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1

Observational astrochemistry - Recent results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 80 molecular species have now been observed in the dense interstellar clouds where stars and planets form or in the envelopes expelled by evolved stars. Elemental constituents of these compounds include all of the biogenic elements, H, C, N, O, S and P. In addition, Si is found in several molecules, and a series of metal halides have recently been detected in the outflowing envelope of a nearby carbon star. Knowledge of the chemical reservoirs for the major volatile elements and a comparison between observed molecular abundances and theoretical models are both discussed.

Irvine, W. M.

2

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

3

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

4

13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

5

High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in H?, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

2012-07-01

6

Humans show mate copying after observing real mate choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

When searching for a mate, one must gather information to determine the mate value of potential partners. By focusing on individuals who have been previously chosen by others, one's selection of mates can be influenced by another's successful search—a phenomenon known as mate copying. We show mate copying in humans with a novel methodology that closely mimics behavioral studies with

Peter M. Todd; Lars Penke; Jens B. Asendorpf

2010-01-01

7

CASSINI VIMS OBSERVATIONS SHOW ETHANE IS PRESENT IN TITAN'S RAINFALL  

SciTech Connect

Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent 'gentle rainfall' instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnes, Jason W. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Clark, Roger N. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Philip D., E-mail: pauldalba@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2012-12-20

8

Observe an animation showing the formation of an unconformity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the development of an angular unconformity to high school Earth science students. The introduction defines an unconformity as a gap in sedimentary rock. The animation shows how the cycle of sedimentation and erosion can be interrupted by intrusion of igneous rock. Mountain-building then tilts the rock layers, causing uneven erosion, which leaves pockets of material that are covered by newer sediments. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, giving students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

9

Observe an animation showing evidence of the carbon cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this visual resource about the carbon cycle, students are presented with an animation and accompanying text that focus on carbon and plants. The text addresses how plants fit into the larger carbon cycle, including how carbon enters and leaves the biosphere, and it explains what students are viewing in the animation. The animation shows false color images on a flat map of the world. When the viewer clicks on the image (or the play button), the animation plays, and color patterns reveal changes in plant growth on land and water over a 3-year period. Movie controls allow students to pause the animation, to replay the animation, or to move backward or forward through the images 1 month at a time. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

10

Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise  

PubMed Central

Introduction Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. Methods A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. Results We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (? 72% for all reviewers). Conclusions VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications.

2012-01-01

11

Applications and results of MODIS lunar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since launch, both Terra and Aqua MODIS have been making regular lunar observations with a primary objective of providing an independent stability monitoring for the reflective solar bands (RSB) calibration. To a large extent, this approach is based on the fact that the Moon has extremely stable surface reflectance properties. When combined with a lunar radiometric model, the applications of lunar observations can be significantly enhanced. Using MODIS as an example, this paper discusses various applications developed from its lunar observations. In addition to the RSB stability monitoring, MODIS lunar observations are regularly used to examine its calibration consistency between Terra and Aqua MODIS and to track the sensor's band-to-band registration (BBR) stability. Examples also presented in this paper include optical leak and electronic crosstalk characterization for MODIS thermal emissive bands (TEB) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands. Results from multi-year lunar observations show that the MODIS RSB calibration stability has been satisfactory when compared to its solar calibration, and that Terra and Aqua MODIS are calibrated consistently to within +/-1% for most RSB. The spatial characterization results derived from MODIS lunar observations agree very well with that determined from its on-board calibrator. It is clear that the applications and results of MODIS lunar observations presented here will serve as good examples or references for other sensors that also make use of lunar surface observations.

Xiong, X.; Sun, J.; Angal, A.; Chiang, K.; Barnes, W. L.

2007-10-01

12

Asteroid families: observational results versus numerical simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asteroids families are groups of small bodies that share certain orbital and spectral properties. Families are concentrations in the proper elements phase space. It is believed that they are the result of energetic collisions that break-up and disperse the original parent bodies. In this presentation we compare the rotational periods of family members measured by observations made in Observatorio Pico dos Dias, Estacion Astrofisica Bosque Alegre and Casleo observatories to the rotational periods resulting from simulations of the collisional breakup of a rubble pile asteroid using a model recently developed by us. We used the observed light curves of asteroids members of the Maria and Themis families to estimate the period and shape of each object. Themis and Maria families have around 300 and 150 members, respectively. Our observation consist of 10 members of the Maria Family and 12 from Themis family, adding this to the data from the literature we have a data set of 33 objects for Themis and 20 for Maria. The estimated shapes of the objects are fed into the model in order to obtain a distribution of rotational periods after break-up. This distribution is then compared to the observed distribution. The observed and simulated distributions show some differences due to the fact that the observed distribution were affected by the subsequent collisional evolution of the family after its formation, but overall shapes are comparable.

Duffard, R.; Alvarez-Candal, A.; Angeli, C.; Roig, F.; Lazzaro, D.

2003-08-01

13

GEOS observation systems intercomparison investigation results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of an investigation designed to determine the relative accuracy and precision of the different types of geodetic observation systems used by NASA is presented. A collocation technique was used to minimize the effects of uncertainties in the relative station locations and in the earth's gravity field model by installing accurate reference tracking systems close to the systems to be compared, and by precisely determining their relative survey. The Goddard laser and camera systems were shipped to selected sites, where they tracked the GEOS satellite simultaneously with other systems for an intercomparison observation.

Berbert, J. H.

1974-01-01

14

Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (? ? 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (? ? 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (? ? 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (? ? 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis.

Gallego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernandez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

2010-01-01

15

Results of Sustained Observations from SABSOON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of meteorological and oceanographic data being collected on the continental shelf off Georgia by the South Atlantic Bight Synoptic Offshore Observational Network (SABSOON) permit an examination of episodic and seasonal phenomena operative on the shelf. Data are collected at offshore platforms and transmitted to shore in near-real time and made available on the project website. Examples of data collected since 1999 are presented that illustrate some of processes being addressed using the network. Maximum winds occur during remarkably energetic downbursts observed in spring and summer, associated with the passage of squalls over the coastal ocean. Peak wind speed at 50 m height exceed 40 ms and air temperature drops by 4 oC or more in less than 6 minutes, often accompanied by large changes in humidity and heavy rainfall, suggesting down draft of air from aloft. These events may play an important role in the offshore transport of continentally-derived material. Continuous ADCP measurements are being used to examine the seasonality of cross-shelf exchange and its relationship to the cross-shelf density gradient. The low-frequency cross-shelf circulation changes sign when the cross-shelf density gradient changes sign. Vertical stratification is surprisingly episodic, and maximum stratification has occurred in the winter and spring associated with appearance of long-salinity surface lens and may be associated with baroclinic instabilities. Strong stratification has also been observed in summer during Gulf Stream-derived intrusions onto the shelf, during which time the upper and lower layers become largely decoupled. Continuous optical measurements of above-water and in-water irradiance (PAR) show the mid-shelf surface sediments are often in the euphotic zone. Chlorophyll fluorescence (stimulated) shows strong light-dependent diurnal variability in near-surface waters and evidence of resuspension of benthic diatoms during storm events, particularly in the early fall. >http://www.skio.peachnet.edu/projects/sabsoon.html

Seim, H.; Nelson, J.

2001-12-01

16

Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered in less detail. Also evident in the results were

Michael C. Lopresto

2006-01-01

17

Radio Observations of Asteroids: Results and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio observations of the asteroids can provide information on the thermal and dielectric properties of the surface materials and because the radio emission arises somewhat below the surface, the data give some indication of layering. Observational diffic...

J. R. Dickel

1978-01-01

18

Radio Observations of Asteroids: Results and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio observations of the asteroids can provide information on the thermal and dielectric properties of the surface materials and because the radio emission arises somewhat below the surface, the data give some indication of layering. Observational diffic...

J. R. Dickel

1979-01-01

19

Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SHOW (solar hot water) computer program is capable of simulating both one and two tank designs of thermosiphon and pumped solar domestic hot water systems. SHOW differs in a number of ways from other programs, the most notable of which is the emphasis on a thermal/hydraulic model of the stratified storage tank. The predicted performance for a typical two tank pumped system, computed by Program SHOW are compared, with results computed using F-CHART and TRNSYS. The results show fair to good agreement between the various computer programs when comparing the annual percent solar contributions. SHOW is also used to compute the expected performance of a two tank thermosiphon system and to compare its performance to the two tank pumped system.

Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

20

Astronomy Diagnostic Test Results Reflect Course Goals and Show Room for Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of administering the Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT) to introductory astronomy students at Henry Ford Community College over three years have shown gains comparable with national averages. Results have also accurately corresponded to course goals, showing greater gains in topics covered in more detail, and lower gains in topics covered…

LoPresto, Michael C.

2007-01-01

21

Crater FTEs: Simulation results and THEMIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model predicts flux transfer events (FTEs) with strong core magnetic fields embedded within a broadened current layer of weak magnetic field strengths on the equatorial dayside magnetopause during intervals of southward and duskward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) orientation. Multipoint THEMIS observations at 2202 UT on June 20, 2007 of a southward-moving FTE on the post-noon magnetopause confirm the predictions of the model. THEMIS-E and -A with large impact parameters simply observe enhanced magnetic field strengths in draped magnetosheath magnetic field lines, THEMIS-B and -C with moderate impact parameters pass through the broadened current layer to observe crater FTEs with deep troughs bounding a strong core field, while THEMIS-D with a very low impact parameter observes the core magnetic field strength enhancement embedded in the current layer.

Sibeck, D. G.; Kuznetsova, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glaßmeier, K.-H.; McFadden, J. P.

2008-05-01

22

Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

Dekle, Dawn J.

1997-01-01

23

DUNES survey observational results (Eiroa+, 2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The on-line tabular material contains a complete description of the DUNES objects, providing absolute parameters of the stars, the photometry used to build their spectral energy distributions, the Herschel/PACS fluxes, the photospheric predictions at the PACS wavelengths, the significance of the potential excesses and additional information concerning the stars with extended emission, the offsets of the stellar positions as measured in the optical and in the PACS100 images, the AORs (Astronomical Observation Request number) of the observations and the on-source integration times. (11 data files).

Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; Del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; Heras, A. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Loehne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Rodmann, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Solano, E.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thebault, P.; Wolf, S.; Ardila, D.; Arevalo, M.; Beichmann, C.; Faramaz, V.; Gonzalez-Garcia, B. M.; Gutierrez, R.; Lebreton, J.; Martinez-Arnaiz, R.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Olofsson, G.; Su, K. Y. L.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.; Fukagawa, M.; Gruen, E.; Kamp, I.; Lorente, R.; Morbidelli, A.; Mueller, S.; Mutschke, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Ribas, I.; Walker, H.

2013-05-01

24

SOAR remote observing: tactics and early results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travel from North America to the 4.1m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon exceeds $1000, and takes >16 hours door to door (20+ hours typically). SOAR aims to exploit best seeing, requiring dynamic scheduling that is impossible to accomplish when catering to peripatetic astronomers. According to technical arguments at www.peakoil.org, we are near the peak rate of depleting world petroleum, so can expect travel costs to climb sharply. With the telecom bubble's glut of optical fiber, we can transmit data more efficiently than astronomers and "observe remotely". With data compression, less than half of the 6 Mbps bandwidth shared currently by SOAR and CTIO is enough to enable a high-fidelity observing presence for SOAR partners in North America, Brazil, and Chile. We discuss access from home by cable modem/DSL link.

Cecil, Gerald N.; Crain, J. Adam

2004-09-01

25

STS-44 Earth observation shows purplish twilight over the Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-44 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, shows twilight over the Atlantic Ocean. OV-104 was at a point in the north Atlantic located at 28 degrees north latitude and 37 degrees west longitude. The spacecraft has just passed sundown on the Earth's surface, but it was still daylight at an altitude of 195 nautical miles. During the mission, the astronauts noted that the limb of the Earth displayed a more purplish tint instead of its normal blue. This effect, according to NASA scientists, is attributed to the high altitude residue (mostly sulfuric acid particles) from the Mount Pinatubo eruptions of mid June 1991. Note the broad band of twilight in the center of the image. This band is another indicator of the upper atmospheric scattering of sunlight caused by this layer of haze that exists between 20 and 30 kilometers above Earth. Sunlight highlights the empty payload bay (PLB), the vertical tail, and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods against the black

1991-01-01

26

Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp -9) C, and average arc time of 1 msec, arcs can also occur with estimated arc currents approaching 10 milliamperes (mA). Discharges of this magnitude could interfere with the operation of sensitive electrical or electronic elements and logic circuits. Sojourner rover wheel tested in laboratory before launch to Mars. Before launch, we believed that the dust would become triboelectrically charged as it was moved about and compacted by the rover wheels. In all cases observed in the laboratory, the test wheel charged positively, and the wheel tracks charged negatively. Dust samples removed from the laboratory wheel averaged a few ones to tens of micrometers in size (clay size). Coarser grains were left behind in the wheel track. On Mars, grain size estimates of 2 to 10 mm were derived for the Martian surface materials from the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment. These size estimates approximately match the laboratory samples. Our tentative conclusion for the Sojourner observations is that fine clay-sized particles acquired an electrostatic charge during rover traverses and adhered to the rover wheels, carrying electrical charge to the rover. Since the Sojourner rover carried no instruments to measure this mission's onboard electrical charge, confirmatory measurements from future rover missions on Mars are desirable so that the physical and electrical properties of the Martian surface dust can be characterized. Sojourner was protected by discharge points, and Faraday cages were placed around sensitive electronics. But larger systems than Sojourner are being contemplated for missions to the Martian surface in the foreseeable future. The design of such systems will require a detailed knowledge of how they will interact with their environment. Validated environmental interaction models and guidelines for the Martian surface must be developed so that design engineers can test new ideas prior to cutting hardware. These models and guidelines cannot be validated without actual flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across t

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

1998-01-01

27

High Resolution Spectropolarimeter, LIPS: its Performance and Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a high dispersion optical spectropolarimeter LIPS which has a spectral resolution R higher than 5000. The new half-wave plate effectively eliminates the harmful ripple pattern. By introducing this new half-wave plate, an accuracy of polarization degree P better than 0.1% is achieved. In this presentation, we show the performance of LIPS estimated from the results of engineering observations made at the UH88 telescope in March and October 2002. We observed several standard stars and estimated the polarimetric accuracy and stability of LIPS. The performance is found to be sufficient for most observations.

Matsuda, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Akitaya, H.; Kawabata, K. S.; Seki, M.; Okazaki, A.; Hirata, R.

2005-12-01

28

Multi-site model-observations comparison shows the diurnal effects of hydrodynamic stress on evapotranspiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydraulic limitations are known to control transpiration in forest ecosystems when the soil is drying or when the vapor pressure deficit between the air and stomata is very large, but they can also impact stomatal apertures under conditions of adequate soil moisture and lower evaporative demand. We use the NACP dataset of latent heat flux (LE) measurements and model observations for multiple site/model intercomparisons to evaluate the degree to which currently un-resolved high-frequency (sub-daily) hydrodynamic stresses affect the error in model prediction of latent heat flux. Particularly, we see that models have difficulty resolving the dynamics of intra-daily hysteresis. We hypothesize that this is a result of un-resolved afternoon stomata closure due to hydrodynamic stresses. We find that although no model or stomata parameterization was consistently best or worst in terms of ability to predict LE, errors in model-simulated LE were consistently largest and most variable when soil moisture and VPD were moderate to limiting. This suggests that models have trouble simulating the dynamics that cause stomata to close due to high VPD and moderate to low soil-water availability. Errors in LE occur most frequently when vegetative dynamics dominate. The majority of models tend to underestimate LE in the pre-noon hours and overestimate in the late evening. These diurnal error patterns are consistent with models' diminished ability to accurately simulate the natural hysteresis of transpiration. Nearly all models demonstrate a marked tendency to underestimate the degree of maximum hysteresis which, across all sites studied, is most pronounced during moisture limited conditions. The assumed empirical or semi-empirical coupling between stomatal conductance and soil moisture used by these current models does not resolve the hydrodynamic process of water movement from the soil to the leaves. This approach does not take advantage of advances in our understanding of water flow and storage in the trees, or of tree and canopy structure. A more thorough representation of the tree-hydrodynamic processes could potentially remedy this significant source of model error. We propose a framework to resolve such tree hydrodynamics in global and regional models. We introduce FETCH - a tree hydrodynamic model that can resolve the fast dynamics of stomatal conductance. We propose that coupling FETCH to other land-surface models would reduce intra-daily errors and improve atmospheric and hydrologic simulations.

Matheny, A. M.; Bohrer, G.

2013-12-01

29

Biochemical and pathological observations on sheep showing various clinical manifestations of experimental cerebrocortical necrosis.  

PubMed

For observing chronological changes of biochemical and pathological aspects in experimental cerebrocortical necrosis, 14 sheep were given amprolium (600 mg/kg/day), and killed at various clinical stages. At the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms, total thiamine concentrations in the cerebrum, liver, heart and blood were reduced significantly. After anorexia was noted, total thiamine concentrations in them did not decrease further as symptoms developed severely. Autofluorescence and necrotic lesions in the cerebral cortex were observed in animals killed one day after the onset of abnormal electroencephalograms. PMID:7948396

Horino, R; Itabisashi, T; Hirano, K

1994-06-01

30

A Common Anterior Insula Representation of Disgust Observation, Experience and Imagination Shows Divergent Functional Connectivity Pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

Similar brain regions are involved when we imagine, observe and execute an action. Is the same true for emotions? Here, the same subjects were scanned while they (a) experience, (b) view someone else experiencing and (c) imagine experiencing gustatory emotions (through script-driven imagery). Capitalizing on the fact that disgust is repeatedly inducible within the scanner environment, wescanned thesameparticipantswhilethey(a) view actors

Mbemba Jabbi; Jojanneke Bastiaansen; Christian Keysers

2008-01-01

31

Protanopic observers show nearly normal color constancy with natural reflectance spectra.  

PubMed

The ability of color-deficient observers to discriminate between illuminant changes and surface-reflectance changes in a scene was tested with natural and Munsell reflectance spectra. To avoid the confounding effects of spatial structure, stimuli were simulations of Mondrian-like colored patterns, presented on a computer-controlled color monitor. Protanopes performed less well than normal trichromats, regardless of the type of reflectance spectra, but they were least disadvantaged with patterns comprising reflectance spectra drawn from urban and rural scenes, more characteristic of the natural environment. PMID:15518212

Baraas, Rigmor C; Foster, David H; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

2004-01-01

32

Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE).

33

Observations on a new family showing bisalbuminaemia of the slow type  

PubMed Central

A new family with an electrophoretically more slowly moving albumin variant is described. The pattern of variance was studied using three different electrophoretic techniques, and compared with certain other known fast and slow variants. Features of penicillin and bromphenol blue binding by normal and variant albumins were also studied. Both normal human albumin and the albumin variant treated with penicillin broadened and moved faster. Native albumin A, prestained with bromphenol blue, binds approximately twice as much of the dye as the slow-moving variant. On the other hand, staining of denatured proteins on paper showed that both bands take up equal amounts of dye. Images

Mikulska, Teresa; Mikulski, Pawel; Rogulski, Jerzy

1972-01-01

34

Comparison of some results of program SHOW with other solar hot water computer programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subroutines and the driver program for the simulation code SHOW (solar hot water) for solar thermosyphon systems are discussed, and simulations are compared with predictions by the F-CHART and TRNSYS codes. SHOW has the driver program MAIN, which defines the system control logic for choosing the appropriate system subroutine for analysis. Ten subroutines are described, which account for the solar system physical parameters, the weather data, the manufacturer-supplied system specifications, mass flow rates, pumped systems, total transformed radiation, load use profiles, stratification in storage, an electric water heater, and economic analyses. The three programs are employed to analyze a thermosiphon installation in Sacramento with two storage tanks. TRNSYS and SHOW were in agreement and lower than F-CHARt for annual predictions, although significantly more computer time was necessary to make TRNSYS converge.

Young, M. F.; Baughn, J. W.

35

TES validation results from the Lake Tahoe special observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer on board the AURA spacecraft launched in 2004. As part of the science validation activities, four "Stare" special observations were acquired in August and September 2005 over Lake Tahoe located a the California-Nevada border in western US. Each "Stare" observation took 32 target observation scans each sharing almost the same footprint. The Tahoe site has several advantages for validation, namely it is at high altitude with negligible cloud cover, it has water as the surface with known spectral emissivity, and it has ground-based in-situ radiometric measurements. Statistics of the retrieved values of the target data set over water are compared with the observation error available in the TES product file. In most cases, the results show that the standard deviation of the volume mixing ratio (VMR 1 sigma) at a given pressure level is less that the observation error for H20, atmospheric temperature, and O3. VMR-sigma is higher than the observation error in the cases of H2O and atmospheric temperature for pressure levels very near the surface. The surface temperature retrieved by the TES algorithm agrees to less than 1K of the observed in-situ radiometeric measurements. This exercise has provided important validation of the TES reported errors and the TES on-board radiometric calibration source.

Trembaly, D.; Sund Kulawik, S.; Rider, D.; Hook, S. J.

2006-12-01

36

NIH trial shows promising results in treating a lymphoma in young people  

Cancer.gov

Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical trial results.

37

Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:  

Cancer.gov

The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

38

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Cancer.gov

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

39

Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.  

PubMed

Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice. PMID:24473120

Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

2014-04-01

40

Arctic Precipitation and Evaporation: Model Results and Observational Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational estimates of precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Estimates of Arctic regional mean precipitation from several observational sources show considerable scatter, and the observational estimates based on gauge-adjusted station data are considerably larger than the other observational

John E. Walsh; Vladimir Kattsov; Diane Portis; Valentin Meleshko

1998-01-01

41

Evaluating the impact of database heterogeneity on observational study results.  

PubMed

Clinical studies that use observational databases to evaluate the effects of medical products have become commonplace. Such studies begin by selecting a particular database, a decision that published papers invariably report but do not discuss. Studies of the same issue in different databases, however, can and do generate different results, sometimes with strikingly different clinical implications. In this paper, we systematically study heterogeneity among databases, holding other study methods constant, by exploring relative risk estimates for 53 drug-outcome pairs and 2 widely used study designs (cohort studies and self-controlled case series) across 10 observational databases. When holding the study design constant, our analysis shows that estimated relative risks range from a statistically significant decreased risk to a statistically significant increased risk in 11 of 53 (21%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a cohort design and 19 of 53 (36%) of drug-outcome pairs that use a self-controlled case series design. This exceeds the proportion of pairs that were consistent across databases in both direction and statistical significance, which was 9 of 53 (17%) for cohort studies and 5 of 53 (9%) for self-controlled case series. Our findings show that clinical studies that use observational databases can be sensitive to the choice of database. More attention is needed to consider how the choice of data source may be affecting results. PMID:23648805

Madigan, David; Ryan, Patrick B; Schuemie, Martijn; Stang, Paul E; Overhage, J Marc; Hartzema, Abraham G; Suchard, Marc A; DuMouchel, William; Berlin, Jesse A

2013-08-15

42

Pressure observations by the Curiosity rover: Initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

REMS-P, the pressure measurement subsystem of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Environmental Measurement Station (REMS), is performing accurate observations of the Martian atmospheric surface pressure. It has demonstrated high data quality and good temporal coverage, carrying out the first in situ pressure observations in the Martian equatorial regions. We describe the REMS-P initial results by MSL mission sol 100 including the instrument performance and data quality and illustrate some initial interpretations of the observed features. The observations show both expected and new phenomena at various spatial and temporal scales, e.g., the gradually increasing pressure due to the advancing Martian season signals from the diurnal tides as well as various local atmospheric phenomena and thermal vortices. Among the unexpected new phenomena discovered in the pressure data are a small regular pressure drop at every sol and pressure oscillations occurring in the early evening. We look forward to continued high-quality observations by REMS-P, extending the data set to reveal characteristics of seasonal variations and improved insights into regional and local phenomena.

Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Kahanpää, H.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Haberle, R.; Polkko, J.; Schmidt, W.; Savijärvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.; Atlaskin, E.; Richardson, M.; Siili, T.; Paton, M.; Torre Juarez, M.; Newman, C.; Rafkin, S.; Lemmon, M. T.; Mischna, M.; Merikallio, S.; Haukka, H.; Martin-Torres, J.; Zorzano, M.-P.; Peinado, V.; Urqui, R.; Lapinette, A.; Scodary, A.; Mäkinen, T.; Vazquez, L.; Rennó, N.; REMS/MSL Science Team

2014-01-01

43

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also planet-wide phenomena and are a key observation for enhancing our understanding of the global atmospheric flows and CO2 cycle of the Martian atmosphere. The surface pressure is rising at this time of the Martian season, and this is clearly seen by the MSL pressure observations. The current surface pressure is slightly over 8 hPa, which represents a rise of a few % since the beginning of the mission. Our Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) produces similar results to the observations with some deviations. They are currently under investigation. References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [3] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13.

Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri

2013-04-01

44

Main results of the global adjustment of VLBI observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a new version of the QUASAR domestic multifunction software package, we have simultaneously processed all of the available VLBI observations performed on global networks of stations over the period 1979-2009. New improved and extended versions of the international reference systems of coordinates of extragalactic radio sources and ground-based VLBI stations and a new independent series of Earth orientation parameters have been obtained. Analysis of the accuracy of these results shows that they are at the level of the best determinations at national and international VLBI data analysis centers.

Kurdubov, S. L.; Gubanov, V. S.

