNTINGS FROM TUNING DEVICE. VIEW <span class="hlt">SHOWS</span> COPPER SHEETING ON WALLS. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Helix House, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50343802"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent <span class="hlt">results</span> from a nested multi-static HF radar network for the NorthEast <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (NEOS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. T. Kohut; S. M. Glenn; H. J. Roarty</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Summary form only given. Anested HF radar network has been deployed along the New Jersey coast as part of the New Jersey Shelf <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (NJSOS) and the larger regional NorthEast <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (NEOS). A 25 MHz standard system (range about 50 km) setup for continuous operation since 1999 includes two sites in Brant Beach and Brigantine, New Jersey. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS54A..08W"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the Canada Basin: <span class="hlt">Results</span> From Beaufort Gyre <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Program/Joint Ocean Ice Studies Expeditions, 2003-2014.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, W. J.; Proshutinsky, A. Y.; Krishfield, R. A.; Timmermans, M. L. E.; Yamamoto-Kawai, M.; Li, W.; Zimmermann, S.; Hutchings, J.; McLaughlin, F.; Carmack, E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Annual expeditions, that make use of ships, moorings and ice tethered platforms, have monitored oceanographic conditions in the Beaufort Gyre Region of the Canada Basin since 2003. These basin-wide surveys, together with available earlier data, <span class="hlt">show</span> linkages between the physical, geo-chemical and ecosystem components during a period of rapid change, largely forced by increased multi-year ice melt and a prolonged anticyclonic phase of the Arctic Ocean circulation. The <span class="hlt">resulting</span> Ekman convergence has led to a progressive accumulation of river and ice-melt-derived freshwater within the gyre, an increase in surface stratification and depression of the halocline. These changes in physical state have led to a decrease in aragonite saturation state, a deepening of the top of the nutricline and subsurface chlorophyll maximum and a shift in phytoplankton size spectra. Recent years have shown a slight relaxation of the Beaufort Gyre, in addition to large variation in ice cover, leading to informed speculation that the gyre may now be poised to release some of its accumulated freshwater as a salinity anomaly into the global system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMDI31B..06K"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ characterization of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the 'normal oceanic mantle' via ocean bottom geophysical <span class="hlt">observations</span>: first <span class="hlt">results</span> of the NOMan project (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawakatsu, H.; Baba, K.; Takeo, A.; Isse, T.; Shiobara, H.; Utada, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Whether or not the asthenosphere beneath the old oceanic plate is partially molten is an interesting and important question to be resolved for the fundamental understanding of plate tectonics and thus mantle dynamics. For such a characterization of the lithosphere/asthenosphere system of the "normal oceanic mantle", we have been carrying out long-term <span class="hlt">observation</span> of one to three years at two array sites in northwest Pacific: the Normal Oceanic Mantle (NOMan) project. We deploy state-of-the-art ocean bottom geophysical (seismic and electromagnetic) instruments installed by using ROV, as well as free-fall type instruments, which are all originally developed by our group. In 2010, we started a pilot experiment by deploying a five-station array in the area northwest of Shatsky Rise, and the <span class="hlt">result</span> of this pilot experiment, as well as first <span class="hlt">results</span> from the planned 2013 summer data recovery experiment will be presented. The preliminary analyses of the pilot experiment data indicate that the studied region is less heterogeneous compare to the surrounding area and thus indeed appears to be "normal" (Isse et al., this meeting). 1-D average structure modeling <span class="hlt">shows</span> a transition from a high-velocity and high-resistive lithosphere (or lid) to a low-velocity and low-resistive asthenosphere (or LVZ) that is consistently <span class="hlt">observed</span> both in seismic and EM data around a depth range of ~50-80km. Especially the EM <span class="hlt">result</span> <span class="hlt">shows</span> that the general resistivity structure is very similar to the one obtained for the Philippine sea where the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere is suggested (Baba et al, PEPI, 2010), except that the high-resistive lid is thicker, probably reflecting older plate age (~130Ma) of the studied area (Baba et al., this meeting). Meanwhile, the broadband seismic array analysis reveals an almost constant velocity lid that is not consistent with the simple cooling model of oceanic plate. This feature is again similar to our previous <span class="hlt">result</span> from the Philippine sea (Takeo et al., JGR, 2013) that may call for a more sophisticated compositional model for the oceanic lithosphere; further relatively strong radial anisotropy (~3% (VSH>VSV) as an average for a depth range of ~10-220km) is found (Takeo et al., this meeting). The first <span class="hlt">results</span> for the 2013 summer recovery data will be incorporated in discussing a tentative but hopefully comprehensive model of the oceanic lithosphere/asthenosphere system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.7230.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The "Life Potential": a new complex algorithm to assess "Heart Rate Variability" from Holter records for cognitive and diagnostic aims. Preliminary experimental <span class="hlt">results</span> <span class="hlt">showing</span> its dependence on age, gender and health conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Barra, Orazio A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although HRV (Heart Rate Variability) analyses have been carried out for several decades, several limiting factors still make these analyses useless from a clinical point of view. The present paper aims at overcoming some of these limits by introducing the "Life Potential" (BMP), a new mathematical algorithm which seems to exhibit surprising cognitive and predictive capabilities. BMP is defined as a linear combination of five HRV Non-Linear Variables, in turn derived from the thermodynamic formalism of chaotic dynamic systems. The paper presents experimental measurements of BMP (Average Values and Standard Deviations) derived from 1048 Holter tests, matched in age and gender, including a control group of 356 healthy subjects. The main <span class="hlt">results</span> are: (a) BMP always decreases when the age increases, and its dependence on age and gender is well established; (b) the shape of the age dependence within "healthy people" is different from that found in the general group: this behavior provides evidence of possible illn...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1743763"><span id="translatedtitle">Is it possible and worth keeping track of deaths within general practice? <span class="hlt">Results</span> of a 15 year <span class="hlt">observational</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Beaumont, B; Hurwitz, B</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Aim: To assess the value of maintaining a death register in a general practice with particular reference to monitoring quality of care. Design of study: <span class="hlt">Observational</span> study. Setting: Inner London general practice. Method: The practice maintained a manual death register, retained medical records of all deceased patients, and requested information on cause of death from health authorities and coroners for 15 years. Main outcome measures: Number and causes of deaths; 3 yearly age standardised death rates; proportion of deaths formally notified to the practice; place of death; source of cause of death information. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: During the study period 578 patients died. Practice age standardised death rates fell significantly from 35.59 to 27.12/1000. 498 (86.2%) deaths were formally notified to the practice, 392 within 7 days of death. Of 143 deaths reported to the coroner, only 45 coroners' reports were received. 360 (64.1%) died in hospital, 139 (24.8%) at home, and 38 (6.8%) in a hospice. Death certificate cause of death information was obtained from patients' records in 33.6% (n=194) of cases and from health authority sources for 50% (n=289). The pattern of ascertained causes of deaths was similar to the national pattern. Conclusion: A death register can examine trends in practice deaths by age and place of death and comparisons undertaken with nationally published mortality data. An accurate picture of cause of death cannot be generated from routine data flows alone. There is delay in informing GPs of patient deaths. Meaningful and timely monitoring of deaths cannot be undertaken by individual practices. National Statistics should provide routine analysis of GP death certificate information. PMID:14532364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25007166"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Results</span> of the HepZero study comparing heparin-grafted membrane and standard care <span class="hlt">show</span> that heparin-grafted dialyzer is safe and easy to use for heparin-free dialysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laville, Maurice; Dorval, Marc; Fort Ros, Joan; Fay, Renaud; Cridlig, Joëlle; Nortier, Joëlle L; Juillard, Laurent; D?bska-?lizie?, Alicja; Fernández Lorente, Loreto; Thibaudin, Damien; Franssen, Casper; Schulz, Michael; Moureau, Frédérique; Loughraieb, Nathalie; Rossignol, Patrick</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Heparin is used to prevent clotting during hemodialysis, but heparin-free hemodialysis is sometimes needed to decrease the risk of bleeding. The HepZero study is a randomized, multicenter international controlled open-label trial comparing no-heparin hemodialysis strategies designed to assess non-inferiority of a heparin grafted dialyzer (NCT01318486). A total of 251 maintenance hemodialysis patients at increased risk of hemorrhage were randomly allocated for up to three heparin-free hemodialysis sessions using a heparin-grafted dialyzer or the center standard-of-care consisting of regular saline flushes or pre-dilution. The first heparin-free hemodialysis session was considered successful when there was neither complete occlusion of air traps or dialyzer, nor additional saline flushes, changes of dialyzer or bloodlines, or premature termination. The current standard-of-care <span class="hlt">resulted</span> in high failure rates (50%). The success rate in the heparin-grafted membrane arm was significantly higher than in the control group (68.5% versus 50.4%), which was consistent for both standard-of-care modalities. The absolute difference between the heparin-grafted membrane and the controls was 18.2%, with a lower bound of the 90% confidence interval equal to plus 7.9%. The hypothesis of the non-inferiority at the minus 15% level was accepted, although superiority at the plus 15% level was not reached. Thus, use of a heparin-grafted membrane is a safe, helpful, and easy-to-use method for heparin-free hemodialysis in patients at increased risk of hemorrhage. PMID:25007166</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/rs/v030/i004/95RS00653/95RS00653.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> of the planetary boundary layer over equatorial Indonesia with an L band clear-air Doppler radar: Initial <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Hiroyuki Hashiguchi; Shoichiro Fukao; Toshitaka Tsuda; Manabu D. Yamanaka; Daniel L. Tobing; Tien Sribimawati; Sri Woro B. Harijono; Harsono Wiryosumarto</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>An L band (1357.5 MHz) boundary layer radar (BLR) has been in continuous successful operation in Serpong, Indonesia (6.4°S, 106.7°E), since November 1992. The performance of the BLR with respect to the <span class="hlt">observation</span> height range and the wind measurement reliability has been examined on the basis of simultaneous meteorological <span class="hlt">observations</span>. We have found that there are two types of strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AMT.....8.1055S"><span id="translatedtitle">A layer-averaged relative humidity profile retrieval for microwave <span class="hlt">observations</span>: design and <span class="hlt">results</span> for the Megha-Tropiques payload</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivira, R. G.; Brogniez, H.; Mallet, C.; Oussar, Y.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A statistical method trained and optimized to retrieve seven-layer relative humidity (RH) profiles is presented and evaluated with measurements from radiosondes. The method makes use of the microwave payload of the Megha-Tropiques platform, namely the SAPHIR sounder and the MADRAS imager. The approach, based on a generalized additive model (GAM), embeds both the physical and statistical characteristics of the inverse problem in the training phase, and no explicit thermodynamical constraint - such as a temperature profile or an integrated water vapor content - is provided to the model at the stage of retrieval. The model is built for cloud-free conditions in order to avoid the cases of scattering of the microwave radiation in the 18.7-183.31 GHz range covered by the payload. Two instrumental configurations are tested: a SAPHIR-MADRAS scheme and a SAPHIR-only scheme to deal with the stop of data acquisition of MADRAS in January 2013 for technical reasons. A comparison to learning machine algorithms (artificial neural network and support-vector machine) <span class="hlt">shows</span> equivalent performance over a large realistic set, promising low errors (biases < 2.2%RH) and scatters (correlations > 0.8) throughout the troposphere (150-900 hPa). A comparison to radiosonde measurements performed during the international field experiment CINDY/DYNAMO/AMIE (winter 2011-2012) confirms these <span class="hlt">results</span> for the mid-tropospheric layers (correlations between 0.6 and 0.92), with an expected degradation of the quality of the estimates at the surface and top layers. Finally a rapid insight of the estimated large-scale RH field from Megha-Tropiques is presented and compared to ERA-Interim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930071097&hterms=positron&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpositron"><span id="translatedtitle">OSSE <span class="hlt">observations</span> of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation - Initial phase 1 <span class="hlt">results</span>. [Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Purcell, W. R.; Grabelsky, D. A.; Ulmer, M. P.; Johnson, W. N.; Kinzer, R. L.; Kurfess, J. D.; Strickman, M. S.; Jung, G. V.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) has performed numerous <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the Galactic plane and Galactic center region to measure the distribution of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation and to search for time variability of the emission. The initial 511 keV line fluxes for the <span class="hlt">observations</span> performed during the first 18 months of the GRO mission are presented. The 511 keV line flux for a typical Galactic center <span class="hlt">observation</span> is (2.5 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm per sec, where the quoted uncertainty represents the 1 sigma statistical uncertainty. No statistically significant time variability of the line flux has been <span class="hlt">observed</span>; the 3 sigma upper limit to daily variations from the mean is 3 x 10 exp -4 gamma/sq cm per sec. The distribution of Galactic 511 keV positron annihilation radiation implied by the OSSE <span class="hlt">observations</span> is discussed and compared with <span class="hlt">observations</span> by other instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000400/a000442/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Asia: <span class="hlt">Showing</span> the Changing Seasons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Jesse Allen</p> <p>1998-09-09</p> <p>SeaWiFS false color data <span class="hlt">showing</span> seasonal change in the oceans and on land for Asia. The data is seasonally averaged, and <span class="hlt">shows</span> the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010SPIE.7735E..1KK"><span id="translatedtitle">FMOS the fibre multiple-object spectrograph, part VIII: current performances and <span class="hlt">results</span> of the engineering <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kimura, Masahiko; Akiyama, Masayuki; Dalton, Gavin B.; Iwamuro, Fumihide; Lewis, Ian J.; Maihara, Toshinori; Ohta, Kouji; Tait, Philip; Takato, Naruhisa; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tosh, Ian A. J.; Smedley, Scott; Curtis Lake, Emma; Inagaki, Takeshi; Jeschke, Eric; Kawate, Kaori; Moritani, Yuuki; Sumiyoshi, Masanao; Yabe, Kiyoto</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>The Fibre Multi-Object Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope (FMOS) is a near-infrared instrument with 400 fibres in a 30' filed of view at F/2 prime focus. To <span class="hlt">observe</span> 400 objects simultaneously, we have developed a fibre positioner called "Echidna" using a tube piezo actuator. We have also developed two OH-airglow suppressed and refrigerated spectrographs. Each spectrograph has two spectral resolution modes: the low-resolution mode and the high-resolution mode. The low-resolution mode covers the complete wavelength range of 0.9 - 1.8 ?m with one exposure, while the high-resolution mode requires four exposures at different camera positions to cover the full wavelength range. The first light was accomplished in May 2008. The science <span class="hlt">observations</span> and the open-use <span class="hlt">observations</span> begin in May 2010.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4289723"><span id="translatedtitle">Sputum eosinophilia is a determinant of FEV1 decline in occupational asthma: <span class="hlt">results</span> of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Talini, Donatella; Novelli, Federica; Bacci, Elena; Bartoli, Marialaura; Cianchetti, Silvana; Costa, Francesco; Dente, Federico L; Di Franco, Antonella; Latorre, Manuela; Malagrinò, Laura; Vagaggini, Barbara; Celi, Alessandro; Paggiaro, Pierluigi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To evaluate the potential determinants of forced expiratory volume in 1?s (FEV1) decline in workers with occupational asthma (OA) still exposed to the causative agent. We hypothesised that sputum eosinophilia might be a predictor of poor asthma outcome after diagnosis. Setting, design and participants In a specialistic clinical centre of the University Hospital of Pisa, we studied 39 participants (28 M, 11 F) diagnosed as having OA, routinely followed up between 1990 and 2009. They were a subgroup of 94 participants diagnosed as affected by OA in that period: 9 had been removed from work at the diagnosis, 21 were excluded for having ceased occupational exposure after few months from diagnosis, and 25 were lost at the follow-up or had no acceptable sputum measurements at the diagnosis. Estimates of the decline in FEV1 were obtained by means of simple regression analysis during the period of occupational exposure after diagnosis. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effects of factors (baseline FEV1 and sputum inflammatory cells, duration and type of exposure) that may potentially influence FEV1 decline. <span class="hlt">Results</span> At follow-up (5.7+3.7?years), most participants were still symptomatic despite inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) treatment and had their occupational exposure reduced. Participants with higher sputum eosinophils (>3%) at baseline had a significantly greater decline of FEV1 (–52.5 vs ?18.6?mL/year, p=0.012). Logistic regression <span class="hlt">showed</span> that persistent exposure and sputum eosinophilia were significantly associated with a greater decline in FEV1 (OR 11.5, 95% CI 1.8 to 71.4, p=0.009 and OR 6.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 41.7, p= 0.042, respectively). Conclusions Sputum eosinophilia at diagnosis, together with the persistence of occupational exposure during follow-up, may contribute to a greater decline in FEV1 in patients with OA still at work. Further long-term studies are required as to whether intensive ICS treatment may be beneficial for patients with OA and increase ad eosinophilic inflammation. PMID:25564139</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3983514"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac looping may be driven by compressive loads <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> on a physical simulation model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bayraktar, Meriç; Männer, Jörg</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The transformation of the straight embryonic heart tube into a helically wound loop is named cardiac looping. Such looping is regarded as an essential process in cardiac morphogenesis since it brings the building blocks of the developing heart into an approximation of their definitive topographical relationships. During the past two decades, a large number of genes have been identified which play important roles in cardiac looping. However, how genetic information is physically translated into the dynamic form changes of the looping heart is still poorly understood. The oldest hypothesis of cardiac looping mechanics attributes the form changes of the heart loop (ventral bending ? simple helical coiling ? complex helical coiling) to compressive loads <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from growth differences between the heart and the pericardial cavity. In the present study, we have tested the physical plausibility of this hypothesis, which we call the growth-induced buckling hypothesis, for the first time. Using a physical simulation model, we <span class="hlt">show</span> that growth-induced buckling of a straight elastic rod within the confined space of a hemispherical cavity can generate the same sequence of form changes as <span class="hlt">observed</span> in the looping embryonic heart. Our simulation experiments have furthermore shown that, under bilaterally symmetric conditions, growth-induced buckling generates left- and right-handed helices (D-/L-loops) in a 1:1 ratio, while even subtle left- or rightward displacements of the caudal end of the elastic rod at the pre-buckling state are sufficient to direct the buckling process toward the generation of only D- or L-loops, respectively. Our data are discussed with respect to <span class="hlt">observations</span> made in biological “models.” We conclude that compressive loads <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from unequal growth of the heart and pericardial cavity play important roles in cardiac looping. Asymmetric positioning of the venous heart pole may direct these forces toward a biased generation of D- or L-loops. PMID:24772086</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://faculty.missouri.edu/~gatesk/Sulfa%20Drug%20Problems.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">1. <span class="hlt">Show</span> the synthesis of prontosil. <span class="hlt">Show</span> the starting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gates, Kent. S.</p> <p></p> <p>how the three analogs shown below can be prepared. Draw an arrow-pushing mechanism for each step is not active in an in vitro assay, but <span class="hlt">shows</span> good activity in animal models and human patients. Explain: what</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://helios.fmi.fi/~minna/Publications/palmroth_ag06.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation and total power consumption in the ionosphere: Global MHD simulation <span class="hlt">results</span> compared with Polar and SNOE <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>M. Palmroth; P. Janhunen; G. Germany; D. Lummerzheim; K. Liou; D. N. Baker; C. Barth; A. T. Weatherwax; J. Watermann</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We compare the ionospheric electron precipitation morphology and power from a global MHD simulation (GUMICS-4) with direct measurements of auroral energy flux during a pair of substorms on 28-29 March 1998. The electron precipitation power is computed directly from global images of auroral light <span class="hlt">observed</span> by the Polar satellite ultraviolet imager (UVI). Independent of the Polar UVI measurements, the electron</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.ajnr.org/cgi/reprint/25/1/39.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Cerebral Aneurysm Multicenter European Onyx (CAMEO) Trial: <span class="hlt">Results</span> of a Prospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Study in 20 European Centers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Andrew J. Molyneux; Saruhan Cekirge; Isil Saatci; Gyula Gal</p> <p></p> <p>BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the safety and efficacy of the Onyx liquid embolic system in treating a selected population of patients with intracranial aneurysms that presented difficulties for surgical or endovascular alternatives. METHODS: A prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study was conducted in 20 European centers enroll- ing a consecutive series of 119 patients with 123 aneurysms judged</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/19760068"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variation in mesospheric semi-diurnal tides - Comparison of meteor radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> and <span class="hlt">results</span> from an excitation source model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>R. Bernard</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The seasonal variation of the semi-diurnal tide is established in the upper mesosphere from meteor radar <span class="hlt">observations</span>, such as those made at Garchy (France). A classical propagation model, using a realistic excitation source from ozone and water vapor solar heating, can account for most of the seasonal variation characteristics, and in particular for the difference between summer and winter features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/10265113"><span id="translatedtitle">An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters. III. New <span class="hlt">results</span> from mid-infrared <span class="hlt">observations</span> of th e cluster Abell 2219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. Coia; L. Metcalfe; B. McBreen; A. Biviano; I. Smail; B. Altieri; J.-P. Kneib; S. McBreen; C. Sanchez-Fernandez; B. O'Halloran</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The massive cluster of galaxies Abell 2219 (z = 0.228) was <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 14.3\\u000a$\\\\mu$m with the Infrared Space Observatory and <span class="hlt">results</span> were published by\\u000aBarvainis et al. (1999). These <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been reanalyzed using a method\\u000aspecifically designed for the detection of faint sources that had been applied\\u000ato other clusters. Five new sources were detected and the <span class="hlt">resulting</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tech&id=EJ925997"><span id="translatedtitle">Planning a Successful Tech <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Nikirk, Martin</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Tech <span class="hlt">shows</span> are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech <span class="hlt">show</span> allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51236146"><span id="translatedtitle">In-situ <span class="hlt">observation</span> of the lower crust and upper mantle lithology in Atlantis Bank, SWIR - <span class="hlt">results</span> from ABCDE Cruise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>T. Matsumoto; H. J. Dick; O. Abcde Cruise</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The ABCDE Cruise (Cruise ID = YK01-14) was carried out in the Southwest Indian Ridge by R\\/V YOKOSKA from December 2001 until January 2002. The main purpose of the cruise was to test the ophiolite model, lithology and development processes of the oceanic crust by <span class="hlt">observing</span> crust-mantle boundary and distribution of dike intrusion into the gabbroic massifs in the Atlantis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.8936H"><span id="translatedtitle">The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) experiment: first <span class="hlt">results</span> from GPS, GRACE and surface gravity <span class="hlt">observations</span> in relation to water storage changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hinderer, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Hydrological time-varying processes (soil moisture, aquifers) redistribute underground water and hence lead to alter the gravity and shape of the Earth at various length scales (from very local effects to continental size) because of Newtonian attraction and elastic loading. We present here a new experiment set up in 2008 in West Africa called GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa). The first goal is to better characterize the annual cycle of water storage in West Africa and to assess the predictions of global hydrology models (GLDAS, LadWorld) for this region. Our project will also help to validate satellite gravity <span class="hlt">observations</span> (GRACE) with ground gravity and GPS <span class="hlt">observations</span>. This project is multidisciplinary (gravimetry, geodesy, subsurface geophysics, hydrology) and allows several French and African teams to work together in order to better understand the changes in water storage by using different types of <span class="hlt">observations</span>. This research program mainly concentrates geographically on three distinct regions: the Sahara (Tamanrasset, South of Algeria) with almost no rainfall, the Sahelian zone (Niamey and Diffa in Niger) with moderate and highly variable rainfall and the equatorial monsoon band (Djougou, Benin Republic) with heavy rainfall. Different kinds of surface gravity measurements are involved: the repetition several times a year with an absolute gravimeter (FG5) at the 4 above-mentioned specific sites; complementary measurements with a portable A10 absolute meter and measurements on dense repetition networks with microgravimeters (Scintrex). The main gravity stations are collocated with permanent GPS stations in order to independently estimate the gravity contribution due to vertical motion of the ground. Since gravity is sensitive to various length scales involved in hydrology, we will rely on dense in-situ measurements (rain gauges, piezometers, soil moisture probes) and subsurface geophysics (MRS) to model local gravity effects. We will report on preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span> of the GHYRAF experiment based on the repetition of the first FG5 AG measurements in Niger and Benin and their relation to local water content changes. We will also <span class="hlt">show</span> the <span class="hlt">results</span> from a preliminary treatment of the available GPS data mainly originating from the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) program and their comparison with theoretical predictions for the continental scale hydrological loading. We will finally present some comparisons between GRACE data, hydrology models and hydro-meteorological data for the Niger and Chad basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/86836"><span id="translatedtitle">Diarrheal Disease in <span class="hlt">Show</span> Swine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lawhorn, D. Bruce</p> <p>2007-02-27</p> <p>Diarrhea, an important problem in <span class="hlt">show</span> pigs, can be caused by poor nutrition, infectious diseases, internal parasites or a combination of factors. This publication explains how the cause is diagnosed and the illness treated....