2011-04-01

45

Preliminary Results from MCS and MSL Atmospheric Joint Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting in May 2013, there has been an ongoing joint atmospheric observations campaign between the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and the Curiosity Rover (MSL). The observations in the campaign are grouped in four families each at a separate local mean time: 01:30, 04:30, 13:30 and 16:30. The goal is to perform one observation from each family every 5° of Ls (or 10 days). At each joint observation, the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS on MRO) observes the atmosphere above Curiosity with a limb observation to provide a profile of temperature, dust and water ice. At the same time, the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) acquires measurements of surface pressure and temperature, near-surface atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and winds, downward UV flux. For many of the observations, column optical depth measurements of aerosols and water vapor are acquired close in time with the Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) by Curiosity. Mars Color Imager (MARCI on MRO) weather images are available for daytime joint observations. The joint observations are being used for several preliminary studies (in addition to providing validation and instrument inter-comparisons). The initial joint observations occurred during the decaying phase of a regional dust storm and show a modest clearing of the atmospheric dust over time. As the season progresses towards aphelion, the overall dust is expected to decrease and equatorial water ice clouds will start to form. MCS provides a vertical profile of the aerosol and distinguishes between dust and ice while column opacity measurements from Mastcam provide the total aerosol column to the surface. While four local times is somewhat constraining, we expect to examine the expression of the diurnal and semi-diurnal tide. We expect to correlate the phasing of the tides in the surface pressure and overlying temperature structure. This should provide an understanding of the local link between the surface and the middle atmosphere provided by the tides. These preliminary results will cover mid-southern summer through mid-northern spring and will examine the rapid transition in the global circulation at the northern spring equinox.

Kass, D. M.; Lemmon, M. T.; Mischna, M. A.; de la Torre Juarez, M.; Kleinboehl, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.

2013-12-01

46

Preliminary Results from Coordinated UVCS-CDS-Ulysses Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The June 2000 quadrature between the Sun, Earth, and Ulysses took place with Ulysses at a distance of 3.35 AU from the Sun and at heliocentric latitude 58.2 deg south, in the southeast quadrant. This provided an opportunity to observe the corona close to the Sun with Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) and Ultraviolet Coronograph Spectrometer (UVCS) and, subsequently, to sample the same plasma when it reached Ulysses. Here we focus on simultaneous observations of UVCS and CDS made on June 12, 13, 16 and 17. The UVCS data were acquired at heliocentric altitudes ranging from 1.6 to 2.2 solar radii, using different grating positions, in order to get a wide wavelength range. CDS data consisted of Normal Incidence Spectrometer (NIS) full wavelength rasters of 120" x 150" centered at altitudes up to 1.18 solar radii, together with Grazing Incidence Spectrometer (GIS) 4" x 4" rasters within the same field of view, out to 1.2 solar radii. The radial direction to Ulysses passed through a high latitude streamer, throughout the 4 days of observations, Analysis of the spectra taken by UVCS shows a variation of the element abundances in the streamer over our observing interval: however, because the observations were in slightly different parts of the streamer on different days, the variation could be ascribed either to a temporal or spatial effect. The oxygen abundance, however, seems to increase at the edge of the streamer, as indicated by previous analyses. This suggests the variation may be a function of position within the streamer, rather than a temporal effect. Oxygen abundances measured by SWICS on Ulysses are compared with the CDS and UVCS results to see whether changes measured in situ follow the same pattern.

Parenti, S.; Bromage, B. J.; Poletto, G.; Suess, S. T.; Raymond, J. C.; Noci, G.; Bromage, G. E.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

47

Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help to resolve the problem of the 'missing heat' or 'missing energy', respectively, terms coined to grasp the observation that surface temperatures of planet Earth have stalled rising since about 15 years while radiation-affecting atmospheric CO2 concentrations continued to increase. Our results support the finding that excess energy which results from changes in the Earth' radiation balance is transferred into heating of the deep ocean, where it does not contribute to an increase of surface temperatures but inevitably enhances thermosteric sea level rise.

Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

2014-05-01

48

IGR J17091-3624 shows a unique quasi-'rho' class variability during recent RXTE\\/PCA observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent RXTE\\/PCA observations of the black hole low mass X-ray binary IGR J17091-3624 showed a unique quasi-'rho' class variability. This variability consisted of oscillations with very large amplitude and oscillations with small amplitude. Both oscillations occurred alternately for a certain interval of time. Interestingly, both oscillations have same timescale and seen first time in this source.

Mayukh Pahari; J. S. Yadav; Sudip Bhattacharyya

2011-01-01

49

Results of the First Observations with the Hamburg Robotic Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the first scientific observations with the Hamburg Robotic Telescope (HRT) are presented. These observations were performed between October 2008 and August 2009. The goals of this program were a test of the observational performance of the telescope and the creation of a transformation equation from the HRT S-index to the Mount Wilson S-index. The mean of the deviations between the transformed HRT S-Indices and the corresponding Mount Wilson S-Indices is ?4%. These deviations can be -- at least partially -- explained by stellar variability and the non-simultaneity of the observations. Furthermore, the first monitoring of several stars was performed.

Mittag, M.; Hempelmann, A.; González-Pérez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Hall, J. C.

2011-12-01

50

InSAR and GPS Observations Show Seasonal Speedup of Ice Flow in Greenland Following the Onset of Summer Melting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have assembled a comprehensive set of InSAR and GPS observations that reveal both spatial and temporal changes in velocity during the summer melt season along a several-hundred kilometer stretch of the ice-sheet margin near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. In the bare ice zone, we obtain InSAR (speckle\\/feature tracking) results throughout the melt season that agree well with results from two

I. Joughin; S. B. Das; M. A. King; B. Smith; I. Howat; T. Moon

2007-01-01

51

Cassini observations of Saturn's inner plasmasphere: Saturn orbit insertion results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new and definitive results of Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) data acquired during passage through Saturn's inner plasmasphere by the Cassini spacecraft during the approach phase of the Saturn orbit insertion period. This analysis extends the original analysis of Sittler et al. [2005. Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: comparison with Voyager. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L14S07, doi:10.1029/2005GL022653] to L˜10 along with also providing a more comprehensive study of the interrelationship of the various fluid parameters. Coincidence data are sub-divided into protons and water group ions. Our revised analysis uses an improved convergence algorithm which provides a more definitive and independent estimate of the spacecraft potential ?SC for which we enforce the protons and water group ions to co-move with each other. This has allowed us to include spacecraft charging corrections to our fluid parameter estimations and allow accurate estimations of fluctuations in the fluid parameters for future correlative studies. In the appendix we describe the ion moments algorithm, and minor corrections introduced by not weighting the moments with sin ? term in Sittler et al. [2005] (Correction offset by revisions to instruments geometric factor). Estimates of the spacecraft potential and revised proton densities are presented. Our total ion densities are in close agreement with the electron densities reported by Moncuquet et al. [2005. Quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn with Cassini/RPWS: electron temperatures and density. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L20S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL022508] who used upper hybrid resonance (UHR) emission lines observed by the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument. We show a positive correlation between proton temperature and water group ion temperature. The proton and thermal electron temperatures track each with both having a positive radial gradient. These results are consistent with pickup ion energization via Saturn's rotational electric field. We see evidence for an anti-correlation between radial flow velocity VR and azimuthal velocity V ?, which is consistent with the magnetosphere tending to conserve angular momentum. Evidence for MHD waves is also present. We show clear evidence for outward transport of the plasma via flux tube interchange motions with the radial velocity of the flow showing positive radial gradient with V˜0.12(L/4)5.5km/s functional dependence for 4< L<10 (i.e., if we assume to be diffusive transport then D˜D0L11 for fixed stochastic time step ?t). Previous models with centrifugal transport have used D˜D0L3 dependence. The radial transport seems to begin at Enceladus' L shell, L˜4, where we also see a minimum in the W+ ion temperature T˜35eV. For the first time, we are measuring the actual flux tube interchange motions in the magnetosphere and how it varies with radial distance. These observations can be used as a constraint with regard to future transport models for Saturn's magnetosphere. Finally, we evaluate the thermodynamic properties of the plasma, which are all consistent with the pickup process being the dominant energy source for the plasma.

Sittler, E. C.; Thomsen, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Hartle, R. E.; Burger, M.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D.; Smith, H. T.; Coates, A. J.; Rymer, A. M.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Reisenfeld, D.; Dougherty, M.; Andre, N.

2006-10-01

52

Some results of whistler and VHF scintillation observations at Agra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of whistler observations for the period Dec. 1989-Mar. 1991 and VHF scintillation observations for the period Jan. 1991-Mar. 1991 at the low latitude ground station of Agra are presented. It is shown that whistler activity at this station is very rare and sporadic. Large whistler activities have been observed at two occasions only, during fourteen months of observations. Some new results include the observations of higher harmonics of tweeks, daytime whistlers and daytime discrete chorus emissions for the first time in a low latitude ground station in India. The VHF scintillations at 244.168 MHz from FLEETSAT are recorded both during night and daytimes and their temporal variation of occurrence number and association with spread-F and sporadic-E irregularities are discussed.

Singh, Birbal; Rejiraj, R. S.; Chauhan, Pawan; Jain, V. K.; Garg, Rajeev

1992-06-01

53

InSAR and GPS Observations Show Seasonal Speedup of Ice Flow in Greenland Following the Onset of Summer Melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have assembled a comprehensive set of InSAR and GPS observations that reveal both spatial and temporal changes in velocity during the summer melt season along a several-hundred kilometer stretch of the ice-sheet margin near Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. In the bare ice zone, we obtain InSAR (speckle/feature tracking) results throughout the melt season that agree well with results from two continuous GPS stations located at roughly 1000 meters elevation. Over much of the slow-moving (100 m/yr) bare-ice zone, the InSAR data show summer speedups of 50-to-100 m/yr averaged over 24 days. We also detect seasonal speedups of similar magnitude on Jakobshavn Isbrae and several smaller fast moving (> 1 km/yr) outlet glaciers. In relative terms, however, the outlet glaciers speedups represent increases of less than 10 % relative to their annual means. Thus, proportionately the slow-moving inland ice is far more sensitive to seasonal speedup than are the rapidly flowing outlet glaciers, making it unlikely that recently reported large (> 1 km/yr) speedups on Jakobshavn and other outlet glaciers can be directly attributed to enhanced basal lubrication from increased surface melt. Similarly, the GPS data also reveal a period of generally enhanced flow extending through the melt season, punctuated by shorter-term speedups lasting a few days. These shorter-term accelerations correlate well with periods of increased surface melt that we inferred from positive-degree-day values measured at the GPS sites. In addition, the short-term accelerations coincide well with GPS-measured periods of peak uplift rates of the ice-sheet surface. The strong correlation of seasonal velocity with melt and uplift rates suggests that surface melt makes its way to bed rapidly, providing enhanced lubrication to regions of the ice sheet extending up to at least 1000 meters elevation. Furthermore, the spatially uniform nature of the speedup in the upper bare-ice zone, where a sparse distribution of moulins delivers water to the bed, suggests the presence of a well distributed sub-glacial drainage network.

Joughin, I.; Das, S. B.; King, M. A.; Smith, B.; Howat, I.; Moon, T.

2007-12-01

54

Plasma wave observations near jupiter: initial results from voyager 2.  

PubMed

This report provides an initial survey of results from the plasma wave instrument on the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Jupiter on 9 July 1979. Measurements made during the approach to the planet show that low-frequency radio emissions from Jupiter have a strong latitudinal dependence, with a sharply defined shadow zone near the equatorial plane. At the magnetopause a new type of broadband electric field turbulence was detected, and strong electrostatic emissions near the upper hybrid resonance frequency were discovered near the low-frequency cutoff of the continuum radiation. Strong whistler-mode turbulence was again detected in the inner magnetosphere, although in this case extending out to substantially larger radial distances than for Voyager 1. In the predawn tail region, continuum radiation was observed extending down to extremely low frequencies, approximately 30 hertz, an indication that the spacecraft was entering a region of very low density, approximately 1.0 x 10(-5) per cubic centimeter, possibly similar to the lobes of Earth's magnetotail. PMID:17733920

Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L

1979-11-23

55

Mercury: Mid-infrared (7.3 - 13.5 microns) spectroscopic observations showing features characteristic of plagioclase  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the surface of Mercury are reported for the wavelength range 7.3 to 13.5 microns. The observed spectral radiance emanated from equatorial and low latitude regions between 110-130 deg Mercurian longitude. The area is primarily an intercrater plain. The spectra show distinct and recognizable features, the principal Christiansen emission peak being the most prominent. The Christiansen feature strongly suggests the presence of plagioclase (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)AlSi2O8, (in particular labradorite: Ab(50) - Ab(30)). In addition we have studied the effects of thermal gradients to gain insight into the effects of thermal conditions on the spectral radiance of rock samples. This simulates the thermophysical effects as the rotating surface of Mercury is alternately heated and cooled. The spectral features of the samples are retained; however, the relative and absolute amplitudes vary as illustrated by laboratory reflectance and emittance spectra from quartzite.

Kozlowski, R. W. H.; Sprague, A. L.; Witteborn, F. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Wooden, D.; Snyder, K. D.

1994-01-01

56

News Note: Long-term Results from Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Shows Lower Toxicities of Raloxifene  

Cancer.gov

Initial results in 2006 of the NCI-sponsored Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showed that a common osteoporosis drug, raloxifene, prevented breast cancer to the same degree, but with fewer serious side-effects, than the drug tamoxifen that had been in use many years for breast cancer prevention as well as treatment. The longer-term results show that raloxifene retained 76 percent of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, while remaining far less toxic – in particular, there was significantly less endometrial cancer with raloxifene use.

57

Editorial: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiophysics is a rapidly developing branch of solar physics and plasma astrophysics. Solar radiophysics has the goal of analyzing observations of radio emissions from the Sun and understanding basic physical processes operating in quiet and active regions of the solar corona. In the near future, the commissioning of a new generation of solar radio observational facilities, which include the Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) and the upgrade of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT), and the beginning of solar observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), is expected to bring us new breakthrough results of a transformative nature. The Marie-Curie International Research Staff Exchange (MC IRSES) “RadioSun” international network aims to create a solid foundation for the successful exploitation of upcoming solar radio observational facilities, as well as intensive use of the existing observational tools, advanced theoretical modeling of relevant physical processes and observables, and training a new generation of solar radio physicists. The RadioSun network links research teams from China, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and the UK. This mini-volume presents research papers based on invited reviews and contributed talks at the 1st RadioSun workshop in China. These papers cover a broad range of research topics and include recent observational and theoretical advances in solar radiophysics, MHD seismology of the solar corona, physics of solar flares, generation of radio emission, numerical modeling of MHD and plasma physics processes, charged-particle acceleration and novel instrumentation.

Nakariakov, Valery M.; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Yan, Yi-Hua

2014-07-01

58

Initial Results Derived from JEM-GLIMS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to identify the spatial distributions and occurrence conditions of TLEs, JEM-GLIMS (Global Lightning and sprIte MeasurementS on JEM-EF) observations from Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) at International Space Station (ISS) will start this year. Science instruments of JEM-GLIMS consist of two kinds of optical detectors and two kinds of radio receivers. The optical instruments are two wide FOV CMOS cameras (LSI) and six-channel spectrophotometers (PH). LSI uses a CMOS device with 512x512 pixels as an imaging sensor and uses a CCTV lens with =25 mm/F=1.4 which becomes 28.3x28.3 deg. FOV. LSI-1 equips a wide band optical filter (766-832 nm) and mainly measures lightning emission, while LSI-2 equips a narrowband optical filter (762+/-7 nm) and mainly measures TLE emission. Five of six PH channels employ the optics with 42.7 deg. conical FOV and use photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) as photon detectors. Each channel of these photometers equips an optical band-pass filter to measure N2 1P, 2P, and LBH emissions. One of six photometers employs a wide-FOV optics (86.8 deg.) and wide-band filter to measure N2 1P lightning emission. All these optical instruments are pointed to the nadir direction. In order to detect whistler wave excited by lightning discharges, one VLF receiver (VLFR) is installed. VLFR consists of a 15 cm nadir-directing monopole antenna and an electronics unit recording waveform data with a sampling frequency of 100 kHz with 14-bit resolution. In addition to this, two sets of VHF receivers (VITF) are also installed to measure VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges. VITF consists of two patch-type antennas separated by 1.5 m and an electronics unit which records pulse data with a sampling frequency of 200 MHz with 8-bit resolution. Thus, the spatial and temporal evolution of lightning and TLEs can be measured by the two optical instruments, while the electrical characteristics of sprite-inducing lightning discharges can be measured by two radio receivers. JEM-GIMS was successfully launched by H-IIB rocket at 02:06:18 UT on July 21, 2012 and transported to ISS by the HTV-3 cargo transfer spaceship. HTV-3 successfully arrived at ISS on July 27 and our JEM-GLIMS instruments will be installed at JEM-EF on August 9. For the period from September 15 to 21 we will carry out the initial checkout operation, and finally we will start continuous TLE observations from the middle of October. At the presentation we will show the test results obtained during the checkout operations and will present the initial results derived from JEM-GLIMS lightning/TLE observations.

Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kobayashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Hobara, Y.

2012-12-01

59

WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than {approx}10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 {+-} 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 {+-} 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.2, lower than the 1.6 {+-} 0.1 value derived by Szabo et al.

Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCLA, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

2011-11-20

60

On the results of geodetic observations of seismic effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. On the geodetic fundamental surveys in Japan (M. Tanaka) The Geographical Survey Institute has carried out fundamental surveys consisting of a precise geodetic survey, precise traverse, quadrilateral base line survey, leveling and astronomical observations. In several potential seismic areas which were specified by the Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction mainly. The geodetic surveys have been speeded up to respond to the increased activity in earthquake prediction research.A short summary of the present state of geodetic surveys and some obtained results associated with earthquakes are reported. 2. On the continuous observations of crustal movements (K. Hosoyama) More than forty crustal movement observatories of vault type, mainly belonging to universities, have been conducting observations with tiltmeters and strainmeters. Governmental institutions have intensified their routine monitoring of crustal movements in the Tokai and South Kanto districts, central Honshu. The observation network consists of 31 stations for ground strains by borehole strainmeters of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 15 borehole tiltmeter stations of the National Research Center for Disaster Prevention, and one monitoring chain of crustal activity observation stations of the Earthquake Research Institute of Tokyo University. About 20 tide gauge stations belonging to the GSI, JMA and the Hydrographic Office of Japan are also distributed in these districts. These crustal movement observatories have cooperated with each other for the purpose of studying the country-wide fields of coseismic strain and tilt steps in occasional major earthquakes. Qualitative agreement of observation with the seismic source mechanism was obtained in some cases.

Tanaka, Minoru; Hosoyama, Kennosuke

1983-09-01

61

Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB.

Franchi, Massimo

2014-01-01

62

International Nanny Association (INA) Survey: Results and Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports the findings of a survey of 145 members of the International Nanny Association (INA). Survey results showed that 82.8 percent of respondents attended college, while 21.4 percent received bachelor's or master's degrees. Many of the nannies had taken classes or training in child care. Most nannies found their job placement…

Olsen, Glenn W.; And Others

63

Results from 2002 Leonid meteor storm TV observations in Kyiv  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from double-station TV observations of the 2002 Leonids meteor storm as seen from Kyiv (Ukraine). The observations were carried out from two observational stations 54 km apart. The total observation time was five hours: from 23:30 till 4:30 UT on 18/19 November, 2002. The total number of two-station meteors was 38, 28 of which allowed for precise processing. The trajectories of the meteors in Earth’s atmosphere, their radiant coordinates, heliocentric orbital elements, etc., were calculated. The highest beginning height observed was 151.53 ± 2.79 km, and distributions of beginning and end heights are presented. Leonids registered during the onset of the storm between 3:00 and 4:00 UT had geocentric radiants (J2000.0) concentrated into a compact group with mean RA = 154°.43 ± 0°.55 and Decl. = 21°.91 ± 0°.58. The corresponding mean inclination and argument of perihelion of the orbit are i = 162°.62 ± 0°.61 and ? = 175°.13 ± 1°.37, respectively. The initial masses of meteoroids were calculated from photometry, from which a mass distribution index s = 1.43 ± 0.02 was derived. We determined that the number of meteors brighter than 4m (1.54 × 10-4 g) that crossed a horizontal circular area of radius 100 km at an altitude of 100 km, for an assumed radiant in zenith, changed during the observations from 350/h to 1400/h. The corresponding spatial density of Leonid stream particles was 4.3 × 10-8 1.7 × 10-7 km-3.

Kozak, P. M.; Rozhilo, O. O.; Kruchynenko, V. G.; Kazantsev, A. M.; Taranukha, Y. G.

64

Solar System Observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 microns, and the detection of emission bands in the spectra of several distant asteroids (Trojans) around 10 and 25 microns. The 10 Kuiper Belt objects observed to date have albedos in the range 0.08 - 0.15, significantly higher than the earlier estimated 0.04. An additional KBO [(55565) 2002 AW(sub l97)] has an albedo of 0.17 plus or minus 0.03. The emission bands in the asteroid spectra are indicative of silicates, but specific minerals have not yet been identified. The Centaur/comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has a nucleus surface albedo of 0.025 plus or minus 0.01, and its dust production rate was calculated from the properties of the coma. Several other investigations are in progress as the incoming data are processed and analyzed.

Cruikshank, Dale P.

2005-01-01

65

Optical Spectroscopic Observations of ?-Ray Blazar Candidates. I. Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant fraction (~30%) of the ?-ray sources listed in the second Fermi/LAT (2FGL) catalog is still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at lower energies. Using the available information at lower energies and optical spectroscopy on the selected counterparts of these ?-ray objects, we can pinpoint their exact nature. Here, we present a pilot project pointing to assess the effectiveness of the several classification methods developed to select ?-ray blazar candidates. To this end, we report optical spectroscopic observations of a sample of five ?-ray blazar candidates selected on the basis of their infrared Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) colors or of their low-frequency radio properties. Blazars come in two main classes, BL Lac objects and FSRQs, showing similar optical spectra except for the stronger emission lines of the latter. For three of our sources, the almost featureless optical spectra obtained confirm their BL Lac nature, while for the source WISEJ022051.24+250927.6 we observe emission lines with equivalent width EW ~ 31 Å, identifying it as a FSRQ with z = 0.48. The source WISEJ064459.38+603131.7, although not featuring a clear radio counterpart, shows a blazar-like spectrum with weak emission lines with EW ~ 7 Å, yielding a redshift estimate of z = 0.36. In addition, we report optical spectroscopic observations of four WISE sources associated with known ?-ray blazars without a firm classification or redshift estimate. For the latter sources, we confirm a BL Lac classification, with a tentative redshift estimate for the source WISEJ100800.81+062121.2 of z = 0.65.

Paggi, A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Masetti, N.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; D'Abrusco, R.; Massaro, F.; Giroletti, M.; Smith, H. A.; Margutti, R.; Tosti, G.; Martínez-Galarza, J. R.; Otí-Floranes, H.; Landoni, M.; Grindlay, J. E.; Funk, S.

2014-05-01

66

Consistency of observations and modeling results on Fennoscandian GIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fennoscandia is one of the key regions for glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) investigations. Typical geodetic observables are ellipsoidal height changes of the Earth's surface from GPS and relative sea-level changes from tide-gauge records. The determination of present-day deformations of the solid Earth by means of GPS relies in our study upon homogeneously processed observations and a stable realization of the terrestrial reference system. Our determination of crustal deformations for 44 stations of a densified regional GPS network benefits from the results of a reprocessed global GPS network. The relative sea-level changes refer to the Earth's crust and are therefore affected by GIA too. Relative sea-level changes including both crustal deformations and eustatic sea-level changes can be obtained from homogeneous long-term tide-gauge time series. We determined relative sea-level changes for approximately 60 tide-gauge stations around the Baltic Sea and the adjacent North Sea. One possible check on consistency of the results can be performed in case of colocation of both techniques. If so the combined effect results in the eustatic sea-level change rate. Recent relative sea-level changes and crustal deformations due to GIA have also been modeled for different ice load histories and visco-elastic earth models. For this purpose we solved the sea-level equation that links changes in relative sea-level, crustal deformations and gravity as a consequence of the deglaciation of Pleistocene ice sheets. An intercomparison of model based and observational results has been performed.

Groh, A.; Stocchi, P.; Dietrich, R.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.

2009-04-01

67

Results from the first season of POLARBEAR observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

POLARBEAR is a Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization experiment operating in the Atacama Desert in Chile since Spring 2012. The instrument covered 30 square degrees on the sky, using 1200 bolometric detectors sensitive in polarization with a resolution of 3.5 arcminutes, leading to one of the deepest CMB polarization maps in existence. The first season of observations with POLARBEAR was dedicated to searching for CMB B-mode polarization generated by the gravitational lensing induced by large scale structure. We will describe the experiment, its performance and the latest results derived from its data set.

Errard, Josquin

2014-06-01

68

Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.  

PubMed

The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

2014-04-01

69

Transgenic plants expressing HC-Pro show enhanced virus sensitivity while silencing of the transgene results in resistance.  

PubMed

Nicotiana benthamiana plants were engineered to express sequences of the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic potyvirus (CABMV). The sensitivity of the transgenic plants to infection with parental and heterologous viruses was studied. The lines expressing HC-Pro showed enhanced symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and also after infection with a heterologous potyvirus, Potato virus Y (PVY) and a comovirus, Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). On the other hand, transgenic lines expressing nontranslatable HC-Pro or translatable HC-Pro with a deletion of the central domain showed wild type symptoms after infection with the parental CABMV isolate and heterologous viruses. These results showed that CABMV HC-Pro is a pathogenicity determinant that conditions enhanced sensitivity to virus infection in plants, and that the central domain of the protein is essential for this. The severe symptoms in CABMV-infected HC-Pro expressing lines were remarkably followed by brief recovery and subsequent re-establishment of infection, possibly indicating counteracting effects of HC-Pro expression and a host defense response. One of the HC-Pro expressing lines (h48) was found to contain low levels of transgenic HC-Pro RNA and to be resistant to CABMV and to recombinant CPMV expressing HC-Pro. This indicated that h48 was (partially) posttranscriptionally silenced for the HC-Pro transgene inspite of the established role of HC-Pro as a suppressor of posttranscriptional gene silencing. Line h48 was not resistant to PVY, but instead showed enhanced symptoms compared to nontransgenic plants. This may be due to relief of silencing of the HC-Pro transgene by HC-Pro expressed by PVY. PMID:12206307

Mlotshwa, Sizolwenkosi; Verver, Jan; Sithole-Niang, Idah; Prins, Marcel; Van Kammen, A B; Wellink, Joan

2002-01-01

70

Results from the QUIET Q-Band Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) is a ground-based telescope located in the high Atacama Desert in Chile, and is designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) in the Q and W frequency bands (43 and 95 GHz respectively) using coherent polarimeters. From 2008 October to 2010 December, data from more than 10,000 observing hours were collected, first with the Q-band receiver (2008 October to 2009 June) and then with the W-band receiver (until the end of the 2010 observing season). The QUIET data analysis effort uses two independent pipelines, one consisting of a maximum likelihood framework and the other consisting of a pseudo- C? framework. Both pipelines employ blind analysis methods, and each provides analysis of the data using large suites of null tests specific to the pipeline. Analysis of the Q-band receiver data was completed in November of 2010, confirming the only previous detection of the first acoustic peak of the EE power spectrum and setting competitive limits on the scalar-to-tensor ratio, r. In this dissertation, the results from the Q-band observing season using the maximum likelihood pipeline will be presented.

Dumoulin, Robert Nicolas

71

EarthScope's USArray: A Decade of Observations and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EarthScope's USArray observatory provides unprecedented observations of geophysical targets across the contiguous United States through the systematic deployment of seismic, magnetotelluric, and atmospheric instruments. In addition, USArray includes tightly integrated data management and outreach activities. The seismic and atmospheric components of USArray consist of a Transportable Array (TA), Flexible Array (FA), and Reference Network. The TA has now occupied approximately 1700 sites spanning the entire contiguous 48 states, at 70 km inter-station spacing. These stations have provided broadband seismic, barometric pressure and atmospheric infrasound observations. The pool of instruments that comprise the FA have been deployed by numerous individual investigators in dense arrays to investigate local and regional features over time periods ranging from days to years. The Reference Network provides a permanent, stationary foundation for the TA and FA, with approximately 100 broadband stations deployed across the contiguous US at roughly 300 km spacing. The magnetotelluric (MT) component of USArray has provided both fixed and campaign-style long-period magnetotelluric observations at hundreds of locations across the US. Many of the field activities of USArray engaged both students and the public in important ways and this has been a significant component of USArray outreach. The TA alone has engaged well over one hundred students in site reconnaissance activities and placed seismic stations on the property of roughly a thousand different landowners. All data collected by USArray are openly available, most in real time. Many of the observations have also been incorporated into a variety of data products that have been developed to facilitate use of USArray by many different audiences. The scientific community has used USArray data to achieve a wide range of results--some that were anticipated when the facility was proposed and some that were completely unanticipated. Data products such as direct visualizations of seismic wave propagation observed by the TA have been viewed hundreds of thousands of times on the web by the general public. We will provide a brief overview of the deployments and accomplishments of USArray from the past ten years, and an overview of the significant and diverse scientific results that have been achieved. We will touch on some of the technologies and organizational and operational strategies that have enabled the success of USArray. We will conclude with a brief discussion of USArray plans for the next five years.

Woodward, R.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Gridley, J. M.; Schultz, A.; Frassetto, A.; Simpson, D. W.

2013-12-01

72

Complete results for five years of GNO solar neutrino observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the complete GNO solar neutrino results for the measuring periods GNO?III, GNO?II, and GNO?I. The result for GNO?III (last 15 solar runs) is [54.3-9.3+9.9(stat)±2.3(syst)]SNU(1?) or [54.3-9.6+10.2(incl. syst)] SNU (1?) with errors combined. The GNO experiment is now terminated after altogether 58 solar exposure runs that were performed between 20 May 1998 and 9 April 2003. The combined result for GNO (I + II + III) is [62.9-5.3+5.5(stat)±2.5(syst)] SNU (1?) or [62.9-5.9+6.0] SNU (1?) with errors combined in quadrature. Overall, gallium based solar observations at LNGS (first in GALLEX, later in GNO) lasted from 14 May 1991 through 9 April 2003. The joint result from 123 runs in GNO and GALLEX is [69.3±5.5(incl. syst)] SNU (1?). The distribution of the individual run results is consistent with the hypothesis of a neutrino flux that is constant in time. Implications from the data in particle- and astrophysics are reiterated.

Gno Collaboration; Altmann, M.; Balata, M.; Belli, P.; Bellotti, E.; Bernabei, R.; Burkert, E.; Cattadori, C.; Cerulli, R.; Chiarini, M.; Cribier, M.; D'Angelo, S.; Del Re, G.; Ebert, K. H.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Ferrari, N.; Hampel, W.; Hartmann, F. X.; Henrich, E.; Heusser, G.; Kaether, F.; Kiko, J.; Kirsten, T.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lützenkirchen, K.; Mayer, K.; Moegel, P.; Motta, D.; Nisi, S.; Oehm, J.; Pandola, L.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Richter, H.; Schoenert, S.; Wallenius, M.; Wojcik, M.; Zanotti, L.

2005-06-01

73

Mercury: Mid-Infrared (7.3 - 13.5 Microns) Spectroscopic Observations Showing Features Characteristic of Plagioclase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the surface of Mercury are reported for the wavelength range 7.3 to 13.5 microns. The observed spectral radiance emanated from equatorial and low latitude regions between 110-130 deg Mercurian longitude. The area...

R. W. H. Kozlowski A. L. Sprague F. C. Witteborn D. P. Cruikshank D. Wooden

1994-01-01

74

Initial pioneer venus magnetic field results: dayside observations.  

PubMed

Initial observations by the Pioneer Venus mangnetometer in the sunlit ionosphere reveal a dynamic ionosphere, very responsive to external solar-wind conditions. The localtions of the bow shock and ionosphere are variable. The strength of the magnetic field just olutside the ionopause is in approximate pressure balance with the thermal plasma of the ionosphere and changes markedly from day, to day in response to changes in solar wind pressure. The field strength in the ionosphere is also variable from day to day. The field is often weak, at most a few gammas, but reaching many tens of gammas for periods of the order of seconds. These field enchantments are interpreted as due to the passage of spacecraft through flux ropes consisting of bundles of twisted field lines surrounded by the ionospheric plasma. The helicity of the flux varies through the flux tube, with lows pitch angles on the inside and very lage angles in the low-field outer edges of the ropes. These ropes may have external or internal sources. Consistent with previous results, the average position of the bow shock is much closer to the planet than would be expected if the solar wnd were completely deflected by the planet. In total, these observations indicate that the solar wind plays a significant role in the physics of the Venus ionosphere. PMID:17832982

Russell, C T; Elphic, R C; Slavin, J A

1979-02-23

75

Pan-STARRRS status and Geo Observations Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pan-STARRS, Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System, is an astronomical telescope developed through a cooperative agreement between University of Hawaii/Institute for Astronomy and the Air Force Research Laboratory which utilizes MIT/LL-developed orthogonal transfer arrays. While its primary mission is investigating astronomical transient phenomena, 5% of the telescope time is allocated for AFRL Geo Research. The combination of its high sensitivity (>21st Magnitude), wide field of view (7 square degrees), and high metric accuracy (<1arcsec), provides AFRL a unique capability to assess the Faint Geo Population. In its survey mode, many of the faint objects are detected as they streak across the focal plane. For a significant portion of these objects, the streak will not be entirely detected due to gaps, masking, and low signal levels. This talk will discuss the various methodologies for computing detection magnitudes in these scenarios and present observation results.

Bolden, M.; Sydney, P.; Kervin, P.

2011-09-01

76

Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

77

First Results of the CMASF CCD Observations in Argentina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CCD meridian circle of San Fernando (CMASF) is installed in the Carlos U. Cesco observatory in San Juan (Argentina) at 69° W, 31° S and 2300 m of altitude. It is operated jointly by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA) and the Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA). In December 1999, a CCD camera was installed in the instrument. Since then, the sky band with declinations between +3° and -55° has been observed in order to publish a catalogue of positions and magnitudes of the stars brighter than V=16. In this paper, the first results of a preliminar catalogue with the stars in the band +3° to -15° are shown.

Muiños, J. L.; Belizón, F.; Vallejo, M.; Montojo, F. J.; Mallamaci, C. C.; Pérez, J. A.

2006-01-01

78

Implications of a result on observer design for stochastic parameter systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

An earlier result on observer design for stochastic parameter systems is utilized to show that optimal one-step predictors for such systems are mean square stable and to propose a new class of stable estimation schemes.

ENGIN YAZ

1988-01-01

79

Mars Global Surveyor TES Results: Observations of Water Ice Clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 31, 1999, Mars Global Surveyor completed its first martian year in orbit. During this time, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment gathered extensive data on water ice clouds. We report here on three types of martian clouds. 1) Martian southern summer has long been characterized as the season when the most severe dust storms occur. It is now apparent that northern spring/summer is characterized as a time of substantial low latitude ice clouds [1]. TES observations beginning in the northern summer (Lsubs=107) show a well developed cloud belt between 10S and 30N latitude; 12 micron opacities were typically 0.15. This system decreased dramatically after Lsubs= 130. Thereafter, remnants were most persistent over the Tharsis ridge. 2) Clouds associated with major orographic features follow a different pattern [2]. Clouds of this type were present prior to the regional Noachis dust storm of 1997. They disappeared with the onset of the storm, but reappeared rather quickly following its decay. Typical infrared opacities were near 0.5. 3) Extensive, very thin clouds are also widespread [3]. Found at high altitudes (above 35 km), their opacities are typically a few hundredths. At times, such as in northern spring, these clouds are limited in their northern extent only by the southern edge of the polar vortex. We describe the distribution, infrared optical properties, and seasonal trends of these systems during the first martian year of TES operations.

Pearl, John C.; Smith, M. D.; Conrath, B. J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

1999-01-01

80

German Front Experiment 1987: Observations and Preliminary Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The impact of the Alps on cold fronts was studied. The observational program was performed during five intensive observation periods when a cold front crossed central Europe. A reduced program was performed during one additional cold front event. An outli...

K. Hoinka H. Volkerts D. Heimann

1988-01-01

81

Results and analysis of meteorological observation at Shimokita area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Meteorological observations and data collection from meteorological observatories were conducted in February, August and September, 1992 with the purpose of acquiring verification data for an atmospheric dispersion model. Observations were designed so as ...

H. Yamazawa H. Nagai

1993-01-01

82

Phone use while driving: results from an observational survey.  

PubMed

Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify the level of handheld phone use when driving in South Australia. The study also sought to investigate any driver, site, and vehicle characteristics associated with handheld phone use to inform countermeasure development and publicity campaigns. Method: An on-road observational survey of handheld phone use was undertaken as part of a larger restraint use survey. The survey was conducted at 61 sites in metropolitan Adelaide and rural regions within South Australia on weekdays and a weekend in 2009. Results: A total of 64 (0.6%) of the 11,524 drivers observed during the survey were using handheld phones. Handheld phone usage rates ranged from 0.8 percent in metropolitan Adelaide to 0.3 percent in the rural region of The Riverland. Of all driver, site, and vehicle characteristics examined, the only statistically significant difference in handheld phone usage was for the number of vehicle occupants. The odds of a driver using a handheld phone while traveling alone was over 4 times higher than for a driver traveling with passengers. Conclusions: The level of handheld phone use among drivers in South Australia appears to be low relative to other jurisdictions. The level of enforcement activity and severity of penalties do not offer a clear explanation for the higher levels of compliance with phone laws. Given the rate of increase in phone technology, it is important to conduct regular roadside surveys of phone use among drivers to monitor trends in usage over time. PMID:24867565

Wundersitz, L N

2014-08-18

83

DUst around NEarby Stars. The survey observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims: The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. Methods: We used Herschel/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 ?m were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 ?m, and at 250, 350 and 500 ?m using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 ?m to detect the stellar photosphere. Results: Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of ~12.1% ± 5% before Herschel to ~20.2% ± 2%. A significant fraction (~52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160 ?m range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 14 and 15 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A11Full Tables 2-5, 10 and 12 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A11

Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J. Ch.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; Heras, A. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Löhne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Rodmann, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Solano, E.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; Wolf, S.; Ardila, D.; Arévalo, M.; Beichmann, C.; Faramaz, V.; González-García, B. M.; Gutiérrez, R.; Lebreton, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Olofsson, G.; Su, K. Y. L.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.; Fukagawa, M.; Grün, E.; Kamp, I.; Lorente, R.; Morbidelli, A.; Müller, S.; Mutschke, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Ribas, I.; Walker, H.

2013-07-01

84

LRO LAMP: Experiment Description, Observation Status, And Early Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAMP is an Extreme/Far ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrograph operating in lunar orbit aboard the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LRO arrived in lunar orbit in July, 2009. LAMP's primary objective is to search for evidence of exposed polar frosts in permanently shadowed regions; its secondary objectives are to explore the UV reflectivity characteristics of the lunar surface and to study the lunar atmosphere. At the time of this abstract submission, LAMP has been turned on in lunar orbit but has not yet begun its data collections; those collections will begin in August. We will describe the LAMP instrument and investigation, show first light and other early datasets, and describe some initial results.

Stern, S. Alan; Gladstone, R. R.; Retherford, K. R.; Parker, J. W.; Slater, D. C.; Davis, M. W.; Black, R. K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Versteeg, M.; Persson, K. B.; Kaufman, D. E.; Egan, A. F.; Hurley, D.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.

2009-09-01

85

Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring cellulases and other biomass-degrading enzymes to Bcell itself and in anchoring proteins other Gram-positive organisms.

Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

86

Mars Global Surveyor TES Results: Observations of Water Ice Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On July 31, 1999, Mars Global Surveyor completed its first martian year in orbit. During this time, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) experiment gathered extensive data on water ice clouds. We report here on three types of martian clouds. 1) Martian southern summer has long been characterized as the season when the most severe dust storms occur. It is now apparent that northern spring/summer is characterized as a time of substantial low latitude ice clouds [1]. TES observations beginning in the northern summer (Lsubs=107) show a well developed cloud belt between 10S and 30N latitude; 12 micron opacities were typically 0.15. This system decreased dramatically after Lsubs=130. Thereafter, remnants were most persistent over the Tharsis ridge. 2) Clouds associated with major orographic features follow a different pattern [2]. Clouds of this type were present prior to the regional Noachis dust storm of 1997. They disappeared with the onset of the storm, but reappeared rather quickly following its decay. Typical infrared opacities were near 0.5. 3) Extensive, very thin clouds are also widespread [3]. Found at high altitudes (above 35 km), their opacities are typically a few hundredths. At times, such as in northern spring, these clouds are limited in their northern extent only by the southern edge of the polar vortex. We describe the distribution, infrared optical properties, and seasonal trends of these systems during the first martian year of TES operations. [1] R.T. Clancy, Fifth International Conference on Mars, Abstract 6023 (1999). [2] R. Kahn, JGR 89, 6671-6688 (1984). [3] F. Jaquin, et al., Icarus 68, 442-461 (1986).

Pearl, J. C.; Smith, M. D.; Conrath, B. J.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.

1999-09-01

87

Children of Low Socioeconomic Status Show Accelerated Linear Growth in Early Childhood; Results from the Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives People of low socioeconomic status are shorter than those of high socioeconomic status. The first two years of life being critical for height development, we hypothesized that a low socioeconomic status is associated with a slower linear growth in early childhood. We studied maternal educational level (high, mid-high, mid-low, and low) as a measure of socioeconomic status and its association with repeatedly measured height in children aged 0–2 years, and also examined to what extent known determinants of postnatal growth contribute to this association. Methods This study was based on data from 2972 mothers with a Dutch ethnicity, and their children participating in The Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (participation rate 61%). All children were born between April 2002 and January 2006. Height was measured at 2 months (mid-90% range 1.0–3.9), 6 months (mid-90% range 5.6–11.4), 14 months (mid-90% range 13.7–17.9) and 25 months of age (mid-90% range 23.6–29.6). Results At 2 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were shorter than those in the highest (difference: ?0.87 cm; 95% CI: ?1.16, ?0.58). Between 1 and 18 months, they grew faster than their counterparts. By 14 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were taller than those in the highest (difference at 14 months: 0.40 cm; 95% CI: 0.08,0.72). Adjustment for other determinants of postnatal growth did not explain the taller height. On the contrary, the differences became even larger (difference at 14 months: 0.61 cm; 95% CI: 0.26,0.95; and at 25 months: 1.00 cm; 95% CI: 0.57,1.43) Conclusions Compared with children of high socioeconomic status, those of low socioeconomic status show an accelerated linear growth until the18th month of life, leading to an overcompensation of their initial height deficit. The long-term consequences of these findings remain unclear and require further study.

Silva, Lindsay M.; van Rossem, Lenie; Jansen, Pauline W.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Moll, Henriette A.; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein

2012-01-01

88

Further results on high gain observers for nonlinear systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of high-gain observers for perturbed state affine systems, an observer for a class of nonlinear systems satisfying a more general triangular structure is proposed. The design is based on interconnection of subobservers on the one hand, and saturation techniques on the other hand. Exponential convergence of the estimation error is shown under appropriate excitation condition

G. Besancon

1999-01-01

89

Arctic ocean study: Synthesis of model results and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Model development and simulations represent a comprehensive synthesis of observations with advances in numerous disciplines (physics; mathematics; and atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and related sciences), enabling hypothesis testing via numerical experiments. For the Arctic Ocean, modeling has become one of the major instruments for understanding past conditions and explaining recently observed changes.In this context, the international Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison Project

A. Proshutinsky; J. Yang; R. Krishfield; R. Gerdes; M. Karcher; F. Kauker; C. Koeberle; S. Hakkinen; W. Hibler; D. Holland; M. Maqueda; G. Holloway; E. Hunke; W. Maslowski; M. Steele; J. Zhang

2005-01-01

90

Initial results from Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) postretrieval observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial postretrieval observations of the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the 57 onboard experiments are reported in this paper. These observations have revealed that the facility and experiments, which had remained in space for 68 months prior to being retrieved in January 1990, can be used to generate 'gage block' type data to verify the existing models of the low earth orbit environments and if necessary, the data to correct errors in these existing models. The LDEF observations can also be used to update and revise the existing models used by spacecraft designers to predict the effects of long exposures in these environments on spacecraft materials and components.

Kinard, William H.; Martin, Glenna D.; O'Neal, Robert L.

1991-01-01

91

Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50'N, 126°43'E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s-1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m,

Yuji Kashino; Akio Ishida; Yoshifumi Kuroda

2005-01-01

92

Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50?N, 126°43?E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s?1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m,

Yuji Kashino; Akio Ishida; Yoshifumi Kuroda

2005-01-01

93

Variability of the Mindanao Current: Mooring observation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mooring observations were conducted from October 1999 to July 2002 near the east coast of Mindanao Island, the Philippines, (6°50'N, 126°43'E) to observe current variability at the axis of the Mindanao Current (MC). The MC was a strong current with a subsurface velocity maximum exceeding 1.3 m s-1 at approximately 100 m depth. The MC flows shallower than 700 m, and there was no evidence of a steady northward current (the Mindanao Undercurrent) at the study location. Compared with the large average velocity, MC variability was low (standard deviation <0.2 m s-1 for all directions). All the observed interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the MC were of comparable amplitude. The MC was strong during boreal summers and during the onset of the 2002-03 El Niño. The core velocity of the MC at approximately 100 m was correlated with the sea level difference between Cebu, Philippines and Malakal, Palau.

Kashino, Yuji; Ishida, Akio; Kuroda, Yoshifumi

2005-09-01

94

Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng

2007-01-01

95

Cassini Observations of Saturn's Dawn-Magnetotail Region: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Cassini thermal plasma, hot plasma and magnetic field observations for several intervals between the dawn meridian of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and Saturn's magnetotail region, we investigate the structure of the magnetotail, plasma and magnetic field properties within tail-like current sheet regions and ion flows within the dawn to magnetotail regions. We use Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) and Electron Plasma Spectrometer (ELS) observations and MIMI LEMMS ion and electron observations to characterize the plasma environment. LMS observations are used to measure plasma flow velocities from which one can infer rotation versus convective flows. IMS composition measurements are used to trace the, source of plasma from the inner magnetosphere (protons, H(2+) and water group ions) versus an external solar wind source (protons and He++ ions). A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. For example, are there significant return flows (i.e., negative radial velocities, V(sub R) < 0) and/or plasmoids (V(sub R) > 0) within the magnetotail region?

Sittler, Edward C.

2007-01-01

96

Results of Tidal Gravity Observations with a Conical Pendulum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several years of observations of the gravity tide were recorded with the conical pendulum in the feedback mode. This means that the instrument is calibrated by design and that the calibration factor is traceable to a frequency standard. The noise level is...

J. Rasson

1991-01-01

97

Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. Design: We performed 2-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of macronutrient intake in populations of European descent. Macronutrients were assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires and analyzed as percentages of total energy consumption from total fat, protein, and carbohydrate. From the discovery GWA (n = 38,360), 35 independent loci associated with macronutrient intake at P < 5 × 10?6 were identified and taken forward to replication in 3 additional cohorts (n = 33,533) from the DietGen Consortium. For one locus, fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO), cohorts with Illumina MetaboChip genotype data (n = 7724) provided additional replication data. Results: A variant in the chromosome 19 locus (rs838145) was associated with higher carbohydrate (? ± SE: 0.25 ± 0.04%; P = 1.68 × 10?8) and lower fat (? ± SE: ?0.21 ± 0.04%; P = 1.57 × 10?9) consumption. A candidate gene in this region, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), encodes a fibroblast growth factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The variants in this locus were associated with circulating FGF21 protein concentrations (P < 0.05) but not mRNA concentrations in blood or brain. The body mass index (BMI)–increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1421085) was associated with higher protein intake (? ± SE: 0.10 ± 0.02%; P = 9.96 × 10?10), independent of BMI (after adjustment for BMI, ? ± SE: 0.08 ± 0.02%; P = 3.15 × 10?7). Conclusion: Our results indicate that variants in genes involved in nutrient metabolism and obesity are associated with macronutrient consumption in humans. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Triglycerides), NCT01331512 (InCHIANTI Study), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

Tanaka, Toshiko; Ngwa, Julius S; van Rooij, Frank JA; Zillikens, M Carola; Wojczynski, Mary K; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Luan, Jian'an; Mikkila, Vera; Renstrom, Frida; Sonestedt, Emily; Zhao, Jing Hua; Chu, Audrey Y; Qi, Lu; Chasman, Daniel I; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Feitosa, Mary F; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lohman, Kurt K; Manichaikul, Ani; McKeown, Nicola M; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Singleton, Andrew; Stirrups, Kathleen; Viikari, Jorma; Ye, Zheng; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Ines; Deloukas, Panos; Forouhi, Nita G; Hofman, Albert; Liu, Yongmei; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; North, Kari E; Dimitriou, Maria; Hallmans, Goran; Kahonen, Mika; Langenberg, Claudia; Ordovas, Jose M; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hu, Frank B; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Raitakari, Olli; Franco, Oscar H; Johnson, Andrew; Emilsson, Valur; Schrack, Jennifer A; Semba, Richard D; Siscovick, David S; Arnett, Donna K; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Lehtimaki, Terho; Loos, Ruth JF; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rotter, Jerome I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Ferrucci, Luigi; Dedoussis, George; Cupples, L Adrienne; Nettleton, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

98

Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

Frey, H.

1983-01-01

99

Spatial observation of Lascar 2000 eruption: insar and thermal result  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lascar activity was frequently described as cyclic behavior progressing through dome-growth, subsidence, explosive activity and fumarolic activity phases. Among several key aspects in andesitic volcanoes dynamics, ground-deformation style and thermal exit conditions can be observed from satellite data. We analyzed most recent Lascar July 20, 2000 eruption using jointly Radar Interferometry (InSAR) for volcanic ground-deformation measurements and Thermal remote sensing

A. Pavez; A. Harris; D. Remy; S. Bonvalot; M. Diament

2003-01-01

100

Overweighing Recent Observations: Experimental Results and Economic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conduct an experimental study in which subjects choose between alternative risky investments. Just as in the “hot hands”\\u000a belief in basketball, we find that even when subjects are explicitly told that the rates of return are drawn randomly and\\u000a independently over time from a given distribution, they still assign a relatively large decision weight to the most recent\\u000a observations

Haim Levy; Moshe Levy

101

WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HILDA POPULATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary analysis of 1023 known asteroids in the Hilda region of the solar system observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The sizes of the Hildas observed range from {approx}3 to 200 km. We find no size-albedo dependency as reported by other projects. The albedos of our sample are low, with a weighted mean value of p{sub V} = 0.055 {+-} 0.018, for all sizes sampled by the NEOWISE survey. We observed a significant fraction of the objects in the two known collisional families in the Hilda population. It is found that the Hilda collisional family is brighter, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.061 {+-} 0.011, than the general population and dominated by D-type asteroids, while the Schubart collisional family is darker, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.039 {+-} 0.013. Using the reflected sunlight in the two shortest WISE bandpasses, we are able to derive a method for taxonomic classification of {approx}10% of the Hildas detected in the NEOWISE survey. For the Hildas with diameter larger than 30 km, there are 67{sup +7}{sub -15}% D-type asteroids and 26{sup +17}{sub -5%} C-/P-type asteroids (with the majority of these being P-types).

Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [UCLA Astronomy, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-01-10

102

Earth's colour unchanged since 1967: results from earthshine observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The colour of Earthlight is a function of atmospheric, surface and ocean conditions because each scatters light in a characteristic way. The colour of Earth can in principle be determined and monitored from satellites - but geostationary satellites do not observe in multiple visual bands, and low Earth orbit platforms do not provide instantaneous colour pictures of the terrestrial disc. Observations of the dark side of the Moon - illuminated by earthlight - can be used to determine the terrestrial colour, and was done accurately in 1967 with astronomical photometric techniques. Until now, such techniques have not been re-applied. We report on multi-band visual photometry of the earthshine in 2011/2012. Scattered light in the atmosphere and the equipment is a difficult issue to circumvent - but for a unique pair of observations in the Johnson B and V bands we have a situation where scattered light cancels closely and thus we can estimate the Johnson B-V colours of the earthshine itself. By arguing on the basis of changes in reflected sunlight we can estimate the colour of the earthlight striking the Moon - and hence the colour of the Earth at that particular time. We find good agreement with the a measurement performed 47 years previously, and broad agreement with historic measurements from the 1920s and 30s. This similarity has fundamental consequences for the climate system feedback mechanisms, discussed in this poster.

Thejll, Peter; Flynn, Chris; Gleisner, Hans; Schwarz, Henriette

2014-05-01

103

Presentation Showing Results of a Hydrogeochemical Investigation of the Standard Mine Vicinity, Upper Elk Creek Basin, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

PREFACE This Open-File Report consists of a presentation given in Crested Butte, Colorado on December 13, 2007 to the Standard Mine Advisory Group. The presentation was paired with another presentation given by the Colorado Division of Reclamation, Mining, and Safety on the physical features and geology of the Standard Mine. The presentation in this Open-File Report summarizes the results and conclusions of a hydrogeochemical investigation of the Standard Mine performed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Manning and others, in press). The purpose of the investigation was to aid the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in evaluating remediation options for the Standard Mine site. Additional details and supporting data related to the information in this presentation can be found in Manning and others (in press).

Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mast, M. Alisa; Wanty, Richard B.

2008-01-01

104

Viking observations of Phobos and Deimos - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improved resolution of the Viking images has led to the discovery of a number of unusual surface features on Phobos. The features include elongated rill-like depressions associated with the crater Stickney, chains and clusters of irregular elongated craters, and linear striations or grooves. Crater counts are also considered. A total of 27 craters ranging in size from 0.3 to 1.4 km are visible on the best Deimos frame available. Craters ranging from 50 m to 4.9 km in diameter can be observed on the best of the Phobos images.

Veverka, J.; Duxbury, T. C.

1977-01-01

105

Ultraviolet observations of stellar coronae - Early results from HST  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first GHRS spectra of two very different late-type giant stars - Capella and Gamma Dra are reported. Capella is a 104 day period binary system consisting of two stars (G9 III and GO III) each of which shows bright emission lines formed in solar-like transition region and coronae. By contrast, Gamma Dra is a hybrid-chromosphere star with very weak emission lines from high-temperature plasma. Low-dispersion spectra of these stars covering the 1160 to 1717 A spectral range show unresolved emission lines from neutral species through N V. The very different surface fluxes detected in the spectra of these stars suggest different types of heating mechanisms.

Linsky, Jeffrey L.

1992-01-01

106

Preliminary Results of ``World Month'' Observations at Jicamarca  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The month of September 2005 has been devoted to the URSI Incoherent Scatter group as the World Month Campaign. This will be the first time that all the ISRs in the world run for such a long time. Although the whole month has been devoted for these coordinated observations, each facility will run in their ``best effort''. The main emphasis at all the facilities will be to support LTCS (Lower Thermosphere Coupling Studies), CAWSES and/or storms. At Jicamarca, the following modes have been scheduled: a) MST-ISR between September 5 and 8: This mode uses four pointing directions and measures the daytime lower atmospheric dynamics particularly at mesospheric heights, daytime ExB drifts from 150-km echoes, and F region ISR densities during the day and night. b) Differential Phase-Vertical Drift (DVD) between September 19 and 30: In this mode, we will measure vertical drifts and electron densities, between 150 and 1000 kms. In addition, during the day we will observe the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) echoes to infer zonal neutral wind profiles of the E region. c) JULIA Vertical mode the rest of the month: JULIA modes use the whole Jicamarca array combined with smaller arrays and low power transmitters to measure daytime ExB vertical drifts, E region zonal winds and density profiles from EEJ echoes, and the intensity as well as vertical and zonal drifts of equatorial spread F (ESF) echoes. At the time of the writing, we were just starting the campaign. We have already caught the effects of an extreme solar Flare (X17) on September 7 around 1740 UT. Briefly, EEJ echoes disappear, 150-km echoes appear at lower altitudes and stronger than usual, ISR echoes from the F region ``disappear'', ionograms traces disappear, ? H increases more than 150 nT. We expect to report and discuss this and other interesting events by the time of the conference.

Kudeki, E.; Milla, M. A.; Chau, J. L.; Condori, L.; Reyes, P. M.; Ilma, R.; Hysell, D. L.; Lehmacher, G.

2005-12-01

107

`Dust around Nearby Stars' The Survey Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this conference proceedings we summarize the key observational findings of the Herschel DUNES survey. We found 31 discs in our sample, equating to an increased dust incidence with Herschel of 20.2 +/-2.0% compared to previous measurement of ~12.5+/-5% with Spitzer for the same population of nearby, Sun-like stars. We identify no trend towards fewer discs around later spectral types, as had previously been reported for A-M stars. Around half of the discs exhibit extended emission, representing a vast improvement in the number of spatially resolved debris discs and thereby the quality of modelling that can be applied to those systems. We also identify unusual sub-groups of discs, including `steep SED' sources with dust spectral indexes in the 70-160 ?m range, steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans tail which, whilst not unheard of, are more typically seen at sub-mm wavelengths and candidate `cold discs' which are identified through their lack of significant excess emission at wavelengths shorter than 100 ?m.

Marshall, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

108

Plasma observations near uranus: initial results from voyager 2.  

PubMed

Extensive measurements of low-energy positive ions and electrons in the vicinity of Uranus have revealed a fully developed magnetosphere. The magnetospheric plasma has a warm component with a temperature of 4 to 50 electron volts and a peak density of roughly 2 protons per cubic centimeter, and a hot component, with a temperature of a few kiloelectron volts and a peak density of roughly 0.1 proton per cubic centimeter. The warm component is observed both inside and outside of L = 5, whereas the hot component is excluded from the region inside of that L shell. Possible sources of the plasma in the magnetosphere are the extended hydrogen corona, the solar wind, and the ionosphere. The Uranian moons do not appear to be a significant plasma source. The boundary of the hot plasma component at L = 5 may be associated either with Miranda or with the inner limit of a deeply penetrating, solar wind-driven magnetospheric convection system. The Voyager 2 spacecraft repeatedly encountered the plasma sheet in the magnetotail at locations that are consistent with a geometric model for the plasma sheet similar to that at Earth. PMID:17812895

Bridge, H S; Belcher, J W; Coppi, B; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Olbert, S; Richardson, J D; Sands, M R; Selesnick, R S; Sullivan, J D; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Sittler, E C; Bagenal, F; Wolff, R S; Vasyliunas, V M; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Eviatar, A

1986-07-01

109

Notification of Detailed Observation and Model Results Using RSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decision makers need relevant information delivered in time to affect the outcome of the decision under consideration. A Really Simple Syndication (RSS) service can deliver timely, detailed decision support information to a wide variety of decision makers while demanding minimal software and attention on the part of the decision maker. An RSS feed tailored to summarize a specific set of events, such as storm surge at a particular location being forecast to exceed a certain threshold, can provide notification of the event only when the condition occurs. A distinct advantage of RSS over alternate notification methods, such as email or SMS (Short Messaging Service), include frequent testing of the communication channel during non-event conditions. Other advantages of RSS include XML encapsulation of summary data, which enables standards-based specification a wide range of references back to services providing the data, including HTTP and OGC/SOS. This work demonstrates an RSS service for delivering notification and summary information of a wide variety of user-configurable observational and forecast-model events. pe6600-1.vims.edu/~drf/rss_abstract.html

Forrest, D. R.; Wang, H. V.; Friedrichs, C.

2006-12-01

110

NICMOS Coronagraphic Observations of Circumstellar Environments - Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NICMOS camera 2 coronagraph provides a unique instrumental resource for exploring circumstellar environments. The NICMOS Environments of Nearby Stars (EONS) programs recently commenced following the completion of the commissioning of the coronagraph in February, 1998. Under those programs we are conducting systematic surveys of nearby, and young stars searching for companion brown dwarfs and giant planets, and protoplanetary disks around main-sequence stars. We present the status of these and related programs along with a summary of preliminary results.

Schneider, G.; Thompson, R.; Becklin, E.; Smith, B.; Terrile, R.

1998-05-01

111

Observing oceanic mesoscale eddies from Geosat altimetry - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mesoscale eddies constitute the most energetic component of the variability of ocean currents. Sea level variations measured by the Geosat radar altimeter are used to study the spatial and temporal scales of the eddy motion. An attempt is also made to map the temporal evolution of the eddy field in the region of the Agulhas Current south of Africa, where the eddy motions are among the strongest in the world. The results demonstrate that Geosat has provided an unprecedented opportunity to map from space the temporal evolution of sea level variability associated with the energetic eddies in the ocean.

Fu, Lee-Lueng; Zlotnicki, Victor

1989-01-01

112

A processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed.

Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.

1987-01-01

113

Chandra and XMM-Newton Observations of the Bimodal Planck-detected ClusterG345.40-39.34 showing High and Low Entropy Subcluster Cores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys (from the Planck mission, the ground based SPT and ACT) have provided complete, nearly mass-limited samples of clusters of galaxies. Through extensive X-ray (Chandra and XMM-Newton) follow-up observations of these SZ cluster samples, one can characterize each cluster in terms of its total mass, X-ray luminosity, gas mass, gas temperature, entropy, central cooling time, and morphology. Here, we present results of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of G345.40-39.34, a Planck detected cluster. We show that G345.40-39.34 is a nearby (z=0.045) double cluster with its southern subcluster presenting an interesting thermodynamical characteristic: low global gas temperature and very high central entropy. Because these two simultaneous conditions are rare, we selected clusters that exhibit similar properties to compare with G345. Finally, we present discussions of the physical processes that could lead to this unusual thermodynamic state.

Andrade-Santos, Felipe

2014-06-01

114

Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.  

PubMed

In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

2014-07-01

115

Balloon-borne ultraviolet stellar spectrograph. I - Instrumentation and observation. II - Highlights of first observational results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A dual star-tracking system and a system including a telescope, an echelle spectrograph, and a SEC vidicon are the chief components of the Balloon-borne Ultraviolet Stellar Spectrograph (BUSS), which has flown four successful missions. The BUSS missions have yielded 81 spectra for 56 stars, recorded with a resolution of 0.1 A in the wavelength range from 2200 to 3400 A. BUSS observations include: profiles of Mg II lines indicating considerable mass flow in early-type supergiants; Mg II features suggesting a cool expanding outer shell above a hotter chromosphere; emission features in Zeta Tau (a shell star) indicating infalling material; and emission features of the Be star Phi Per suggesting mass outflow.

Kondo, Y.; De Jager, C.; Hoekstra, R.; Van Der Hucht, K. A.; Kamperman, T. M.; Lamers, H. J. G. L. M.; Modisette, J. L.; Morgan, T. H.

1979-01-01

116

Results of geomagnetic observations in Central Africa by Portuguese explorers during 1877 1885  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this short contribution, geomagnetic measurements in Central Africa made by Capelo and Ivens - two Portuguese explorers - during the years 1877 and 1885 are provided. We show the scarce number of geomagnetic observation in Africa compiled until now. These Portuguese explorers performed a considerable amount of measurements of geomagnetic declination (44 measurements), inclination (50) and horizontal component (50) of the geomagnetic field. We compared the results attained by these keen observers with those derived from the global geomagnetic model by Jackson et al. [Jackson, A., Jonkers, A.,Walker, M., 2000. Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 358, 957-990].

Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

2006-08-01

117

"The Show"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

Gehring, John

2004-01-01

118

Initial Results from a Very Deep Chandra Observation of the Galaxy Group NGC 5813  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will present initial results from a deep (650 ks) Chandra observation of the galaxy group NGC 5813, the deepest Chandra observation of a galaxy group core to date. This unique system shows three pairs of collinear cavities in the intragroup medium (IGM), with each pair associated with an elliptical outburst shock front with a measured temperature jump. It is therefore ideal for studying AGN feedback and the outburst history of the central AGN. Measurements of the shock heating at each shock front show that shocks alone are enough to offset radiative cooling of the gas indefinitely, within least the central 26 kpc. The internal energy of the cavities is not required, and is likely deposited in the IGM at larger radii. This demonstrates that shock heating can play an important role in the AGN feedback process, particularly at smaller radii, close to the central AGN.

Randall, Scott; Nulsen, P.; Forman, W.; Clarke, T.; Donahue, M.; Giacintucci, S.; Jones, C.; Sun, M.; Churazov, E.; David, L.; Kraft, R.; Blanton, E.; Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.

2012-09-01

119

Results of MODIS band-to-band registration characterization using on-orbit lunar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since launch, lunar observations have been made on a regular basis for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used in a number of applications for their on-orbit calibration and characterization, including radiometric stability monitoring, band-to-band registration (BBR) characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparisons with others sensors. MODIS has 36 spectral bands, consisting of a total of 490 individual detectors, which are located on four different focal plane assemblies (FPAs). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations for its on-orbit BBR characterization in both along-scan and along-track directions. In addition to BBR, study of detector-to-detector registration (DDR) through the use of lunar observations is also discussed. The yearly averaged BBR results developed from MODIS lunar observations are presented in this paper and compared with that derived from its on-board calibrator (OBC). In general, results from different approaches agree well. Results show that on-orbit changes in BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS over their entire missions. It is clearly demonstrated in this paper that the lunar approaches developed and applied to MODIS can be effectively used by other sensors for their on-orbit BBR and DDR characterization.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal, Amit; Xie, Yong; Choi, Taeyoung; Wang, Zhipeng

2011-09-01

120

INTEGRAL observations of the blazar Mrk 421 in outburst. Results of a multi-wavelength campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: If one wants to understand the physics of blazars, better simultaneous observations are important at all wavelengths, so it was fortunate that a ToO observation of the TeV-emitting blazar Mrk 421 with INTEGRAL could be triggered in June 2006 by an increase in the RXTE count rate to more than 30 mCrab. The source was then observed with all INTEGRAL instruments, with the exception of the spectrometer SPI, for a total exposure of 829 ks. During this time several outbursts were observed by IBIS and JEM-X. Multiwavelength observations were immediately triggered, and the source was observed at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths up to TeV energies. Aims: The data obtained during these observations were analysed with respect to time variability, time lags, correlated variability, and spectral evolution and then compiled in a ? F? spectrum. Methods: The observations of the different instruments/telescopes were analysed with the usual correlation and time-analysis methods. The spectral analysis of the X-ray data was performed with XSPEC. Results: Four strong flares at X-rays were observed that were not seen at other wavelengths (partially because of missing data). From the fastest rise in the X-rays, an upper limit could be derived to the extension of the emission region. A time lag between high-energy and low-energy X-rays was observed, which allowed an estimation of the magnetic-field strength. The spectral analysis of the X-rays revealed a slight spectral hardening of the low-energy (3-~43 keV) spectral index. The hardness-ratio analysis of the Swift-XRT (0.2-10 keV) data indicated a small correlation with the intensity; i.e., a hard-to-soft evolution was observed. At the energies of IBIS/ISGRI (20-150 keV), such correlations are less obvious. A multiwavelength spectrum was composed and the X-ray luminosities were calculated. Conclusions: The observed flaring activity of Mrk 421 is mainly visible at X-rays. It is found that the spectral change with intensity is small. But at least one flare showed a completely different spectral behaviour than the other flares, so one can conclude that each blob of relativistic-moving electrons has its own individual physical environment that leads to different emission characteristics. From a fit of a leptonic emission model to the data, one finds that the observed variability may be due to a varying efficiency of particle acceleration.

Lichti, G. G.; Bottacini, E.; Ajello, M.; Charlot, P.; Collmar, W.; Falcone, A.; Horan, D.; Huber, S.; von Kienlin, A.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lindfors, E.; Morris, D.; Nilsson, K.; Petry, D.; Rüger, M.; Sillanpää, A.; Spanier, F.; Tornikoski, M.

2008-08-01

121

Results of an observing system simulation experiment based on the proposed Windsat instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two fraternal twin experiments were conducted as part of this study. A data impact experiment using real data (runs 1 and 2) was conducted to assess the impact that rawin wind observations have on both a 5-day assimilation and a single 5-day forecast generated at the end of each assimilation. An observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) using simulated observations (runs 3, 4, and 5) was conducted in order to first calibrate the OSSE results and second to use this calibration to estimate the 'real world' impact from the contribution of global 3-dimensional wind profiles generated from a space-based lidar system known as Windsat. Each of the three runs in the seond experiment were also 5-day assimilation runs with a 5-day forecast initialized from the last 6-hour update cycle of the assimilation. The data impact study revealed a consistent positive impact when rawin winds were added back into an otherwise complete FGGE data set. Both the 6-hour and 5-day forecasts were improved at all levels, in both hemispheres, and for both the wind and the geopotential height fields. Similar results were obtained from the two parallel simulation runs, 3 and 4. Together with the results from runs 1 and 2, calibration coefficients were generated so as to 'correct' the results determined from the addition of Windsat winds (run 5). The Windsat simulation showed a positive improvement in all cases studied. Even though only the tropics were enhanced with these wind observations, hemispheric rms errors were decreased in both the assimilation and 5-day forecast. The 6-hour forecasts of zonal wind from the assimilation run were improved by as much as 50 pct. on the average, and the single forecast showed an average improvement of near 30 pct. Even though these calibrated values are considered too optimistic, the skill of the forecast generated from this run extended the useful forecast period by 18-24 hours.

Arnold, Charles P., Jr.; Dey, Clifford H.; Bostelman, William J.

1985-01-01

122

Comparison of LFM Simulation Results with Observation for Strongly Northward IMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics involved in solar wind magnetosphere coupling when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is northward is still poorly understood. When IMF is northward the coupling occurs at high latitude poleward of the cusp region. One of the methods of measuring this coupling is to calculate the polar cap potential (PCP). PCP is the difference between the maximum and minimum potential in the polar cap region. In this paper we show results obtained from Lyon Feeder Mobbary (LFM) simulation as well as satellite observation showing saturation of polar cap potential for strongly northward IMF. Furthermore, we compare the overall magnetosphere geometry obtained from ideal LFM simulation result with various satellite data during similar conditions of strongly northward IMF.

Bhattarai, S. K.; Lopez, R. E.; Bruntz, R. J.

2011-12-01

123

Storm-time meridional flows: a comparison of CINDI observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a large geomagnetic storm, the electric field from the polar ionosphere can expand far enough to affect the mid-latitude and equatorial electric fields. These changes in the equatorial zonal electric field, called the penetration field, will cause changes in the meridional ion flows that can be observed by radars and spacecraft. In general this E × B ion flow near the equator caused by the penetration field during undershielding conditions will be upward on the dayside and downward on the nightside of the Earth. Previous analysis of the equatorial meridional flows observed by CINDI instrument on the C/NOFS spacecraft during the 26 September 2011 storm showed that all of the response flows on the dayside were excess downward flows instead of the expected upward flows. These observed storm-time responses are compared to a prediction from a physics-based coupled model of thermosphere-ionosphere-inner-magnetosphere in an effort to explain these observations. The model results suggest that the equatorial downward flow could be attributed to a combined effect of the overshielding and disturbance dynamo processes. However, some discrepancy between the model and observation indicates a need for improving our understanding of how sensitive the equatorial electric field is to various model input parameters that describe the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling processes.

Hairston, M.; Maruyama, N.; Coley, W. R.; Stoneback, R.

2014-06-01

124

Mercury: Mid-infrared (3-13.5 µm) observations show heterogeneous composition, presence of intermediate and basic soil types, and pyroxene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Aerospace Corporation's Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii was used to obtain spectral measurements of Mercury's thermal emission on March 21, 1998 (45-85 deg longitude), and on May 12, 1998 (68-108 deg longitude). The spectra show heterogeneous composition on Mercury's surface between longitudes 45-85 deg and about 68-108 deg. These observations include measurements from 3-6 ?m, a spectral region not previously covered by mid-infrared spectroscopy. Excellent quality data were obtained in the atmospheric windows between 3-4.2 and 4.6-5.5 ?m. These wavelength regions exhibit high emissivity characteristic of a regolith with strong thermal gradients maintained in a vacuum environment with spectra dominated by grain sizes of about 30 ?m. Emission peaks are present at 3.5 and 5 ?m in the 45-85 deg longitude data. The 5 ?m peak has been tentatively attributed to clino-pyroxene. Data were also obtained in the 7.5-13.5 ?m spectral region. Spectra obtained during both observing periods show well-defined emissivity maxima (EM) in the spectral vicinity (between 7.7-9.2 ?m) of the Christiansen frequency of silicate soils. The location of the EM for longitudes 45-85 deg (7.9 ?m) is consistent with a surface composition of intermediate SiO2 content. The overall spectral shape is similar to that obtained previously at the same location with different instrumentation. In the region 68-108 deg longitude, three EM are observed at 7.8, 8.2, and 9.2 ?m, indicating the presence of distinctly different surface composition from the other location. Comparisons of these data to other mid-infrared spectra of Mercury's surface and asteroids, and of the different instrumentation used in observations are included.

Sprague, A. L.; Emery, J. P.; Donaldson, K. L.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Mazuk, A. L.

2002-09-01

125

Body Composition, Dietary Protein and Body Weight Regulation. Reconciling Conflicting Results from Intervention and Observational Studies?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives Physiological evidence indicates that high-protein diets reduce caloric intake and increase thermogenic response, which may prevent weight gain and regain after weight loss. Clinical trials have shown such effects, whereas observational cohort studies suggest an association between greater protein intake and weight gain. In both types of studies the results are based on average weight changes, and show considerable diversity in both directions. This study investigates whether the discrepancy in the evidence could be due to recruitment of overweight and obese individuals into clinical trials. Subjects/Methods Data were available from the European Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) post-weight-loss weight-maintenance trial and the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health (DCH) cohort. Participants of the DCH cohort were matched with participants from the DiOGenes trial on gender, diet, and body characteristics. Different subsets of the DCH-participants, comparable with the trial participants, were analyzed for weight maintenance according to the randomization status (high or low protein) of the matched trial participants. Results Trial participants were generally heavier, had larger waist circumference and larger fat mass than the participants in the entire DCH cohort. A better weight maintenance in the high-protein group compared to the low protein group was observed in the subgroups of the DCH cohort matching body characteristics of the trial participants. Conclusion This modified observational study, minimized the differences between the RCT and observational data with regard to dietary intake, participant characteristics and statistical analysis. Compared with low protein diet the high protein diet was associated with better weight maintenance when individuals with greater body mass index and waist circumference were analyzed. Selecting subsets of large-scale observational cohort studies with similar characteristics as participants in clinical trials may reconcile the otherwise conflicting results.

Ankarfeldt, Mikkel Z.; Angquist, Lars; Stocks, Tanja; Jakobsen, Marianne U.; Overvad, Kim; Halkjaer, Jytte; Saris, Wim H. M.; Astrup, Arne; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.

2014-01-01

126

Observations of zodiacal light from the Pioneer 10 Asteroid-Jupiter probe - Preliminary results.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The imaging photopolarimeter on the Pioneer 10 Asteroid-Jupiter probe is being used to measure starlight and zodiacal light during the cruise phase of the mission. The 2.5-cm-diam telescope is used with a 2.3 deg field of view to spin/scan the sky in the region between 10 and 151 deg from the direction of motion of the spacecraft. Orthogonal components of brightness are measured in two wavelength bands: blue (3900 to 5000 A) and red (5950 to 7200 A). The gegenschein was observed on Mar. 14, 1972, when the earth-sun-spacecraft angle was 3.4 deg and the spacecraft was 9.2 million km from the earth and 1.011 AU from the sun. The distribution of brightness relative to the antisolar point is similar to that obtained from ground-based observations. Taken together, these results show that the gegenschein is not associated with the earth.

Weinberg, J. L.; Hanner, M. S.; Mann, H. M.; Hutchison, P. B.; Fimmel, R.

1973-01-01

127

Review of genetic parameters estimated at stallion and young horse performance tests and their correlations with later results in dressage and show-jumping competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from performance tests and competitions of young horses are used by major European warmblood horse breeding associations for genetic evaluations. The aim of this review was to compare genetic parameters for various tests of young horses to assess their efficiency in selection for dressage and show-jumping. Improved understanding of genetic information across countries is also necessary, as foreign trade

E. Thorén Hellsten; Å. Viklund; E. P. C. Koenen; A. Ricard; E. Bruns; J. Philipsson

2006-01-01

128

Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Results of the DD inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. By using seven LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed at first and more than 3000 local events were found, although the PDE list contains only 59. A 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model was used, and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE list and this study was seen. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with a 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows double seismic zones until about 200km depth and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomographic inversion shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the Pagan island erupted in 1981 at 80km depth. The mantle structure beneath the back-arc basin was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which is cleared in the recent experiment.

Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

2004-12-01

129

Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE (McEwen et al.; JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright streamers (Thomas et al.; Icarus, 123, 536556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al.; JGR, 104, 90559068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; McEwen, A. S.