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRA..120.2557H"><span id="translatedtitle">BARREL <span class="hlt">observations</span> of an ICME-shock impact with the magnetosphere and the <span class="hlt">resultant</span> radiation belt electron loss</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Halford, A. J.; McGregor, S. L.; Murphy, K. R.; Millan, R. M.; Hudson, M. K.; Woodger, L. A.; Cattel, C. A.; Breneman, A. W.; Mann, I. R.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gkioulidou, M.; Fennell, J. F.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. BARREL is also sensitive to X-rays from other sources. During the second BARREL campaign, the Sun produced an X-class flare followed by a solar energetic particle event (SEP) associated with the same active region. Two days later on 9 January 2014, the shock generated by the coronal mass ejection (CME) originating from the active region hits the Earth while BARREL was in a close conjunction with the Van Allen Probes. Time History Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite <span class="hlt">observed</span> the impact of the interplanetary CME (ICME) shock near the magnetopause, and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) were on either side of the BARREL/Van Allen Probe array. The solar interplanetary magnetic field was not ideally oriented to cause a significant geomagnetic storm, but compression from the shock impact led to the loss of radiation belt electrons. We propose that an azimuthal electric field impulse generated by magnetopause compression caused inward electron transport and minimal loss. This process also drove chorus waves, which were responsible for most of the precipitation <span class="hlt">observed</span> outside the plasmapause. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of hiss inside the plasmapause explain the absence of loss at this location. ULF waves were found to be correlated with the structure of the precipitation. We demonstrate how BARREL can monitor precipitation following an ICME-shock impact at Earth in a cradle-to-grave view; from flare, to SEP, to electron precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4298917"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of doxycycline to resolve different types of non-malignant lung and pleural pathology: The <span class="hlt">results</span> of a pilot <span class="hlt">observation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bhattacharyya, Parthasarathi; Dey, Rana; Saha, Dipanjan; Nag, Saikat; Ghosh, Subhasish; Chowdhury, Sushmita Roy; Ganguly, Dhiman</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Lung lesions may develop from tissue reactions to known or unknown stimuli and present with different morphological descriptions. The pathogenesis may be induced and maintained by different bioactive substances, of which, the upregulation matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a vital role. Inhibition of the MMPs, therefore, may be a prospective mode of therapy for such lesions. Materials and Methods: A number of patients with lung lesions of different morphologies and presentations were treated empirically with long-term oral doxycycline (100 mg BID) upon exclusion of malignancy and infection in an open, single-arm, prospective, <span class="hlt">observational</span> pilot study. The effect of the treatment was recorded on serial x-rays/computed tomography (CT) scans and the impact of treatment was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) or a Likert-like scale. Furthermore, six independent pulmonologists’ opinion (expressed on a ‘0’ to ‘100’ scale) were pooled with regard to the significance and the expectedness of such a change. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: Twenty-six patients (mean age 49.33 years and male: female ratio = 10:3) with different types of pulmonary parenchymal/pleural lesions were treated with long-term oral doxycycline for a mean duration of 386.88 days related to the available radiological comparison. They <span class="hlt">showed</span> a mean improvement of 3.99 on the Likert-like scale and 78% on the VAS scale. The mean significance of the change was 83.33%, with a mean expectedness of 18% as per the pooled opinion of the pulmonologists. Inference: The significant and unexpected resolution of different tissue lesions from long-term doxycycline appears to be a novel <span class="hlt">observation</span>. This needs proper scientific validation. PMID:25624595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110008050&hterms=gsi&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dgsi"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Results</span> of the Simulation and Assimilation of Doppler Wind Lidar <span class="hlt">Observations</span> in Preparation for European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McCarty, Will</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>With the launch of the European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission in 2013, direct spaceborne measurements of vertical wind profiles are imminent via Doppler wind lidar technology. Part of the preparedness for such missions is the development of the proper data assimilation methodology for handling such <span class="hlt">observations</span>. Since no heritage measurements exist in space, the Joint <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System Simulation Experiment (Joint OSSE) framework has been utilized to generate a realistic proxy dataset as a precursor to flight. These data are being used for the development of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system utilized at a number of centers through the United States including the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA/NWS/NCEP) as an activity through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation. An update of this ongoing effort will be presented, including the methodology of proxy data generation, the limitations of the proxy data, the handling of line-of-sight wind measurements within the GSI, and the impact on both analyses and forecasts with the addition of the new data type.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcScD..12..493L"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesoscale variability in the Arabian Sea from HYCOM model <span class="hlt">results</span> and <span class="hlt">observations</span>: impact on the Persian Gulf Water path</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>L'Hégaret, P.; Duarte, R.; Carton, X.; Vic, C.; Ciani, D.; Baraille, R.; Corréard, S.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The Arabian Sea and Sea of Oman circulation and water masses, subject to the monsoon forcing, reveal a strong seasonal variability and intense mesoscale features. We describe and analyse this variability and these features, using both meteorological data (from ECMWF reanalyses), in-situ <span class="hlt">observations</span> (from the ARGO float program and the GDEM climatology), satellite altimetry (from AVISO) and a regional simulation with a primitive equation model (HYCOM). The EOFs of the seasonal variability of the water masses quantify their main changes in thermohaline characteristics and in position. The model and <span class="hlt">observations</span> display comparable variability, and the model is then used to analyse the three-dimensional structure of eddies and water masses with a higher resolution. The mesoscale eddies have a deep dynamical influence and strongly drive the water masses at depth. In particular, in the Sea of Oman, the Persian Gulf Water presents several offshore ejection sites and a complex recirculation, depending on the mesoscale eddies. This water mass is also captured inside the eddies via several mechanisms, keeping high thermohaline characteristics in the Arabian Sea. These characteristics are validated on the GOGP99 cruise data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMSM23A1581M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> of relativistic electron precipitation during the 2009 Valentine's Day Storm: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the first BARREL test flight</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millan, R. M.; Sample, J. G.; McCarthy, M.; Smith, D. M.; Hewitt, J. G.; Comess, M.; Woodger, L. A.; Liang, X.; Hudson, M. K.; Lin, R. P.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>BARREL (Balloon Array for RBSP Relativistic Electron Losses) is a multiple-balloon investigation that will study electron losses from Earth's Radiation Belts. Atmospheric losses of relativistic electrons play an important role in radiation belt dynamics; precipitation into the atmosphere may even completely deplete the radiation belts during the main phase of some geomagnetic storms. BARREL will consist of Antarctic balloon campaigns conducted in Austral summers of 2012 and 2013 during the RBSP mission. During each campaign, a total of 20 small (~30 kg) balloon payloads will be launched to an altitude of 30-35 km to maintain an array of 5-8 payloads extending across up to 8 hours of magnetic local time for 40 days. Each balloon will carry a NaI scintillator to measure the bremsstrahlung X-rays produced by precipitating relativistic electrons as they collide with neutrals in Earth’s atmosphere. In December 2008, a BARREL prototype instrument was launched from McMurdo, Antarctica and carried for 54 days at an altitude of 34 km on NASA's new superpressure balloon. We present an overview of the BARREL investigation and report on <span class="hlt">observations</span> of relativistic electron precipitation <span class="hlt">observed</span> during a geomagnetic storm on Feb. 14-18, 2009. This storm was relatively weak (Dst = -36 nT), yet was remarkably effective in increasing the trapped electron population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/86836"><span id="translatedtitle">Diarrheal Disease in <span class="hlt">Show</span> Swine </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lawhorn, D. Bruce</p> <p>2007-02-27</p> <p>of gain. Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative bacterium. Though it is rarely the cause of diarrheal disease in <span class="hlt">show</span> swine, veterinarians consider this organism as a potential cause when making a differ- ential diagnosis. L. intracellularis does.... TGE does not cause human disease. Clinical Diagnosis The stool of the normal pig should be firm and well- formed. When a normal <span class="hlt">show</span> pig is on free-choice feed and water, the stool tends to loosen to the consistency of a cow patty as feed consumption...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930057251&hterms=mcs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmcs"><span id="translatedtitle">The radiative budgets of a tropical mesoscale convective system during the EMEX-STEP-AMEX experiment. I - <span class="hlt">Observations</span>. II - Model <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wong, Takmeng; Stephens, Graeme L.; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.; Valero, Francisco P. J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The spatial radiation heating budget associated with tropical mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is studied and the change of this heating/budget throughout the life cycle of such a cloud system is investigated. The movements of an EMEX 9 cloud cluster are described. The vertical structure of the cluster contains two types of imbedded convection: an upright vertical structure and a pronounced rearward slope with vertical extent of 14.5 km or more and a horizontal scale of about 40 km. The cloud base and cloud top altitude in the stratiform region are of the order of 4.8 km and 15-16 km, respectively. The upward and downward solar flux profiles suggest very little solar heating in these regions. A tropical MCS that occurred during the EMEX Mission 9 is simulated, and the simulation is shown to broadly agree with the <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The simulation <span class="hlt">results</span>, which are reported in detail, <span class="hlt">show</span> how tropical mesoscale cloud systems provide an effective radiative heat source for the tropical atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4075587"><span id="translatedtitle">Clinical <span class="hlt">observation</span> and quality of life in terms of nasal sinusitis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: long-term <span class="hlt">results</span> from different nasal irrigation techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Luo, H-H; Fu, Z-C; Liao, S-G; Li, D-S</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between nasal irrigation techniques (NIT) and the survival rate and the quality of life (QOL) in patients with nasal sinusitis (NS). Methods: We studied data from 1134 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who received radical radiotherapy, which were randomly divided into three groups (A, B and C). Group A used nasal irrigator; Group B used homemade nasal irrigation (NI) connector combined with enemator; and Group C used nasal sprayer. The clinical effects, 5-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were <span class="hlt">observed</span>. Furthermore, the QOL in patients with NS was evaluated using the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 20. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: The median follow-up time was 69 months. The 5-year OS and PFS were 80.5% and 73.2%, respectively, for all patients. There was no significant difference in OS, PFS, xerostomia and neck skin toxicity grade 3 and greater among groups. There was no difference among groups. The incidence of NS was the highest in group C. Conclusion: The symptoms of NS seriously affected the QOL period of 1 year. Group C <span class="hlt">showed</span> no improvement during the follow-up period, which for A and B, by contrast, had after 1 year. Although the exact mechanism remains to be explored in NIT, our findings suggest that patients with NPC should nasal irrigate for 2 years after radiotherapy. Advances in knowledge: Our study <span class="hlt">shows</span> that a nasal irrigator is necessary for patients with NPC for a high QOL in terms of NS. PMID:24814695</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AAS...21542002V"><span id="translatedtitle">The Knowledge of Celestial Things: Using the Kepler Instrument and Data Analysis Handbooks to Plan <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and Believe the <span class="hlt">Results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van Cleve, Jeffrey E.; Caldwell, D. A.; Jenkins, J. M.; Bryson, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Gazis, P.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D. G.; Haas, M. R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>"... the ways by which men arrive at knowledge of the celestial things are hardly less wonderful than the nature of these things themselves" - Johannes Kepler As an introduction to the understanding of Kepler data products, we have prepared the Kepler Instrument and Data Analysis Handbooks, and make them available through STScI's MAST and Kepler's GO web sites to all who are interested in planning, publishing, or reviewing Kepler <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The Kepler Mission is designed to detect transits of Earth-size planets orbiting in the "habitable zone” of 9<mv<15, F through M type dwarf stars by means of differential photometry. Kepler will monitor more than 100,000 stars in the constellations Cygnus and Lyra for 3 ½ years. The required photometric precision for Earth-transit detections is 20 ppm for a 6.5-hr integration on 12th magnitude G2V stars. To succeed, the Kepler flight system and data analysis methods must be so well understood that the only reasonable explanation for 100 ppm periodic phenomena in the data are astrophysical. The Kepler Follow-up <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Program (FOP) will then work to rule out non-planet transit explanations for each such phenomenon. The Instrument Handbook describes the Kepler photometer characteristics pertinent to achieving and maintaining Kepler's photometric precision. The Data Analysis Handbook describes the processing steps -including calibration, photometry, systematic error correction, and transit detection- used in converting the raw data to planet candidates. Our poster presentation is meant to solicit feedback from the community, so the next versions of these documents can be improved accordingly. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA, Science Mission Directorate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...808L...3P"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2014 ALMA Long Baseline Campaign: First <span class="hlt">Results</span> from High Angular Resolution <span class="hlt">Observations</span> toward the HL Tau Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Partnership, ALMA; Brogan, C. L.; Pérez, L. M.; Hunter, T. R.; Dent, W. R. F.; Hales, A. S.; Hills, R. E.; Corder, S.; Fomalont, E. B.; Vlahakis, C.; Asaki, Y.; Barkats, D.; Hirota, A.; Hodge, J. A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Kneissl, R.; Liuzzo, E.; Lucas, R.; Marcelino, N.; Matsushita, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Phillips, N.; Richards, A. M. S.; Toledo, I.; Aladro, R.; Broguiere, D.; Cortes, J. R.; Cortes, P. C.; Espada, D.; Galarza, F.; Garcia-Appadoo, D.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Humphreys, E. M.; Jung, T.; Kameno, S.; Laing, R. A.; Leon, S.; Marconi, G.; Mignano, A.; Nikolic, B.; Nyman, L.-A.; Radiszcz, M.; Remijan, A.; Rodón, J. A.; Sawada, T.; Takahashi, S.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Vila Vilaro, B.; Watson, L. C.; Wiklind, T.; Akiyama, E.; Chapillon, E.; de Gregorio-Monsalvo, I.; Di Francesco, J.; Gueth, F.; Kawamura, A.; Lee, C.-F.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Mangum, J.; Pietu, V.; Sanhueza, P.; Saigo, K.; Takakuwa, S.; Ubach, C.; van Kempen, T.; Wootten, A.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Francke, H.; Gallardo, J.; Garcia, J.; Gonzalez, S.; Hill, T.; Kaminski, T.; Kurono, Y.; Liu, H.-Y.; Lopez, C.; Morales, F.; Plarre, K.; Schieven, G.; Testi, L.; Videla, L.; Villard, E.; Andreani, P.; Hibbard, J. E.; Tatematsu, K.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.? 075 (10 AU) to 0.? 025 (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analog HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings <span class="hlt">observed</span> at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 72+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 05) and position angle (+138\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 02+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 07). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index (?), which ranges from ? ? 2.0 in the optically thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3–3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, and we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for subsequent dark rings, consistent with some degree of grain growth and evolution. Additional clues that the rings arise from planet formation include an increase in their central offsets with radius and the presence of numerous orbital resonances. At a resolution of 35 AU, we resolve the molecular component of the disk in HCO+ (1-0) which exhibits a pattern over LSR velocities from 2–12 km s?1 consistent with Keplerian motion around a ?1.3 {M}? star, although complicated by absorption at low blueshifted velocities. We also serendipitously detect and resolve the nearby protostars XZ Tau (A/B) and LkH?358 at 2.9 mm. .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MNRAS.406.2452M"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> of cosmic strings via their strong gravitational lensing effect - II. <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the HST/ACS image archive</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morganson, Eric; Marshall, Phil; Treu, Tommaso; Schrabback, Tim; Blandford, Roger D.</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We have searched 4.5deg2 of archival Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) images for cosmic strings, identifying close pairs of similar, faint galaxies and selecting groups whose alignment is consistent with gravitational lensing by a long, straight string. We find no evidence for cosmic strings in five large-area HST treasury surveys (covering a total of 2.22deg2) or in any of 346 multifilter guest <span class="hlt">observer</span> images (1.18deg2). Assuming that simulations accurately predict the number of cosmic strings in the Universe, this non-detection allows us to place upper limits on the dimensionless Universal cosmic string tension of G?/c2 < 2.3 × 10-6 and cosmic string density of ?s < 2.1 × 10-5 at the 95per cent confidence level (marginalizing over the other parameter in each case). We find four dubious cosmic string candidates in 318 single-filter guest <span class="hlt">observer</span> images (1.08deg2), which we are unable to conclusively eliminate with existing data. The confirmation of any of these candidates as cosmic strings would imply G?/c2 ~ 10-6 and ?s ~ 10-5. However, we estimate that there is at least a 92per cent chance that these string candidates are random alignments of galaxies. If we assume that these candidates are indeed false detections, our final limits on G?/c2 and ?s fall to 6.5 × 10-7 and 7.3 × 10-6, respectively. Due to the extensive sky coverage of the HST/ACS image archive, the above limits are universal. They are quite sensitive to the number of fields being searched and could be further reduced by more than a factor of 2 using forthcoming HST data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895920"><span id="translatedtitle">Pembrolizumab <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise for NSCLC.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Data from the KEYNOTE-001 trial <span class="hlt">show</span> that pembrolizumab improves clinical outcomes for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer, and is well tolerated. PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumor cells correlated with improved efficacy. PMID:25895920</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6047492"><span id="translatedtitle">The OOPSLA trivia <span class="hlt">show</span> (TOOTS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game <span class="hlt">show</span> that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/86933"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Beef Cattle for <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.</p> <p>2001-11-16</p> <p>in <span class="hlt">show</span> diets because of its rapid digestion and tendency to cause acido- sis (see the section on health). Oats are excellent for growth and development of steers or heifers. A mixture similar in nutrient content to oats can be formulated with a high...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50578624"><span id="translatedtitle">A new nitrate continuous <span class="hlt">observation</span> sensor for autonomous sub-surface applications: Technical design and first <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Oliver Zielinski; Bjorn Fiedler; R. Heuermann; A. Kortzinger; E. Kopiske; G. Meinecke; K. Munderloh</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Nitrate as one of the chemical parameters of major interest in marine biogeochemistry is detectable by means of its optical absorption in the ultra violet spectrum, given appropriate algorithms to correct for other seawater constituents. The presented work outlines the potential and technical requirements to adopt this new instrumentation in autonomous sub-surface applications. First <span class="hlt">results</span> from laboratory experiment as well</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42156738"><span id="translatedtitle">An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters. III. New <span class="hlt">results</span> from mid-infrared <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the cluster Abell 2219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>D. Coia; L. Metcalfe; B. McBreen; A. Biviano; I. Smail; B. Altieri; J.-P. Kneib; S. McBreen; C. Sanchez-Fernandez; B. O'Halloran</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The massive cluster of galaxies Abell 2219 (z = 0.228) with two spectacular gravitational lensing arcs was <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 14.3 mum (hereafter 15 mum) with the Infrared Space Observatory and <span class="hlt">results</span> were published by Barvainis et al. (\\\\cite{1999AJ....118..645B}). These <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been reanalyzed using a method specifically designed for the detection of faint sources that had been applied to other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/ja/ja0912/2009JA014437/2009JA014437.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Gadanki radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> of F region field-aligned irregularities during June solstice of solar minimum: First <span class="hlt">results</span> and preliminary analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>A. K. Patra; D. V. Phanikumar; T. K. Pant</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we present the first <span class="hlt">results</span> of F region field-aligned irregularities (FAI) made during the summer of low solar condition using the Gadanki mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar. FAI echoes were <span class="hlt">observed</span> on all 20 nights of radar <span class="hlt">observations</span> and were mostly confined to the postmidnight hours. Echo morphology is found to be very different from the equinoctial postsunset features reported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3633984"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterisation of Patients Receiving Moxifloxacin for Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis in Clinical Practice: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from an International, <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Cohort Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mösges, Ralph; Desrosiers, Martin; Arvis, Pierre; Heldner, Stephanie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We conducted a prospective, non-controlled, multi-centre Phase IV <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort study of patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis who were treated with moxifloxacin in clinical practice in 19 countries in Asia Pacific, Europe and the Middle East. With the data collected we evaluated the presentation and course of the current disease episode, particularly in terms of the principal clinical signs and symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis and diagnostic procedures. A final assessment of moxifloxacin therapy was made to evaluate the impact of the sinusitis episode on activities of daily life and on sleep disturbance, and to evaluate the clinical outcome of treatment. A total of 7,090 patients were enrolled, of whom 3909 (57.6%) were included in the valid for clinical outcome and safety population. Regional differences were <span class="hlt">observed</span> in the main symptoms of acute rhinosinusitis and, according to several characteristics, disease episodes appeared to be more severe in patients in Europe than in the Asia Pacific or Middle East regions. The sinusitis episode impacted on daily living for mean (SD) periods of 3.6 (3.2), 4.6 (3.9) and 3.1 (3.0) days and disturbed sleep for 3.6 (3.2), 4.6 (3.9) and 3.1 (3.0) nights in the Asia Pacific, Europe and Middle East regions, respectively. With moxifloxacin treatment, the mean (SD) time to improvement of symptoms was 3.0 (1.5), 3.4 (1.6) and 3.2 (1.5) days, and the time to resolution of symptoms was 4.8 (2.6) days, 5.7 (2.4) days and 5.5 (2.5) days, in the Asia Pacific, Europe and Middle East regions, respectively. In conclusion, acute rhinosinusitis remains a substantial health burden with significant impact on patients’ quality of life, and there are differences between global regions in the clinical presentation, diagnosis and clinical course of disease episodes. Moxifloxacin was an effective and well-tolerated treatment option in the overall population. Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00930488 PMID:23626752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4419J"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal Variations in Physical Characteristics of the South Australian Shelf Waters -<span class="hlt">Results</span> from the Southern Australian Integrated Marine <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (SAIMOS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>James, C.; Luick, J.; Leterme, S. C.; Middleton, J.; Seuront, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The Southern Australia Integrated Marine <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System, or SAIMOS, is one of five nodes operating as part of the Australia-wide Integrated Marine <span class="hlt">Observing</span> System (IMOS). This is a collaborative program designed to <span class="hlt">observe</span> Australia's oceans, both coastal and blue-water. Since February 2008 Physical Data has been collected for SAIMOS in both summer and winter months during 8 surveys. The data collected during summer are used to characterise the nature and dynamics of the Kangaroo Island-Eyre Peninsula upwelling system during a record upwelling event in February 2008. During this event a plume of very cool water was <span class="hlt">observed</span> along the bottom from South of KI to the Eyre Peninsula. This plume dissipated rapidly after the end of upwelling favourable winds and by March 2008 had disappeared entirely from the <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The data are also used to study the dense high salinity outflow from Spencer Gulf <span class="hlt">observed</span> during the winter months. The dense plume <span class="hlt">result</span> from surface cooling of high salinity waters at the head of Spencer Gulf. One striking <span class="hlt">result</span> of these <span class="hlt">observations</span> is that the outflow occurs during a series of strong pulses with a period of approximately 2 weeks and duration of 1-3 days. During these pulses bottom velocities at 100 m can exceed 1 m/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05189&hterms=carpet&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dcarpet"><span id="translatedtitle">Magic Carpet <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Its Colors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, <span class="hlt">showing</span> the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, <span class="hlt">showing</span> how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004cosp...35.3320Y"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observations</span> of the spatial density distribution of topside ionosphere and plasmasphere: Initial <span class="hlt">results</span> from GPS receiver onboard FedSat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yizengaw, E.; Dyson, P.; Essex, E.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Observations</span> of the spatial electron density distribution obtained using the GPS receiver onboard the Australian research micro satellite FedSat are being used to investigate the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric density distribution. Using FedSat, these regions can be studied in more details than can be obtained using ground based GPS receivers. This is because with ground based receivers, the higher topside ionosphere and the plasmasphere contribute only a small fraction to the total electron content and so the measurements are dominated by the ionospheric structure at the F2 peak, whereas FedSat, a polar Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) at 800 km altitude, is well above the F2 peak. With a GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) sampling rate of 10 seconds, FedSat is capable of covering in detail a large latitude range in a relatively short time. This is very important in obtaining realistic electron density profiles of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere. The GPS data from FedSat can be divided into two types: GPS below-the-horizon data that is recorded when FedSat detects GPS signals that have traversed the ionosphere below FedSat's orbiting height, and GPS above-the-horizon data that is recorded when FedSat receives signals that have crossed the ionosphere above its orbiting height. FedSat's GPS below-the-horizon data can be used to supplement ground based GPS data to provide tomographic reconstruction with better resolution. FedSat's GPS above-the-horizon data can be used by itself to obtain the electron density distribution of the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere using tomographic reconstruction techniques. For this paper we have used only above-the-horizon data to obtain the topside ionospheric electron density distribution during both geomagnetically quiet and severe storm-time conditions, enabling us to study the effects of storms on the topside ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53262303"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Results</span> from two studies in seismology: I. Seismic <span class="hlt">observations</span> and modeling in the Santa Clara Valley, California. II. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and removal of the long-period noise at the Monterey ocean bottom broadband station (MOBB)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>David Dolenc</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Results</span> from two projects are presented in this work. Following brief introductory Chapter 1 that provides general background, Chapter 2 describes the influence of the Santa Clara Valley (SCV) basin structure on the propagation of teleseismic waves. Teleseismic P-waves recorded during the 1998 deployment of the 41-station seismic array are used in the analysis. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> are compared to synthetics computed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/86933"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing Beef Cattle for <span class="hlt">Show</span> </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Herd, Dennis B.; Boleman, Chris; Boleman, Larry L.</p> <p>2001-11-16</p> <p>. Protein supplements?Feeds such as cottonseed meal, soybean meal and linseed meal increase the protein content of the diet. Small amounts (less than 3 percent) of fish meal, dried blood meal, corn gluten meal, linseed meal and brewers or distillers grains... of nutritional ailments of acidosis, bloat and possibly founder. A big full middle on a steer can be more effectively controlled by limiting feed and water the last few weeks before <span class="hlt">show</span>, not by elimi- nating hay from the diet. Hay should be free of mold, dust...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMNS23A1564A"><span id="translatedtitle">Important <span class="hlt">Results</span> From Shallow Seismic <span class="hlt">Observations</span> at the Ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town Site in Upper Egypt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were <span class="hlt">observed</span> along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds are expected from future work at the site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14D..09P"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation of Near-Surface <span class="hlt">Observations</span> on the Predictability of Atmospheric Conditions over Complex Terrain: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from Recent MATERHORN Field Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pu, Z.; Zhang, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Near-surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">observations</span> are the main conventional <span class="hlt">observations</span> for weather forecasts. However, in modern numerical weather prediction, the use of surface <span class="hlt">observations</span>, especially those data over complex terrain, remains a unique challenge. There are fundamental difficulties in assimilating surface <span class="hlt">observations</span> with three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR). In our early study[1] (Pu et al. 2013), a series of <span class="hlt">observing</span> system simulation experiments was performed with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and compared with 3DVAR for its ability to assimilate surface <span class="hlt">observations</span> with 3DVAR. Using the advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, <span class="hlt">results</span> demonstrate that the EnKF can overcome some fundamental limitations that 3DVAR has in assimilating surface <span class="hlt">observations</span> over complex terrain. Specifically, through its flow-dependent background error term, the EnKF produces more realistic analysis increments over complex terrain in general. Over complex terrain, the EnKF clearly performs better than 3DVAR, because it is more capable of handling surface data in the presence of terrain misrepresentation. With this presentation, we further examine the impact of EnKF data assimilation on the predictability of atmospheric conditions over complex terrain with the WRF model and the <span class="hlt">observations</span> obtained from the most recent field experiments of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and <span class="hlt">Observations</span> (MATERHORN) Program. The MATERHORN program provides comprehensive <span class="hlt">observations</span> over mountainous regions, allowing the opportunity to study the predictability of atmospheric conditions over complex terrain in great details. Specifically, during fall 2012 and spring 2013, comprehensive <span class="hlt">observations</span> were collected of soil states, surface energy budgets, near-surface atmospheric conditions, and profiling measurements from multiple platforms (e.g., balloon, lidar, radiosondes, etc.) over Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. With the near-surface <span class="hlt">observations</span> and sounding data obtained during the MATERHORN fall 2012 field experiment, a month-long cycled EnKF analysis and forecast was produced with the WRF model and an advanced EnKF data assimilation system. <span class="hlt">Results</span> are compared with the WRF near real-time forecasting during the same month and a set of analysis with 3DVAR data assimilation. Overall evaluation suggests some useful insights on the impacts of different data assimilation methods, surface and soil states, terrain representation on the predictability of atmospheric conditions over mountainous terrain. Details will be presented. References [1] Pu, Z., H. Zhang, and J. A. Anderson,. 'Ensemble Kalman filter assimilation of near-surface <span class="hlt">observations</span> over complex terrain: Comparison with 3DVAR for short-range forecasts.' Tellus A, vol. 65,19620. 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v65i0. 19620.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990031964&hterms=global+review+energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Breview%2Benergy"><span id="translatedtitle">Large-Scale Dynamics of the Magnetospheric Boundary: Comparisons between Global MHD Simulation <span class="hlt">Results</span> and ISTP <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Understanding the large-scale dynamics of the magnetospheric boundary is an important step towards achieving the ISTP mission's broad objective of assessing the global transport of plasma and energy through the geospace environment. Our approach is based on three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere- ionosphere system, and consists of using interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma parameters measured by solar wind monitors upstream of the bow shock as input to the simulations for predicting the large-scale dynamics of the magnetospheric boundary. The validity of these predictions is tested by comparing local data streams with time series measured by downstream spacecraft crossing the magnetospheric boundary. In this paper, we review <span class="hlt">results</span> from several case studies which confirm that our MHD model reproduces very well the large-scale motion of the magnetospheric boundary. The first case illustrates the complexity of the magnetic field topology that can occur at the dayside magnetospheric boundary for periods of northward IMF with strong Bx and By components. The second comparison reviewed combines dynamic and topological aspects in an investigation of the evolution of the distant tail at 200 R(sub E) from the Earth.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ARep...57..153K"><span id="translatedtitle">"RadioAstron"-A telescope with a size of 300 000 km: Main parameters and first <span class="hlt">observational</span> <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kardashev, N. S.; Khartov, V. V.; Abramov, V. V.; Avdeev, V. Yu.; Alakoz, A. V.; Aleksandrov, Yu. A.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Andreyanov, V. V.; Andrianov, A. S.; Antonov, N. M.; Artyukhov, M. I.; Arkhipov, M. Yu.; Baan, W.; Babakin, N. G.; Babyshkin, V. E.; Bartel', N.; Belousov, K. G.; Belyaev, A. A.; Berulis, J. J.; Burke, B. F.; Biryukov, A. V.; Bubnov, A. E.; Burgin, M. S.; Busca, G.; Bykadorov, A. A.; Bychkova, V. S.; Vasil'kov, V. I.; Wellington, K. J.; Vinogradov, I. S.; Wietfeldt, R.; Voitsik, P. A.; Gvamichava, A. S.; Girin, I. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Dagkesamanskii, R. D.; D'Addario, L.; Giovannini, G.; Jauncey, D. L.; Dewdney, P. E.; D'yakov, A. A.; Zharov, V. E.; Zhuravlev, V. I.; Zaslavskii, G. S.; Zakhvatkin, M. V.; Zinov'ev, A. N.; Ilinen, Yu.; Ipatov, A. V.; Kanevskii, B. Z.; Knorin, I. A.; Casse, J. L.; Kellermann, K. I.; Kovalev, Yu. A.; Kovalev, Yu. Yu.; Kovalenko, A. V.; Kogan, B. L.; Komaev, R. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Kopelyanskii, G. D.; Korneev, Yu. A.; Kostenko, V. I.; Kotik, A. N.; Kreisman, B. B.; Kukushkin, A. Yu.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Cooper, D. N.; Kut'kin, A. M.; Cannon, W. H.; Larionov, M. G.; Lisakov, M. M.; Litvinenko, L. N.; Likhachev, S. F.; Likhacheva, L. N.; Lobanov, A. P.; Logvinenko, S. V.; Langston, G.; McCracken, K.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Melekhin, M. V.; Menderov, A. V.; Murphy, D. W.; Mizyakina, T. A.; Mozgovoi, Yu. V.; Nikolaev, N. Ya.; Novikov, B. S.; Novikov, I. D.; Oreshko, V. V.; Pavlenko, Yu. K.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Ponomarev, Yu. N.; Popov, M. V.; Pravin-Kumar, A.; Preston, R. A.; Pyshnov, V. N.; Rakhimov, I. A.; Rozhkov, V. M.; Romney, J. D.; Rocha, P.; Rudakov, V. A.; Räisänen, A.; Sazankov, S. V.; Sakharov, B. A.; Semenov, S. K.; Serebrennikov, V. A.; Schilizzi, R. T.; Skulachev, D. P.; Slysh, V. I.; Smirnov, A. I.; Smith, J. G.; Soglasnov, V. A.; Sokolovskii, K. V.; Sondaar, L. H.; Stepan'yants, V. A.; Turygin, M. S.; Turygin, S. Yu.; Tuchin, A. G.; Urpo, S.; Fedorchuk, S. D.; Finkel'shtein, A. M.; Fomalont, E. B.; Fejes, I.; Fomina, A. N.; Khapin, Yu. B.; Tsarevskii, G. S.; Zensus, J. A.; Chuprikov, A. A.; Shatskaya, M. V.; Shapirovskaya, N. Ya.; Sheikhet, A. I.; Shirshakov, A. E.; Schmidt, A.; Shnyreva, L. A.; Shpilevskii, V. V.; Ekers, R. D.; Yakimov, V. E.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The Russian Academy of Sciences and Federal Space Agency, together with the participation of many international organizations, worked toward the launch of the RadioAstron orbiting space observatory with its onboard 10-m reflector radio telescope from the Baikonur cosmodrome on July 18, 2011. Together with some of the largest ground-based radio telescopes and a set of stations for tracking, collecting, and reducing the data obtained, this space radio telescope forms a multi-antenna ground-space radio interferometer with extremely long baselines, making it possible for the first time to study various objects in the Universe with angular resolutions a million times better than is possible with the human eye. The project is targeted at systematic studies of compact radio-emitting sources and their dynamics. Objects to be studied include supermassive black holes, accretion disks, and relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei, stellar-mass black holes, neutron stars and hypothetical quark stars, regions of formation of stars and planetary systems in our and other galaxies, interplanetary and interstellar plasma, and the gravitational field of the Earth. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of ground-based and inflight tests of the space radio telescope carried out in both autonomous and ground-space interferometric regimes are reported. The derived characteristics are in agreement with the main requirements of the project. The astrophysical science program has begun.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.P22A..05J"><span id="translatedtitle">Titan's Surface at 2.2-Cm Wavelength: <span class="hlt">Results</span> and Interpretations through the First Ten Years of <span class="hlt">Observation</span> By Cassini</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Janssen, M. A.; Le Gall, A. A.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Malaska, M. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A comprehensive calibration and mapping of the thermal microwave emission from Titan's surface will be presented, based on radiometric data obtained at 2.2-cm wavelength by the passive radiometer in the Cassini Radar instrument through the nearly ten years following Saturn Orbit Insertion. The data reported were accumulated from Titan passes Ta (October 2004) through T98 (February 2014) and now incorporate emission from all of Titan's surface. The mapping will eventually include data at both low and high spatial resolution, while for the present we concentrate on only the low-resolution data that provide thermal polarization. These data are sufficient to examine not only surface effective dielectric constant but seasonal and diurnal surface temperature variations, which we compare with current CIRS <span class="hlt">results</span>. The map of effective dielectric constant allows us to explore possible regional variations in surface properties and composition. Finally, these data allow us to understand the nature and magnitude of systematic errors in the map-making process, essential to interpreting both the present maps and the forthcoming high-resolution maps based on these. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA10964&hterms=RASP&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DRASP"><span id="translatedtitle">Phoenix Scoop Inverted <span class="hlt">Showing</span> Rasp</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p><p/> This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), <span class="hlt">shows</span> the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up. <p/> Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground. <p/> The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3724801"><span id="translatedtitle">Migraine with Aura Is Associated with an Incomplete Circle of Willis: <span class="hlt">Results</span> of a Prospective <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cucchiara, Brett; Wolf, Ronald L.; Nagae, Lidia; Zhang, Quan; Kasner, Scott; Datta, Ritobrato; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Detre, John A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective To compare the prevalence of an incomplete circle of Willis in patients with migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and control subjects, and correlate circle of Willis variations with alterations in cerebral perfusion. Methods Migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and control subjects were prospectively enrolled in a 1?1?1 ratio. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed to examine circle of Willis anatomy and arterial spin labeled perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow. A standardized template rating system was used to categorize circle of Willis variants. The primary pre-specified outcome measure was the frequency of an incomplete circle of Willis. The association between circle of Willis variations and cerebral blood flow was also analyzed. <span class="hlt">Results</span> 170 subjects were enrolled (56 migraine with aura, 61 migraine without aura, 53 controls). An incomplete circle of Willis was significantly more common in the migraine with aura compared to control group (73% vs. 51%, p?=?0.02), with a similar trend for the migraine without aura group (67% vs. 51%, p?=?0.08). Using a quantitative score of the burden of circle of Willis variants, migraine with aura subjects had a higher burden of variants than controls (p?=?0.02). Compared to those with a complete circle, subjects with an incomplete circle had greater asymmetry in hemispheric cerebral blood flow (p?=?0.05). Specific posterior cerebral artery variants were associated with greater asymmetries of blood flow in the posterior cerebral artery territory. Conclusions An incomplete circle of Willis is more common in migraine with aura subjects than controls, and is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow. PMID:23923042</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22092341"><span id="translatedtitle">GUIDING NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE MODELING USING CORONAL <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONS</span>: FIRST <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span> USING A QUASI-GRAD-RUBIN SCHEME</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Malanushenko, A. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Wheatland, M. S.; Gilchrist, S. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)</p> <p>2012-09-10</p> <p>At present, many models of the coronal magnetic field rely on photospheric vector magnetograms, but these data have been shown to be problematic as the sole boundary information for nonlinear force-free field extrapolations. Magnetic fields in the corona manifest themselves in high-energy images (X-rays and EUV) in the shapes of coronal loops, providing an additional constraint that is not at present used as constraints in the computational domain, directly influencing the evolution of the model. This is in part due to the mathematical complications of incorporating such input into numerical models. Projection effects, confusion due to overlapping loops (the coronal plasma is optically thin), and the limited number of usable loops further complicate the use of information from coronal images. We develop and test a new algorithm to use images of coronal loops in the modeling of the solar coronal magnetic field. We first fit projected field lines with those of constant-{alpha} force-free fields to approximate the three-dimensional distribution of currents in the corona along a sparse set of trajectories. We then apply a Grad-Rubin-like iterative technique, which uses these trajectories as volume constraints on the values of {alpha}, to obtain a volume-filling nonlinear force-free model of the magnetic field, modifying a code and method presented by Wheatland. We thoroughly test the technique on known analytical and solar-like model magnetic fields previously used for comparing different extrapolation techniques and compare the <span class="hlt">results</span> with those obtained by currently available methods relying only on the photospheric data. We conclude that we have developed a functioning method of modeling the coronal magnetic field by combining the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field with information from coronal images. Whereas we focus on the use of coronal loop information in combination with line-of-sight magnetograms, the method is readily extended to incorporate vector-magnetic data over any part of the photospheric boundary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ecd.bnl.gov/pubs/BNL68894.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">8.3 VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span> FROM AIRCRAFT <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONS</span> MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>8.3 VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span> FROM AIRCRAFT <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONS</span> of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area a Gulstream -1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy. 2. OVERVIEW OF MEASUREMENTS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.abdn.ac.uk/marfish/pdfs/Lopez2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Fishery by-catches of marine mammals in Galician waters: <span class="hlt">results</span> from on-board <span class="hlt">observations</span> and an interview survey of fishermen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pierce, Graham</p> <p></p> <p>Fishery by-catches of marine mammals in Galician waters: <span class="hlt">results</span> from on-board <span class="hlt">observations</span> to the coastal zone. Resident marine mammal species include common dolphin (Delphinus delphis), bottlenose 2002 Abstract Rates of cetacean by-catch were investigated in Galician waters (NW Spain) using</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4446094"><span id="translatedtitle">Low Vitamin D Levels Are Associated with Higher Opioid Dose in Palliative Cancer Patients – <span class="hlt">Results</span> from an <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Study in Sweden</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bergman, Peter; Sperneder, Susanne; Höijer, Jonas; Bergqvist, Jenny; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Vitamin D deficiency is common among palliative cancer patients and has been connected to an increased risk for pain, depressions and infections. Therefore we wanted to test the hypothesis that low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels are associated with higher opioid dose, higher infectious burden and impaired quality of life in palliative cancer patients. The secondary aim was to investigate the association between 25OHD-levels and survival time. Method In this prospective, <span class="hlt">observational</span> study in palliative cancer-patients (n = 100) we performed univariate and multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association of 25OHD levels with opioid dose, infectious burden (antibiotic consumption), quality of life (Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale, ESAS) and survival time, controlling for potential confounding factors. <span class="hlt">Results</span> The median 25OHD level was 40 nmol/L (range 8-154 nmol/L). There was a significant association between 25OHD levels and opioid dose, beta coefficient -0.67; p=0.02; i.e. a low 25OHD level was associated with a higher opioid dose. This association remained significant after adjustment for stage of the cancer disease in a multivariate analysis, beta coefficient -0.66; p = 0.04. There was no association between 25OHD levels and antibiotic use or quality of life. Univariate cox regression analysis <span class="hlt">showed</span> a weak correlation between survival time and 25OHD levels (p<0.05). However, decreased albumin levels and increased CRP levels were superior markers to predict survival time; p<0.001 for both analyses. Conclusion Low 25OHD-levels are associated with increased opioid consumption in palliative cancer patients. Future interventional studies are needed to investigate if pain can be reduced by vitamin D supplementation in these patients. In addition, this study confirms previous findings that low albumin and increased CRP levels are useful markers for survival time in palliative cancer patients. PMID:26018761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4248393"><span id="translatedtitle">Merging nodes under sequential <span class="hlt">observability</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Michael L. Case; Victor N. Kravets; Alan Mishchenko; Robert K. Brayton</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new type of sequential technology in- dependent synthesis. Building on the previous notions of combinational <span class="hlt">observability</span> and sequential equivalence, se- quential <span class="hlt">observability</span> is introduced and discussed. By con- sidering both the sequential nature of the design and <span class="hlt">observ</span>- ability simultaneously, better <span class="hlt">results</span> can be obtained than with either algorithm alone. The experimental <span class="hlt">results</span> <span class="hlt">show</span> that this</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH44A..02T"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Assessment of Seismic Risk (DASR) by Multi-parametric <span class="hlt">Observations</span>: Preliminary <span class="hlt">Results</span> of PRIME experiment within the PRE-EARTHQUAKES EU-FP7 Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Ouzounov, D. P.; Papadopoulos, G. A.; Parrot, M.; Genzano, N.; Lisi, M.; Alparlsan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybukia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Romano, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The integration of different <span class="hlt">observations</span> together with the refinement of data analysis methods, is generally expected to improve our present knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and of their possible precursors. This is also the main goal of PRE-EARTHQUAKES (Processing Russian and European EARTH <span class="hlt">observations</span> for earthQUAKE precursors Studies) the FP7 Project which, to this aim, committed together, different international expertise and <span class="hlt">observational</span> capabilities, in the last 2 years. In the learning phase of the project, different parameters (e.g. thermal anomalies, total electron content, radon concentration, etc.), measured from ground and satellite systems and analyzed by using different data analysis approaches, have been studied for selected geographic areas and specific seismic events in the past. Since July 2012 the PRIME (PRE-EARTHQUAKES Real-time Integration and Monitoring Experiment) started attempting to perform, on the base of independent <span class="hlt">observations</span> collected and integrated in real-time through the PEG (PRE-EARTHQUAKES Geo-portal), a Dynamic Assessment of Seismic Risk (DASR) on selected geographic areas of Europe (Italy-Greece-Turkey) and Asia (Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Japan). In this paper, <span class="hlt">results</span> so far achieved as well as the potential and opportunities they open for a worldwide Earthquake <span class="hlt">Observation</span> System (EQuOS) - as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth <span class="hlt">Observation</span> System of Systems) - will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950004624&hterms=air+balloons&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dair%2Bballoons"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observation</span> of ozone and aerosols in the Antarctic ozone hole of 1991 under the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) Project. Preliminary <span class="hlt">result</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hayashi, Masahiko; Murata, Isao; Iwasaka, Yasunobu; Kondo, Yutaka; Kanzawa, Hiroshi</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We present preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span> for the PPB (Polar Patrol Balloon) experiment. The balloon was launched at 07:55 UT on 23 September and dropped at 21 UT on 28 September 1991. During the period, ozone and aerosol concentrations were measured correspondingly along the track. During the Lagrangian type <span class="hlt">observation</span>, drastic change of ozone concentration in 'same air mass' and positive correlation between ozone concentration and sulfate aerosol amount were obtained at the level within 80-78 hPa. During the descent motion at 80 deg S active PSC's (type-1 and -2) were <span class="hlt">observed</span> from 200 hPa to 80 hPa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014A%26A...572A.120A"><span id="translatedtitle">The PHEMU09 catalogue and astrometric <span class="hlt">results</span> of the <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter made in 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arlot, J.