2011-01-01

130

Strategy and results of East Asian GRB FOllow-up Network (EAFON) follow-up observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have established Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration on GRBs study in the East-Asian region since 2004 This serves as valuable additions to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network because the East-Asia region is otherwise blank for the network We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopic follow-up observations by Lulin Taiwan Kiso Japan WIDGET Japan and Xinglong China Using Xinglong and Kiso we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra of afterglows While WIDGET provides early time observations before the burst the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves will be obtained by Lulin With the data from these sites we will obtain detailed information of light curve and redshift of GRBs which are important to understand the mechanism of afterglows Utilizing East Asian GRB Follow-up Observation Network EAFON we have observed 56 GRB optical afterglows and detected 15 early optical afterglow behavior including two short GRBs in multi-bands Based on these observations we have obtained 3 major results 1 first long term monitoring of short GRB afterglow from sim 0 1 days after the burst 2 two components in early optical afterglow 3 catch about 30 high redshift GRB candidates In this meeting we will present mainly report early a common feature of long GRB early afterglow We have found a common feature in long GRB early afterglow light curves These early light curves show re-brightening and or plateau phase around 0 1 days 2 4hours after bursts Combined with other prompt

Urata, Y.; Eafon Team

131

Precipitation changes with midlatitude strength and frequency and the resulting climate feedbacks in observations and models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in midlatitude storm properties, such as strength and frequency, have been occurring in the last 50 years and are predicted to intensify as climate continues to change. The UKMO climate model, for example, simulates decreases in storm frequency and increases in storm strength with climate warming. At the same time, observational analyses show significant changes in the distribution of cloud, radiation, and precipitation properties with midlatitude storm strength and frequency. This points to the potential for midlatitude radiation and hydrologic feedbacks with climate warming. The observational analysis results provide a useful testing ground for model skill in simulating midlatitude cloud, radiation, and precipitation changes with atmospheric dynamics. If successful, models can be used to understand and evaluate feedback processes resulting from such changes. In the present study, satellite and reanalysis data and IPCC model output are used to 1) identify midlatitude storm centers and tracks and define their area of influence, 2) extract precipitation properties in the storm centers' area of influence, and 3) examine relationships between precipitation properties and storm dynamics in observations and models. All models estimate correctly the increase in precipitation due to increasing storm strength but overestimate the decrease in precipitation due to decreasing storm frequency. This is because all models produce very little midlatitude precipitation outside storm events. When the UKMO-predicted storm changes in storm strength and frequency are applied together, models produce a negative feedback as the decrease in storm frequency dominates. Observations on the other hand point to a positive precipitation feedback dominated by the increase in storm strength. This points to the need for improved midlatitude precipitation simulation in climate models.

Tselioudis, G.; Bauer, M.; Rossow, W.

2009-04-01

132

Results of MODIS Band-to-Band Registration Characterization Using On-Orbit Lunar Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since launch, lunar observations have been made regularly by both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used for a number of sensor calibration and characterization related applications, including radiometric stability monitoring, spatial characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparison. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 individual detectors. They are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations to characterize its band-to-band registration (BBR). In addition to BBR, the approach developed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) can be used to characterize MODIS detector-to-detector registration (DDR). Long-term BBR results developed from this approach are presented and compared with that derived from a unique on-board calibrator (OBC). Results show that on-orbit changes of BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and this approach can be applied to other remote sensing instruments.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal,Amit

2011-01-01

133

Observation results by the TAMA300 detector on gravitational wave bursts from stellar-core collapses  

SciTech Connect

We present data-analysis schemes and results of observations with the TAMA300 gravitational wave detector, targeting burst signals from stellar-core collapse events. In analyses for burst gravitational waves, the detection and fake-reduction schemes are different from well-investigated ones for a chirp wave analysis, because precise waveform templates are not available. We used an excess -power filter for the extraction of gravitational wave candidates, and developed two methods for the reduction of fake events caused by nonstationary noises of the detector. These analysis schemes were applied to real data from the TAMA300 interferometric gravitational wave detector. As a result, fake events were reduced by a factor of about 1000 in the best cases. In addition, in order to interpret the event candidates from an astronomical viewpoint, we performed a Monte-Carlo simulation with an assumed Galactic event distribution model and with burst waveforms obtained from numerical simulations of stellar-core collapses. We set an upper limit of 5.0x10{sup 3} events/sec on the burst gravitational wave event rate in our Galaxy with a confidence level of 90%. This work shows prospects on the search for burst gravitational waves, by establishing an analysis scheme for the observation data from an interferometric gravitational wave detector.

Ando, Masaki; Aso, Youichi; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Nishi, Yuhiko; Otsuka, Shigemi; Seki, Hidetsugu; Soida, Kenji; Taniguchi, Shinsuke; Tochikubo, Kuniharu; Tsubono, Kimio; Yoda, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Arai, Koji; Beyersdorf, Peter; Kawamura, Seiji; Sato, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Fujimoto, Masa-Katsu [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)] [and others

2005-04-15

134

New Results from Space and Field Observations on the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New space observations from the MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite and analysis of POLDER data flown on the ADEOS satellite, show in great details the spatial and seasonal variability of the global aerosol system. These spaceborne instruments distinguish fine aerosol from man-made regional pollution and biomass burning from mostly natural coarse dust and sea salt aerosol. E.g. fine regional pollution in and around the Indian sub-continent, Europe and North America; smoke from biomass burning in Southern Africa and Southern America; coarse dust from West Africa and mixed dust pollution and smoke from West and central Africa and East Asia. These regions were also studied extensively in focused field experiments and by the distributed AERONET network. The results generate the first climatologies of the aerosol system, are used to derive the aerosol radiative effects and to estimate the anthropogenic component. The measurements are also used to evaluate each other and constrain aerosol transport models.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent

2002-01-01

135

Database of the results of the Lunar occultation observations made in 1963--2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer database of the results of lunar occultation observations is compiled. The observations were collecte at the Astronomical Observatory of the Kyiv National University over the period when it was a regional coordination centre for the observations of this phenomenon. The base includes more than 24000 of observation results of 580 observers from 77 sites on the territory of Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Belorus', Moldova, Lithuania, Uzbekistan. The material is analyzed and compared to the similar data of the world bank. The access to the information can be realized on the site of the Astronomical Observatory http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/ or through the e-mail address likaz@observ.univ.kiev.ua.

Kazantseva, L. V.; Osipov, È. Ô.

2002-04-01

136

The ILAN sprite campaigns in Israel: results from 7 years of observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ILAN (Imaging of Lightning And Nocturnal flashes, http://ilanteam.com/) campaigns have been conducted since 2004 from Israel, observing winter thunderstorms in the eastern Mediterranean. We searched for transient luminous events using the standard commercial CCD cameras (Watec N100, 902H2 Ultimate) and the UFO-capture software for event detection, commonly used by other TLE- research groups in Europe and Japan. Winter thunderstorms mostly occur in conjunction with the passage of cold fronts in Cyprus lows, and thus TLEs are best observed when the storms are 200-300 km west of the Israeli coastline, above the Mediterranean Sea. We present statistical analysis of 505 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (above 40% of events) between 00:30-02:50 LST (Local Standard Time, UT+2). This distribution is very different from that of lightning in the region, which peaks ~ 05:00 LST over the sea (Altaratz et al., 2001), hinting at the different temporal behavior of +CG flashes, known to be the major producers of sprites. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites is dominated by column sprites (49.3%) with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan (Matsudo et al., 2007). Other shapes (trees, wishbones, etc.; Bór, 2013) appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.8% of observations, with 83.2% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). In some rare cases we observed 12-23 elements in a single sprite. The number of elements and the temporal distribution of different sprite types will be presented and compared with the properties of the parent thunderstorms. Altaratz, O., Levin Z. and Y. Yair, 2001: Winter thunderstorms in Israel - a study with lightning location systems and weather radar. Month. Weath. Rev., 129, 5, 1259-1266. Bór, J., 2013: Optically perceptible characteristics of sprites observed in Central Europe in 2007-2009. Jour. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 92, 151-177 doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2012.10.008. Matsudo Y., Suzuki T., Hayakawa M., Yamashita K., Ando Y., Michimoto K., Korepano V., 2007: Characteristics of Japanese winter sprites and their parent lightning as estimated by VHF lightning and ELF transients Jour. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 69, 12, 1431-1446.

Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Mezuman, Keren; Price, Colin

2014-05-01

137

Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.

Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

2012-11-01

138

Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run

B. G. Fejer; R. W. Spiro; R. A. Wolf; J. C. Foster

1990-01-01

139

How often do German children and adolescents show signs of common mental health problems? Results from different methodological approaches - a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Child and adolescent mental health problems are ubiquitous and burdensome. Their impact on functional disability, the high rates of accompanying medical illnesses and the potential to last until adulthood make them a major public health issue. While methodological factors cause variability of the results from epidemiological studies, there is a lack of prevalence rates of mental health problems in children and adolescents according to ICD-10 criteria from nationally representative samples. International findings suggest only a small proportion of children with function impairing mental health problems receive treatment, but information about the health care situation of children and adolescents is scarce. The aim of this epidemiological study was a) to classify symptoms of common mental health problems according to ICD-10 criteria in order to compare the statistical and clinical case definition strategies using a single set of data and b) to report ICD-10 codes from health insurance claims data. Methods a) Based on a clinical expert rating, questionnaire items were mapped on ICD-10 criteria; data from the Mental Health Module (BELLA study) were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 and cut-off criteria; b) Claims data were analyzed for relevant ICD-10 codes. Results According to parent report 7.5% (n?=?208) met the ICD-10 criteria of a mild depressive episode and 11% (n?=?305) showed symptoms of depression according to cut-off score; Anxiety is reported in 5.6% (n?=?156) and 11.6% (n?=?323), conduct disorder in 15.2% (n?=?373) and 14.6% (n?=?357). Self-reported symptoms in 11 to 17 year olds resulted in 15% (n?=?279) reporting signs of a mild depression according to ICD-10 criteria (vs. 16.7% (n?=?307) based on cut-off) and 10.9% (n?=?201) reported symptoms of anxiety (vs. 15.4% (n?=?283)). Results from routine data identify 0.9% (n?=?1,196) with a depression diagnosis, 3.1% (n?=?6,729) with anxiety and 1.4% (n?=?3,100) with conduct disorder in outpatient health care. Conclusions Statistical and clinical case definition strategies show moderate concordance in depression and conduct disorder in a German national sample. Comparatively, lower rates of children and adolescents with diagnosed mental health problems in the outpatient health care setting support the assumptions that a small number of children and adolescents in need of treatment receive it.

2014-01-01

140

Adsorption of RDX to Soil with Low Organic Carbon: Laboratory Results, Field Observations, Remedial Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to review both laboratory and field observations of RDX adsorption to soils and to use those results to estimate the effects of a planned remedial action. Adsorption isotherms for RDX are generally observed to be linear and reversible. Statistical tests were performed to determine the relationship between Kd and various soil characteristics. A linear

William A. Tucker; Gerald J. Murphy; Eric D. Arenberg

2002-01-01

141

Battery Performance of ADEOS (Advanced Earth Observing Satellite) and Ground Simulation Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS) is developed with the aim of establishment of platform technology for future spacecraft and inter-orbit communication technology for the transmission of earth observation data. ADEOS uses 5 batteries, consists of two packs. This paper describes, using graphs and tables, the ground simulation tests and results that are carried to determine the performance of the ADEOS batteries.

Koga, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Kuwajima, S.; Kusawake, H.

1997-01-01

142

First results from the Faint Object Camera - Observations of PKS 0521 - 36  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope was used to observe the radio galaxy PKS 0521 - 36 which hosts a prominent radio jet. Images of the jet show spatial structure comparable to VLA data and significantly better than optical ground-based observations. The jet structure is resolved at FOC resolution. In addition to the radio knot, well resolved by the FOC, an extension of the jet toward the nucleus is apparent. The rest of the jet does not show much clumpiness, implying that the synchrotron electrons must be accelerated all along the jet to account for the extent in the optical region.

Macchetto, F.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.

1991-01-01

143

Polarimetric Radar Observations of Arctic Clouds: Signal Processing and First Results from the may 2013 Iop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARM Climate Research Facility site at the North Slope of Alaska in Barrow provides polarimetric radar observations of Arctic clouds at X, Ka and W bands. During the May 2013 Scanning radar Intensive Observation Period, raw I and Q data were acquired with the X-SAPR and the Ka-W SACR for the purpose of validating existing, and testing new signal processing procedures specifically tailored for Arctic observations. The raw I and Q datasets were collected on May 3rd 2013 for the case of low-level boundary layer mixed-phase arctic clouds and on May 6th 2013 for the case of a synoptic low moving in from the west. http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/nsa2013nsasr The present paper describes the impact of signal processing procedures on the data, and establishes dual-polarization radar as a valuable tool for the microphysical characterization of ice clouds. In particular, the X-SAPR operates at STSR mode, making available differential reflectivity ZDR, copolar correlation coefficient ?hv, specific differential phase KDP and Degree of Polarization at Simultaneous Transmit DOPS. Low-level boundary layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds are characterized by layers of supercooled liquid water aloft, which present a stark polarimetric contrast with respect to the associated ice precipitation fallout. The ice particles falling from boundary layer Arctic clouds on May 2nd, 3rd and 4th 2013 (winds were very weak or absent) showed the remarkable property of being composed exclusively by large dendrites - fern-like, stellars, twelve-branched - indicating deposition as the main accretion mechanism. http://www.flickr.com/photos/michele_galletti/sets/72157633422079814/ Boundary Layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds provide an exceptional natural laboratory for the exploration of polarimetric signatures in presence of dendritic ice particles. The first-ever X-band analysis of differential reflectivity ZDR of mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented in [1]. For the May 6th case, ice particle populations associated with frontal systems underwent more significant vertical mixing, and therefore more significant break-up and aggregation, with the overall result that ice particles possessed less geometrical symmetry, and consequently less prominent polarimetric contrast was detected by the radars. [1] Oue, Galletti, Verlinde "Observations of X-band differential reflectivity in Arctic mixed-phase clouds", submitted.

Galletti, M.; Oue, M.; Verlinde, J.

2013-12-01

144

Globular-cluster stars - Results of theoretical evolution and pulsation studies compared with the observations.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Survey of recently published studies on globular clusters, and comparison of stellar evolution and pulsation theory with reported observations. The theory of stellar evolution is shown to be capable of describing, in principle, the behavior of a star through all quasi-static stages. Yet, as might be expected, estimates of bulk properties obtained by comparing observations with results of pulsation and stellar atmosphere theory differ somewhat from estimates of these same properties obtained by comparing observations with results of evolution theory. A description is given of how such estimates are obtained, and suggestions are offered as to where the weak points in each theory may lie.

Iben, I., Jr.

1971-01-01

145

Spectrally resolved observations of Io's sodium cloud: Results from the LOTMOP program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report observations of Io's sodium cloud, made in 1997 as part of the Lick Observatory Torus Monitoring Program (LOTMOP). The line of sight velocity of the neutral sodium was measured with sufficient accuracy to show the structure of the forward cloud in both position and velocity. The position-velocity structure varies systematically with Io phase. The rough shape and Io

F. J. Crary; M. E. Brown; M. Tiscareno; A. Misch; F. Bagenal; D. Brain; M. H. Burger; U. Dyudina; M. Kueppers; G. Lichtenberg; M. A. McGrath; I. de Pater; K. Paularena; J. Richardson; N. M. Schneider; M. H. Taylor; N. Thomas; D. Tytell

1998-01-01

146

IRAS observations show that the Earth is embedded in a solar ring of asteroidal dust particles in resonant lock with the planet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have analyzed all the infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud obtained in 1983 by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) and shown that when viewed at a constant elongation angle of 90 degrees, the elliptic brightness of the cloud is systematically greater by approx. 3 percent in the trailing direction than in the leading direction. This asymmetry is observed at all times of the year and in all three of the IRAS wavebands in which the zodiacal cloud is clearly observed. The orbits of cometary particles are highly eccentric and these particles are unlikely to be trapped in corotational resonances. Thus, the IRAS observations are evidence that the Earth is embedded in a ring of asteroidal particles. Similar rings are expected to be associated with Mars and Venus. The existence of asteroidal families and their associated dust bands (also discovered by IRAS) are evidence that the asteroid belt is a significant and maybe the dominant source of dust in the zodiacal cloud. These new observations give quantitative information both on the rate of transport of asteroidal dust to the Earth and on the rate of grinding down of the asteroid belt. Without resonant trapping most dust particles spiral past the Earth without striking the planet. However, most particles trapped in resonances are released from these resonances due to close encounter with the Earth. Thus, the ring may act as a funnel through which asteroidal particles are deposited in the Earth's atmosphere. This could have implications for the efficiency of the transport of carbonaceous material from the asteroid belt to the Earth and for the origin of life on the planet.

Dermott, Stanley F.; Jayaraman, S.; Xu, Y.-L.; Liou, J.-C.

1994-01-01

147

Collisional evolution in the EOS and Koronis asteroid families - Observational and numerical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent observational results (R. P. Binzel, 1987) are analyzed to investigate the origin and evolution of the Eos and Koronis families. Rotation rates in the Eos family display a Maxwellian distribution implying a collisionally evolved population and are significantly faster than Koronis family and nonfamily asteroids. Observational and laboratory results suggest that the largest members in each family may still "remember" their parent-body rotation rates which were both in the range of 1 - 3 revolutions/day. Results from a numerical model for the collisional evolution of rotational angular momentum are used to interpret the different rotational characteristics as possibly being due to different relative ages of the families.

Binzel, R. P.

1988-02-01

148

North America Extreme Precipitation Changes under Global Warming: ATHENA model results and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate models have generally shown a more extreme climate under global warming scenarios. A quantitative assessment of precipitation extreme is crucial in light of the damage produced by recent Hurricane Sandy and for water resource management in general. We examined the spatial and temporal structure of extreme precipitation from climate models and compare them with observed datasets derived from satellite and rain gauge analyses. Results from the ATHENA project (for high resolution global climate simulations) at resolutions of T159 and T1279, corresponding to resolutions of about 128km and 16km, respectively, with 6 hourly output are analyzed. The high resolution T1279 data revealed fine scale dependence on topography, such as the mountain ranges in the west coast, which are not resolved in T159. The high resolution data also show higher and more variable annual maximum. Comparison of AMIP and Time Slice data also reveal that the return periods of heavy rainfall decrease, or more frequent recurrence of extreme events under a global warming scenario. A Generalized Extremely Value (GEV) distribution is used to examine the parametric dependence of annual maximum rainfall although other EV distributions, such as a Frechet (EV type II) or Gumble (EV type I) distribution often perform better than the GEV. The estimated shape parameter, which determines the skewness of the distribution, is generally small and in the range of less than 0.2. Assuming the shape parameter is zero, the GEV reduces to a two parameter distribution- the location and scale parameters. Annual maximum rainfall derived from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) one degree daily (1dd) product and the TRMM Merged Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) at 0.25 degree and 3 hourly resolutions are compiled and analyzed. Comparison between the ATHENA and satellite-gauge products shows that their spatial pattern is quite similar while the models tend to underestimate annual maximum rainfall and their variability.

Chiu, L.; Lu, J.; Huang, B.; Feng, X.

2013-12-01

149

Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13 acquired near the landing site. We find that summer ice-free spectra at the Phoenix landing site are approximated by scattering properties similar to Gusev Crater soils. Summer spectra have the strong water absorption at 3 ?m, indicating a low level of hydration or adsorption of water, an effect previously observed throughout the northern hemisphere. Patches of permanent water ice appear on the shadowed sides of Heimdal Crater and on the shadowed sides of large mountains to the northeast. These patches were monitored throughout the summer and did not appear to grow or shrink; however, the ice patches darken between Ls~119 and Ls~160, possibly due to the sublimation or sintering of fine-grained ices cold-trapped onto the ice deposits during the spring defrost period. Mobile patches of summertime ice were observed to follow the shadow of a crater wall on an ~85-m crater located ~6.5 km northeast of the landing site. Widespread surface ice was first observed at the Phoenix landing site during the night (3 a.m. Local True Solar Time [LTST]) at Ls~104, and water ice was first observed in the afternoon (3 p.m. LTST) at Ls~154. CRISM observations show the first afternoon water ice clouds at Ls~157. Phoenix Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) images first show evidence of afternoon (1 p.m. LTST) water ice in the shadows of large rocks on operations sol 80 (Ls~112), but did not observe widespread afternoon ice during the mission, which ended at Ls~149.

Cull, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Morris, R. V.; Wolff, M. J.; Mellon, M. T.; Lemmon, M. T.

2009-12-01

150

Separation results for the stabilization of nonlinear systems using different high-gain observer designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-gain observers have been used in the design of output feedback controllers due to their ability to robustly estimate the unmeasured states while asymptotically attenuating disturbances. The available techniques for the design of high-gain observers can be classified into three groups: pole-placement algorithms, Riccati equation-based algorithms, and Lyapunov equation-based algorithms. In [1], we presented separation results for globally bounded stabilizing

A. N. Atassi; H. K. Khalil

2000-01-01

151

Radio-optical observations of meteors by BLM radar: preliminary results .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of a joint radio-optical test carried out by the BLM bistatic radar system and a LLTV camera located approximately below the radar hot-spot. The observations were performed during the peak of the Perseids activity in 2004. Tens of coincidences have been detected during the shower display. Some advantages of simultaneous radar-optical observations are discussed here.

Pupillo, G.; Cevolani, G.; Bortolotti, G.; Franceschi, C.; Grassi, G.; Trivellone, G.

152

In situ observations of ClO in the stratosphere: A review of recent results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A summary of the results of 10 balloon-borne in situ measurements of C1O in the stratosphere is presented. All observations were carried out close to local noon at 32°N latitude with solar zenith angles between 24° and 55°. The mean of nine of the observations, which for the most part fall within a well-defined envelope, is compared with a recently calculated [C1O] distribution between 25 and 42 km at the appropriate latitude and time of day. It is found that while reasonable agreement exists in the 35- to 40-km region, the ratio of calculated to observed [C1O] increases monotonically with decreasing altitude below 35 km, reaching approximately three at 25 km. The tenth observation exhibits a mixing ratio nearly an order of magnitude greater than the mean. An analysis of the relevant chemistry below 30 km is presented which indicates that the discrepancy between the observed mean and the calculated [C1O] distribution can be linked to uncertainties in the [OH]/[NO] ratio in the lower stratosphere. A comparison is made between the in situ resonance fluorescence observation reported here and the remote laser heterodyne radiometer measurements of Menzies. Finally, the fractional destruction of Ox = O3 + O(3P) by C1Ox = Cl + C1O, based on the observed mean of the in situ [C1O] and [O(3P)] midday observations, is presented for the altitude interval 27-41 km.

Weinstock, E. M.; Phillips, M. J.; Anderson, J. G.

1981-08-01

153

Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2013 Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in slightly less than two years, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Seasonal transport of volatiles should occur on Pluto, and this transport should be detectable through changes in its rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modeled. Giving the steady increase observed in Pluto's atmospheric pressure over the past two decades, associated sublimation of frost from the surface has likely occurred, as predicted by volatile transport models. Rotational light curves of Pluto through time have been created for static frost models based on images from the Hubble Space Telescope. These models, which account for changes in viewing geometry, have been compared with observed light curves obtained between 1950 and 2013. No evidence for transport was evident prior to 2000. Observations from 2002 (Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128) and 2007-2008 (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460) suggest changes in the frost pattern on Pluto's surface. New observations of Pluto's light curve from the 2013 season from Table Mountain Observatory show no evidence for the large transport of volatiles on Pluto's surface. Our data are the first measurement of a large opposition surge on Pluto similar to that seen on other icy bodies. Both Buie et al. (2010) and our observations from the 2012-2013 seasons show that Pluto is becoming more red in color. This observation makes sense if nitrogen is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

Buratti, B. J.; Dalba, P. A.; Hicks, M.; Chu, D.; O'Neill, A.; Chesley, J. P.

2013-12-01

154

Turbulent upwelling of the mid-latitude ionosphere. I - Observational results by the MU radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented on a detailed ground-based VHF radar study of the turbulent upwelling in the midlatitude F region, using data from the active phased-array Japan's MU radar that include some auxiliary E-region coherent echoes. Results show that the coherent echo strength was often higher than was thermal scatter from the midlatitude F region. Simultaneous ionosonde measurements showed that these

Shoichiro Fukao; Tatsuya Shirakawa; Tomoyuki Takami; Mamoru Yamamoto; Michael C. Kelley; Susumu Kato

1991-01-01

155

Mercury: Mid-infrared (3-13.5 µm) observations show heterogeneous composition, presence of intermediate and basic soil types, and pyroxene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aerospace Corporation's Broadband Array Spectrograph System (BASS) mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii was used to obtain spectral measurements of Mercury's thermal emission on March 21, 1998 (45-85 deg longitude), and on May 12, 1998 (68-108 deg longitude). The spectra show heterogeneous composition on Mercury's surface between longitudes 45-85 deg and about 68-108

A. L. Sprague; J. P. Emery; K. L. Donaldson; R. W. Russell; D. K. Lynch; A. L. Mazuk

2002-01-01

156

A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally

1991-01-01

157

Some results of electrophotometric observations of geostationary artificial celestial bodies carried out in Lvov.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Examples of the geostationary artificial celestial bodies electrophotometric observations in the B, V system are given in this paper. Some facts are picked out from results ("step" change of brightness, noncoincidence of the minimum of the phase angles with maximum of light) and their ordinary interpetation is suggested. The method and techniques are described also.

Galych, D. I.; Terletskaya, L. O.

158

Results of Instrument Observations and Adaptive Prediction of Thermoabrasion of Banks of the Vilyui Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data derived from observations of reformation of the thermoabrasive banks of the Viliyui Reservoir in Yakutia during the service period from 1972 through 2011, and results of analytical prediction of bank formations over the next 20 years for purposes of monitoring the ecological safety of this water body are presented.

Velikin, S. A. [Vilyuisk Permafrost Scientific-Research Station, Institute of Permafrost Science, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)] [Vilyuisk Permafrost Scientific-Research Station, Institute of Permafrost Science, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Sobol', I. S.; Sobol', S. V.; Khokhlov, D. N. [Nizhnii Novgorod State Architectural and Civil-Engineering University (Russian Federation)] [Nizhnii Novgorod State Architectural and Civil-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15

159

Incoming Shortwave Fluxes at the Surface--A Comparison of GCM Results with Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented that the exam surface net radiation calculated in general circulation models at continental surfaces is mostly due to excess incoming shortwave fluxes. Based on long-term observations from 22 worldwide inland stations and results from four general circulation models the overestimate in models of 20% (11 W m2) in net radiation on an annual basis compares with 6%

J. R. Garratt

1994-01-01

160

Observing plate motions in S.E. Asia: Geodetic results of the GEODYSSEA project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the final geodetic results of the GEODYSSEA project. The GPS data from a 42 station network observed during two field campaigns (1994\\/1996) were analyzed by four groups using different software packages and analysis strategies. The precision of both campaign coordinate solutions was found to be 4-7 mm for the horizontal, and 1 cm for the vertical component.