-E.; Emelyanov, N.; Varfolomeev, M. I.; Amossé, A.; Arena, C.; Assafin, M.; Barbieri, L.; Bolzoni, S.; Bragas-Ribas, F.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Casarramona, F.; Casas, R.; Christou, A.; Colas, F.; Collard, A.; Combe, S.; Constantinescu, M.; Dangl, G.; De Cat, P.; Degenhardt, S.; Delcroix, M.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Dourneau, G.; Douvris, A.; Druon, C.; Ellington, C. K.; Estraviz, G.; Farissier, P.; Farmakopoulos, A.; Garlitz, J.; Gault, D.; George, T.; Gorda, S. Yu.; Grismore, J.; Guo, D. F.; Herald, D.; Ida, M.; Ishida, M.; Ivanov, A. V.; Klemt, B.; Koshkin, N.; Le Campion, J. F.; Liakos, A.; Liao, S. L.; Li, S. N.; Loader, B.; Lopresti, C.; Lo Savio, E.; Marchini, A.; Marino, G.; Masi, G.; Massallé, A.; Maulella, R.; McFarland, J.; Miyashita, K.; Napoli, C.; Noyelles, B.; Pauwels, T.; Pavlov, H.; Peng, Q. Y.; Perelló, C.; Priban, V.; Prost, J.; Razemon, S.; Rousselle, J. P.; Rovira, J.; Ruisi, R.; Ruocco, N.; Salvaggio, F.; Sbarufatti, G.; Shakun, L.; Scheck, A.; Sciuto, C.; da Silva Neto, D. N.; Sinyaeva, N. V.; Sofia, A.; Sonka, A.; Talbot, J.; Tang, Z. H.; Tejfel, V. G.; Thuillot, W.; Tigani, K.; Timerson, B.; Tontodonati, E.; Tsamis, V.; Unwin, M.; Venable, R.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Vilar, J.; Vingerhoets, P.; Watanabe, H.; Yin, H. X.; Yu, Y.; Zambelli, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Context. In 2009, the Sun and the Earth passed through the equatorial plane of Jupiter and therefore the orbital planes of its main satellites. It was the equinox on Jupiter. This occurrence made mutual occultations and eclipses between the satellites possible. Experience has shown that the <span class="hlt">observations</span> of such events provide accurate astrometric data able to bring new information on the dynamics of the Galilean satellites. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> are made under the form of photometric measurements, but need to be made through the organization of a worldwide <span class="hlt">observation</span> campaign maximizing the number and the quality of the data obtained. Aims: This work focuses on processing the complete database of photometric <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter made during the international campaign in 2009. The final goal is to derive new accurate astrometric data. Methods: We used an accurate photometric model of mutual events adequate with the accuracy of the <span class="hlt">observation</span>. Our original method was applied to derive astrometric data from photometric <span class="hlt">observations</span> of mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: We processed the 457 lightcurves obtained during the international campaign of photometric <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter in 2009. Compared with the theory, for successful <span class="hlt">observations</span>, the r.m.s. of O-C residuals are equal to 45.8 mas and 81.1 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively; the mean O-C residuals are equal to -2 mas and -9 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively, for mutual occultations; and -6 mas and +1 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively, for mutual eclipses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7074K"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N: Major <span class="hlt">results</span> and present challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kanzow, Torsten; Cunningham, Stuart; Johns, William; Bryden, Harry; Hirschi, Joel; Baringer, Molly; Meinen, Christopher; Paz Chidicho, Maria; Marotzke, Jochem; Beal, Lisa</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The RAPID-WATCH/MOCHA array for monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) at 26.5°N has been in continuous operation since April 2004. Here we present a 4 year timeseries of its strength and variability. The 26.5°N section is separated into a Florida Strait section west of the Bahamas where the Gulf Stream transport is monitored from cable voltage measurements and a mid-ocean section from the Bahamas to Africa. Variability in the wind-driven surface-layer Ekman transport is derived from QuikScat satellite-based <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The zonally integrated geostrophic profile of northward velocity of the mid-ocean flow is estimated from time-series measurements of temperature and salinity throughout the water column at the eastern and western boundaries and on either side of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, complemented by direct velocity measurements. Here we focus on two aspects, (i) the interactions of the different branches of the AMOC, and (ii) the <span class="hlt">observed</span> AMOC variability. i. We <span class="hlt">show</span> that the addition of bottom pressure as an independent indicator of the ocean circulation adds to provide the experimental proof that the upper-ocean northward transport fluctuations are compensated for by fluctuations of the deep-ocean southward transport. In particular fluctuations in either Gulf Stream or deep western boundary current transports are compensated in a barotropic manner very close to the continental slope off the Bahamas. Bottom pressure further reveals that the abyssal, zonally integrated transport variations at 5000 m exceed that at any other level below the thermocline. The presence of the large-amplitude abyssal transport variability is puzzling, as it clearly exceeds the level of variability required for a compensation of upper-ocean transports We also document how wave dynamics within 100 km of the western boundary provides an efficient mechanism to suppress an imprint of the offshore eddy field on the AMOC. ii. The mean AMOC strength is 18.5 and it fluctuates over time by ±4.9 Sv. The sub-seasonal variance (periods between 10 and 90 days) of the Ekman transport exceeds that of the Gulf Stream and mid-ocean, dominating fluctuations of the AMOC. However, the seasonal variance of both the Gulf Stream and mid-ocean transports dominate seasonal fluctuations of the AMOC. The strength of the AMOC displays a seasonal cycle of 7 Sv peak-to-peak, with maxima in early Autumn and minima in early Spring. A strong seasonal cycle in eastern boundary densities from the surface to 1400 dbar dominates the upper mid-ocean seasonal cycle and appears to be driven by seasonal variations of the eastern boundary wind stress curl. Our <span class="hlt">results</span> further <span class="hlt">show</span> that the inferred meridional heat transport at 26.5° N is closely correlated with the strength of the AMOC, and that the gyre contribution to fluctuations in the heat transport is likely to be an order of magnitude smaller than the overturning component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.grapenthin.org/download/Grapenthin_etal_2007_agu_poster.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">FIG. 2: Model <span class="hlt">results</span> <span class="hlt">showing</span> vertical and horizontal displacements due to the Hekla 2000 lava (disk, final relaxed response). Tickmarks in c are Lambert coordinates and describe the extend of the modeled area in meters. (a,d) and the Mogi model (b,e). Th</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Grapenthin, Ronni</p> <p></p> <p>FIG. 2: Model <span class="hlt">results</span> <span class="hlt">showing</span> vertical and horizontal displacements due to the Hekla 2000 lava the <span class="hlt">results</span> of the Mogi model from the final relaxed response due to the Hekla lava. Note that the scale, Chambery, France contact: ronni@gi.alaska.edu AGU ­ V53C-1421 Abstract Modeling a circular lava flow</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21454983"><span id="translatedtitle">NEW <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span> FROM THE MAGELLAN IMACS SPECTROSCOPIC Ly{alpha} SURVEY: NICMOS <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONS</span> OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 5.7</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sawicki, Marcin, E-mail: ahenry@physics.ucsb.ed [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)</p> <p>2010-08-10</p> <p>We present NICMOS J {sub 110} (rest-frame 1200-2100 A) <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the three z = 5.7 Ly{alpha} emitters discovered in the blind multislit spectroscopic survey by Martin et al. These images confirm the presence of the two sources that were previously only seen in spectroscopic <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The third source, which is undetected in our J {sub 110} <span class="hlt">observations</span>, has been detected in narrowband imaging of the Cosmic Origins Survey, so our non-detection implies a rest-frame equivalent width >146 A (3{sigma}). The two J {sub 110}-detected sources have more modest rest-frame equivalent widths of 30-40 A, but all three are typical of high-redshift Ly{alpha} emitters. In addition, the J {sub 110}-detected sources have UV luminosities that are within a factor of 2 of L*{sub UV}, and sizes that appear compact (r {sub hl{approx}} 0.''15) in our NIC2 images-consistent with a redshift of 5.7. We use these UV-continuum and Ly{alpha} measurements to estimate the i {sub 775}-z {sub 850} colors of these galaxies and <span class="hlt">show</span> that at least one and possibly all three would be missed by the i-dropout Lyman break galaxy selection. These <span class="hlt">observations</span> help demonstrate the utility of multislit narrowband spectroscopy as a technique for finding faint emission-line galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sen&pg=4&id=EJ1025164"><span id="translatedtitle">The Educational Experiences of Pupils with a Statement for Special Educational Needs in Mainstream Primary Schools: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from a Systematic <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Webster, Rob; Blatchford, Peter</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Findings from the Deployment and Impact of Support Staff project <span class="hlt">showed</span> that day-to-day support for pupils with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream UK schools is often provided by teaching assistants (TAs), instead of teachers. This arrangement is the main explanation for other <span class="hlt">results</span> from the project, which found TA support had a more…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40746430"><span id="translatedtitle">Space VLBI <span class="hlt">observations</span> of southern hemisphere gamma-ray and non-gamma-ray AGN: First <span class="hlt">results</span> for PKS 0637-752</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. J. Tingay; D. L. Jauncey; J. E. Reynolds; A. K. Tzioumis; E. A. King; R. A. Preston; D. W. Murphy; D. L. Meier; P. G. Edwards; J. E. J. Lovell; H. Hirabayashi; H. Kobayashi; K. M. Shibata; P. M. McCulloch; M. E. Costa; P. Dewdney; W. Cannon; G. Nicolson; E. Valtaoja; M. Tornikoski; T. Venturi</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>We present the first <span class="hlt">results</span> from our VSOP proposal, “?-ray loud and quiet AGN with VSOP and SHEVE at 5 GHz”. This project is aimed at determining what, if anything, differentiates ?-ray-identified radio sources from similar strong, flat-spectrum radio sources which have not been identified as sources of greater than 100 MeV ?-rays. Five VSOP <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been successfully completed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.T43C2228E"><span id="translatedtitle">Transpression along the Altyn Tagh fault and terminations of large ruptures at the Aksay restraining bend: <span class="hlt">results</span> from numerical modeling and the <span class="hlt">observed</span> earthquake record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elliott, A. J.; Duan, B.; Oskin, M. E.; Liu, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Field evidence and numerical modeling suggest that the Aksay restraining double-bend of the Altyn Tagh fault (ATF) may serve as a barrier to great earthquakes by terminating major strike-slip ruptures. The Altyn Tagh fault generally defines the northwestern margin of the Tibet-Qinghai plateau, accommodating transpressive northeastward motion of the plateau with respect to the Tarim block and stable Eurasia to its north and west. Transpression is enhanced at major restraining double-bends along the ATF (including the Sulamu Tagh, Akato Tagh, and Aksay bends). Contemporary activity of two parallel fault strands within the Aksay bend and stepover (see figure) requires separate rupture of each fault, implying that the bend stops incoming ruptures on either fault. Geomorphic <span class="hlt">observations</span> indicate that slip is transferred between the northern and southern strands of the ATF at the Aksay bend, and multi-cycle numerical rupture models of the system suggest that this tradeoff in slip is manifested by ruptures tapering as they enter the zone of high fault-normal stresses within the most transpressive portion of the bend. We present new field data that require a renewed interpretation of controversial slip rate sites near Old Aksay town (e.g., Meriaux et al., 2005), report a paleoseismologic record for the tail end of the northern strand, and introduce a new slip rate site on the southern strand that complements work by Wang et al. (2004). Slip rate data indicate similar slip rates (~6-9 mm/yr) on both strands where they enter opposite sides of the bend, and paleoseismologic data from the relatively poorly expressed western end of the northern strand <span class="hlt">show</span> multiple Quaternary events. These field data corroborate predictions from dynamic rupture models, which indicate fewer, larger events on incoming strands and smaller, more frequent events on each strand beyond the bend. Our combined modeling and field <span class="hlt">results</span> together suggest that major fault bends like that at Aksay serve as important impediments to throughgoing strike-slip rupture. References: Meriaux, A.-S. et al. (2005), J. Geophys. Res. 110, doi:10.1029/2004JB003210. Wang, F. et al. (2004), Study on Holocene strike-slip rates of the middle Altyn Tagh fault by terraces offset measurement, Seismology and Geology 26(1), p. 61-70 (in Chinese). The Aksay bend of the Altyn Tagh fault. Slip transfers between southern (SATF) and northern (NATF) strands across the bend. Great strike-slip ruptures entering the bend on either fault will be arrested by high fault-normal stresses, leaving heterogeneous stresses that promote smaller local events on the tail end of each strand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20110007130&hterms=magnetic+fields&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bfields"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial <span class="hlt">Results</span> of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves <span class="hlt">Observed</span> on the C/NOFS Satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Bromund, K.; Klenzing, J.; Rowland, D.; Maynard, N.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Initial <span class="hlt">results</span> are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregularities. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning detector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically < 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions <span class="hlt">show</span> similarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average velocities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is <span class="hlt">observed</span>, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dynamo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23876795"><span id="translatedtitle">Combined CpG and poly I:C stimulation of monocytes <span class="hlt">results</span> in unique signaling activation not <span class="hlt">observed</span> with the individual ligands.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arsenault, Ryan J; Kogut, Michael H; He, Haiqi</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Toll-like receptors (TLRs) bind to components of microbes, activate cellular signal transduction pathways and stimulate innate immune responses. Previously, we have shown in chicken monocytes that the combination of CpG, the ligand for TLR21 (the chicken equivalent of TLR9), and poly I:C, the ligand for TLR3, <span class="hlt">results</span> in a synergistic immune response. In order to further characterize this synergy, kinome analysis was performed on chicken monocytes stimulated with either unmethylated CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG) and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) individually or in combination for either 1h or 4h. The analysis was carried out using chicken species-specific peptide arrays to study the kinase activity induced by the two ligands. The arrays are comprised of kinase target sequences immobilized on an array surface. Active kinases phosphorylate their respective target sequences, and these phosphorylated peptides are then visualized and quantified. A significant number of peptides exhibited altered phosphorylation when CpG and poly I:C were given together, that was not <span class="hlt">observed</span> when either CpG or poly I:C was given separately. The unique, synergistic TLR agonist affected peptides represent protein members of signaling pathways including calcium signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and Endocytosis at the 1h time point. At the 4h time point, TLR agonist synergy influenced pathways included Adipocytokine signaling pathway, cell cycle, calcium signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway and RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway. Using nitric oxide (NO) production as the readout, TLR ligand synergy was also investigated using signaling protein inhibitors. A number of inhibitors were able to inhibit NO response in cells given CpG alone but not in cells given both CpG and poly I:C, as poly I:C alone does not elicit a significant NO response. The unique peptide phosphorylation induced by the combination of CpG and poly I:C and the unique signaling protein requirements for synergy determined by inhibitor assays both <span class="hlt">show</span> that synergistic signaling is not a simple addition of TLR pathways. A set of secondary pathways activated by the ligand combination are proposed, leading to the activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) and ultimately of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Since many microbes can stimulate more than one TLR, this synergistic influence on cellular signaling may be an important consideration for the study of immune response and what we consider to be the canonical TLR signaling pathways. PMID:23876795</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014acm..conf..311D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Results</span> from ground-based <span class="hlt">observations</span> of asteroid 2012 DA_{14} during its close approach to the Earth on February 15, 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Leon, J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Ortiz, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Morales, N.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Licandro, J.; Perez-Romero, A.; Lorenzi, V.; Cikota, S.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Near-Earth asteroid 2012 DA_{14} (hereafter DA_{14}) made its closest approach to the Earth on February 15, 2013, when it passed at a distance of 27,700 km from the Earth's surface. DA_{14} was discovered only one year before the approach. This fact, together with its small size, made a good characterization of the body very difficult. However, it was the first time an asteroid of moderate size (˜45 m estimated before the approach) was predicted to come that close to the Earth, becoming bright enough to permit a detailed study from ground-based telescopes. With the aim of collecting the most varied and useful information, we designed and carried out an <span class="hlt">observational</span> campaign that involved 5 ground-based telescopes located in 4 different Spanish observatories. Visible colors and spectra were obtained using the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) at the ''El Roque de los Muchachos'' Observatory (ORM) and the 2.2-m CAHA telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria); near-infrared colors were obtained using the 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo, located also at the ORM; time-series photometry was obtained using the f/3 0.77-m telescope at La Hita Observatory (Toledo) and the f/8 1.5-m telescope at the Sierra Nevada Observatory (Granada, Spain). The analysis of the data confirmed that this NEA can be classified as an L-type asteroid with an estimated geometric albedo of p_V = 0.44 ± 0.20. L-type asteroids are not very common and most of them display unusual characteristics that indicate that their surfaces could be covered by a mixture of high- and low-albedo particles, as it is detected on some carbonaceous chondrites (CV3 and CO3). We found the asteroid to be quite elongated and very irregular, with an equivalent diameter of 18 m, less than a half of the former estimation. This suggests that close approaches of objects as small as DA_{14} are 4 times more frequent per year than it was thought before (once every 40 years). The rotational period of the object was also estimated with high accuracy with interesting <span class="hlt">results</span>. Using the time-series photometry before and after the encounter, we <span class="hlt">show</span> that the object probably suffered a spin-up due to the gravitational forces during its close approach to the Earth, decreasing its rotational period from 9.8 ± 0.1 hr. to 8.8 ± 0.1 hr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4158220"><span id="translatedtitle">The long-term course of patients undergoing alternative and integrative therapy for lumbar disc herniation: 3-year <span class="hlt">results</span> of a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an integrative complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach in the management of lumbar herniated disc (LHD) with sciatic pain and investigate pain relapse, use of medical care and surgery rates in patients who actively chose non-surgical CAM treatment for LHD. Study design/Setting This prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study was undertaken at a Korean medicine hospital outpatient setting in Korea. Participants A total of 128 consecutive patients with LHD with a numeric rating scale for leg pain of ?5 completed 6?months of CAM treatment after recruitment from November 2006, and 73/128 participants (57%) attended follow-up 3?years later. Interventions 6?months of CAM treatment (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation). Primary outcome measures Visual analogue scale (VAS) for low back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcome measures Neurological impairment (muscular weakness, sensory loss, Straight Leg Raise test), MRIs, recurrence of low back pain and/or radiating pain, and use of medical care. <span class="hlt">Results</span> 92 patients could be assessed for surgical state, of whom 4 replied that they had received surgery. 73 patients attended the 3-year follow-up. The baseline VAS of back pain (4.37±2.70) decreased after treatment (0.90±1.01; p<0.001) and was maintained at 3?years (1.12±1.64; p=0.19). The baseline VAS of leg pain (7.57±1.40) also decreased on treatment (0.82±1.18; p<0.001) and was sustained at 3?years (0.99±1.58; p=0.34). ODI scores declined from 40.74±16.15 to 9.84±9.67 (p<0.001), then decreased further to 6.30±7.19 (p<0.01). SF-36 scores increased from 34.96±13.30 to 69.20±14.96 (p<0.001), reaching 76.19±14.45 (p<0.001) at 3?years. 37 patients reported recurrence of pain and most chose CAM treatment for management of relapse symptoms. Conclusions Although the absence of a control group prevents validation of effectiveness, many patients <span class="hlt">showed</span> favourable long-term outcomes. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01989403.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4665D"><span id="translatedtitle">River flow and inundation in African river systems: <span class="hlt">results</span> from a new pan-African land-surface model validated against Earth <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dadson, Simon</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The role of surface-water flooding in controlling fluxes of water and carbon between the land and the atmosphere is increasingly recognized in studies of the Earth system. Simultaneous advances in remote earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> and large-scale land-surface and hydrological modeling promise improvements in our ability to understand these linkages, and suggest that improvements in prediction of river flow and inundation extents may <span class="hlt">result</span>. Here we present an analysis of newly-available <span class="hlt">observational</span> estimates of surface water inundation obtained through satellite Earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> with <span class="hlt">results</span> from simulations produced by using the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land-surface model operating at 0.5 degree resolution over the African continent. The model was forced with meteorological input from the WATCH Forcing Data for the period 1981-2001 and sensitivity to various model configurations and parameter settings were tested. Both the PDM and TOPMODEL sub-grid scale runoff generation schemes were tested for parameter sensitivities, with the evaluation focussing on simulated river discharge in sub-catchments of the Congo, Nile, Niger, Orange, Okavango and Zambezi rivers. It was found that whilst the water balance in each of the catchments can be simulated with acceptable accuracy, the individual responses of each river vary between model configurations so that there is no single runoff parameterization scheme or parameter values that yields optimal <span class="hlt">results</span> across all catchments. We trace these differences to the model's representation of sub-surface flow and make some suggestions to improve the performance of large-scale land-surface models for use in similar applications. These findings suggest that the use of Earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> data together with improved models of large-scale hydrology have the potential to improve our ability to predict surface-water flooding and to develop our understanding of the role of flooding in driving components of the water and carbon cycles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23847380"><span id="translatedtitle">Olaparib <span class="hlt">shows</span> promise in multiple tumor types.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>A phase II study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib (AstraZeneca) for cancer patients with inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations confirmed earlier <span class="hlt">results</span> <span class="hlt">showing</span> clinical benefit for advanced breast and ovarian cancers, and demonstrated evidence of effectiveness against pancreatic and prostate cancers. PMID:23847380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP51A1925E"><span id="translatedtitle">Intercomparison of modeled and <span class="hlt">observed</span> marine surface climate variation over the pre-anthropogenic last millennium: First-order <span class="hlt">results</span> from the PAGES/Ocean2k project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, M. N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We have synthesized reconstructed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from sediment-derived paleodata (Mg/Ca, alkenones, TEX86, and faunal assemblages) for the interval 0-1800 C.E. at 200-year resolution. We <span class="hlt">observe</span> a statistically-significant cooling trend, which is apparently not sensitive to quality of chronological control, chronological resolution, seasonality of response, water depth of the sediment core, or type of measurement, but is likely biased toward <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the North Atlantic basin margins. The cooling trend is qualitatively consistent with a cooling trend <span class="hlt">observed</span> from a synthesis of terrestrial paleodata and other marine paleodata syntheses, but the mechanisms underlying the cooling are still unknown. We assess the extent to which a multimodel superensemble of paleoclimate model simulations driven with realistic external forcing is consistent with the cooling trend <span class="hlt">observed</span> in the paleoreconstruction synthesis for the common period 850-1850 CE. Within the context of the uncertainty in the paleoreconstruction synthesis and the simulations, we find that a global cooling trend is not simulated with only orbital forcing, but is consistent with the combined effects of volcanic and solar forcing. Assessment of the robustness of this <span class="hlt">result</span>, and diagnostic understanding of the underlying mechanisms, is the subject of further work to be presented in this contribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714952V"><span id="translatedtitle">Three dimensional dynamics of baroclinic tides at the Celtic Sea shelf break: on the <span class="hlt">results</span> of in-situ <span class="hlt">observations</span> and numerical modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vlasenko, Vasiliy; Stashchuk, Nataliya; Inall, Mark; Hopkins, Jo</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The three-dimensional dynamics of baroclinic tides in the shelf-slope area of the Celtic Sea were investigated numerically and using <span class="hlt">observational</span> data collected on the 376-th cruise of the R/V ``Discovery'' in June 2012. The time series recorded at a shelf-break mooring <span class="hlt">showed</span> that semi-diurnal internal waves were accompanied by packets of internal solitary waves with maximum amplitudes up to 105 m, the largest internal waves ever recorded in the Celtic Sea. The <span class="hlt">observed</span> baroclinic wave fields were replicated numerically using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. A fine-resolution grid with 115 m horizontal and 10 m vertical steps allowed the identification of two classes of short-scale internal waves. The first class was generated over headlands and resembles spiral-type internal waves that are typical for isolated underwater banks. The second class, generated within an area of isolated canyons, revealed properties of quasi-plane internal wave packets. The <span class="hlt">observed</span> in-situ intensification of tidal bottom currents at the shelf break mooring is explained in terms of a tidal beam that was formed over supercritical bottom topography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3925983"><span id="translatedtitle">DYZ1 arrays <span class="hlt">show</span> sequence variation between the monozygotic males</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Monozygotic twins (MZT) are an important resource for genetical studies in the context of normal and diseased genomes. In the present study we used DYZ1, a satellite fraction present in the form of tandem arrays on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, as a tool to uncover sequence variations between the monozygotic males. <span class="hlt">Results</span> We detected copy number variation, frequent insertions and deletions within the sequences of DYZ1 arrays amongst all the three sets of twins used in the present study. MZT1b <span class="hlt">showed</span> loss of 35 bp compared to that in 1a, whereas 2a <span class="hlt">showed</span> loss of 31 bp compared to that in 2b. Similarly, 3b <span class="hlt">showed</span> 10 bp insertion compared to that in 3a. MZT1a germline DNA <span class="hlt">showed</span> loss of 5 bp and 1b blood DNA <span class="hlt">showed</span> loss of 26 bp compared to that of 1a blood and 1b germline DNA, respectively. Of the 69 restriction sites detected in DYZ1 arrays, MboII, BsrI, TspEI and TaqI enzymes <span class="hlt">showed</span> frequent loss and or gain amongst all the 3 pairs studied. MZT1 pair <span class="hlt">showed</span> loss/gain of VspI, BsrDI, AgsI, PleI, TspDTI, TspEI, TfiI and TaqI restriction sites in both blood and germline DNA. All the three sets of MZT <span class="hlt">showed</span> differences in the number of DYZ1 copies. FISH signals reflected somatic mosaicism of the DYZ1 copies across the cells. Conclusions DYZ1 <span class="hlt">showed</span> both sequence and copy number variation between the MZT males. Sequence variation was also noticed between germline and blood DNA samples of the same individual as we <span class="hlt">observed</span> at least in one set of sample. The <span class="hlt">result</span> suggests that DYZ1 faithfully records all the genetical changes occurring after the twining which may be ascribed to the environmental factors. PMID:24495361</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ClDy...43..893L"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical pacific forcing of a 1998-1999 climate shift: <span class="hlt">observational</span> analysis and climate model <span class="hlt">results</span> for the boreal spring season</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lyon, Bradfield; Barnston, Anthony G.; DeWitt, David G.