W. J. F. Simons; B. A. C. Ambrosius; R. Noomen; D. Angermann; P. Wilson; M. Becker; E. Reinhart; A. Walpersdorf; C. Vigny

1999-01-01

161

Mainbelt Asteroids: Results of Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of 37 Objects During 1980-1995  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report detailed results of Arecibo and Goldstone radar observations of 30 mainbelt asteroids (MBAs) during 1980-1997. In addition to estimates of radar cross section, radar albedo, and circular polarization ratio, we obtain new pole constraints for several asteroids, with those for 21 Lutetia being particularly restrictive.

Magri, C.; Ostro, S. J.; Rosema, K. D.; Thomas, M. L.; Mitchell, D. L.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Giorgini, J. D.; Yeomans, D. K.

1998-01-01

162

Turbulent upwelling of mid-latitude ionosphere. 1. Observational results by the MU radar  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors present the detailed results of a series of experiments designed to study the coherent backscatter of 50-MHz radar waves from the mid-latitude F region. Data were obtained with the active phased-array MU radar in Japan and include some auxiliary E region coherent echoes as well.The strongest echoes correspond to irregularities at least 20 dB stronger than thermal backscatter at the same frequency from typical F region densities at the same range. Simultaneous observations with ionosondes show that these echoes occur during strong mid-latitude spread F. As defined by ionosondes, the latter phenomenon is certainly much more widespread than the turbulent upwelling events described here, but they believe that in some sense these correspond to the most violent mid-latitude spread F. The strongest echoes occur in large patches which display away Doppler shifts corresponding to irregularity motion upward and northward from the radar. At the edges of these patches there is often a brief period of toward Doppler before the echoing region ceases. On rare occasions comparable patches of strong away and toward Doppler are detected, although in such cases the Doppler width of the toward echoes is much narrower than that of the away echoes. The multiple beam capability at MU allowed us to track the patches in the zonal direction on two days. The patches moved east to west in both cases at velocities of 125 m/s and 185 m/s, respectively. There is a distinct tendency for the bottom contour of the scattering region to be modulated at the same period as the patch occurence frequency as well as at higher frequencies. This higher-frequency component may correspond to substructures in the large patches and to the E region coherent scatter patches which were detected simultaneously in several multiple beam experiments.

Fukao, Shoichiro; Shirakawa, Tatsuya; Takami, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Kato, Susumu (Kyoto University, Uji (Japan)); Kelley, M.C. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

1991-03-01

163

Calcineurin inhibitor minimization in the Symphony study: observational results 3 years after transplantation.  

PubMed

The Symphony study showed that at 1 year posttransplant, a regimen based on daclizumab induction, 2 g mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), low-dose tacrolimus and steroids resulted in better renal function and lower acute rejection and graft loss rates compared with three other regimens: two with low-doses of cyclosporine or sirolimus instead of tacrolimus and one with no induction and standard cyclosporine dosage. This is an observational follow-up for 2 additional years with the same endpoints as the core study. Overall, 958 patients participated in the follow-up. During the study, many patients changed their immunosuppressive regimen (e.g. switched from sirolimus to tacrolimus), but the vast majority (95%) remained on MMF. During the follow-up, renal function remained stable (mean change: -0.6 ml/min), and rates of death, graft loss and acute rejection were low (all about 1% per year). The MMF and low-dose tacrolimus arm continued to have the highest GFR (68.6 +/- 23.8 ml/min vs. 65.9 +/- 26.2 ml/min in the standard-dose cyclosporine, 64.0 +/- 23.1 ml/min in the low-dose cyclosporine and 65.3 +/- 26.2 ml/min in the low-dose sirolimus arm), but the difference with the other arms was not significant (p = 0.17 in an overall test and 0.077, 0.039 and 0.11, respectively, in pair-wise tests). The MMF and low-dose tacrolimus arm also had the highest graft survival rate, but with reduced differences between groups over time, and the least acute rejection rate. In the Symphony study, the largest ever prospective study in de novo kidney transplantation, over 3 years, daclizumab induction, MMF, steroids and low-dose tacrolimus proved highly efficacious, without the negative effects on renal function commonly reported for standard CNI regimens. PMID:19563339

Ekberg, H; Bernasconi, C; Tedesco-Silva, H; Vítko, S; Hugo, C; Demirbas, A; Acevedo, R Reyes; Grinyó, J; Frei, U; Vanrenterghem, Y; Daloze, P; Halloran, P

2009-08-01

164

Integration of Observations and Modeling Results in the North American Carbon Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North American Carbon Program (NACP) is designed to quantify the magnitudes and distributions of carbon sources and sinks, explain the processes controlling them, and produce a consistent analysis of North America’s carbon budget. To accomplish this goal, the NACP Science Plan calls for an unprecedented level of coordination among observational and modeling efforts for the terrestrial, atmospheric, and human components of the carbon cycle. Because available observations are localized and widely separated in both space and time, we depend heavily on models as a key integrating component within NACP. One modeling approach involves process-based ecosystem models that estimate carbon sources and sinks. The other modeling approach —atmospheric inverse models— estimates land-atmospheric fluxes that are optimally consistent with measurements of the wind fields and atmospheric carbon dioxide content. These two modeling approaches combine to provide improved understanding of carbon fluxes from land surfaces. This overview talk will describe and present summary results from model-data intercomparisons at two scales: individual sites, in which observations and ecosystems models are compared, and continental scale, in which observations, ecosystem models and inverse models are compared. The results from this work will provide feedback to the terrestrial ecosystem and inverse modeling communities that will help improve the diagnosis of carbon sources and sinks across North America. Ultimately, the synthesis will improve the predictive capacity of terrestrial ecosystem models through a rigorous evaluation framework designed to assess model performance against observations, inversions, and other forward models.

Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Jacobson, A. R.; Schaefer, K. M.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Davis, K. J.

2009-12-01

165

A numerical modeling study of a Montana thunderstorm: 1. Model results versus observations involving nonelectrical aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently developed Storm Electrification Model (SEM) has been used to simulate the July 19, 1981, Cooperative Convective Precipitation Experiment (CCOPE) case study cloud. This part of the investigation examines the comparison between the model results and the observations of the actual cloud with respect to its nonelectrical aspects. A timing equivalence is established between the simulation and observations based on an explosive growth phase which was both observed and modeled. This timing equivalence is used as a basis upon which the comparisons are made. The model appears to do a good job of reproducing (in both space and time) many of the observed characteristics of the cloud. These include: (1) the general cloud appearance; (2) cloud size; (3) cloud top rise rate; (4) rapid growth phase; (5) updraft structure; (6) first graupel appearance; (7) first radar echo; (8) qualitative radar range-height indicator evolution; (9) cloud decay; and (10) the location of hydrometers with respect to the updraft/-downdraft structure. Some features that are not accurately modeled are the cloud base height, the maximum liquid water content, and the time from first formation of precipitation until it reaches the ground. While the simulation is not perfect, the faithfulness of the model results to the observations is sufficient to give us confidence that the microphysical processes active in this storm are adequately represented in the model physics. Areas where model improvement is indicated are also discussed.

Helsdon, John H.; Farley, Richard D.

1987-05-01

166

The FSRQs 3c 279 and PKS 1510-089: Magic Latest Results and Multiwavelength Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At very high energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV), we count only three blazars of the flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) type to date. The MAGIC experiment detected all three of them; here we present MAGIC observations of 3C 279 and PKS 1510-089. 3C 279 was observed in 2011, without a significant detection, hence upper limits on the differential flux have been computed. The MAGIC observations of PKS 1510-089 in 2012 were triggered by alerts of high activity states and resulted in a significant detection. MAGIC observations are complemented with simultaneous multiwavelength observations in high energy ? rays, X-rays, optical and radio wavelengths and polarization measurements. With the study of the spectral features and the variability observed, we aim to identify the physical processes responsible for the behavior of this source class. In particular, we propose coherent scenarios, which take into account both the modeling of the spectral energy distribution and the constraints obtained from the lightcurves.

de Caneva, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Lindfors, E.; Saito, K.; Schultz, C.; Sitarek, J.; Tavecchio, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Pittori, C.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Buson, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Hayashida, M.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Hovatta, T.; Mundell, C.; Steele, I.; Nilsson, K.; Marscher, A.; Jorstad, S.

2014-03-01

167

SMART-1 Moon impact on 3 Sept 2006: results from observation campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMART-1 was launched in 2003 and orbited the Moon on a 5 hours period until impact on 3 sept 2006. A controlled impact took place in grazing incidence with mass of 285 kg at a velocity of 2 km/s in the Lake of Excellence. We called the community to make predictions of impact magnitude, cloud ejecta dynamics, exospheric effects. We also called the ground based observers to perform coordinated measurements of the impact. We shall discuss results from the coordinated multi-site campaign, in particular observations from CFHT of the flash impact and debris clouds. We shall draw lessons for future lunar impacts including LCROSS.

Foing, Bernard H.

168

Photographic zenith tube of the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory - Processing method and observation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the reduction of PZT plates which has been used at the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory since 1986 is described. The formulas used for computing the coordinates of the stellar image in the focal plane at the midpoint of the exposure are correct to 0.0024 arcsec. Observations from February 1986 to October 1988 are compared with data of BIH and IERS, and the results of the comparison are used to compute the amplitudes of the annual terms of nonpolar variations in the observed latitudes and Delta(UTI).

Yurov, E. A.

1992-10-01

169

Observation VLBI Session RAPL02. the Results of the Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the data processing of the VLBI experiment, titled RAPL02, are presented. Those observations were made in February, 2011, with 5 antennas. All 3 antennas of Saint-Petersburg Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences were used in that session. Those were antennae in Svetloe, in Zelenchuck, and in Badary. Additionally, a 22-m antenna in Puschino, as well as a 32-m antenna in Medicina (Italy) were also included into observations. The raw data correlation was made at the software correlator of the Astro Space Center. The secondary data processing was made for 3 quasars: 3C273, 3C279, and 3C286.

Chuprikov, A. A.

170

Results from two years of superconducting observations at the Hsinchu (HS) station, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hsinchu (HS) superconducting gravimeter (SG, serial No. T48) station is a newly established site in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP). Simultaneous observations of T48, three FG5 absolute gravimeters and GPS at four stations are studied. GPS shows few mm/year of horizontal and vertical motions around HS. The calibration factor and drifting rate of T48 are -75.944±0.070 ?gal/V and 0.597±0.705 ?gal/year. Both the SG and absolute gravity records contain a trend of about 2 ?gal/year. The ocean tide gravity effects (OTGEs) were estimated from NAO.99b, FES2004 and CSR4.0, and their amplitudes agree with the SG observations at the sub-?gal level, but their phases differ from the observations up to 10°. The Newtonian effect of ocean tide contributes 20% to the total OTGE at HS, and it is larger at islands in the Taiwan Strait. The inelastic body tide model of DDW is more consistent with the SG observations than the elastic model. Modeled gravity-atmosphere admittances based on an exponential distribution of air mass explain well the observed admittances. The average gravity-atmosphere admittance during typhoons is 30% larger than that in a non-typhoon time. A list of co-seismic gravity changes from T48 caused by earthquakes over 2006-2007 is given for potential studies of fault parameters. The modeled effects of atmospheric pressure, ground water, soil moisture, and polar motion explain the FG5 observed gravity trend to 0.50 ?gal/year. Seasonally, the groundwater-induced gravity change contributes the most to the SG residual gravity, but its phase leads the latter by 63 days.

Hwang, C.; Kao, R.; Cheng, C. C.; Huang, J. F.; Lee, C. W.; Sato, T.

2009-04-01

171

Hydrogen line and continuum emission in young stellar objects. II - Theoretical results and observational constraints  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical results for H I emission from YSOs are compared with available observations. IR line and radio continuum properties have been gathered for 29 objects that include a number of T Tau stars, several emission-line stars with IR excesses, and many heavily obscured luminous YSOs. The present excitation model can account for the observed Brackett line and radio continuum fluxes of YSOs with luminosities of 20-100,000 solar luminosities. It is argued that the observed Br-alpha line and 6-cm free-free continuum emissions are best explained in terms of a core-halo structure. The small core (ranging from r less than about 30 AU for a 10,000-solar luminosity YSO to r less than about 0.2 AU for a 10-solar luminosity YSO) is responsible for generating the strong IR line fluxes, while the surrounding diffuse halo dominates the 6-cm emission.

Alonso-Costa, Jose L.; Kwan, John

1989-01-01

172

Hydrogen line and continuum emission in young stellar objects. II - Theoretical results and observational constraints  

SciTech Connect

Theoretical results for H I emission from YSOs are compared with available observations. IR line and radio continuum properties have been gathered for 29 objects that include a number of T Tau stars, several emission-line stars with IR excesses, and many heavily obscured luminous YSOs. The present excitation model can account for the observed Brackett line and radio continuum fluxes of YSOs with luminosities of 20-100,000 solar luminosities. It is argued that the observed Br-alpha line and 6-cm free-free continuum emissions are best explained in terms of a core-halo structure. The small core (ranging from r less than about 30 AU for a 10,000-solar luminosity YSO to r less than about 0.2 AU for a 10-solar luminosity YSO) is responsible for generating the strong IR line fluxes, while the surrounding diffuse halo dominates the 6-cm emission. 62 refs.

Alonso-costa, J. L.; Kwan, JOHN

1989-03-01

173

Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray blazars: results from millimeter-VLBI observations.  

PubMed Central

VLBI observations of the extremely gamma-bright blazar PKS 0528+134 at 8, 22, 43, and 86 GHz reveal a strongly bent one-sided-core jet structure with at least three moving and two apparently stationary jet components. At the highest observing frequencies the brightest and most compact jet component (the VLBI core) is unresolved with an upper limit to its size of approximately 50 microarcsec corresponding to approximately 0.2 parsec [H0 = 100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 (megaparsec-1), q0 = 0.5, where H0 is Hubble constant and q0 is the deceleration parameter]. Two 86-GHz VLBI observations performed in 1993.3 and 1994.0 reveal a new jet component emerging with superluminal speed from the core. Linear back-extrapolation of its motion yields strong evidence that the ejection of this component is related to an outburst in the millimeter regime and a preceding intense flare of the gamma-flux density observed in early 1993. This and the radio/optical "light curves" and VLBI data for two other sources (S5 0836+710 and 3C 454.3) suggest that the observed gamma-radiation might be Doppler-boosted and perhaps is closely related to the physical processes acting near the "base" of the highly relativistic jets observed in quasars.

Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Standke, K J; Witzel, A; Schalinski, C J; Zensus, J A

1995-01-01

174

Spinning particles in Saturn's C ring from mid-infrared observations: Pre-Cassini mission results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn's C ring thermal emission has been observed in mid-infrared wavelengths, at three different epochs and solar phase angles, using ground based instruments (CFHT in 1999 and VLT/ESO in 2005) and the Infrared Radiometer Instrument Spectrometer (IRIS) onboard the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1980. Azimuthal variations of temperature in the C ring's inner region, observed at several phase angles, have been analyzed using our new standard thermal model [Ferrari, C., Leyrat, C., 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 447, 745-760]. This model provides predicted ring temperatures for a monolayer ring composed of spinning icy spherical particles. We confirm the very low thermal inertia (on the order of 10 JmKs) found previously by Ferrari et al. [Ferrari, C., Galdemard, P., Lagage, P.O., Pantin E., Quoirin, C., 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 441, 379-389] that reveals the very porous regolith at the surface of ring particles. We are able to explain both azimuthal variations of temperature and the strong asymmetry of the emission function between low and high phase angles. We show that large particles spinning almost synchronously might be present in the C ring to explain differences of temperature observed between low and high phase angle. Their cross section might represent about 45% of the total cross section. However, their numerical fraction is estimated to only ˜0.1% of all particles. Thermal behavior of other particles can be modeled as isothermal behavior. This work provides an indirect estimation of the particle's rotation rate in Saturn's rings from observations.

Leyrat, Cédric; Ferrari, Cécile; Charnoz, Sébastien; Decriem, Judicael; Spilker, Linda J.; Pilorz, Stuart

2008-08-01

175

Astrometric results of observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the Saturnian satellites in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The photometry of mutual occultations and eclipses of natural planetary satellites can be used to infer very accurate astrometric data. This can be achieved by processing the light curves of the satellites observed during international campaigns of photometric observations of these mutual events. Aims: This work focuses on processing the complete database of photometric observations of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Saturnian satellites made during the international campaign in 2009. The final goal is to derive new accurate astrometric data. Methods: We develop an accurate photometric model of mutual event observations of sufficiently high accuracy. Our original method is applied to derive astrometric data from photometric observations of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Saturnian satellites. Results: We process the 26 light curves obtained during the international campaign of photometric observations of the Saturnian satellites in 2009. Compared with the theory TASS 1.7 by Vienne and Duriez, we find that the root mean square of the "O-C" residuals for the 23 highest quality observations are equal to 48.5 and 21.7 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively, we obtain 16.4 and 20.7 mas with the new theory by Lainey and collaborators and 17.3 and 21.6 mas with JPL SAT351 ephemerides. Topocentric or heliocentric angular differences for satellites pairs are obtained for 16 time instants during the time period from December 19, 2008 to July 16, 2009. Light curves are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A29

Arlot, J.-E.; Emelyanov, N. V.; Lainey, V.; Andreev, M.; Assafin, M.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Casas, R.; Christou, A.; Colas, F.; Da Silva Neto, D. N.; Dechambre, O.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Dourneau, G.; Farmakopoulos, A.; Gault, D.; George, T.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Herald, D.; Kozlov, V.; Kurenya, A.; Le Campion, J. F.; Lecacheux, J.; Loader, B.; Massallé, A.; Mc Brien, M.; Murphy, A.; Parakhin, N.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schnabel, C.; Sergeev, A.; Tsamis, V.; Valdés Sada, P.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Zhang, X.

2012-08-01

176

Comparisons of Observations with Results from 3D Simulations and Implications for Predictions of Ozone Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although chemistry and transport models (CTMs) include the same basic elements (photo- chemical mechanism and solver, photolysis scheme, meteorological fields, numerical transport scheme), they produce different results for the future recovery of stratospheric ozone as chlorofluorcarbons decrease. Three simulations will be contrasted: the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM driven by a single year\\'s winds from a general circulation model; the GMI CTM driven by a single year\\'s winds from a data assimilation system; the NASA GSFC CTM driven by a winds from a multi-year GCM simulation. CTM results for ozone and other constituents will be compared with each other and with observations from ground-based and satellite platforms to address the following: Does the simulated ozone tendency and its latitude, altitude and seasonal dependence match that derived from observations? Does the balance from analysis of observations? Does the balance among photochemical processes match that expected from observations? Can the differences in prediction for ozone recovery be anticipated from these comparisons?

Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Strahan, Susan E.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Polarsky, Brian C.

2004-01-01

177

OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. I. INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

First results of a new speckle imaging system, the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, are reported. The instrument is designed to take speckle data in two filters simultaneously with two independent CCD imagers. This feature results in three advantages over other speckle cameras: (1) twice as many frames can be obtained in the same observation time which can increase the signal-to-noise ratio for astrometric measurements, (2) component colors can be derived from a single observation, and (3) the two colors give substantial leverage over atmospheric dispersion, allowing for subdiffraction-limited separations to be measured reliably. Fifty-four observations are reported from the first use of the instrument at the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m Telescope{sup 9}The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. in 2008 September, including seven components resolved for the first time. These observations are used to judge the basic capabilities of the instrument.

Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Veillette, Daniel R.; Shah, Sagar C.; O'Rielly, Grant V. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Baena Galle, Roberto [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Van Altena, William F. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)], E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: drv@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: g_sshah@umassd.edu, E-mail: gorielly@umassd.edu, E-mail: rbaena@am.ub.es, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu

2009-06-15

178

MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

2014-05-01

179

Cute SCIDAR: presentation of the new Canarian instrument and first observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new generation SCIDAR instrument that is a fully automatically controlled device with a user-friendly interface. Alignment and observation are reduced to easy and rapid handling without the effort operating in the dome. This instrument is installed in the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope on La Palma. We describe our progress from prototype to second generation instrument, emphasizing the design and the software for Cute SCIDAR, and show profiles from systematic monitoring using the prototype instrument on Tenerife and Cute SCIDAR on La Palma.

Hoegemann, Claudia K.; Chueca, Sergio; Delgado, Jose M.; Fuensalida, Jesus J.; Garcia-Lorenzo, Begona; Mendizabal, Esteban G.; Reyes, Marcos; Verde, Manuel; Vernin, Jean

2004-10-01

180

Trial results of YRY-2 shallow borehole strainmeter at eight observation sites in North China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis results of observations data indicate that this shallow-borehole (21 m – 52 m) strainmeter can record accurate\\u000a crustal movements. Its records of earthquake and solid tide can be analysed. To use long period frequency data, null drift\\u000a must be considered. To extend its application, the technique of installation and anti-lightning stroke should be improved.

Shun-Liang Chi

1993-01-01

181

Observation results by the TAMA300 detector on gravitational wave bursts from stellar-core collapses  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data-analysis schemes and results of observations with the TAMA300 gravitational wave detector, targeting burst signals from stellar-core collapse events. In analyses for burst gravitational waves, the detection and fake-reduction schemes are different from well-investigated ones for a chirp wave analysis, because precise waveform templates are not available. We used an excess -power filter for the extraction of gravitational

Masaki Ando; Koji Arai; Youichi Aso; Peter Beyersdorf; Kazuhiro Hayama; Yukiyoshi Iida; Nobuyuki Kanda; Seiji Kawamura; Kazuhiro Kondo; Norikatsu Mio; Shinji Miyoki; Shigenori Moriwaki; Shigeo Nagano; Kenji Numata; Shuichi Sato; Kentaro Somiya; Hideyuki Tagoshi; Hirotaka Takahashi; Ryutaro Takahashi; Daisuke Tatsumi; Yoshiki Tsunesada; Zong-Hong Zhu; Tomomi Akutsu; Tomotada Akutsu; Akito Araya; Hideki Asada; Mark A. Barton; Youhei Fujiki; Masa-Katsu Fujimoto; Ryuichi Fujita; Mitsuhiro Fukushima; Toshifumi Futamase; Yusaku Hamuro; Tomiyoshi Haruyama; Hideaki Hayakawa; Gerhard Heinzel; Gen'ichi Horikoshi; Hideo Iguchi; Kunihito Ioka; Hideki Ishitsuka; Norihiko Kamikubota; Takaharu Kaneyama; Yoshikazu Karasawa; Kunihiko Kasahara; Taketoshi Kasai; Mayu Katsuki; Keita Kawabe; Mari Kawamura; Nobuki Kawashima; Fumiko Kawazoe; Yasufumi Kojima; Keiko Kokeyama; Yoshihide Kozai; Hideaki Kudoh; Kazuaki Kuroda; Takashi Kuwabara; Namio Matsuda; Kazuyuki Miura; Osamu Miyakawa; Shoken Miyama; Hiromi Mizusawa; Mitsuru Musha; Yoshitaka Nagayama; Ken'ichi Nakagawa; Takashi Nakamura; Hiroyuki Nakano; Ken-Ichi Nakao; Yuhiko Nishi; Yujiro Ogawa; Masatake Ohashi; Naoko Ohishi; Akira Okutomi; Ken-Ichi Oohara; Shigemi Otsuka; Yoshio Saito; Shihori Sakata; Misao Sasaki; Kouichi Sato; Nobuaki Sato; Youhei Sato; Hidetsugu Seki; Aya Sekido; Naoki Seto; Masaru Shibata; Hisaaki Shinkai; Takakazu Shintomi; Kenji Soida; Toshikazu Suzuki; Akiteru Takamori; Shuzo Takemoto; Kohei Takeno; Takahiro Tanaka; Keisuke Taniguchi; Shinsuke Taniguchi; Toru Tanji; C. T. Taylor; Souichi Telada; Kuniharu Tochikubo; Masao Tokunari; Takayuki Tomaru; Kimio Tsubono; Nobuhiro Tsuda; Takashi Uchiyama; Akitoshi Ueda; Ken-Ichi Ueda; Fumihiko Usui; Koichi Waseda; Yuko Watanabe; Hiromi Yakura; Akira Yamamoto; Kazuhiro Yamamoto; Toshitaka Yamazaki; Yuriko Yanagi; Tatsuo Yoda; Jun'ichi Yokoyama; Tatsuru Yoshida

2005-01-01

182

Recent results of X-ray observations from OSO-7 and SAS-3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent observations bearing on the nature of compact X-ray sources obtained from the MIT instruments aboard OSO-7 and SAS-3 are discussed. Results on the X-ray sky survey, new ultralow-energy X-ray sources, X-ray sources in globular clusters, slow X-ray pulsars, and variability and position of compact X-ray sources in Cen A are discussed. Descriptions of the satellite-borne X-ray instruments are provided.

Clark, G. W.