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Observational</span> data and climate model simulations and experiments are utilized to document an abrupt shift in Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and associated atmospheric conditions, which occurred in 1998-1999. Emphasis is placed on the March-May (MAM) season, as the motivation for the work is to extend a recent study that reported an abrupt decline in East African MAM rainfall at that time. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of MAM SSTs over the last century following the removal of the concurrent influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and global warming trend by linear regression reveals a pattern of multidecadal variability in the Pacific similar to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Examination of MAM precipitation variations since 1940 indicates, among other findings, that recurrent drought events since 1999 in East Africa, central-southwest Asia, parts of eastern Australia and the southwestern US are all regional manifestations of a global scale multidecadal pattern. Associated shifts in the low-level wind field and upper-level stationary waves are discussed. Simulations using an atmospheric climate model forced with <span class="hlt">observed</span>, global SSTs capture many of the salient precipitation and atmospheric circulation features associated with the <span class="hlt">observed</span> shift. Further, when the model is forced only with <span class="hlt">observed</span> SSTs from the tropical Pacific it also captures many of the <span class="hlt">observed</span> atmospheric changes, including the abrupt shift in 1999. The <span class="hlt">results</span> point to the fundamental role played by the tropical Pacific in driving the response to multidecadal variability of SSTs in the basin and provide important context for recent seasonal climate extremes in several regions of the globe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Ge%26Ae..54..640P"><span id="translatedtitle">Annual variations of the amplitude characteristic of the noise magnetic field in the ELF frequency range based on the <span class="hlt">results</span> of high-latitude <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pchelkin, V. V.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The annual variation of a number of amplitude characteristics of the noise electromagnetic field in the frequency range near the first Schumann resonance (and in particular the mean values of the modulus of horizontal magnetic components and parameters of the distribution function of noise pulses over amplitudes) was obtained and analyzed based on the <span class="hlt">results</span> of three-year measurements performed at the high-latitude magnetic observatory Lovozero. The summer increase in mean and median values of the magnetic component of noises associated with electrical storms and the lack of annual variations of the exponent that empirically describes the distribution of amplitudes of noise signals were found. The relationship between the seasonal (winter/summer in the northern hemisphere) increase in the mean value of the modulus of the horizontal magnetic field component and seasonal increase in the global number of lightning discharges is shown by the correlation of the <span class="hlt">results</span> of satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> and measurements of the magnetic component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..223S"><span id="translatedtitle">ClO <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from Space by JEM/SMILES: First <span class="hlt">results</span> of SMILES L2 research product and comparison with MLS and Odin/SMR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sato, Tomohiro; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Ochiai, Satoshi; Kanamori, Hideto; Murayama, Yasuhiro; Manabe, Takeshi; Urban, Joachim; Murtagh, Donal; Smiles Mission Team</p> <p></p> <p>Submillimetre-wave receiving Systems based on sensitive SIS (Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor) detector Technology provide new opportunities for Accurate <span class="hlt">Observation</span> of ClO in the at-mosphere. The Superconducting Submillimetre-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) was launched and installed onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. The SMILES project is a collaboration of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The aims of THE SMILES project are: i) Space demonstration of super-conductive SIS mixer for submillimetre-wave limb emission sounding cooled down to 4K using a mechanical cooler. ii) Global measurements of atmospheric molecules and radicals. SMILES <span class="hlt">observes</span> atmospheric species and isotopologues such as Osub3/sub, Hsup35/supCl, Hsup37/supCl, ClO, Upper tro-pospheric humidity, BrO, HOBr, HOCl, HOsub2/sub, Hsub2/subOsub2/sub, HNOsub3/sub, CHsub3/subCN, SOsub2/sub, and ozone isotope species in the altitude region from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere with a precision of a few percent. SMILES <span class="hlt">observes</span> day and night profiles of ClO in the altitude range 20-65km between 65N and 38S. We have been analyzing the ClO <span class="hlt">observations</span>. We will present the recent status of the analysis with respect to the NICT research level-2 data product, give an error estimation, and provide early comparison/validation <span class="hlt">results</span> from comparisons with global measurements from Odin/SMR and MLS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://cds.cern.ch/record/796310/files/0410019.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters. IV. New <span class="hlt">results</span> from mid-infrared <span class="hlt">observations</span> of th e cluster Abell 2219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Coia, D; McBreen, B; Biviano, A; Smail, I; Altieri, B; Kneib, J P; McBreen, S; Sánchez-Fernández, C; O'Halloran, B</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The massive cluster of galaxies Abell 2219 (z = 0.228) was <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 14.3 $\\mu$m with the Infrared Space Observatory and <span class="hlt">results</span> were published by Barvainis et al. (1999). These <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been reanalyzed using a method specifically designed for the detection of faint sources that had been applied to other clusters. Five new sources were detected and the <span class="hlt">resulting</span> cumulative total of ten sources all have optical counterparts. The mid-infrared sources are identified with three cluster members, three foreground galaxies, an Extremely Red Object, a star and two galaxies of unknown redshift. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the galaxies are fit with models from a selection, using the program GRASIL. Best-fits are obtained, in general, with models of galaxies with ongoing star formation. For three cluster members the infrared luminosities derived from the model SEDs are between ~5.7x10^10 Lsun and 1.4x10^11 Lsun, corresponding to infrared star formation rates between 10 and 24 Msun yr^-1. The t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013P%26SS...84...28A"><span id="translatedtitle">The ~10 hour modulation of the relativistic electron spectrum as a <span class="hlt">result</span> of the periodic motion of the Jovian outer magnetosphere layer: Ulysses <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anagnostopoulos, G. C.; Karanikola, I.; Marhavilas, P. K.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We analyze relativistic (E>3 MeV) electron <span class="hlt">observations</span> during the dayside inbound trajectory of Ulysses (day 33 to day 38, 1992) in the Jovian magnetosphere and we demonstrate that the continuous presence of a relativistic electron layer at higher north latitudes (Ulysses reached ~40° lat. during closest approach the planet). In particular, we evaluated the cross-B field anisotropy of relativistic (E>3 MeV) electrons intensity by the COSPIN/HET detector onboard Ulysses, and we found that between the times of plasma sheet crossings/approaches, when Ulysses was found far from the magnetodisc, at higher north latitudes, local increases in the relativistic electron intensity and intensity gradient in the northward direction were persistently <span class="hlt">observed</span>. We also found that (1) the well known ~10 h separated relativistic electron spectral index peaks (spectral softening) and (2) the detection of relativistic electron intensity gradient in the northward direction are related phenomena. We infer that phenomenon 1 and 2 are explained by the ~10 h periodic upward-downward motion of the Jovian magnetosphere, and consequently of the outer magnetosphere relativistic electron layer. ?he above <span class="hlt">results</span> extends earlier <span class="hlt">results</span> for low energy electrons and energetic protons (Anagnostopoulos et al., 1998, 2001b) to relativistic electron phenomena, and provide strong evidence, for the first time, that the well known ~10 h rocking of the relativistic electron spectrum in the outer magnetosphere (the so called "clock phenomenon") is a spatial and not a temporal effect, as was earlier hypothesized (Simpson et al.,1992).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3892848"><span id="translatedtitle">A Manual Transportable Instrument Platform for Ground-Based Spectro-Directional <span class="hlt">Observations</span> (ManTIS) and the <span class="hlt">Resultant</span> Hyperspectral Field Goniometer System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buchhorn, Marcel; Petereit, Reinhold; Heim, Birgit</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article presents and technically describes a new field spectro-goniometer system for the ground-based characterization of the surface reflectance anisotropy under natural illumination conditions developed at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). The spectro-goniometer consists of a Manual Transportable Instrument platform for ground-based Spectro-directional <span class="hlt">observations</span> (ManTIS), and a hyperspectral sensor system. The presented measurement strategy <span class="hlt">shows</span> that the AWI ManTIS field spectro-goniometer can deliver high quality hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) measurements with a pointing accuracy of ±6 cm within the constant <span class="hlt">observation</span> center. The sampling of a ManTIS hemisphere (up to 30° viewing zenith, 360° viewing azimuth) needs approx. 18 min. The developed data processing chain in combination with the software used for the semi-automatic control provides a reliable method to reduce temporal effects during the measurements. The presented visualization and analysis approaches of the HCRF data of an Arctic low growing vegetation showcase prove the high quality of spectro-goniometer measurements. The patented low-cost and lightweight ManTIS instrument platform can be customized for various research needs and is available for purchase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A53S..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodological developments for the remote sensing of water vapor combining Raman lidar, GPS and in-situ <span class="hlt">observations</span>: <span class="hlt">results</span> from the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bosser, P.; Bock, O.; Thom, C.; Pelon, J.; Keckhut, P.; Bourcy, T.; Tzanos, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Measuring water vapour in the atmosphere is still a challenging topic for ever more demanding geophysical applications requiring high absolute accuracy, both at high and low water vapour concentrations, and long term stability. Changes in instruments or sensor types make this task very difficult and require a reference technique for inter-calibration purposes. Scanning Raman lidars have been shown in the past to be a potential candidate technique for transferring absolute calibration from ground-based sensors to other systems such as profilers (e.g. radiosondes and remote-sensing techniques like spectrometers and radiometers) and/or precipitable water vapour (PWV) measurements (e.g. from GPS or dual-channel microwave radiometers). The DEMEVAP (DEvelopment of MEthods for remote sensing of water VAPor) project aims at developing improved reference humidity sounding methods based on the combined used of scanning Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. The ultimate goal is to achieve absolute accuracy better than 3% on the total column water vapour. An intensive <span class="hlt">observing</span> period was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP), France, which involved two Raman lidars, four radiosonde measurement systems, five GPS stations, a stellar spectrometer, and several ground-based capacitive and dew-point sensors. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> were collected over 17 nights during which 26 balloons were released which carried a total of 79 radiosondes. Most of the balloons carried 3 or 4 different sonde types simultaneously (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White) for comparison purposes. The dataset collected during DEMEVAP 2011 is used to assess several GPS and Raman lidar calibration methods and evaluate the humidity bias of different operational radiosonde types. The four radiosonde systems <span class="hlt">show</span> biases of -11 to +7% compared to GPS PWV. Several Raman lidar calibration methods using either radiosonde profiles or GPS PWV measurements are compared to a hybrid method combining GPS and lidar data at the <span class="hlt">observation</span> level. All these methods <span class="hlt">show</span> a good degree of repeatability in the estimated lidar calibration constant of 2 to 5%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24957572"><span id="translatedtitle">Atlantic salmon <span class="hlt">show</span> capability for cardiac acclimation to warm temperatures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anttila, Katja; Couturier, Christine S; Overli, Oyvind; Johnsen, Arild; Marthinsen, Gunnhild; Nilsson, Göran E; Farrell, Anthony P</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Increases in environmental temperature predicted to <span class="hlt">result</span> from global warming have direct effects on performance of ectotherms. Moreover, cardiac function has been <span class="hlt">observed</span> to limit the tolerance to high temperatures. Here we <span class="hlt">show</span> that two wild populations of Atlantic salmon originating from northern and southern extremes of its European distribution have strikingly similar cardiac responses to acute warming when acclimated to common temperatures, despite different local environments. Although cardiac collapse starts at 21-23?°C with a maximum heart rate of ~150 beats per min (bpm) for 12?°C-acclimated fish, acclimation to 20?°C considerably raises this temperature (27.5?°C) and maximum heart rate (~200?bpm). Only minor population differences exist and these are consistent with the warmer habitat of the southern population. We demonstrate that the considerable cardiac plasticity discovered for Atlantic salmon is largely independent of natural habitat, and we propose that <span class="hlt">observed</span> cardiac plasticity may aid salmon to cope with global warming. PMID:24957572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017112"><span id="translatedtitle">A Census of X-ray Gas in NGC 1068: <span class="hlt">Results</span> From 450 ks of CHANDRA High Energy Transmisson Grating <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kallman, T.; Evans, Daniel A.; Marshall, H.; Canizares, C.; Longinotti, A.; Nowak, M.; Schulz, N.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We present models for the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. These are fitted to data obtained using the High Energy Transmission Grating on Chandra. The data <span class="hlt">show</span> line and radiative recombination continuum emission from a broad range of ions and elements. The models explore the importance of excitation processes for these lines including photoionization followed by recombination, radiative excitation by absorption of continuum radiation, and inner shell fluorescence. The models <span class="hlt">show</span> that the relative importance of these processes depends on the conditions in the emitting gas and that no single emitting component can fit the entire spectrum. In particular, the relative importance of radiative excitation and photoionization/recombination differs according to the element and ion stage emitting the line. This in turn implies a diversity of values for the ionization parameter of the various components of gas responsible for the emission, ranging from log(E ) = 1 to 3. Using this, we obtain an estimate for the total amount of gas responsible for the <span class="hlt">observed</span> emission. The mass flux through the region included in the HETG extraction region is approximately 0.3M/yr, assuming ordered flow at the speed characterizing the line widths. This can be compared with what is known about this object from other techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Icar..216...23F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for Amazonian northern mid-latitude regional glacial landsystems on Mars: Glacial flow models using GCM-driven climate <span class="hlt">results</span> and comparisons to geological <span class="hlt">observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fastook, James L.; Head, James W.; Forget, Francois; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Marchant, David R.</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>A fretted valley system on Mars located at the northern mid-latitude dichotomy boundary contains lineated valley fill (LVF) with extensive flow-like features interpreted to be glacial in origin. We have modeled this deposit using glacial flow models linked to atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) for conditions consistent with the deposition of snow and ice in amounts sufficient to explain the interpreted glaciation. In the first glacial flow model simulation, sources were modeled in the alcoves only and were found to be consistent with the alpine valley glaciation interpretation for various environments of flow in the system. These <span class="hlt">results</span> supported the interpretation of the <span class="hlt">observed</span> LVF deposits as <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from initial ice accumulation in the alcoves, accompanied by debris cover that led to advancing alpine glacial landsystems to the extent <span class="hlt">observed</span> today, with preservation of their flow texture and the underlying ice during downwasting in the waning stages of glaciation. In the second glacial flow model simulation, the regional accumulation patterns predicted by a GCM linked to simulation of a glacial period were used. This glacial flow model simulation produced a much wider region of thick ice accumulation, and significant glaciation on the plateaus and in the regional plains surrounding the dichotomy boundary. Deglaciation produced decreasing ice thicknesses, with flow centered on the fretted valleys. As plateaus lost ice, scarps and cliffs of the valley and dichotomy boundary walls were exposed, providing considerable potential for the production of a rock debris cover that could preserve the underlying ice and the surface flow patterns seen today. In this model, the lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons were the product of final retreat and downwasting of a much larger, regional glacial landsystem, rather than representing the maximum extent of an alpine valley glacial landsystem. These <span class="hlt">results</span> favor the interpretation that periods of mid-latitude glaciation were characterized by extensive plateau and plains ice cover, rather than being restricted to alcoves and adjacent valleys, and that the <span class="hlt">observed</span> lineated valley fill and lobate debris aprons represent debris-covered residual remnants of a once more extensive glaciation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150009012"><span id="translatedtitle">The Moving Group Targets of the Seeds High-Contrast Imaging Survey of Exoplanets and Disks: <span class="hlt">Results</span> and <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from the First Three Years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Brandt, Timothy D.; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Wisniewski, John P.; Turner, Edwin L.; Carson, J.; Matsuo, T.; Biller, B.; Bonnefoy, M.; Dressing, C.; Janson, M.; Knapp, G. R.; Moro-Martin, A.; Thalmann, C.; Kudo, T.; Kusakabe, N.; Hashimoto, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Currie, T.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Golota, T.; Goto, M.; Brady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hyashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, W.; Ishi, M.; Iye, M.; Kandori, R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">results</span> from the first three years of <span class="hlt">observations</span> of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of (is) approximately10(exp 5) at 1" and (is) approximately 10(exp 6) beyond 2" around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic MGs. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that five, beta Pictoris ((is) approximately 20 Myr), AB Doradus ((is) approximately 100 Myr), Columba ((is) approximately 30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium ((is) approximately 30 Myr), and TW Hydrae ((is) approximately 10 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these MGs. For all of our targets, we combine proposed MG membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca ii HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS <span class="hlt">observations</span> discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22357049"><span id="translatedtitle">The moving group targets of the seeds high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks: <span class="hlt">Results</span> and <span class="hlt">observations</span> from the first three years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brandt, Timothy D.; Turner, Edwin L.; Janson, M.; Knapp, G. R. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Kuzuhara, Masayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); McElwain, Michael W. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Schlieder, Joshua E.; Carson, J.; Biller, B.; Bonnefoy, M.; Brandner, W. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Wisniewski, John P.; Hashimoto, J. [HL Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Matsuo, T. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Dressing, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Moro-Martín, A. [Department of Astrophysics, CAB-CSIC/INTA, Madrid (Spain); Thalmann, C. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kudo, T. [Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI (United States); Kusakabe, N. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, L. [Laboratoire Hippolyte Fizeau, Nice (France); and others</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We present <span class="hlt">results</span> from the first three years of <span class="hlt">observations</span> of moving group (MG) targets in the Strategic Exploration of Exoplanets and Disks with Subaru (SEEDS) high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ?10{sup 5} at 1'' and ?10{sup 6} beyond 2'' around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic MGs. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that five, ? Pictoris (?20 Myr), AB Doradus (?100 Myr), Columba (?30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium (?30 Myr), and TW Hydrae (?10 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these MGs. For all of our targets, we combine proposed MG membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca II HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS <span class="hlt">observations</span> discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, ? And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4194298"><span id="translatedtitle">The safety and efficacy of EGF-based cream for the prevention of radiotherapy-induced skin injury: <span class="hlt">results</span> from a multicenter <span class="hlt">observational</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Ahn, Seung-Do; Choi, Doo-Ho; Kang, Min Kyu; Chung, Woong-Ki</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topically applied recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) for the prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis in cancer patients. Materials and Methods From December 2010 to April 2012, a total of 1,172 cancer patients who received radiotherapy (RT) of more than 50 Gy were prospectively enrolled and treated with EGF-based cream. An acute skin reaction classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 6-point rating scale was the primary end point and we also assessed the occurrence of edema, dry skin, or pruritus. <span class="hlt">Results</span> The percentage of radiation dermatitis with maximum grade 0 and grade 1 was 19% and 58% at the time of 50 Gy, and it became 29% and 47% after completion of planned RT. This increment was <span class="hlt">observed</span> only in breast cancer patients (from 18%/62% to 32%/49%). Adverse events related to the EGF-based cream developed in 49 patients (4%) with mild erythema the most common. Skin toxicity grade >2 was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in 5% of the patients. Edema, dry skin, and pruritus grade ?3 developed in 9%, 9%, and 1% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion Prophylactic use of an EGF-based cream is effective in preventing radiation dermatitis with tolerable toxicity. Further studies comparing EGF cream with other topical agents may be necessary. PMID:25324987</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0410019v3"><span id="translatedtitle">An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters. III. New <span class="hlt">results</span> from mid-infrared <span class="hlt">observations</span> of th e cluster Abell 2219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>D. Coia; L. Metcalfe; B. McBreen; A. Biviano; I. Smail; B. Altieri; J. -P. Kneib; S. McBreen; C. Sanchez-Fernandez; B. O'Halloran</p> <p>2006-10-20</p> <p>The massive cluster of galaxies Abell 2219 (z = 0.228) was <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 14.3 $\\mu$m with the Infrared Space Observatory and <span class="hlt">results</span> were published by Barvainis et al. (1999). These <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been reanalyzed using a method specifically designed for the detection of faint sources that had been applied to other clusters. Five new sources were detected and the <span class="hlt">resulting</span> cumulative total of ten sources all have optical counterparts. The mid-infrared sources are identified with three cluster members, three foreground galaxies, an Extremely Red Object, a star and two galaxies of unknown redshift. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the galaxies are fit with models from a selection, using the program GRASIL. Best-fits are obtained, in general, with models of galaxies with ongoing star formation. For three cluster members the infrared luminosities derived from the model SEDs are between ~5.7x10^10 Lsun and 1.4x10^11 Lsun, corresponding to infrared star formation rates between 10 and 24 Msun yr^-1. The two cluster galaxies that have optical classifications are in the Butcher-Oemler region of the color-magnitude diagramme. The three foreground galaxies have infrared luminosities between 1.5x10^10 Lsun and 9.4x10^10 Lsun yielding infrared star formation rates between 3 and 16 Msun yr^-1. Two of the foreground galaxies are located in two foreground galaxy enhancements (Boschin et al. 2004). Including Abell 2219, six distant clusters of galaxies have been mapped with ISOCAM and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) have been found in three of them. The presence of LIRGs in Abell 2219 strengthens the association between luminous infrared galaxies in clusters and recent or ongoing cluster merger activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3849232"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of an electronic diary for improvement of adherence to interferon beta-1b in patients with multiple sclerosis: design and baseline <span class="hlt">results</span> of an <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, incurable, demyelinating disease that requires long-term treatment. Rates of non-adherence to prescribed therapy of up to 50% have been reported for chronic diseases. Strategies to improve treatment adherence are therefore of the utmost importance. This study will evaluate the effect of using electronic and paper diaries on treatment adherence to interferon beta-1b in patients with a first clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Here we report on the study design and <span class="hlt">results</span> of baseline assessments. Methods Patients were recruited into a prospective national multicenter cohort study for an <span class="hlt">observational</span> period of 2 years. At the start of the study, patients opted to use a digital (DiD) or paper diary (PD) to document self-administered injections of interferon beta-1b. Adherence to treatment will be assessed on the dropout rate at the end of the <span class="hlt">observation</span> period and on the regularity of injections every other day at 6-month intervals. Patient-related health outcomes will also be evaluated. <span class="hlt">Results</span> 700 patients with a mean age of 38.3 (SD 10.3) years and a mean duration of disease since diagnosis of 3.6 (SD 5.9) years were enrolled. 383 patients opted for the digital diary, 192 of which included an injection reminder. Significantly more male than female patients opted for the DiD. Only gender was identified as a factor influencing the decision for DiD or PD. Based on rating scales, a significantly higher proportion of women had depressive comorbidities at baseline. Conclusions Demographic characteristics of the two cohorts were similar at baseline. More women chose a paper diary, and more had depression at baseline. These imbalances will be addressed in the analysis of the study as possible confounders influencing long-term treatment adherence in the digital and paper diary cohorts. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00902135. PMID:24011220</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20140013009&hterms=monte+carlo&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3D%2522monte%2Bcarlo%2522"><span id="translatedtitle">Monte Carlo Bayesian Inference on a Statistical Model of Sub-gridcolumn Moisture Variability Using High-resolution Cloud <span class="hlt">Observations</span> . Part II; Sensitivity Tests and <span class="hlt">Results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>da Silva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Part I presented a Monte Carlo Bayesian method for constraining a complex statistical model of GCM sub-gridcolumn moisture variability using high-resolution MODIS cloud data, thereby permitting large-scale model parameter estimation and cloud data assimilation. This part performs some basic testing of this new approach, verifying that it does indeed significantly reduce mean and standard deviation biases with respect to the assimilated MODIS cloud optical depth, brightness temperature and cloud top pressure, and that it also improves the simulated rotational-Ramman scattering cloud optical centroid pressure (OCP) against independent (non-assimilated) retrievals from the OMI instrument. Of particular interest, the Monte Carlo method does <span class="hlt">show</span> skill in the especially difficult case where the background state is clear but cloudy <span class="hlt">observations</span> exist. In traditional linearized data assimilation methods, a subsaturated background cannot produce clouds via any infinitesimal equilibrium perturbation, but the Monte Carlo approach allows finite jumps into regions of non-zero cloud probability. In the example provided, the method is able to restore marine stratocumulus near the Californian coast where the background state has a clear swath. This paper also examines a number of algorithmic and physical sensitivities of the new method and provides guidance for its cost-effective implementation. One obvious difficulty for the method, and other cloud data assimilation methods as well, is the lack of information content in the cloud <span class="hlt">observables</span> on cloud vertical structure, beyond cloud top pressure and optical thickness, thus necessitating strong dependence on the background vertical moisture structure. It is found that a simple flow-dependent correlation modification due to Riishojgaard (1998) provides some help in this respect, by better honoring inversion structures in the background state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090034938&hterms=Newts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DNewts"><span id="translatedtitle">The First Detection of [O IV] from an Ultraluminous X-ray Source with Spitzer. I. <span class="hlt">Observational</span> <span class="hlt">Results</span> for Holmberg II ULX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We presen the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the [O IV] 25.89 um emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well established signature of high excitation usually associated with AGN. Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high resolution spectral map <span class="hlt">shows</span> that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower ionization lines are similar to those <span class="hlt">observed</span> in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the, photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data is used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use its previously published optical and radio data to construct the full SED for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-STC&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392465"><span id="translatedtitle">THE FIRST DETECTION OF [O IV] FROM AN ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE WITH SPITZER. I. <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONAL</span> <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span> FOR HOLMBERG II ULX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Berghea, C. T. [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Dudik, R. P. [United States Naval Observatory, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Weaver, K. A.; Kallman, T. R., E-mail: 79berghea@cardinalmail.cua.ed, E-mail: ciprian.berghea.ctr@usno.navy.mi, E-mail: rpdudik@usno.navy.mi [Laboratory for High Energy Astrophysics, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We present the first Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the [O IV] 25.89 mum emission line detected from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in Holmberg II. This line is a well-established signature of high excitation, usually associated with active galactic nucleus (AGN). Its detection suggests that the ULX has a strong impact on the surrounding gas. A Spitzer high-resolution spectral map <span class="hlt">shows</span> that the [O IV] is coincident with the X-ray position of the ULX. The ratios of the [O IV] to lower-ionization lines are similar to those <span class="hlt">observed</span> in AGN, suggesting that a strong UV and X-ray source is responsible for the photoionization. The best XMM-Newton data are used to model the X-ray band which is then extrapolated into the UV. We perform infrared and ultraviolet photometry, and use previously published optical and radio data to construct the full spectral energy distribution (SED) for the ULX and its companion. The preferred model to describe the SED includes an accretion disk which dominates the soft X-rays but contributes little at UV and optical wavelengths. The optical counterpart is consistent with a B supergiant as previously suggested in other studies. The bolometric luminosity of the ULX suggests the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >85 M{sub sun} for sub-Eddington accretion or, alternatively, a stellar-mass black hole that is accreting at super-Eddington rates. In a follow-up second paper, we perform detailed photoionization modeling of the infrared lines in order to constrain the bolometric luminosity of the ULX.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070038179&hterms=epic&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Depic"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep RGS <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Clusters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, R.; Mushotzky, R.; Loewenstein, M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This viewgraph presentation reviews the Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS) <span class="hlt">observations</span> of clusters. It includes charts detailing the resolution difference between the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the RGS and a partial review of existing <span class="hlt">observations</span>, in graphic format, and as a table. Other sources <span class="hlt">show</span> up in the ROSAT <span class="hlt">observations</span>. The presentation reviews possible <span class="hlt">results</span> that could be achieved in the event that 300 ks of time were allocated for the <span class="hlt">observations</span> of clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005A%26A...430...59C"><span id="translatedtitle">An ISOCAM survey through gravitationally lensing galaxy clusters. III. New <span class="hlt">results</span> from mid-infrared <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the cluster Abell 2219</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coia, D.; Metcalfe, L.; McBreen, B.; Biviano, A.; Smail, I.; Altieri, B.; Kneib, J.-P.; McBreen, S.; Sanchez-Fernandez, C.; O'Halloran, B.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The massive cluster of galaxies Abell 2219 (z = 0.228) with two spectacular gravitational lensing arcs was <span class="hlt">observed</span> at 14.3 ?m (hereafter 15 ?m) with the Infrared Space Observatory and <span class="hlt">results</span> were published by Barvainis et al. (\\cite{1999AJ....118..645B}). These <span class="hlt">observations</span> have been reanalyzed using a method specifically designed for the detection of faint sources that had been applied to other clusters. Five new sources were detected and the <span class="hlt">resulting</span> cumulative total of ten sources all have optical counterparts. The mid-infrared sources are identified with three cluster members, three foreground galaxies, an Extremely Red Object, a star and two galaxies of unknown redshift. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the galaxies are fit with models from a selection, using the program GRASIL. Best-fits are obtained, in general, with models of galaxies with ongoing star formation. Infrared luminosities and star formation rates are obtained for six sources: the cluster members and the foreground galaxies. For the three cluster members the infrared luminosities derived from the model SEDs are between ˜5.7 × 1010 L? and 1.4 × 1011 L?, corresponding to infrared star formation rates between 10 and 24 M? yr-1. The two cluster galaxies that have optical classifications are in the Butcher-Oemler region of the color-magnitude diagramme. The three foreground galaxies have infrared luminosities between 1.5 × 1010 L? and 9.4 × 1010 L? yielding infrared star formation rates between 3 and 16 M? yr-1. Two of the foreground galaxies are located in two foreground galaxy enhancements (Boschin et al. \\cite{2004A&A...416..839B}). Including Abell 2219, six distant clusters of galaxies have been mapped with ISOCAM and luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) have been found in three of them. The presence of LIRGs in Abell 2219 strengthens the association between luminous infrared galaxies in clusters and recent or ongoing cluster merger activity. Based on <span class="hlt">observations</span> with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740043935&hterms=Boron+Steel&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBoron%2BSteel"><span id="translatedtitle">Boron aluminum crippling strength <span class="hlt">shows</span> improvement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Otto, O. R.; Bohlmann, R. E.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Results</span> are presented from an experimental program directed toward improving boron aluminum crippling strength. Laminate changes evaluated were larger filament diameter, improved processing, shape changes, adding steel-aluminum cross plies, reduced filament volume in corners, adding boron aluminum angle plies, and using titanium interleaves. Filament diameter and steel-aluminum cross plies have little effect on crippling. It is shown that better processing combined with appropriate shape changes improved crippling over 50 percent at both room temperature and 600 F. Tests also <span class="hlt">show</span> that crippling improvements ranging from 20 to 40 percent are achieved using angle plies and titanium interleaves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21696399"><span id="translatedtitle">Are Caucasian-European men delaying fatherhood? <span class="hlt">Results</span> of a 7 year <span class="hlt">observational</span> study of infertile couples with male factor infertility.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Salonia, A; Matloob, R; Saccà, A; Ferrari, M; Gallina, A; Castiglione, F; Abdollah, F; Raber, M; Brigante, C; Candiani, M; Rigatti, P; Montorsi, F</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>This study was aimed at assessing presence and predictors of a trend towards more advanced paternal age at presentation in a cohort of 1283 Caucasian-European infertile couples with male factor infertility (MFI) over a short time frame. Multivariate linear regression analysis tested the association between predictors [namely, partners' age, length of infertility at first presentation, patients' comorbidities as scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and educational status] and patient's age at presentation. Using anova, patient's age at presentation (F ratio: 2.43; p = 0.024) and patients' educational status (?(2) trend: 142.38; p < 0.001) significantly increased over time. In contrast, length of infertility at first presentation, CCI and partners' age did not significantly change over time (all p ? 0.05). Linear regression analyses <span class="hlt">showed</span> that CCI, educational status and year of presentation were not correlated with patients' age at presentation (all p ? 0.05), whereas partners' age (? = 0.170; p < 0.001) and length of infertility (? = 0.123; p = 0.004) were independent predictors of delayed fatherhood. These <span class="hlt">results</span> <span class="hlt">showed</span> a significant shift towards advanced paternal age, but a non-significant increase of maternal age at first presentation among Caucasian-European infertile couples with MFI over a short time frame. PMID:21696399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A51P..04B"><span id="translatedtitle">Ten Years of Near-Surface-Sensitive Satellite <span class="hlt">Observations</span> of Carbon Dioxide and Methane: Selected <span class="hlt">Results</span> Related to Natural and Anthropogenic Sources and Sinks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buchwitz, M. A.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Prior to the recently successfully launched OCO-2 mission, global near-surface-sensitive satellite <span class="hlt">observations</span> of carbon dioxide (CO2) have been made with SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT during 2002-2012 and are still being made since 2009 with TANSO-FTS/GOSAT, which also deliver atmospheric methane (CH4). The SCIAMACHY and GOSAT overlapping time series of atmospheric column-averaged mole fractions, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, now cover more than 10 years. During the last years significant progress has been made in improving the quality of the XCO2 and XCH4 data products retrieved from SCIAMACHY and GOSAT and in extending the time series so that more and more applications can be addressed. In this presentation we present some recent <span class="hlt">results</span> related to CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The SCIAMACHY products have been generated using retrieval algorithms developed at University of Bremen. For XCO2 we use an ensemble of data products generated using GOSAT retrieval algorithms developed in Japan (at NIES), in the US (at NASA/JPL and collaborating institutes) and at European institutions (University of Leicester, UK, and SRON, Netherlands, in collaboration with KIT, Germany). Focus will be on three applications: (i) An assessment of the strength of the European terrestrial carbon sink during 2003-2010 based on an ensemble of SCIAMACHY (2003-2010) and GOSAT (2010) XCO2 data products, (ii) an assessment of CO2 and NO2 anthropogenic emission and emission ratio trends using co-located SCIAMACHY XCO2 and NO2 <span class="hlt">observations</span> over Europe, North America and East Asia, and (iii) an analysis of SCIAMACHY XCH4 retrievals during 2006-2011 over North America focusing on fugitive methane emissions from oil and gas production using tight geological formations ("fracking"). It will be shown that (i) the European terrestrial carbon sink appears to be stronger than expected, (ii) that recent Chinese CO2 and NO2 emissions are increasing but with a trend towards reduced NO2-to-CO2 emission ratios pointing to cleaner technology in terms of less NO2 emitted per unit of CO2 (or unit of energy) and (iii) that the SCIAMACHY satellite-derived methane <span class="hlt">observations</span> over two fast-growing oil production regions in the United States suggest a significant underestimation in current bottom-up inventories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.2878F"><span id="translatedtitle">'TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region'. <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the PACS and SPIRE <span class="hlt">observations</span> with the Herschel Space Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mueller, T.; Panuzzo, P.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lim, T.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Henry, F.; Boehnhardt, H.; Pal, A.; Duffard, R.; Barucci, A.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The TNOs are the frozen leftovers from the formation period of the outer solar system. The TNO population comprises (i) the main Kuiper belt beyond the orbit of Neptune consisting of objects in resonant and non-resonant orbits, (ii) the halo outskirts of "scattered" and "detached" bodies, and (iii) the Centaurs, the objects located between Jupiter and Neptune which have origin from the Kuiper belt. Up to date, more than 1500 TNOs and Centaurs have been discovered. Their study reveal a richness of orbital and physical properties. TNOs cover a wide range of intrinsic colours from slightly bluish slopes to the reddest gradients known in the solar system [1]. Spectroscopy confirms the presence of water-ice on the surface of about 30 objects, but also of volatile-ice like methane and perhaps nitrogen on bright objects such as Pluto, Eris, Makemake and Sedna [2]. An Open Time Key Program entitled "TNOs are Cool: A survey of the Transneptunian Region" (PI T. Mueller) was submitted to the Herschel space telescope in order to investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of these distant and primitive bodies. This proposal has been awarded 372.7 hours to perform radiometric measurements of around 140 TNOs/Centaurs [3]. All the targets are <span class="hlt">observed</span> with the PACS photometer instrument (3 bands centered at 70, 100 and 160 micron), and only the brightest ones with the SPIRE instrument (with channels centered at 250, 350, and 500 microns). In this work we present the <span class="hlt">results</span> of the combined SPIRE and PACS instruments <span class="hlt">observations</span> for the 2 Centaurs Chiron and Chariklo, the dwarf planet Haumea, 2 plutinos (Huya and Orcus), 3 classical TNOs (Quaoar, Salacia and 2002 UX25), and 2002 TC302 (a 2:5 resonant object). The spectral energy distribution of these targets have been modeled with a NEATM thermal model and in cases where rotational properties are known also with a thermophysical model. We will present our <span class="hlt">results</span> on the size, the albedo, and the thermal properties, including thermal inertia and surface emissivity of these large TNOs and Centaurs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASA-TRS&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990009047&hterms=hidden+populations&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhidden%2Bpopulations"><span id="translatedtitle">ASCA <span class="hlt">Observations</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Helfand, David J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>This recently expired grant has supported the work of the PI, his students, and his collaborators on a variety of ASCA projects over the past four years. Annual reports have summarized much of the work accomplished; here we provide a brief review of the work <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from this effort, and a summary of the personnel who have benefited from the grant's support. Starburst Galaxies with Extreme X-ray Luminosities This project began as a careful examination of the claims of Boller et al. (1992) that there were dozens of "normal" galaxies in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey that had X-ray luminosities in excess of 1042 erg sec, higher than that seen in the hundreds of non-AGN galaxies <span class="hlt">observed</span> with Einstein. If true, this suggested that X-ray emission associated with star formation activity might have a significant contribution to make to the still unexplained cosmic X-ray background (XRB). Since some of our earlier work with the Einstein Observatory Deep Surveys had suggested a similar possibility and several sets of authors over the years had modelled the starburst XRB contribution, these claims were worth pursuing. Our work expanded the examination beyond the RASS to include earlier claims of high-luminosity galaxies powered by starburst emission (selected in this case on the basis of the far-IR luminosities). The <span class="hlt">result</span> of extensive followup <span class="hlt">observations</span> under several programs using ROSAT, ASCA, and ground-based facilities was to <span class="hlt">show</span> that nearly all of these objects in fact have hidden AGN at their cores, and that their luminosities are not in any way extraordinary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26061314"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-Term <span class="hlt">Observation</span> of Coexistence of Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy, <span class="hlt">Resultant</span> High Myopia and Nonkeratoconic Developing Corneal Astigmatism: A Case Report of 7-Year Tracking in a Chinese Boy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shen, Jianqin; Chixin, Du; Gu, Yangshun</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is an extremely rare, bilateral, and inherited disorder, which affects the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane. Few PPCD cases in Chinese patients have been published so far. As far as we know, there are few studies which focused on the associations between PPCD and high myopia either. Here we report a rare case of coexistence of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy, <span class="hlt">resultant</span> high myopia and with-the-rule developing corneal astigmatism in a young Chinese boy.A 6-year-old boy was first referred to our department 7 years ago, complaining of bilateral poor vision. Examinations of both eyes including ophthalmologic examination, cycloplegic refraction examination, confocal microscopy findings, and corneal topography were performed. Bilateral small aggregates of vesicular lesions and patchy hyperreflectivity were <span class="hlt">observed</span> at the level of the Descemet's membrane on confocal microscopy, which is consistent with typical PPCD. Optometry and corneal topography examinations <span class="hlt">showed</span> a <span class="hlt">resultant</span> high myopia.Ocular examinations were performed annually to follow up with the patient in the past 7 years. The corneal lesions remained stable whereas an axial elongation and a sharp increase in both spherical and cylindrical equivalent power were <span class="hlt">observed</span>.Close follow-ups including thorough scrutiny of the endothelium and systematic ocular ancillary examinations are essential for patients with PPCD. The pathological coexistence of PPCD and high myopia in our case is possibly due to a shared etiological pathway or genetic background. Advanced genetic analysis on similar cases is expected if more samples can be provided. PMID:26061314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMOS23A1041M"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of "Hydrothermal" Chemosynthetic Community in a Cold Seep Environment, Formosa Ridge: Seafloor <span class="hlt">Observation</span> <span class="hlt">Results</span> from First ROV Cruise, off Southwestern Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Machiyama, H.; Lin, S.; Fujikura, K.; Huang, C.; Ku, C.; Lin, L.; Liu, C.; Morita, S.; Nunoura, T.; Soh, W.; Toki, T.; Yang, T. F.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>First ROV diving survey has been conducted around the selected three sites (Formosa Ridge, Sites C and G) in offshore SW Taiwan, where gas hydrate broadly occurs within the thick Quaternary marine sediments. The Formosa Ridge and Site G are located in the South China Sea Continental Slope, whereas Site C is located in the frontal portion of a fault-bend fold in the accretionary wedge off SW Taiwan. Large, dense chemosynthetic communities were discovered at water depth of about 1120 - 1140 m on the top of the Formosa Ridge by direct <span class="hlt">observation</span> using ROV Hyper-Dolphin of JAMSTEC. Colonies are distributed in depressions or fissures of large, carbon-depleted authigenic carbonates. The community is dominated by deep- sea mussel, Bathymodiolus platifrons, and galatheid crab, Shinkaia crosnieri. Most of species corresponds to those of hydrothermal vent fields in the Okinawa Trough, such as the Hatoma Knoll and the Iheya Ridge. Methane gas bubbles were found within the colony, and methane hydrate was also found beneath the aggregation of B. platifrons, which is harboured endosymbiont methanotroph in their gill in the Okinawa Trough. On the other hand, S. crosnieri from the Okinawa Trough culture numerous epibiont sulfur-oxidizing bacteria on their carapace. Therefore, they require high concentration of H2S from the subseafloor fluids. Single channel seismic profiles <span class="hlt">show</span> the presence of clear BSR underneath the Formosa Ridge, and suggest the possible upward migration of gassy fluids beneath the top of the ridge. Therefore, the 'hydrothermal' chemosynthetic communities are supported by unusual high concentrations of methane and H2S fluids from the subseafloor. This is first discovery of "hydrothermal" chemosynthetic communities in cold seep environments of the world. No active seeps and the related phenomena are found around the Site G. Large seep carbonates around the summit are often covered by mud veneer and organisms. Therefore, this mud volcano is inferred to be terminated its activity. Swath bathymetry around Site C probably <span class="hlt">shows</span> the presence of a mud volcano on the seafloor. Unfortunately, bad sea state didn't permit to finish our mission for ROV survey.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4025462"><span id="translatedtitle">Final <span class="hlt">results</span> from the Betaseron (interferon ?-1b) Pregnancy Registry: a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study of birth defects and pregnancy-related adverse events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coyle, P K; Sinclair, S M; Scheuerle, A E; Thorp, J M; Albano, J D; Rametta, M J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Women with multiple sclerosis are often diagnosed and treated during their reproductive years. Limited data are available on the safety of treatment during pregnancy. The Betaseron Pregnancy Registry prospectively monitored women exposed to interferon ?-1b (IFN?-1b) during pregnancy to estimate the rates of birth defects, spontaneous abortions (SABs) and other negative outcomes in this population. Design From 2006 to 2011, this <span class="hlt">observational</span> registry enrolled women exposed prior to conception or during pregnancy (but prior to or without abnormalities on prenatal screening). Follow-up continued from enrolment through the 4-month paediatric visit. Setting Patients in the USA who met these criteria were enrolled in the registry. <span class="hlt">Results</span> The registry enrolled 99 pregnant women; 3 were lost to follow-up. The earliest exposure to IFN?-1b occurred during the first trimester for 95 pregnancies and in the third trimester for 1 pregnancy. There were 99 birth outcomes (3 twins), including 86 (86.9%) live births, 11 (11.1%) SABs and 2 (2%) stillbirths. Birth defects were reported in five (5.1%) cases. Rates of birth defects and SAB were not significantly different from population comparators. No developmental concerns were identified at the 4-month paediatric visit. Conclusions The small sample size limits the ability to draw definitive conclusions; however, there was no pattern to suggest increased negative outcomes with IFN?-1b. Clinical trials registration number NCT00317564. PMID:24821713</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.01752.