1978-01-01

183

South Pole Antarctica observations and modeling results: New insights on HO x radical and sulfur chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of OH, H2SO4, and MSA at South Pole (SP) Antarctica were recorded as a part of the 2003 Antarctic Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI 2003). The time period 22 November, 2003–2 January, 2004 provided a unique opportunity to observe atmospheric chemistry at SP under both natural conditions as well as those uniquely defined by a solar eclipse event. Results under natural

Roy Mauldin; Edward Kosciuch; Fred Eisele; Greg Huey; David Tanner; Steve Sjostedt; Don Blake; Gao Chen; Jim Crawford; Douglas Davis

2010-01-01

184

Full-disk observations of solar oscillations from the geographic South Pole: Latest results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the latest results obtained from the analysis of the full-disk Doppler shift observations obtained at the geographic South Pole in 1981. About 80 normal modes of oscillation (l = 0–3) have now been identified. Their frequencies range from 1886 µHz (l = 1, n = 12) to 5074.5 µHz (l = 2, n = 35), and their

Gérard Grec; Eric Fossat; Martin A. Pomerantz

1983-01-01

185

Results of observations of the Eta Aquarid and Orionid meteor showers in 1980-1984  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main characteristics of meteor showers associated with Comet Halley were derived from the most recent radar observations carried out at the Ondrejov Astronomical Observatory during the periods of May 1 to 10 and October 15 to 30. The activity variations, the positions of activity maxima, the size distribution of particles, the particle flux variation within the stream and other characteristics were determined and compared with other results.

Hajduk, A.

1987-01-01

186

Comparison of assay kits for unconjugated estriol shows that expressing results as multiples of the median causes unacceptable variation in calculated risk factors for Down syndrome.  

PubMed

We compared the performance of two methods for assaying unconjugated estriol in serum: the modified Amerlex third-trimester RIA kit, as used in seminal papers on unconjugated estriol in Down syndrome screening, and the new optimized Amerlex-M second-trimester kit. The significant difference between the results of each assay could cause unacceptable changes in the detection rate and false-positive rate of Down syndrome screening programs, especially if previously published values for estriol are used in the risk calculation. It is not possible to define new calculation parameters for every assay kit because new parameters will need to be defined every time kit changes occur, which would require a large collection of samples from Down syndrome pregnancies for standardization. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed. PMID:1388113

Reynolds, T; John, R

1992-09-01

187

Observe an animation showing how geysers erupt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation uses a cross section to explain geyser eruption. As groundwater enters fractured bedrock, it is heated by nearby magma but is prevented from boiling by the pressure of overlying water. Eventually, the water becomes superheated and is forced upward, pushing water to the surface. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points.

Mcfarland, Dave; Larsen, Jamie; Earth, Exploring

188

Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse.

Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen

2014-01-01

189

ISO observations of low and moderate albedo asteroids. PHT-P and PHT-S results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ISO observations presented here are devoted to low and moderate albedo asteroids, which are supposed to be among the more primitive objects of the solar system. Spectroscopic and multi-filter photometric data of 77 Frigga, 114 Kassandra, 308 Polyxo, 511 Davida, and 914 Palisana have been obtained by the ISO instrument ISOPHOT. The subsystem PHT-P carried out photometric observations at 10, 12, 25, and 60 mu m, while low resolution spectra have been acquired by the subsystem PHT-S between 5.8 and 11.6 mu m. The Standard Thermal Model and a black-body fit have been applied to the obtained data in order to model the thermal continuum and to derive sub-solar and black-body temperatures. To interpret the obtained results and to investigate the surface composition of the observed asteroids, we compare the ISO spectra with the whole sample of mineral and meteorite laboratory spectra available in the literature. New laboratory experiments performed at the Capodimonte Observatory have been carried out to increase the available sample. A tentative spectral similarity with meteorites is presented. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the UK) with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

Dotto, E.; Barucci, M. A.; Müller, T. G.; Brucato, J. R.; Fulchignoni, M.; Mennella, V.; Colangeli, L.

2002-10-01

190

Magnetic reconnection signatures in the solar atmosphere: results from multi-wavelength observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the solar atmosphere magnetic reconnection is invoked as the main mechanism causing very energetic events (1028 - 1032 erg), like flares and coronal mass ejections, as well as other less energetic phenomena, like microflares, X-ray jets and chromospheric surges. In the last decade, thanks to high spatial resolution, multi-wavelength observations carried out by both ground-based telescopes (THEMIS, SST, VTT, DST) and space-born satellites (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, HINODE), it has been possible to study these phenomena and several signatures of the occurrence of magnetic reconnection have been singled out. In this paper, we describe some results obtained from the analysis of multi-wavelength observations carried out in the last years, with special emphasis on those events that were characterized by plasma outflows from the reconnection site. The events here discussed are relevant to some active regions observed on the Sun, characterized by the interaction of different bundles of magnetic flux tubes, as a consequence of phenomena of emergence of new magnetic flux from the subphotospheric layers and/or of cancellation of magnetic fragments. We report on these phenomena in order to give a contribution to the possibility to find a similarity with jets observed in AGNs.

Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Romano, P.

191

Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Science Payload Measurement Results of South Pole Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's LCROSS (Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite) mission is a lunar impactor targeted at a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south-pole. It will raise and observe an ejecta cloud of regolith and possibly ice and/or water vapor. LCROSS was co-manifested with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) on an Atlas V rocket and launched June 18, 2009. The mission is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) with industry partner Northrop Grumman. There are two impact events in the mission, the primary one created by the Atlas V Centaur rocket upper-stage, followed four minutes later by the impact of the LCROSS spacecraft. The impact event is October 9, 2009. The LCROSS science payload consists of nine instruments: a visible-light context camera, two near-infrared cameras, two mid-infrared cameras, two near-infrared spectrometers, one visible-ultraviolet spectrometer, and a high-speed photometer. This paper describes the on-orbit science payload calibration process and presents results of the impact event as observed by the LCROSS satellite science payload. Visible camera image taken from altitude ~9000km on June 23, 2009. Surface and limb targets observed are annotated. Simulated view from LCROSS spacecraft at time of Centaur impact.

Ennico, K.; Colaprete, A.; Shirley, M.; Wooden, D. H.; Galal, K.

2009-12-01

192

Observational Evidence for Shocks in the Solar Photosphere - New TESOS/VTT Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution spectroscopic observations recently acquired with the TESOS spectrometer at the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT, Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife) are used to test predictions regarding strongly dynamic events in the photosphere as obtained from three-dimensional numerical simulations with the CO5BOLD-code. Time series of two-dimensional maps of the Fe I 543.4 nm spectral line profile at different centre-to-limb positions are investigated in a statistical sense by comparing the distributions of individual spectral parameters derived from observations with the corresponding distributions from synthesized spectra calculated with the LINFOR3D code from the simulations. Appropriate degradation of the synthesized spectra was applied in order to take the limited spatial resolution of the telescope, seeing effects, and the scattered instrumental light into account. At the actual spatial resolution of 0.5 arc sec, the statistics show that signatures of the photospheric dynamics, including the most dynamical events like occasional supersonic flows of plasma in the nearly horizontal direction, are very similar in both observations and simulations. Discrepancies are found only for those spectral parameters (residual line intensity, Doppler line core shifts), which are affected by non-LTE effects, since non-LTE effects are not taken into account in the synthesis of the Fe I 543.4nm spectral line.

Rybak, J.; Kucera, A.; Hanslmeier, A.; Woehl, H.; Wedemeyer-Boehm, S.; Steiner, O.

2008-09-01

193

Interactions among aerosols, tropospheric ozone, lightning and wildfire: observational evidence and modeling results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We outline a conceptual link among aerosols, lightning, tropospheric ozone and wildfire activities. Using multiple satellite data sets we show strong evidence of this conceptual link in different climate regimes. Over the ocean, we show that lightning activity is highly sensitive to the concentration of aerosols in the atmosphere. Lightning flash rate increases 20-40 times for an increase of one aerosol optical depth unit. We show that as a result satellite measured tropospheric NOx and tropospheric ozone concentration is increased. Over the tropical continent, we show that lightning activity is also very sensitive to aerosol concentrations. We further demonstrate that human induced aerosol changes is highly related to lightning activity on a large scale. This aerosol-lightning link is therefore to have strong feedback on wildfire activity in the past and upcoming climate change. Using a global chemical transport model, we implemented the link between aerosol and tropospheric ozone and demonstrated that as a result of anthropogenic aerosol increase tropospheric ozone, especially in the upper troposphere, in the tropics has increased substantially. Our results strongly call for much more integrated chemistry-cloud-climate investigations. Schematic

Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Yu, H.; Bian, H.; Pickering, K. E.; Albrecht, R. I.; Oreopoulos, L.; Goodman, S. J.; Ziemke, J. R.; Allen, D. J.

2013-12-01

194

Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher temperatures in small shallow lakes and more southern latitudes. Most lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with short periods of thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. Over the ice-free season, the majority of the available energy from net radiation goes into evaporation, followed by sensible heat flux and warming of bottom sediments. Thermal bands of MODIS and Landsat imagery were fused using a spatio-temporal cokriging method to generate daily surface temperature estimates at Landsat spatial resolution. The close correspondence between satellite-derived and in situ measured near-surface lake temperature suggests that this approach yields viable results. Biogeochemical and inorganic geochemical constituents measured include dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4, and N2O), inorganic N, DON and DOC, alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, major ions, and CDOM. The greatest difference in the dissolved CH4:CO2 ratio in summer was longitudinal, with several lakes in western Alaskan Arctic exhibiting CH4 concentrations hundreds of times more supersaturated than air. Stable isotope analyses of CH4 (?13C and ?2H) show that several of these lakes have natural gas methane sources. Methane concentrations under ice (April) were several thousand times higher than in open-water conditions (August). Data collected during this 4-year project are archived at A-CADIS.

Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

2013-12-01

195

Geodetic methods for monitoring water overexploitation: Results from geometric and gravimetric observation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of population and urbanisation place increasing demands on groundwater resources for irrigation, drinking water supply and industrialisation. In semiarid and arid regions, decades of unrestrained extraction of groundwater has resulted in severe depletion of this valuable resource, leaving in turn its fingerprints in the time series of different space geodetic observing systems. On the one hand, the loss of water is accompanied by local and regional scale surface deformations that can be monitored by InSAR and permanent GPS networks with an accuracy of few millimeters. On the other hand, the mass loss is associated with changes of the Earth’s gravity field, being reflected by the observations of dedicated satellite missions. This paper analyses observation time series of InSAR and GRACE and quantifies the loss of water mass due to overexploitation of groundwater in selected regions over a period of several years. The results are subsequently compared with the output of the numerical hydrological models LaD and WGHM. Surface deformations are derived from InSAR time-series analysis using Envisat data. Mass variations are deduced from spherical harmonic expansions as well as from regional analyses of the GRACE gravity field as provided by various processing centers. Our case-studies are performed for regions in Central Iran where groundwater overdrafting is widespread.

Seitz, F.; Motagh, M.

2009-12-01

196

Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

1990-01-01

197

Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M ?). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H? images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, M. L.; Cignoni, M.; de Marchi, G.; de Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

2013-09-01

198

Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Special Observation Period (SOP1), part of the HyMeX campaign (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiments, 5 September-6 November 2012), was dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in the western Mediterranean, and three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were identified: Liguria-Tuscany, northeastern Italy and central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models, including hydrological models and marine models, allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen strong collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper an overview of the Italian organization during SOP1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in northeastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems, including the hydrological impacts. The usefulness of having different weather forecast operational chains characterized by different numerical weather prediction models and/or different model set up or initial conditions is finally shown for one of the events (IOP19).

Ferretti, R.; Pichelli, E.; Gentile, S.; Maiello, I.; Cimini, D.; Davolio, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Panegrossi, G.; Baldini, L.; Pasi, F.; Marzano, F. S.; Zinzi, A.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bartolini, G.; Loglisci, N.; Montani, A.; Marsigli, C.; Manzato, A.; Pucillo, A.; Ferrario, M. E.; Colaiuda, V.; Rotunno, R.

2014-05-01

199

Results of spectroscopic and photometric patrol observations of RW Aurigae. I - Variability of the Balmer lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the T Tauri star RW Aur carried out at Crimea from Dec. 1979 to Jan. 1983 are presented. During 35 nights the spectroscopic observations were accompanied with simultaneous narrowband photometry in the spectral region ?3620 - 8025 Å. The main parameters of the Balmer lines are determined: equivalent widths, line fluxes profiles of H? and H? and their changes with stellar brightness. The variability of H? and H? profiles is caused, probably, by modulation of the gaseous envelope due to the existence of local magnetic fields on the surface of the rotating star. The lifetime of such fields, that control the structure of the envelope, may be of order of several to several dozens of the rotational periods of the star. It is shown that the accretion (as seen in the profiles of the higher Balmer lines) is a secondary process which accompanies the outflow of gas.

Grinin, V. P.; Petrov, P. P.; Shakhovskaia, N. I.

200

Time-Series of Linear Spectropolarimetric Observations of Wolf-Rayet Stars: Results for WR 134  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a timeseries of spectropolarimetric observations of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) star WR 134. Our most striking observation so far is that in addition to the depolarization of spectral lines with respect to the continuum, already known to occur for this star, we find excess line polarisation in the red and blue wings at wavelengths clearly in excess of the terminal velocity of the wind. Also, contrary to expectations, we find no line depolarisation for the flat-topped He I ?5876 and C IV ?5804 lines. The excess polarization of the red wing is very likely a consequence of the well known red-shifted electron-scattering wing formed in expanding atmospheres, but the origin of the blue wing polarization still remains to be identified.

St-Louis, N.; de la Chevrotière, A.; Moffat, A. F. J.

2012-12-01

201

Chromospheric heating and metal deficiency in cool giants: Theoretical results versus observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compute acoustic shock wave-heated chromosphere models for moderately cool giant stars which differ greatly in metallicity. Subsequently, we simulate the emerging Mg II k lines assuming partial redistribution. The initial acoustic energy fluxes and the wave periods are taken from acoustic wave generation calculations based on traditional convection zone models. We find that the Mg II and Ca II core emissions are close to the observed basal flux limits which are common for giants and dwarfs. In addition, we find that the Mg II core emission is independent of the metallicity, in agreement with observations. We argue that these results should be considered as further evidence that the basal flux limits are indeed due to acoustic shock heating. The acoustic heating mechanism seems to be dominant in all nonmagnetic nonpulsating late-type stars.

Cuntz, M.; Rammacher, W.; Ulmschneider, P.

1994-01-01

202

Determining Inclinations of Active Galactic Nuclei via their Narrow-line Region Kinematics. I. Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11243, 11611, and 12212.

Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.

2013-11-01

203

Preliminary Results on Saturn's Inner Plasma Sheet as Observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present preliminary results of our analysis of Saturn's inner plasma sheet as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) experiment during Cassini's initial entry into Saturn's magnetosphere and when the spacecraft was put into orbit around Saturn. For this initial analysis ion fluxes are divided into two sub-groups: protons and water group ions. Depending on the status of our preliminary analysis we will discuss the ion composition and details of the fluid parameters. These results will eventually allow us to solve the force balance equation along the magnetic field (ions and electrons) and predict the vertical distribution of the plasma along the magnetic field. Once this is done we will be in a position to make detailed comparisons with the Voyager results.

Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D.; Coates, A. J.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M.; Reisenfeld, D.; Hill, T. W.; Dougherty, M.; Andre, N.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Richardson, J. D.; Rymer, A. M.

2004-11-01

204

Preliminary Results on Saturn's Inner Plasma Sheet as Observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present preliminary results of our analysis of Saturn's inner plasma sheet as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) experiment during Cassini's initial entry into Saturn's magnetosphere and when the spacecraft was put into orbit around Saturn. For this initial analysis ion fluxes are divided into two sub-groups: protons and water group ions. Depending on the status of our preliminary analysis we will discuss the ion composition and details of the fluid parameters. These results will eventually allow us to solve the force balance equation along the magnetic field (ions and electrons) and predict the vertical distribution of the plasma along the magnetic field. Once this is done we will be in a position to make detailed comparisons with the Voyager results.

Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D. G.; Coates, A. J.; Rymer, A. M.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D.; Hill, T. W.; Dougherty, M. K.; Andre, N.; Connerney, J. E.; Richardson, J. D.

2004-12-01

205

Barometric and magnetic observations of vertical acoustic resonance and resultant generation of field-aligned current associated with earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three rare occasions are introduced, where the excitation of vertical acoustic resonance between the ground and the ionosphere, and the resultant generation of a field-aligned current, just after earthquakes are observationally confirmed. In the case of two inland earthquakes, barometric observations very close to the epicenters (i.e., only 30 km apart) were available, and they showed a sharp spectral peak which appeared within one hour after the origin time and lasted a few hours. The observed periods of the spectral peaks around 260 seconds are close to the period of the theoretically-expected fundamental mode of the resonance. On the other hand, magnetic observations on the ground showed a dominant period at 220-230 seconds which corresponds to the first overtone among theoretically-expected major resonance peaks. In the third case, i.e., during the 2010 Chile earthquake, a long-period magnetic oscillation in the east-west direction, which has two major resonance periods at 265 and 190-195 seconds, was observed on the night-side magnetic dip equator in Peru, where the distance is more than 2600 km from the epicenter, under a very quiet geomagnetic condition. The oscillation was interpreted as the effect of field-aligned current generated through a dynamo process in the ionosphere over the epicenter caused by the resonance.

Iyemori, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Odagi, Y.; Sano, Y.; Takeda, M.; Nose, M.; Utsugi, M.; Rosales, D.; Choque, E.; Ishitsuka, J.; Yamanaka, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Matsumura, M.; Shinagawa, H.

2013-08-01

206

Turbulent upwelling of the mid-latitude ionosphere. I - Observational results by the MU radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented on a detailed ground-based VHF radar study of the turbulent upwelling in the midlatitude F region, using data from the active phased-array Japan's MU radar that include some auxiliary E-region coherent echoes. Results show that the coherent echo strength was often higher than was thermal scatter from the midlatitude F region. Simultaneous ionosonde measurements showed that these echoes occur during strong midlatitude spread F. The strongest echoes occurred in large patches which display away Doppler shifts corresponding to irregularity motions upward and northward from the radar. The away patches often have mean velocities well over 250 m/s and FWHM Doppler widths of 50 m/s. Possible explanations for the internal structure of the echoing patches are presented.

Fukao, Shoichiro; Shirakawa, Tatsuya; Takami, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Kelley, Michael C.

1991-03-01

207

Avastin Shows Mixed Results Against Different Cancers  

MedlinePLUS

... longer survival," said Ramondetta, a professor at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center and chief of ... M.D., professor, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, and chief, gynecologic oncology, Lyndon B. Johnson General ...

208

Preliminary Results Show Improvement in MS Symptoms  

MedlinePLUS

... Education Resources More Health Information Search Health Topics Search Health Topics Quick Links MedlinePlus Health Info NIH ... More Grants & Funding Information Search the NIH Guide Search the NIH Guide NIH Guide advanced search Quick ...

209

Results of observations of the tritium concentration in water fractions in the disposition regions of tritium laboratories  

SciTech Connect

In this paper results of the long term of control of tritium concentration in the water fractions in the region close to the tritium laboratories of INR NAS of Ukraine are presented. The regular observations for the tritium concentration in the water fractions (thawed water of the snow cover, birch juice and sewer water) in the influence region of tritium laboratories shows small amount of tritium concentration in all kinds of investigated water fractions in comparison with the tritium concentration in the reper points. The proper connection of the levels of tritium concentration of the water samples with the quantity of the technology production is observed. In common, the tritium pollution on the territory of INR shows the tendency for a considerable decrease of the environmental pollution levels from year to year. It can be explained by the perfection of the production technology of tritium structures and targets as well as the rising of the qualification of the personnel. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Koval, G.N.; Kuzmina, A.I.; Kolomiets, N.F.; Svarichevskaya, E.V.; Rogosin, V.N.; Svyatun, O.V. [Inst. for Nuclear Research NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

1995-10-01

210

Astrometric results of observations at Russian observatories of mutual occultations and eclipses of Jupiter's Galilean satellites in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, in five Russian observatories photometric observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellites during their mutual occultations and eclipses were carried out. Based on these observations, an original method was used to ascertain astrometric results such as the difference between the coordinates of pairs of satellites. Fifty-three phenomena were successfully observed. A total of 94 light curves of satellites were measured. The error in the coordinates of satellites due to random errors in photometry, calculated on all data obtained, was 0.041? in right ascension and 0.046? in declination. The discrepancies between the theory and observations in these coordinates was found to be 0.060? and 0.057?, respectively. The results were uploaded to the common database for all observations of natural satellites of planets at the Natural Satellites Data Center (NSDC), which is available online at http://www.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/index.htm . For the first time in the practice of photometric observations of satellites in epochs of mutual occultations and eclipses a new method of observation was tested, which eliminates from astrometric results the major systematic errors caused by an inaccurate account of the background level. The tests were conducted in the Terskol Observatory and the observatory of the Crimean laboratory of the Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of the Moscow State University. The application of the new method showed that the elimination of the background level at these observatories was carried out correctly.

Emelyanov, N. V.; Andreev, M. V.; Berezhnoi, A. A.; Bekhteva, A. S.; Vashkovyak, S. N.; Velikodskii, Yu. I.; Vereshchagina, I. A.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Devyatkin, A. V.; Izmailov, I. S.; Ivanov, A. V.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Kozlov, V. A.; Karashevich, S. V.; Kurenya, A. N.; Naiden, Ya. V.; Naumov, K. N.; Parakhin, N. A.; Raskhozhev, V. N.; Selyaev, S. A.; Sergeev, A. V.; Sokov, E. N.; Khovrichev, M. Yu.; Khrutskaya, E. V.; Chernikov, M. M.

2011-06-01

211

Centrifugal instability model of Saturn's aurora and its relation to Cassini observations: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using Cassini observations along the dawn meridian of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and more recent Cassini observations within the magnetotail of Saturn, we investigate the viability of the centrifugal instability model by Sittler et al. [2006] for Saturn's auroral response to the solar wind. This model was originally motivated by the Cassini-HST Auroral Campaign back in January of 2004. The Cassini-HST observations showed a direct correlation between solar wind dynamic pressure and 1) auroral brightening toward dawn local time, 2) increase of rotational movement of auroral features up to 75 % of the corotation speed, 3) the movement of the auroral oval to higher latitudes and 4) increase in the intensity of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR). The model is contrary to the reconnection model by Cowley et al. [2005], which gives a more Earth like description. Sittler et al. [2006], argue that the torques on Saturn's outer magnetosphere are relatively low (i.e., Saturn's ionosphere cannot enforce corotation), so that its outer magnetosphere will tend to conserve angular momentum; when compressed on the dayside, the outer magnetosphere will tend to spin up to higher angular velocities; when it expands, the outer magnetosphere will tend to spin down, to lower angular velocities. The outer boundary of the plasma sheet at L ˜ 15 is identified as the primary source location for the dayside auroral precipitating particles. Enhanced wave activity, which can precipitate the auroral producing particles, may be present at this boundary. If radial transport is dominated by centrifugally driven flux tube interchange motions, when the magnetosphere spins up, outward transport will increase, and the precipitating particles will move radially outward (i.e., negative radial gradient in electron energy flux). This mechanism will cause the auroral oval to move to higher latitudes as observed. Furthermore, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability along the dawn flanks of the magnetosphere may contribute to the enhanced emission along the dawn meridian as observed by HST via enhanced wave activity and corresponding charged particle precipitation. A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. Pitch angle distributions also play an important role as 1 a discriminator. Cassini charged particle and magnetometer data will be used for this preliminary study. [1] Sittler, Blanc and Richardson, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2006. [2] Cowley et al., J. Geophys. Res., 110, A02201, doi:10.1029/2004JA010796, 2005. 2

Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Blanc, M. F.; Richardson, J. D.; Rymer, A.; Thomsen, M.; Cooper, J. F.; Simpson, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Dougherty, M.

212

Gravity Changes and Internal Processes: Some Results Obtained from Observations at Three Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal gravity changes provide information about mass and/or density variations within and below the volcano edifice. Three active volcanoes have been under investigation; each of them related to a plate boundary: Mayon/Luzon/Philippines, Merapi/Java/Indonesia, and Galeras/Colombia. The observed gravity changes are smaller than previously expected but significant. For the three volcanoes under investigation, and within the observation period, mainly the increase of gravity is observed, ranging from 1,000 nm-2 to 1,600 nms-2. Unexpectedly, the gravity increase is confined to a rather small area with radii of 5 to 8 km around the summit. At Mayon and Merapi the parallel GPS measurements yield no significant elevation changes. This is crucial for the interpretation, as the internal pressure variations do not lead to significant deformation at the surface. Thus the classical Mogi-model for a shallow extending magma reservoir cannot apply. To confine the possible models, the attraction due to changes of groundwater level or soil moisture is estimated along the slope of Merapi exemplarily by 2-D modelling. Mass redistribution or density changes were evaluated within the vent as well as deeper fluid processes to explain the gravity variations; the results are compared to the model incorporating the additional effect of elastic deformation.

Jentzsch, Gerhard; Weise, Adelheid; Rey, Carlos; Gerstenecker, Carl

213

Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8? declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

2013-07-01

214

First Results from Coordinated Observing with IRIS, Hinode, and Ground-Based Observatories (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Small Explorer Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) was launched in June, 2013, and underwent successful commissioning in July and August. IRIS obtains UV spectra and images with high spatial resolution (0.33 arcsec) and high time cadence (1 sec) of the chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. It does not measure magnetic fields, and so the mission plans from the beginning have included coordination with other observatories to provide these, as well as additional coverage of chromospheric and coronal images and spectra. Coordinated observing with Hinode and with ground-based observatories, including Big Bear, the National Solar Observatory, and the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma, began in August. An extended campaign with SST from late August through early October (HOP 236) has been scheduled, performed by LMSAL and Oslo Co-I's. In these campaigns, Hinode SOT provides photospheric magnetic fields with high resolution and sensitivity, and the ground-based observatories provide chromospheric magnetic field measurements (and other images) in Ca II 8542 and/or He I 10830. IRIS performs observations from its initial observing plan on a variety of solar targets, and the other observatories follow its lead. This talk will describe some of these coordinated campaigns and first scientific results from them.

Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; De Pontieu, B.; Lemen, J. R.; Wuelser, J.; Wolfson, C. J.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Bush, R. I.; Sainz Dalda, A.; Kleint, L.