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Results</span> of a search for daily and annual variations of the Po-214 half-life at the two year <span class="hlt">observation</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Alexeyev, E N; Gangapshev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The brief description of installation TAU-2 intended for long-term monitoring of the half-life value $\\tau$ ($\\tau_{1/2}$) of the $^{214}$Po is presented. The methods of measurement and processing of collected data are reported. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of analysis of time series values $\\tau$ with different time step are presented. Total of measurement time was equal to 590 days. Averaged value of the $^{214}$Po half-life was obtained $\\tau=163.46\\pm0.04$ $\\mu$s. The annual variation with an amplitude $A=(8.9\\pm2.3)\\cdot10^{-4}$, solar-daily variation with an amplitude $A_{So}=(7.5\\pm1.2)\\cdot10^{-4}$, lunar-daily variation with an amplitude $A_L=(6.9\\pm2.0)\\cdot10^{-4}$ and sidereal-daily variation with an amplitude $A_S=(7.2\\pm1.2)\\cdot10^{-4}$ were found in a series of $\\tau$ values. The maximal values of amplitude are <span class="hlt">observed</span> at the moments when the projections of the installation Earth location velocity vectors toward the source of possible variation achieve its maximal magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1505.01752v1"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Results</span> of a search for daily and annual variations of the Po-214 half-life at the two year <span class="hlt">observation</span> period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>E. N. Alexeyev; Yu. M. Gavrilyuk; A. M. Gangapshev; V. V. Kazalov; V. V. Kuzminov; S. I. Panasenko; S. S. Ratkevich</p> <p>2015-05-07</p> <p>The brief description of installation TAU-2 intended for long-term monitoring of the half-life value $\\tau$ ($\\tau_{1/2}$) of the $^{214}$Po is presented. The methods of measurement and processing of collected data are reported. The <span class="hlt">results</span> of analysis of time series values $\\tau$ with different time step are presented. Total of measurement time was equal to 590 days. Averaged value of the $^{214}$Po half-life was obtained $\\tau=163.46\\pm0.04$ $\\mu$s. The annual variation with an amplitude $A=(8.9\\pm2.3)\\cdot10^{-4}$, solar-daily variation with an amplitude $A_{So}=(7.5\\pm1.2)\\cdot10^{-4}$, lunar-daily variation with an amplitude $A_L=(6.9\\pm2.0)\\cdot10^{-4}$ and sidereal-daily variation with an amplitude $A_S=(7.2\\pm1.2)\\cdot10^{-4}$ were found in a series of $\\tau$ values. The maximal values of amplitude are <span class="hlt">observed</span> at the moments when the projections of the installation Earth location velocity vectors toward the source of possible variation achieve its maximal magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4374830"><span id="translatedtitle">Surgical Data and Early Postoperative Outcomes after Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion: <span class="hlt">Results</span> of a Prospective, Multicenter, <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Data-Monitored Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pereira, Paulo; Buzek, David; Franke, Jörg; Senker, Wolfgang; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Hubbe, Ulrich; Manson, Neil; Rosenberg, Wout; Assietti, Roberto; Martens, Frederic; Barbanti Brodano, Giovanni; Scheufler, Kai-Michael</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion (MILIF) offers potential for reduced operative morbidity and earlier recovery compared with open procedures for patients with degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD). Firm conclusions about advantages of MILIF over open procedures cannot be made because of limited number of large studies of MILIF in a real-world setting. Clinical effectiveness of MILIF in a large, unselected real-world patient population was assessed in this Prospective, monitored, international, multicenter, <span class="hlt">observational</span> study. Objective: To <span class="hlt">observe</span> and document short-term recovery after minimally invasive interbody fusion for DLD. Materials and Methods: In a predefined 4-week analysis from this study, experienced surgeons (?30 MILIF surgeries pre-study) treated patients with DLD by one- or two-level MILIF. The primary study objective was to document patients’ short-term post-interventional recovery (primary objective) including back/leg pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), health status (EQ-5D) and Patient satisfaction. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: At 4 weeks, 249 of 252 patients were remaining in the study; the majority received one-level MILIF (83%) and TLIF was the preferred approach (94.8%). For one-level (and two-level) procedures, surgery duration was 128 (182) min, fluoroscopy time 115 (154) sec, and blood-loss 164 (233) mL. Time to first ambulation was 1.3 days and time to study-defined surgery recovery was 3.2 days. Patients reported significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced back pain (VAS: 2.9 vs 6.2), leg pain (VAS: 2.5 vs 5.9), and disability (ODI: 34.5% vs 45.5%), and a significantly (P < 0.0001) improved health status (EQ-5D index: 0.61 vs 0.34; EQ VAS: 65.4 vs 52.9) 4 weeks postoperatively. One adverse event was classified as related to the minimally invasive surgical approach. No deep site infections or deaths were reported. Conclusions: For experienced surgeons, MILIF for DLD demonstrated early benefits (short time to first ambulation, early recovery, high patient satisfaction and improved patient-reported outcomes) and low major perioperative morbidity at 4 weeks postoperatively. PMID:25811615</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JASTP..63.1529M"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for electrodynamic linkages between spread-F, ion rain, the intermediate layer, and sporadic E: <span class="hlt">results</span> from <span class="hlt">observations</span> and simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathews, J. D.; Machuga, D. W.; Zhou, Q.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>High resolution ISR <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the evening and nighttime E- and F-regions at Arecibo during both ``normal'' low-activity periods and during an active spread-F event reveal apparent electrodynamic links between the low-lying layers, ion-rain, and the spread-F instability process. In particular, during a 22 November 1994 event, streaks of ionization-ion rain [Mathews et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 1411]-appear to descend from the highly structured F-region base onto the /100-110km Tidal Ion Layer (TIL) system. The evening intermediate tidal ion layer, if present, is almost totally disrupted while the spread-F event is characterized by deep, almost vertical folds in electron concentration. The amplitudes of these structures are 100% with fold-structures extending from the nominal F-region base to well above the nominal peak of the F-region. Apparent periods range from less than 10min for small-scale structures to about 40min for the largest-scales. We suggest that the E-region structures are a manifestation of polarization electric fields that ``map'' into the E-region and are well in excess of 1mV/m in contrast to low-activity period small-scale fields of order 1mV/m. These E-fields are hypothesized to be generated in the ``field'' of linear (low-activity) and/or non-linear (high-activity spread-F periods) Perkins-like instabilities that are individually of relatively small horizontal-scales but occur over large horizontal distances in the bottom-side of the nighttime F-region. We present numerical simulations of 3-dimensional ion trajectories in tidal wind and electric field structures similar to those implied by these <span class="hlt">observations</span>. These simulations extend the <span class="hlt">results</span> of Machuga and Mathews (J. Atmos. Solar-Terres. Phys., 2001, 63(14), 1519-1528, this issue.) (Paper I) and demonstrate the formation of parallel sheets of ionization that form in the tilted plane oriented transverse to the bulk flow of the F-region that sweeps ~1mV/m amplitude E-fields quasi-periodically through a fixed location in the E-region. A fixed pointing radar sees these ionization sheets as ion-rain-like features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/honeybee/extension/Honey%20Show%20and%20Judging/2014_Ettiqute%20Guidelines.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">University of Florida Bee College Honey <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Jawitz, James W.</p> <p></p> <p>University of Florida Bee College Honey <span class="hlt">Show</span> A REMINDER TO JUDGES 1. Judging will begin promptly or the Honey <span class="hlt">Show</span> Manager only. 3. The <span class="hlt">Show</span> will provide color grading glasses if required, towel, basin equipment (see judges checklist). For cake judging, knifes will be provided by the Honey <span class="hlt">Show</span> Manager. 4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ca2573.photos.382438p/"><span id="translatedtitle">SOUTHWEST REAR, <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>SOUTHWEST REAR, <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> CLOSED ENTRY HATCH, BUILDING 1934. Looking north - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, <span class="hlt">Observation</span> Bunker Types, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-HHH&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1211.photos.314800p/"><span id="translatedtitle">4. VIEW SOUTHWEST COMPONENTS TEST LAB TEST BAY DETAIL <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>4. VIEW SOUTHWEST COMPONENTS TEST LAB TEST BAY DETAIL <span class="hlt">SHOWING</span> EMERGENCY SHOWER, AND EYEWASH, AND <span class="hlt">OBSERVATION</span> WINDOW. STORAGE TANKS ON ROOF. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Components Test Laboratory, Huntsville, Madison County, AL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4316875"><span id="translatedtitle">Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to Elective ERCP Does Not Alter Cholangitis Rates or Shorten Hospital Stay: <span class="hlt">Results</span> of an <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Prospective Study of 138 Consecutive ERCPS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>VOIOSU, Theodor Alexandru; BENGUS, Andreea; HAIDAR, Andrei; RIMBAS, Mihai; ZLATE, Alina; BALANESCU, Paul; VOIOSU, Andrei; VOIOSU, Radu; MATEESCU, Bogdan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: The role of prophylactic antibiotherapy prior to elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is unclear. We aimed to determine whether patients receiving systemic antibiotics prior to ERCP had lower morbidity and mortality rates as well as shorter hospitalization compared to patients who did not receive antibiotic prophylaxis. Materials and methods: We conducted a prospective study of all patients undergoing ERCP in our unit. Antibiotic use, postERCP cholangitis rates, 30-day mortality and hospital stay were studied. Also, bacteriological examination of bile aspirates from these patients was conducted and antibiotic susceptibility was determined for the isolated pathogens. Outcomes: One hundred-thirty eight consecutive ERCPs conducted in our unit in a 9 month period were included. Cholangitis developed in 3 (4.6%) cases in the antibiotics groups and 3 (4%) cases in the control group (p=0.8). Hospital stay did not differ significantly between the two study groups (p=0.58). There was only one procedure-related death which was the <span class="hlt">result</span> of postERCP pancreatitis in a patient with severe associated illnesses. Bile aspirates <span class="hlt">showed</span> bacterial growth in 75% of the cases where bile was obtained, with E. coli being the most frequently isolated microorganism. No differences in bacteriological profiles were noted between the two study groups. Conclusion: There seems to be no influence on patient-related outcome of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to elective ERCP. PMID:25705300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3938022"><span id="translatedtitle">Triglycerides as a biological marker of repeated re-hospitalization <span class="hlt">resulting</span> from deliberate self-harm in acute psychiatry patients: a prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Biological factors have been associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) but have not been integrated with clinical factors in routine risk assessments. This study aimed to examine the incremental validity of lipid levels and platelet serotonin when combined with psychosocial factors in risk assessments for repeated admissions due to DSH. Methods In this prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study of 196 acutely admitted patients, <span class="hlt">results</span> of blood tests performed upon admission and the MINI Suicidal Scale and psychosocial DSH risk factor assessments performed at discharge were compared with the incidence of DSH recorded during the first 3 and 12 months after discharge. <span class="hlt">Results</span> High triglyceride levels were found to be a significant marker for patients admitted 3 or more times due to DSH (repeated DSH, DSH-R) when tested against other significant risk factors. When all (9) significant univariate factors associated with 12-month post-discharge DSH-R were analyzed in a multivariate logistic regression, the MINI Suicidal Scale (p = 0.043), a lack of insight (p = 0.040), and triglyceride level (p = 0.020) remained significant. The estimated 12-month area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC-AUC) for DSH-R was 0.74 for triglycerides, 0.81 for the MINI, 0.89 for the MINI + psychosocial factors, and 0.91 for the MINI + psychosocial factors + triglycerides. The applied multifaceted approach also significantly discriminated between 12-month post-discharge DSH-R patients and other DSH patients, and a lack of insight (p = 0.047) and triglycerides (p = 0.046) remained significant for DSH-R patients in a multivariate analysis in which other DSH patients served as the reference group (rather than non-DSH patients). Conclusion The triglyceride values provided incremental validity to the MINI Suicidal Scale and psychosocial risk factors in the assessment of the risk of repeated DSH. Therefore, a bio-psychosocial approach appears promising, but further research is necessary to refine and validate this method. PMID:24568671</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2993713"><span id="translatedtitle">In vitro fertilisation with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone requires less IU usage compared with highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin: <span class="hlt">results</span> from a European retrospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> chart review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies have reported conflicting <span class="hlt">results</span> for the comparative doses of recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) and highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hMG-HP) required per cycle of in vitro fertilisation (IVF); the aim of this study was to determine the average total usage of rFSH versus hMG-HP in a 'real-world' setting using routine clinical practice. Methods This retrospective chart review of databases from four European countries investigated gonadotrophin usage, oocyte and embryo yield, and pregnancy outcomes in IVF cycles (± intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection) using rFSH or hMG-HP alone. Included patients met the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline criteria for IVF and received either rFSH or hMG-HP. Statistical tests were conducted at 5% significance using Chi-square or t-tests. <span class="hlt">Results</span> Of 30,630 IVF cycles included in this review, 74% used rFSH and 26% used hMG-HP. A significantly lower drug usage per cycle for rFSH than hMG-HP (2072.53 +/- 76.73 IU vs. 2540.14 +/- 883.08 IU, 22.6% higher for hMG-HP; p < 0.01) was demonstrated. The median starting dose was also significantly lower for rFSH than for hMG-HP (150 IU vs. 225 IU, 50% higher for hMG-HP, p < 0.01). The average oocyte yield per IVF cycle in patients treated with rFSH was significantly greater than with hMG-HP (10.80 +/- 6.02 vs. 9.77 +/- 5.53; p < 0.01), as was the average mature oocyte yield (8.58 +/- 5.27 vs. 7.72 +/- 4.59; p < 0.01). No significant differences were <span class="hlt">observed</span> in pregnancy outcomes including spontaneous abortion between the two treatments. There was a significantly higher rate of OHSS (all grades) with rFSH (18.92% vs. 14.09%; p < 0.0001). The hospitalisation rate due to OHSS was low but significantly higher in the rFSH group (1.07% of cycles started vs. 0.67% of cycles started with rFSH and hMG-HP, respectively; p = 0.002). Conclusions Based on these <span class="hlt">results</span>, IVF treatment cycles with rFSH yield statistically more oocytes (and more mature oocytes), using significantly less IU per cycle, versus hMG-HP. The incidence of all OHSS and hospitalisations due to OHSS was significantly higher in the rFSH cycles compared to the hMG-HP cycles. However, the absolute incidence of hospitalisations due to OHSS was similar to that reported previously. These <span class="hlt">results</span> suggest that the perceived required dosage with rFSH is currently over-estimated, and the higher unit cost of rFSH may be offset by a lower required dosage compared with hMG-HP. PMID:21059191</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22190621"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Observed</span> effector-independent motor learning by <span class="hlt">observing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Williams, Alexandra; Gribble, Paul L</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>A compelling idea in cognitive neuroscience links motor control and action <span class="hlt">observation</span>. Recent work supports the idea that a link exists not just between action <span class="hlt">observation</span> and action planning, but between <span class="hlt">observation</span> and motor learning. Several studies support the idea that cortical regions that underlie active motor learning also play a role in motor learning by <span class="hlt">observing</span>. The goal of the present study was to test whether motor learning by <span class="hlt">observing</span> is effector dependent (as in active motor learning) or effector independent (as in studies of action <span class="hlt">observation</span> and mirror neurons). Right-handed human subjects <span class="hlt">observed</span> a video depicting another individual learning to reach to visual targets in a force field (FF). The video <span class="hlt">showed</span> reaching in a clockwise FF (CWFF) or a counter-clockwise FF (CCWFF), and depicted an individual reaching with the right or left arm. After <span class="hlt">observation</span>, all subjects were asked to reach in a CWFF, using their right arm. As in our prior studies, subjects who <span class="hlt">observed</span> a CWFF prior to the CWFF test performed better than subjects who <span class="hlt">observed</span> a CCWFF. We <span class="hlt">show</span> here that this effect was seen both when <span class="hlt">observers</span> watched others reach using their right arm, and when <span class="hlt">observers</span> watched others learning to reach using the left arm. These <span class="hlt">results</span> suggest that information about novel forces learned through <span class="hlt">observation</span> is represented in an effector-independent coordinate frame, and are consistent with the idea that the brain links not only <span class="hlt">observation</span> and movement, but motor learning as well, through abstract representations of actions. PMID:22190621</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://extension.unh.edu/resources/files/Resource001854_Rep2657.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">New Hampshire Guide 4-H Dog <span class="hlt">Shows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>New Hampshire, University of</p> <p></p> <p>New Hampshire Guide to 4-H Dog <span class="hlt">Shows</span> UNH Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development Moiles House cooperating. #12;NH Guide to 4-H Dog <span class="hlt">Shows</span> i Table of Contents INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................2 Purpose of the 4-H Dog Project</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000400/a000435/index.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Flat Globe: <span class="hlt">Showing</span> the Changing Seasons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p>Jesse Allen</p> <p>1998-09-09</p> <p>SeaWiFS false color data <span class="hlt">showing</span> seasonal change in the oceans and on land for the entire globe. The data is seasonally averaged, and <span class="hlt">shows</span> the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53617698"><span id="translatedtitle">A method for determining the drift velocity of plasma depletions in the equatorial ionosphere using far-ultraviolet spacecraft <span class="hlt">observations</span>: initial <span class="hlt">results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>S. L. England; T. J. Immel; S. H. Park; H. U. Frey; S. B. Mende</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Far-Ultraviolet Imager (IMAGE-FUV) on-board the NASA IMAGE satellite has been used to <span class="hlt">observe</span> plasma depletions in the nightside equatorial ionosphere. <span class="hlt">Observations</span> from periods around spacecraft apogee, during which equatorial regions are visible for several hours, have allowed the velocity of these plasma depletions to be determined. A new method for determining the velocity of these depletions using an image</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/vprp/pdf/IGS/IGSepilogue3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Leistikow, Bruce N.</p> <p></p> <p>Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Epilogue #12;Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span>;Epilogue In February 2010, I attended a Crossroads of the West gun <span class="hlt">show</span> at the Arizona State Fairgrounds here an update on each of the Phoenix obser- vations made in the photo-essay portion of Inside Gun</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/vprp/pdf/IGS/IGScoverprefweb.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Leistikow, Bruce N.</p> <p></p> <p>Preface Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching #12;#12;Inside Gun-Violence Effort. She put gun <span class="hlt">shows</span> on my radar and is an ace straw-purchase spotter. Thanks also to Barbara Claire a great public institution. He was right. #12;Contents Preface Executive Summary Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> in Context How</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/vprp/pdf/IGS/IGSexecsummweb.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes On</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Danh</p> <p></p> <p>Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes On When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Executive Summary #12;Inside Gun <span class="hlt">Shows</span> What Goes on When Everybody Thinks Nobody's Watching Garen Wintemute, MD, MPH Violence;Executive Summary Gun <span class="hlt">shows</span> are surrounded by controversy. On the one hand, they are important economic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1809931"><span id="translatedtitle">Plant species descriptions <span class="hlt">show</span> signs of disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the <span class="hlt">results</span> of a herbarium survey <span class="hlt">showing</span> that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9577225"><span id="translatedtitle">[Pain patients <span class="hlt">show</span> a higher hindsight bias].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruoss, M</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Research on pain-related cognitions has up to now predominantly relied upon introspective questionnaire data. Experimental cognitive psychology offers an alternative way of access to the cognitive aspects of chronical pain. Building on the assumption that information-processing is in part uncontrolled, automatic and pre-attentive, similar processes are also expected to be relevant for pain-relevant cognitions and to be involved in health-related convictions and in coping strategies that can be assessed with questionnaires. Cognitive-psychological research has established the "hindsight bias" as a robust phenomenon that occurs uncontrolled and automatically in diverse contexts when a prior judgment or prediction is assimilated to information received later on. The hindsight bias may be regarded as a manifestation of a universal cognitive mechanism, meaning that information (including information about emotional states) available at a given time will change the memory of prior judgments or of predictions of future events and <span class="hlt">results</span> of behavior. Cognitive biases similar to the hindsight effect have been demonstrated in chronical pain patients. The present work elaborates the hypothesis that pain patients differ from other groups in the size of the hindsight bias and in its composition and outlines how it can contribute to the chronification of pain. Data from a hindsight-bias experiment comparing pain patients, psychiatric patients and students are analyzed using alternatively a traditional global hindsight bias score ("Hell-Index") and a multinomial modelling approach. The hindsight-effect was <span class="hlt">observed</span> in the usual extent in the student control group, but was significantly greater in the pain group and absent in the psychiatric sample. In addition to this global finding, multinomial modelling revealed group differences in specific model parameters. This method of analysis thus proved as promising for the assessment of cognitive aspects of clinical disorders. PMID:9577225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25247761"><span id="translatedtitle">[Cost of Illness of HIV Patients under Anteretroviral Therapy in Germany - <span class="hlt">Results</span> of the 48-Week Interim Analysis of the Prospective Multicentre <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Study 'CORSAR'</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kuhlmann, A; Mittendorf, T; Hower, M; Heiken, H; Gerschmann, S; Klauke, S; Lutz, T; Bogner, J; Degen, O; van Lunzen, J; Bachmann, C; Stellbrink, H J; Schmidt, W; Leistner, I; Mahlich, J; Ranneberg, B; Stoll, M</p> <p>2014-09-23</p> <p>Background: With the introduction of highly active combined antiretroviral therapy (c-ART) mortality and morbidity of HIV patients declined substantially. Earlier studies reported that c-ART was able to save health-care costs due to a reduction of other direct medical costs, particularly for inpatient treatments and concomitant medication. To date, analyses of costs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients under c-ART are lacking in Germany. Hence, this study aims to estimate the current cost of illness and HRQOL of HIV-patients under c-ART in different treatment lines. Methods: A multicenter, prospective <span class="hlt">observational</span> study was carried out in 12 specialised German centres for infectious diseases: 8 private practices/outpatient centres and 4 specialised hospitals offering both inpatient and outpatient services. Demographic, clinical and medication data were derived from patient records. Resource utilisation, information on productivity, out of pocket costs and HRQOL (EQ-5D) were collected every 12 weeks via a patient questionnaire. All costs were calculated based on price information from publicly accessible databases. <span class="hlt">Results</span>: N=1?154 patients were included in the analysis. Mean direct disease-related costs of -patients under c-ART amounted to 22?563 Euro/year. Patients beyond the 3(rd) line of treatment -incurred considerably higher costs 24?654 Euro/year. In the 1(st) treatment line, c-ART accounted for 83.2% of the total direct costs, in the 2(nd)/3(rd) line for 80.8% and in >3(rd) line for 83.4%, respectively. Indirect costs due to impaired productivity were higher in the 2(nd)/3(rd) treatment line (2?843 Euro) compared to the 1(st) (1?604 Euro) and >3(rd) (1?752 Euro) treatment lines, respectively. The average HRQOL (EQ-5D) varied between 0.77 (self-assessment via visual analogue scale) and 0.91 (utility score based on the German time trade-off tariff). Conclusions: Over the last decade, cost of illness of HIV patients under c-ART decreased slightly with average costs per year still being substantial. Main cost driver of overall costs is c-ART. There have been, however, noticeable shifts between different cost domains. PMID:25247761</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3584122"><span id="translatedtitle">The Association between Serum Biomarkers and Disease Outcome in Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Infection: <span class="hlt">Results</span> of Two International <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Cohort Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davey, Richard T.; Lynfield, Ruth; Dwyer, Dominic E.; Losso, Marcello H.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Wentworth, Deborah; Lane, H. Clifford; Dewar, Robin; Rupert, Adam; Metcalf, Julia A.; Pett, Sarah L.; Uyeki, Timothy M.; Bruguera, Jose Maria; Angus, Brian; Cummins, Nathan; Lundgren, Jens; Neaton, James D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Prospective studies establishing the temporal relationship between the degree of inflammation and human influenza disease progression are scarce. To assess predictors of disease progression among patients with influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, 25 inflammatory biomarkers measured at enrollment were analyzed in two international <span class="hlt">observational</span> cohort studies. Methods Among patients with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, odds ratios (ORs) estimated by logistic regression were used to summarize the associations of biomarkers measured at enrollment with worsened disease outcome or death after 14 days of follow-up for those seeking outpatient care (FLU 002) or after 60 days for those hospitalized with influenza complications (FLU 003). Biomarkers that were significantly associated with progression in both studies (p<0.05) or only in one (p<0.002 after Bonferroni correction) were identified. <span class="hlt">Results</span> In FLU 002 28/528 (5.3%) outpatients had influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection that progressed to a study endpoint of complications, hospitalization or death, whereas in FLU 003 28/170 (16.5%) inpatients enrolled from the general ward and 21/39 (53.8%) inpatients enrolled directly from the ICU experienced disease progression. Higher levels of 12 of the 25 markers were significantly associated with subsequent disease progression. Of these, 7 markers (IL-6, CD163, IL-10, LBP, IL-2, MCP-1, and IP-10), all with ORs for the 3rd versus 1st tertile of 2.5 or greater, were significant (p<0.05) in both outpatients and inpatients. In contrast, five markers (sICAM-1, IL-8, TNF-?, D-dimer, and sVCAM-1), all with ORs for the 3rd versus 1st tertile greater than 3.2, were significantly (p?.002) associated with disease progression among hospitalized patients only. Conclusions In patients presenting with varying severities of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection, a baseline elevation in several biomarkers associated with inflammation, coagulation, or immune function strongly predicted a higher risk of disease progression. It is conceivable that interventions designed to abrogate these baseline elevations might affect disease outcome. PMID:23468921</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PMC&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4431492"><span id="translatedtitle">High relapse rate and poor medication adherence in the Chinese population with schizophrenia: <span class="hlt">results</span> from an <span class="hlt">observational</span> survey in the People’s Republic of China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xiao, Jingbo; Mi, Weifeng; Li, Lingzhi; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Hongyan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Relapse is common in schizophrenia, and seriously impacts patients’ quality of life and social functioning. Many factors have been identified that may potentially increase the risk of relapse. This study was designed to investigate the relapse rate in the year following hospital discharge among Chinese patients with schizophrenia in the naturalistic condition, and to explore possible risk factors related to relapse. Methods We conducted a large, multicenter, retrospective, <span class="hlt">observational</span> study in ten psychiatric hospitals throughout the People’s Republic of China. Nine hundred and ninety-two schizophrenic outpatients aged 18–65 years discharged from these hospitals between September 2011 and February 2012 with recovery/improvement of their condition were included in the study. Information about relapse and correlative factors during the year after discharge was collected by telephone interview using a questionnaire. <span class="hlt">Results</span> Eight hundred and seventy-six of 992 eligible patients completed the telephone survey. Of these patients, 293 (33.4%) had at least one relapse within 1 year after discharge, and 165 (18.8%) were rehospitalized. In respondents’ view, the most important factor contributing to relapse was poor medication adherence (50.7%). Approximately 30% of the respondents had a negative attitude toward medication, with the impression that there was no need to take drugs at all or for a long time. Nonadherent patients (37.9%) had a relapse rate that was 2.5-fold higher than adherent patients (54.5% versus 20.7%, P<0.001). The top five risk factors associated with relapse were nonadherence to medication (odds ratio [OR] 4.602, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.410–6.211), being without work (OR 3.275, 95% CI 2.291–4.681), poor self-care ability (OR 2.996, 95% CI 2.129–4.214), poor interpersonal skills (OR 2.635, 95% CI 1.951–3.558), and hospitalization on more than three occasions (OR 2.299, 95% CI 1.691–3.126). Conclusion The 1-year relapse rate after discharge in patients with schizophrenia was 33.5% in our study. The most important risk factor related to relapse was poor medication adherence, which was mainly due to patients having a negative attitude toward their medication. Lack of psychosocial support and a complicated disease history also increased the risk of relapse. PMID:26056450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/94546"><span id="translatedtitle">A CENSUS OF X-RAY GAS IN NGC 1068: <span class="hlt">RESULTS</span> FROM 450 ks of CHANDRA HIGH ENERGY TRANSMISSION GRATING <span class="hlt">OBSERVATIONS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kallman, T.</p> <p></p> <p>We present models for the X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068. These are fitted to data obtained using the High Energy Transmission Grating on Chandra. The data <span class="hlt">show</span> line and radiative recombination continuum ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57670755"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconciliation and Interpretation of Big Bend National Park Particulate Sulfur Source Apportionment: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility <span class="hlt">Observational</span> Study—Part I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Bret A. Schichtel; Kristi A. Gebhart; William C. Malm; Michael G. Barna; Marc L. Pitchford; Eladio M. Knipping; Ivar H. Tombach</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility <span class="hlt">Observational</span> (BRAVO) study was an intensive monitoring study from July through October 1999 followed by extensive assessments to determine the causes and sources of haze in Big Bend National Park, located in Southwestern Texas. Particulate sulfate compounds are the largest contributor of haze at Big Bend, and chemical transport models (CTMs) and receptor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21485170"><span id="translatedtitle">[A case of noninvasive sinus aspergillosis <span class="hlt">showing</span> orbital apex syndrome].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tanaka, Akihiro; Yoshida, Tomokatsu; Isayama, Reina; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Kasai, Takashi; Nakagawa, Masanori</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with headache, nasal pain, left-sided ptosis, loss of visual field in his left eye, and left ophthalmoplegia. Serum levels of beta-D-glucan were elevated. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium enhancement <span class="hlt">showed</span> hyperintense lesions in the left orbital apex and dura mater of the left middle cranial fossa. A few days later, culture of specimens collected by surgical debridement from the left sphenoidal sinus revealed numerous branching hyphae. The aspergillus antigen was found in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, aspergillosis causing orbital apex syndrome was diagnosed. Administration of amphotericin B prevented further worsening of the patient's infection. Although noninvasive sinus aspergillosis <span class="hlt">showed</span> that fungus did not destroy tissues in general, the condition <span class="hlt">resulted</span> in intracranial impairments <span class="hlt">observed</span> in this case, including orbital apex syndrome and hypertrophic pachymeningitis. Furthermore, detection of the aspergillus antigen in CSF was a clue for the diagnosis of aspergillosis, and administration of antifungal drugs in the early stages of infection was an effective treatment PMID:21485170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=deutsch&pg=6&id=ED088123"><span id="translatedtitle">The Language of <span class="hlt">Show</span> Biz: A Dictionary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>This dictionary of the language of <span class="hlt">show</span> biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in <span class="hlt">show</span> business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NSDL&redirectUrl=http://www.plowingmatch.org/"><span id="translatedtitle">International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The 1995 International Plowing Match & Farm Machinery <span class="hlt">Show</span> in Ontario, Canada has a site of the Web. The IPM is a non-profit organization of volunteers which annually organizes Canada's largest farm machinery <span class="hlt">show</span>. The event is commercial and educational. Thousands of school children and educators attend and participate in organized educational activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://animal.cals.arizona.edu/PDFs/2012_CCGA_entry_form.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Collegiate Cattle Growers 2012 Jackpot <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Guerriero, Vince</p> <p></p> <p>Collegiate Cattle Growers 2012 Jackpot <span class="hlt">Show</span> February 18-19 At the U of A Ag Center Campbell Ave the evening before the <span class="hlt">show</span> from 6 to 7 pm Make payment out to: Collegiate Cattle Growers Association Mail to: University of Arizona of Animal Sciences Attn. Collegiate Cattle Growers P.O. Box 210038, Tucson, AZ 85721</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26139680"><span id="translatedtitle">BVA at the London Vet <span class="hlt">Show</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The London Vet <span class="hlt">Show</span> will take place at Olympia in London on November 19 and 20. A significant event in the veterinary calendar, the <span class="hlt">show</span> hosts BVA Congress and several BVA programmed streams. Tim Keen, BVA marketing manager, takes a look at what's on offer. PMID:26139680</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://www.eli.ufl.edu/publications/weekly/spring2014/S1414.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">End-of-Semester Barbecue Talent <span class="hlt">Show</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pilyugin, Sergei S.</p> <p></p> <p>Highlights End-of-Semester Barbecue Talent <span class="hlt">Show</span> Scholarship Winners St. Francis Food Drive eating, have fun tubing or canoeing, playing soccer, volleyball, and other games. This is the last Ceremony. Details will be in next week's Weekly. Talent <span class="hlt">Show</span> Dress Rehearsal Dress Rehearsal: All acts MUST</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/03_08_2012_c28Ja44Yyt_03_08_2012_7"><span id="translatedtitle">Salton Sea Satellite Image <span class="hlt">Showing</span> Fault Slip</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Landsat satellite image (LE70390372003084EDC00) <span class="hlt">showing</span> location of surface slip triggered along faults in the greater Salton Trough area. Red bars <span class="hlt">show</span> the generalized location of 2010 surface slip along faults in the central Salton Trough and many additional faults in the southwestern section of t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://indian.ifas.ufl.edu/4H/Swine-Show-Entry.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">SWINE PROSPECT <span class="hlt">SHOW</span> Sunday, Dec. 7, 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Watson, Craig A.</p> <p></p> <p>BARN WARS SWINE PROSPECT <span class="hlt">SHOW</span> Sunday, Dec. 7, 2014 Indian River County Fairgrounds 7955 58th Ave. Checks need to be made out to: Indian River County 4-H. Mail to: Indian River County 4-H Attn: Prospect to all of the rules and regulations set forth by Barn Wars Prospect <span class="hlt">Show</span>. Exhibitor's Signature: Date</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53C3232B"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of Wet Scavenging of HOx Precursors in DC3 Oklahoma and Alabama Thunderstorms as Determined Using Aircraft <span class="hlt">Observations</span> and <span class="hlt">Results</span> from WRF-Chem Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bela, M. M.; Barth, M. C.; Toon, O. B.; Li, Y.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Allen, D. J.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Fried, A.; Homeyer, C. R.; Morrison, H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In deep convective storms wet scavenging of soluble species as well as aqueous and ice chemistry affects the net transport of HOx precursors to the upper troposphere (UT), and thus impacts UT O3 production, air quality and climate. The DC3 (Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry) field campaign took place in the central US from May-June 2012 and sampled inflow and outflow of convective storms with different dynamical and emission characteristics. This work compares wet scavenging and net transport of HOx precursors and other soluble trace gases in the DC3 May 29 Oklahoma and May 21 Alabama thunderstorms. WRF-Chem simulations at cloud resolving scales (dx=1km) are conducted with two different wet scavenging schemes. The first scheme, based on Neu and Prather (ACP, 2012), removes gases in precipitation and includes ice deposition of HNO3. However, it does not transport species dissolved in hydrometeors, and uses a constant retention fraction for soluble species during hydrometeor freezing. The second scheme, described in Barth et al. (JGR, 2001), tracks solute in individual hydrometeor classes, and includes aqueous chemistry and ice deposition of additional species. A new capability to specify the fraction of each species that is retained in ice upon hydrometeor freezing is added, and sensitivity simulations are compared with <span class="hlt">observations</span> to determine the best estimate of the retention factor for each species. Simulated vertical distributions of trace gases of varying solubilities within the storm and immediately surrounding the storm are compared with aircraft <span class="hlt">observations</span> in storm inflow and outflow regions. Scavenging efficiencies are calculated from the model by several flux methods and compared with scavenging efficiencies derived from <span class="hlt">observations</span>. For the Oklahoma storm, using the Neu and Prather scheme, <span class="hlt">observed</span> mean vertical profiles of SO2, HNO3, H2O2 and CH3OOH in outflow are better represented in the model when scavenging is included. While H2O2 is two orders of magnitude more soluble than CH3OOH, and twice as much H2O2 than CH3OOH is removed in the simulation with scavenging, its <span class="hlt">observed</span> net transport is the same as for CH3OOH. In addition, half as much CH2O is transported in the model as <span class="hlt">observed</span>. Conclusions are presented about the role of different microphysical processes in the removal of soluble species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1310.7194v2"><span id="translatedtitle">Reevaluation of the Prospect of <span class="hlt">Observing</span> Neutrinos from Galactic Sources in the Light of Recent <span class="hlt">Results</span> in Gamma Ray and Neutrino Astronomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>M. C. Gonzalez-Garcia; F. Halzen; V. Niro</p> <p>2014-06-19</p> <p>In light of the recent IceCube evidence for a flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos, we revisit the prospect of <span class="hlt">observing</span> the sources of the Galactic cosmic rays. In particular, we update the predictions for the neutrino flux expected from sources in the nearby star-forming region in Cygnus taking into account recent TeV gamma ray measurements of their spectra. We consider the three Milagro sources: MGRO J2019+37, MGRO J1908+06 and MGRO J2031+41 and calculate the attainable confidence level limits and statistical significance as a function of the exposure time. We also evaluate the prospects for a kilometer-scale detector in the Mediterranean to <span class="hlt">observe</span> and elucidate the origin of the cosmic neutrino flux measured by IceCube.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/0t333072860x7521.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite Earth <span class="hlt">Observations</span> Support CTBT Monitoring: A Case Study of the Nuclear Test in North Korea of Oct. 9, 2006 and Comparison with Seismic <span class="hlt">Results</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. Schlittenhardt; M. Canty; I. Grünberg</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty prescribes the use of seismic stations and arrays as the main measure for verification\\u000a of Treaty compliance. Since the inception of the Treaty, a vast amount of open source earth <span class="hlt">observation</span> satellite data has\\u000a become available. This paper investigates the potential for combining seismic and satellite data for more effective monitoring\\u000a and response. With data acquired</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A12A..05C"><span id="translatedtitle">Initial <span class="hlt">Results</span> from <span class="hlt">Observations</span> Made by the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) During the Ship-Aircraft Bio-Optical Research (SABOR) Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cairns, B.; Chowdhary, J.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Hu, Y.; Butler, C. F.; Powell, K. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Gilerson, A.; Cetinic, I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The SABOR experiment was composed of the ocean going research vessel (R/V) Endeavor with a wide range of ocean optics, chemistry, ecology and polarimetric <span class="hlt">observations</span> and the NASA Langley Research Center UC-12 aircraft operating a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL1) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). The HSRL1 resolves vertical variations in scattering by phytoplankton in the water column and profiles of extinction by aerosols in the atmosphere, in addition to measuring intensive aerosol properties that can be used to identify the types of aerosols that are present. The RSP measures the intensity and linear polarization of reflected sunlight in nine spectral bands from 410 to 2264 nm at multiple viewing angles. These measurements can be used to retrieve aerosol and cloud properties and also the near surface chlorophyll concentration [Chl]. While the aircraft <span class="hlt">observations</span> during SABOR provided the capability for rapidly surveying variations in ocean particulate scattering and near surface [Chl], they can not match the detail or system context provided by measurements made on the R/V Endeavor. Ship based measurements quantified not only the standing stocks of ocean particles, but rates of phytoplankton productivity, speciation of the phytoplankton community, and characteristics of other in-water absorbing materials. The two measurement platforms therefore complement one another, with the R/V Endeavor measurements providing evaluation and validation of the remote sensing products in addition to their own unique scientific value. In this paper we will present a survey of the ocean, aerosol and cloud products retrieved from the RSP <span class="hlt">observations</span> and some initial inter-comparisons with the <span class="hlt">observations</span> made by the HSRL1 and on the R/V Endeavor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40761893"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for electrodynamic linkages between spread-F, ion rain, the intermediate layer, and sporadic E: <span class="hlt">results</span> from <span class="hlt">observations</span> and simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>J. D. Mathews; D. W. Machuga; Q. Zhou</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>High resolution ISR <span class="hlt">observations</span> of the evening and nighttime E- and F-regions at Arecibo during both “normal” low-activity periods and during an active spread-F event reveal apparent electrodynamic links between the low-lying layers, ion-rain, and the spread-F instability process. In particular, during a 22 November 1994 event, streaks of ionization—ion rain [Mathews et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 1411]—appear</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25416667"><span id="translatedtitle">Treatment compliance or medication adherence in children and adolescents on ADHD medication in clinical practice: <span class="hlt">results</span> from the COMPLY <span class="hlt">observational</span> study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wehmeier, Peter M; Dittmann, Ralf W; Banaschewski, Tobias</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Although the efficacy and tolerability of ADHD medications have been investigated fairly extensively, there are very few data comparing the different types of medication (e.g. psychostimulants, non-stimulants) in terms of medication adherence. The primary research objective of the COMPLY <span class="hlt">observational</span> study was to evaluate medication adherence (i.e. compliance) over 1 year in children and adolescents with ADHD in a routine clinical setting. COMPLY was a prospective 12-month, <span class="hlt">observational</span>, open-label study that included children and adolescents, aged 6-17 years, with ADHD. Medication adherence (i.e. compliance) was measured using the Pediatric Compliance Self-Rating (PCSR) instrument and using items 1-4 of the Medication Adherence Rating Scale (MARS). A total of 504 patients were enrolled. At baseline, 252 patients (50.0 %) were prescribed non-stimulant (atomoxetine) medication and 247 patients (49.0 %) were prescribed psychostimulant medication. Both types of medication were prescribed concomitantly in five patients (1.0 %). After 12 months, 123 patients (48.8 %) were taking atomoxetine and 176 patients (71.3 %) were taking psychostimulants. Adherence (PCSR score ?5) was present in both groups (atomoxetine: 67.5 %; psychostimulant: 74.2 %) throughout the <span class="hlt">observation</span> period. MARS scores declined over time in both groups (atomoxetine: from 3.7 to 2.9; psychostimulant: from 3.6 to 3.1), indicating a deterioration in adherence. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of medication adherence between the two groups. PMID:25416667</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8534E..06E"><span id="translatedtitle">Preliminary <span class="hlt">results</span> of the PreViBOSS project: description of the fog life cycle by ground-based and satellite <span class="hlt">observation</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elias, Thierry; Jolivet, Dominique; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Burnet, Frédéric</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The instrument set-up designed by the PreViBOSS project for the ParisFog field campaign is suitable to sound microphysical properties of droplets and interstitial aerosols during developed fog in a semi-urban environment. Developed fog is defined as LWC < 7 mg m-3 and the temperature vertical gradient over 30 m, ?T, smaller than 0.04 K/m. Visibility averaged over November 2011 is 385+/-340 m (with rare values larger than 1000 m), and month average of LWC is 60+/-60 mg m-3. The droplet effective radius decreases from 14 to 4 ?m when the number concentration increases from less than 10 to 220 cm-3. Particle extinction coefficient is computed by Mie theory applied on size distribution <span class="hlt">observed</span> during developed fog in ambient conditions by both PALAS WELAS and DMT FM100. Comparison with particle extinction coefficient directly measured by the Degreanne DF20 visibilimeter demonstrates satisfying agreement, within combined uncertainties. Ratio of computed over measured particle extinction coefficient is 1.15+/-0.35. Visibility smaller than 1000 m at 3 m above ground level is <span class="hlt">observed</span> not only during developed fog but also during shallow fog, which presents a significant vertical gradient, as ?T > 0.4 K/m. In this case, LWC is highly variable and may be <span class="hlt">observed</span> below 7 mg m-3. The consequent month average of LWC is 30+/-80 mg m-3. The optical counters miss large droplets significantly contributing to extinction in shallow fogs. Consequently, it is not possible to reproduce with satisfaction the particle extinction coefficient in shallow fog. Fog type may be distinguished by association of groundbased visibilimeter and MSG/SEVIRI. When clear-sky is given by EUMETSAT/NWCSAF cloud type product while visibility is <span class="hlt">observed</span> smaller than 1000 m at SIRTA, in 75% cases a shallow fog occurs, and in other cases, horizontal heterogeneity characterises the developed fog within the SIRTA pixel, as during the dissipation phase. Moreover, consistently, low and very low clouds are mostly detected by the satellite product when developed fog is <span class="hlt">observed</span> by ground-based instrumentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=SCIGOV-MAS&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/57068995"><span id="translatedtitle">Sweet Concepts Inc.: Trade <span class="hlt">Show</span> Marketing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p>Mark Parry; Melanie Jones</p> <p></p> <p>Brooks West of Sweet Concepts has recently adopted a new brand strategy for Butterfields, the company's line of hard candy. West must decide how the new branding stragtegy should affect his trade <span class="hlt">show</span> marketing program.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=PUBMED&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19452178"><span id="translatedtitle">Do dogs (Canis familiaris) <span class="hlt">show</span> contagious yawning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harr, Aimee L; Gilbert, Valerie R; Phillips, Kimberley A</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We report an experimental investigation into whether domesticated dogs display contagious yawning. Fifteen dogs were shown video clips of (1) humans and (2) dogs displaying yawns and open-mouth expressions (not yawns) to investigate whether dogs <span class="hlt">showed</span> contagious yawning to either of these social stimuli. Only one dog performed significantly more yawns during or shortly after viewing yawning videos than to the open-mouth videos, and most of these yawns occurred to the human videos. No dogs <span class="hlt">showed</span> significantly more yawning to the open-mouth videos (human or dog). The percentage of dogs <span class="hlt">showing</span> contagious yawning was less than chimpanzees and humans <span class="hlt">showing</span> this behavior, and considerably less than a recently published report investigating this behavior in dogs (Joly-Mascheroni et al. in Biol Lett 4:446-448, 2008). PMID:19452178</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/87765"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrition and Feeding of <span class="hlt">Show</span> Poultry </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cartwright, A. Lee</p> <p>2003-11-03</p> <p>The championship potential of a chicken or turkey is determined by genetics, but proper nutrition can help an animal achieve that genetic potential. This publication outlines four principles critical to developing a nutrition program for <span class="hlt">show</span>...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2011-12-10282"><span id="translatedtitle">Incident Response Planning for Selected Livestock <span class="hlt">Shows</span> </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Tomascik, Chelsea Roxanne</p> <p>2012-02-14</p> <p>was to determine local officials' perceptions and awareness of incident planning and response pertaining to selected livestock <span class="hlt">shows</span>. Little research has been completed in this area; therefore, this foundational study was needed. The objectives of this study...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=EPRINT&redirectUrl=http://cmclab.rice.edu/433/notes/sysgenTips.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">System Generator Tips <span class="hlt">Show</span> sample time colors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>System Generator Tips · <span class="hlt">Show</span> sample time colors · FormatPort/Signal DisplaysSample Time Colors/stop the simulation · Give subsystems and their ports meaningful names · Mask subsystems you'll use again · Using too</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153105.html"><span id="translatedtitle">New Drug <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise Against Psoriasis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153105.html New Drug <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise Against Psoriasis Ixekizumab appeared to ... the disease clearing up, but people on the new drug also reporting a marked improvement in their ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=ERIC&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=millet&pg=3&id=EJ130463"><span id="translatedtitle">The Moscow <span class="hlt">Show</span> of Dissident Art</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Millet, Stephen M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Author described a <span class="hlt">show</span> of dissident art held in Moscow on September 29, 1974, and contrasted the government's efforts to control artistic freedom with the determination of Russian artists to resist such imposition. (RK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152968.html"><span id="translatedtitle">World's Population Is Getting Sicker, Study <span class="hlt">Shows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152968.html World's Population Is Getting Sicker, Study <span class="hlt">Shows</span> People lose ... largest analysis of trends in health around the world for the years 1990 to 2013, the journal ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_153483.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Early Intervention <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise in Treating Schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... 153483.html Early Intervention <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise in Treating Schizophrenia Programs that emphasize resiliency, education and job support ... health of patients in the early stages of schizophrenia, new research reveals. The finding, reported in the ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NIH-MEDLINEPLUS&redirectUrl=http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152157.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Ebola Treatment <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise in Monkey Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ebola Treatment <span class="hlt">Shows</span> Promise in Monkey Study Antiviral drug cured animals with advanced infections, researchers say To ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug being tested on Ebola victims in Sierra Leone has proven effective in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://www.science.gov/scigov/desktop/en/ostiblue/service/link/track?type=RESULT&searchId=topic-pages&collectionCode=NASAADS&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.tmp..166C"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural and Anthropogenic Geohazards in Greater London <span class="hlt">Observed</span> from Geological and ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT Persistent Scatterers Ground Motion Data: <span class="hlt">Results</span> from the EC FP7-SPACE PanGeo Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p