2013-12-01

215

Direct observation of differences of carotenoid polyene chain cis/trans isomers resulting from structural topology.  

PubMed

In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and theoretical calculations have been used to study carotenoid geometrical motifs generated by photoisomerization from the all-trans geometry. Multiple geometric isomers of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin were separated using TIMS (R > 110) for [M](+), [M + H](+), and [M - 18](+) molecular species. Comparison of observed cross sections with those obtained from molecular dynamics calculations showed that the number of cis double bonds and s-cis single bonds in the polyene chain determine the topology space of the carotenoid. The intensities of IMS signals are correlated with the relative stability of these geometric isomers.1,2 The most stable isomer is the all-trans geometry regardless of the ionization state ([M - 18](+), [M](+), and [M + H](+)), and structural stability decreases with the increasing number of cis and/or s-cis bonds in the polyene chain. PMID:24428664

Schenk, Emily R; Mendez, Vanesa; Landrum, John T; Ridgeway, Mark E; Park, Melvin A; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

2014-02-18

216

FORTE observations of lightning radio-frequency signatures: Capabilities and basic results  

SciTech Connect

The FORTE satellite, launched on August 29, 1997, carries both radio-frequency-receiver and optical (imaging and photometric) payloads for the study of lightning. The radio-frequency (RF) data for the first 7 months of operation are described, both to illustrate the satellite{close_quote}s capabilities and to explain the basic statistical findings so far. FORTE{close_quote}s multichannel RF trigger system represents a significant advance in space-based monitoring of lightning emissions. We are able to observe even rather weak and diffuse RF emissions from lightning and are no longer limited to the brightest known events, {open_quotes}transionospheric pulse pairs,{close_quotes} or TIPPs. We do see TIPPs, and we show that the FORTE observations of TIPPs are consistent only with the second pulse{close_quote}s being due to a ground reflection. We find that TIPPs are basically bimodal in character, one type having a steep roll-off of power from 38 to 130 MHz and the other being essentially flat-spectrum in that range. The steep-spectrum TIPPs cluster together in the manner of most RF emissions from lightning, while the flat-spectrum events tend to maintain a wider spacing ({gt}0.1 s) between recurrent emissions. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

Jacobson, A.R.; Knox, S.O.; Franz, R.; Enemark, D.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States)

1999-03-01

217

Cryopreservation of articular cartilage. Ultrastructural observations and long-term results of experimental distal femoral transplantation.  

PubMed

Ultrastructural changes associated with the freeze-preservation of human articular cartilage have been investigated and related to changes in transplanted distal femoral allografts in nonhuman primates. Human osteoarticular specimens were frozen at 2 degrees/minute in the presence of 15% glycerol and kept in liquid nitrogen freezers (vapor phase) from one day to two years. Ultrastructural changes were confined primarily to chondrocytes and were related to the freezing phenomenon, not to the time of storage. The cartilage matrix was affected little, explaining why articular cartilage initially survives clinical transplantation, but later undergoes degenerative changes. Osteoarticular allografts of baboons were frozen in an identical fashion to the human articular cartilage and transplanted into adult baboons. Long-term observations (five years) on these animals showed healing and replacement of the osseous portion of cryopreserved allografts. Fractures that appeared to coincide with maximum revascularization of the graft were the principal complication. Articular surfaces of the cryopreserved allografts underwent degenerative changes over five years. These degenerative changes were also manifested radiologically and appeared similar to those observed in humans. By contrast, fresh osteoarticular allografts healed poorly through fibrous union. However, in one of two fresh allografts, the articular cartilage remained intact five years after transplantation. PMID:8194231

Malinin, T I; Mnaymneh, W; Lo, H K; Hinkle, D K

1994-06-01

218

The Evolution of Stellar Coronae: Initial Results from a ROSAT PSPC Observation of IC 2391  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 23 ks ROSAT PSPC image of the young star cluster, IC 2391, reveals 76 soft x-ray sources with L(sub x)(0.2-2.0 keV) greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s in the direction of the cluster center. Nineteen of these sources are associated with known cluster members. We find that x-ray emission from the IC 2391 B stars deviates widely from the L(sub x)/L(sub bol) = 10(exp -7) relation based on Einstein observations of O and early B stars. Instead, we observe a wide range in L(sub x) with an order of magnitude spread at any given mass and no apparent dependence on spectral type. A comparison of the spread of L(sub x) as a function of B-V for low-mass stars between IC 2391 and the much older Hyades cluster shows that despite the factor of approx. 10 difference in their ages, these two clusters exhibit very similar dispersions in levels of stellar activity. We conclude that the low-mass stars in IC 2391 have arrived on the ZAMS with a wide range of coronal activity levels, from very strong to very weak, and that existing empirical activity-age scaling laws therefore cannot be valid.

Patten, Brian M.; Simon, Theodore

1993-01-01

219

Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

220

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from preseismic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.

PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael

2013-08-01

221

Surface electromagnetic impedance and geomagnetic activity: results of long term observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetotelluric (MT) method is one of the most useful geophysical tool to discover even the deep subsurface structures. The target function of the MT data processing is the surface electromagnetic (EM) impedance. In case of practical MT exploration the surface EM impedance is computed based on a simplification related to the nature of the ionospheric source of the surface EM signals. Assuming that the ionospheric current systems result in homogeneous surface electromagnetic variations, the uncertainty of the computed surface electromagnetic impedance tensor depends only the duration of the EM observation. However the surface EM field can only be approached by plane waves in certain time periods and besides given uncertainty. The EM impedance may be sensitive to magnetospheric and -indirectly- interplanetary circumstances and solar activity. Four years continuous observation of telluric and surface geomagnetic components allowed to perform a representative survey to discover if geomagnetic activity has any effect on observed EM impedance tensor. Geomagnetic indices (Dst, ULF-index, ASY-H, SYM-H) have been used to classify dates according to geomagnetic activity. Processing to estimate the mean surface EM impedance tensor has been performed in each dataset, each class separately. The sensitivity and the characteristics of the answer of the EM impedance tensor to the geomagnetic disturbances seems to be definite. This presentation aims to briefly summarize the preliminary results of our study based on the unique dataset of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Obsevatory (Intermagnet code:NCK). In addition, pointing out the limitations of the routine way of practical MT data processing and interpretation is an important duty of this study. This study was supported by the TAMOP-4.2.2.C-11/1/KONV-2012-0015 (Earth-system) project sponsored by the EU and European Social Foundation.

Lemperger, István; Menvielle, Menvielle; Wesztergom, Viktor; Bencze, Pál; Szendr?i, Judit; Novák, Attila; Kis, Árpád; Szalai, Sándor

2014-05-01

222

HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT: UNRAVELING TARANTULA'S WEB. I. OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M{sub Sun }). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H{alpha} images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; De Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA-European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cignoni, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); De Marchi, G. [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gallagher, J. S. III; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tosi, M., E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

2013-09-15

223

Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in patients with psychiatric emergencies: Results of an observational trial  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional antipsychotics augmented with benzodiazepines have been the standard acute treatment for psychiatric emergencies for more than 50 years. The inability of patients to give informed consent limits randomised, controlled studies. This observational study on immediate therapy for aggression and impulse control in acutely agitated patients (IMPULSE) evaluated the short-term effectiveness and tolerability of atypical and typical antipsychotic medications (AP) in a non-interventional setting. Methods This was a comparative, non-randomised, prospective, open-label, observational study. Treatment over the first 5 days was classified according to whether any olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol was included or not. Documentations (PANSS-excited component, CGI-aggression, CGI-suicidality, tranquilisation score) were at baseline (day 1) and days 2–6 after start of AP. Results During the short treatment-period, PANSS-EC and CGI-aggression scores improved in all cohorts. 68.7% of patients treated with olanzapine, 72.2% of patients treated with risperidone, and 83.3% of patients treated with haloperidol received concomitant benzodiazepines (haloperidol vs. non-haloperidol: p < 0.001). More patients treated with olanzapine (73.8%) were fully alert according to a tranquilisation score and active at day 2 than patients treated with risperidone (57.1%) or haloperidol (58.0%). Conclusion Current medication practices for immediate aggression control are effective with positive results present within a few days. In this study, concomitant benzodiazepine use was significantly more frequent in patients receiving haloperidol.

Wilhelm, Stefan; Schacht, Alexander; Wagner, Thomas

2008-01-01

224

Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study.  

PubMed

Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each condition. Physicians and parents were asked for a global assessment of efficacy and tolerability of the respective treatments at the end of therapy. A total of 309 children were treated (hamamelis n = 231; dexpanthenol n = 78). The treatment groups were comparable regarding demographic data and baseline total scores of signs and symptoms. In all three diagnosis groups, the efficacy of hamamelis and dexpanthenol was shown by a statistically significant and clinically relevant decrease of total scores from baseline to endpoint (p < 0.0001 for each group, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Overall, the results for the hamamelis and the dexpanthenol groups were similar. Descriptive advantages for the hamamelis group were observed for a number of parameters and diagnosis groups. Both treatments were well tolerated. Ratings of the tolerability of hamamelis were "excellent" or "good" in 99.1% (physicians) and 98.2% (parents) of cases, respectively. The corresponding ratings for dexpanthenol were 97.4 and 92.3%. In conclusion, hamamelis ointment is an effective and safe treatment for certain skin disorders in children up to the age of 11 years. The observed effects are similar to dexpanthenol. PMID:17177071

Wolff, Helmut H; Kieser, Meinhard

2007-09-01

225

Multi-Wavelength Observations of Asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom: Visible, Infrared, and Thermal Spectroscopy Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The August 2003 apparition of asteroid 2100 Ra-Shalom brought together a collaboration of observers with the goal of obtaining rotationally resolved multiwavelength spectra at each of 5 facilities: infrared spectra at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (Clark and Shepard), radar images at Arecibo (Shepard and Clark), thermal infrared spectra at Palomar (Lim, McConnochie and Bell), visible spectra at McDonald Observatory (Vilas, Lederer and Jarvis), and visible lightcurves at Ondrojev Observatory (Pravec). The radar data was to be used to develop a high spatial resolution physical model to be used in conjunction with spectral data to investigate compositional and textural properties on the near surface of Ra Shalom as a function of rotation phase. This was the first coordinated multi-wavelength investigation of any Aten asteroid. There are many reasons to study near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 2100 Ra-Shalom: 1) It has a controversial classification (is it a C- or K-type object)? 2) There would be interesting dynamical ramifications if Ra-Shalom is a K-type because most K-types come from the Eos family and there are no known dynamical pathways from Eos to the Aten population. 3) The best available spectra obtained previously may indicate a heterogeneous surface (most asteroids appear to be fairly homogeneous). 4) Ra-Shalom thermal observations obtained previously indicated a lack of regolith, minimizing the worry of space weathering effects in the spectra. 5) Radar observations obtained previously hinted at interesting surface structures. 6) Ra-Shalom is one of the largest Aten objects. And 7) Ra-Shalom is on a short list of proposed NEAs for spacecraft encounters and possible sample returns. Preliminary results from the visible, infrared, and thermal spectroscopy measurements will be presented here.

Clark, Beth Ellen; Shepard, M.; Bus, S. J.; Vilas, F.; Rivkin, A. S.; Lim, L.; Lederer, S.; Jarvis, K.; Shah, S.; McConnochie, T.

2004-01-01

226

Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are available. Therefore it would be very useful to get more laboratory data and especially from Tran et al (2013), Mahjoub et al. (2012) and Imanaka et al. (2012) samples in these spectral regions since their refractive indexes match observational and theoretical data in other spectral ranges. This presentation will critically summarize these recent results and present detailled constraints on the optical constants Titan's aerosols. In addition, specific lacks of data will be highlighted as well as some possible investigations to be carried out to fill these gaps. References: Cable, M. L., et al., 2012. Titan Tholins: Simulating Titan Organic Chemistry in the Cassini-Huygens Era. Chemical Reviews. 112, 1882-1909. Imanaka, H., et al., 2012. Optical constants of Titan tholins at mid-infrared wavelengths (2.5-25 µm) and the possible chemical nature of Titan's haze particles. Icarus. 218, 247-261. Khare, B. N., et al., 1984. Optical-Constants of Organic Tholins Produced in a Simulated Titanian Atmosphere - from Soft-X-Ray to Microwave-Frequencies. Icarus. 60, 127-137. Kim, S. J., Courtin, R., 2013. Spectral characteristics of the Titanian haze at 1?5 micron from Cassini/VIMS solar occultation data. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 557, L6. Mahjoub, A., et al., 2012. Influence of methane concentration on the optical indices of Titan's aerosols analogues. Icarus. 221, 670-677. Raulin, F., et al., 2012. Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393. Sagan, C., Khare, B. N., 1979. Tholins - Organic-Chemistry of Inter-Stellar Grains and Gas. Nature. 277, 102-107. Tran, B. N., et al., 2003. Simulation of Titan haze formation using a photochemical flow reactor - The optical constants of the polymer. Icarus. 165, 379-390. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

2014-05-01

227

Early Results from the First Year of Observations by the Atacama B-mode Search (ABS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atacama B-mode Search (ABS) instrument, which began observation in February of 2012, is a crossed-Dragone telescope located at an elevation of 5100 m in the Atacama Desert in Chile. The primary scientific goal of ABS is to measure the B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) from multipole moments of about l=50 to l=500, a range that includes the primordial B-mode peak. Unlike most current polarization experiments, ABS features a cryogenic telescope and a warm half-wave plate used to modulate the polarization of the incoming light. The ABS focal plane array consists of 240 pixels designed for observation at 150 GHz by the TRUCE collaboration. Each pixel has its own individual, single-moded feedhorn and contains two transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers sensitive to orthogonal polarizations. The detectors are read out using time domain multiplexing so that the thermal loading of the readout electronics does not heat the focal plane. I will present early results from the first year of ABS data.

Simon, Sara M.; ABS Collaboration

2013-06-01

228

Dome Fuji Seeing -the Summer Results and the Future Winter-over Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out the first seeing measurements at Dome Fuji in the 2010-2011 austral summer. From these observations, we found that the summer seeing at Dome Fuji was 1.2'' (mean), 1.1'' (median), 0.83'' (25th percentile) and 1.5'' (75th percentile), respectively. We also found that the seeing changed continuously and had a minimum around 0.7'' at ~18:00 hours daily. We compared the seeing with some weather parameters obtained from the 16 m mast, and found that the seeing had good correlations with atmosphere temperature and wind shear. These results suggest that the seeing is degraded by turbulence near the surface boundary layer. Because the data were obtained only over a short duration in summer, the general characteristics of Dome Fuji's seeing could not be evaluated. We plan to observe the seeing in winter with a stand-alone DIMM telescope. This new DIMM, which we named the Dome Fuji Differential Image Motion Monitor (DF-DIMM), will be installed at Dome Fuji in January 2013.

Okita, Hirofumi; Takato, Naruhisa; Ichikawa, Takashi; Bonner, Colin S.; Ashley, Michel C. B.; Storey, John W. V.

2013-01-01

229

On some results on response observation of liquid storage tanks to natural earthquakes  

SciTech Connect

This article deals with some results of analysis on response of three liquid storage tanks in Chiba Field Station, Institute of Industrial Science, 50 km east of Tokyo. The first storage tank was completed in 1973, and now three tanks are installed in the station. They include a 20 m/sup 3/, 4 m diameter cylindrical steel rigid wall tank, a 54 m/sup 3/, 4 m diameter cylindrical steel thin wall tank, and a 60 m/sup 3/, 6 m X 4 m X 3 mH rectangular FRP panel-type storage on a rack. The maximum ground acceleration in the period of observation was approximately 90 Gal, and the ground displacement 8 mm. One of the most important conclusions of their study is that the amplification factor in acceleration phase is very cleary decreasing according to the input acceleration level. This is quite evident in the FRP panel type storage tank. Also, amplification factors vary according to individual earthquake characteristics at the higher input level. Some buckling type damage was observed on the wall of the thin wall cylindrical tank, Type number 2, this summer. The mechanism has not be clarified yet. The authors' findings including the above mentioned are useful to improve the design practice of such types of liquid storage tanks.

Shibata, H.; Kubota, M.; Morikawa, S.; Shigeta, T.

1983-01-01

230

First results of the observation of {sup 7}Be solar neutrinos with the BOREXINO detector  

SciTech Connect

The results of a direct measurement of the counting rate for solar neutrinos from the electron-capture process on {sup 7}Be, {sup 7}Be(e{sup -}, {nu}{sub e}){sup 7}Li(E{sub {nu} }= 0.862 MeV), with the low-background scintillation detector BOREXINO are presented. This is the first ever real-time observation of a signal from solar neutrinos of energy below 1 MeV. The counting rate for monoenergetic beryllium neutrinos in the BOREXINO detector proved to be 47 {+-} 7 (stat.) {+-} 12 (syst.) counts/(day x 100 t), which is in agreement with the predictions of the standard solar model and the hypothesis of neutrino oscillations in matter with parameters in the LMA region.

Litvinovich, E. A., E-mail: e.litvinovich@kiae.r [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2009-03-15

231

Evaporation over land surfaces - First results from HAPEX-MOBILHY Special Observing Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are presented from the May 7-July 15, 1986 Special Observing Period (SOP) of the HAPEX-MOBILHY program, which examines the hydrological budget and evaporation flux at the scale of a 10,000 sq km GCM grid square to determine soil moisture, surface-energy budgets, and surface hydrology. The SOP used two highly instrumented remote sensing aircraft to obtain detailed measurements of atmospheric fluxes and surface properties. It is noted that the measurements are reliable at spatially local and short time scales, as well as on the monthly time scale. The data base obtained may be used in parametrization schemes against which land-surface water budgets can be tested.

Andre, Jean-Claude; Goutorbe, Jean-Paul; Bessemoulin, Pierre; Perrier, Alain; Becker, Francois

1988-01-01

232

Kinetics of polar mesospheric plasma layers: Comparison of theoretical results with observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an analytical model for the physical understanding of the charge distribution on ice dust particles in plasma layers of polar mesospheric clouds PMCs (Noctilucent clouds and polar mesospheric summer echoes). For the case of pure ice dust (with high work function), the charging of the particles occurs only because of the accretion of electronic and ionic species on the surface of ice grains. The analysis is based on the number and energy balance of constituents and allows the charge to be only an integral multiple (positive or negative) of the electronic charge. Amongst other interesting results, the theory explains the observed charge distribution on pure ice particles and corresponding reduction of electron density (viz., Bite out) in the PMCs.

Sodha, M. S.; Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K.; Dixit, Amrit

2011-08-01

233

Observations of the fine structure of the interplanetary shocks: case study results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma spectrometer BMSW was developed for the measurements of the main solar wind and magnetosheath plasma parameters - velocity, temperature, ion density and ion flux with high time resolution onboard the "Spektr-R" project. Since the beginning of measurements on August 2011 a lot of experimental data were received allowing to study, in particular, fine structure of the solar wind, interplanetary shocks, boundaries and so on. The paper presents case study results of several fast forward interplanetary (IP) shocks, observed by BMSW experiment. Such parameters of IP shocks as velocity, normal, thickness, are given. It was shown the presence of large amplitude ion flux oscillations near the front of interplanetary shock with the periods about 1-8 seconds. Power spectra of these ion flux oscillations are analyzed.

Borodkova, Natalia; Zastenker, Georgy; Chugunova, Olga

2014-05-01

234

Observations of Scorpius X-1 with IUE - Ultraviolet results from a multiwavelength campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

IUE UV results are presented for the low-mass X-ray binary Sco X-1. Models that predict UV continuum emission from the X-ray-heated surface from the companion star and from an X-ray illuminated accretion disk are adjusted for parameters intrinsic to Sco X-1, and fitted to the data. X-ray heating is found to be the dominant source of UV emission; the mass-accretion rate increases monotonically along the 'Z-shaped' curve in an X-ray color-color diagram. UV emission lines from He, C, N, O, and Si were detected; they all increase in intensity from the HB to the FB state. A model in which emission lines are due to outer-disk photoionization by the X-ray source is noted to give good agreement with line fluxes observed in each state.

Vrtilek, S. D.; Raymond, J. C.; Penninx, W.; Verbunt, F.; Hertz, P.

1991-01-01

235

The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey. II. Results of Precursor Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the full Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I survey, precursor observations were carried out in 2004 August-September with the seven-beam Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver system and the Wideband Arecibo Pulsar Processor spectral processors. While these observations were geared mainly at testing and debugging survey strategy, hardware, and software, approximately 48 hr of telescope time yielded science-quality data. The efficiency of system usage (allowing for minor malfunctions and the impact of radio-frequency interference) during that time was 75%. From those observations, an initial list of 730 tentative detections of varying degrees of reliability was extracted. Ninety-eight high signal-to-noise ratio candidates were deemed to be bona fide H I line detections. To test our ability to discriminate cosmic signals from radio-frequency interference and noise, 165 candidates ranging in reliability likelihood were reobserved with the single-beam L-band wide system at Arecibo in 2005 January-February. Of those, 41% were confirmed as real. We present the results of both the ALFA and the single-beam observations for the sample of 166 confirmed H I sources, as well as our assessment of their optical counterparts. Of the 166 sources, 62 coincided with previously known H I sources, while optical redshifts were available for an additional 18 galaxies; thus, 52% of the redshifts reported here were previously unknown. Of the 166 H I detections, 115 are identified with previously cataloged galaxies of either known or unknown redshift, leaving 51 objects identified for the first time. Because of the higher sensitivity of the Arecibo system, fewer than 10% of the 166 H I sources would have been detected by a HIPASS-like survey of the same region. Three of the objects have H I masses less than 107 Msolar. The full ALFALFA survey, which commenced in 2005 February, should detect more than 100 times as many objects of similarly low H I mass over the next 5 years.

Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Kent, Brian R.; Perillat, Philip; Catinella, Barbara; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Momjian, Emmanuel; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Brosch, Noah; Masters, Karen L.; Springob, Christopher M.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Muller, Erik; van Driel, Wim; van Zee, Liese

2005-12-01

236

Stable Isotopic Variability in the Carbon Cycle: Reconciling Ocean Model Results with Atmospheric Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of rising sea levels, species extinction, unpredictable precipitation changes, and other potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change, there is a push for the scientific community to expand our current understanding of the major sources and sinks of global warming’s most implicated culprit, CO2. Knowing the mechanisms controlling CO2 sinks and sources will be vital for policy-makers to make informed decisions regarding its mitigation. The stable carbon isotope, 13C, can be used to partition CO2 fluxes into land and ocean components. The major fluxes of this gas (fossil fuel, ocean and land) impose distinctive and predictable fractionation patterns upon the stable isotope ratio, making it an ideal tool for distinguishing between them. One drawback to this method is that photosynthesis and respiration are not contemporaneous, and because the 13C of atmospheric CO2 is being continuously depleted through the burning of 12C-rich fossil fuels (the Suess effect), there is an isotopic “disequilibrium flux” between CO2 moving into and out of the ocean and land reservoirs. In this study, we take a new approach and seek to reconcile independent estimates of time histories of ocean fluxes with atmospheric observations. We use a combination of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 data, fossil fuel emission estimates, and recent ocean model results (from two different approaches) for the ocean CO2 flux, within a box-inverse model as well as a 2D transport model. We calculate time series of land flux, disequilibrium flux and photosynthetic fractionation from 1991 through 2008. Our findings reveal that if ocean variability is as small as is suggested by the ocean model, and the isotopic variability is forced into the disequilibrium flux, then the resulting disequilibrium flux has very large interannual variability (~35 PgC‰/yr). While large interannual variability in DIS seems incompatible with the Suess effect alone, it could be explained by interannual variations in the photosynthetic fractionation term, ?ab. Interannual variations in relative strength of C3 and C4 productivity and stomatal conductance could change isotopic disequilibrium over large spatial scales, thus helping to explain the otherwise seemingly incongruent nature of the ocean model results and atmospheric observations. We produce several end-member scenarios, of varying spatial resolutions, in which photosynthetic fractionation and C4 fraction of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) absorb all variability expressed in the disequilibrium flux results. We next compare our estimates of the photosynthetic fractionation and C3/C4 changes with independent climate indicators, such as precipitation and temperature anomalies, drought indices, and soil moisture.

Alden, C. B.; White, J. W.; Miller, J. B.

2009-12-01

237

Validation of an off-line three-dimensional chemical transport model using observed radon profiles: 2. Model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We parameterize radon emissions in the TOMCAT global off-line three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) and compare modeled radon profiles with spatially and temporally matched observations obtained near Moffett Field, California, in June 1994. The CTM was forced using European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analyses for April-August 1994. To identify the origin of modeled radon, we divided the radon sources into three regions. We performed CTM sensitivity experiments at horizontal resolutions of 2.8° × 2.8° (latitude × longitude) and 7.5° × 7.5°, and with and without moist convection and/or vertical diffusion. At the higher resolution the full CTM (i.e., including convection and vertical diffusion) generally agrees well with the observations in the free troposphere. The observations exhibit free-tropospheric radon peaks at altitudes where zonal wind speeds in the Pacific jet stream are greatest (generally at ?7 km). In this region the modeled radon originates from Asia, and the observed variability in the radon concentration is reproduced. Thus, the model reproduces the position and strength of the jet. We identify observed radon peaks that may originate from convective lifting, as they do in the model results. If these observed peaks do originate from convection, then the full CTM captures the correct temporal variability in convection over Asia and the Pacific for the observation period. Quantitative comparison shows that the model-data agreement is degraded if we decrease the model resolution to 7.5° × 7.5°, or remove the parameterizations of convection and/or vertical diffusion. This suggests a resolution of near 2.8° × 2.8° is needed in global models for realistic simulations of short-lived species. We have identified certain shortcomings with TOMCAT: the model underestimates the amount of convective cloud, the convective cloud top height, and the amount of vertical diffusion. We identify improvements to ameliorate these problems.

Stockwell, D. Zoe; Kritz, Mark A.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Pyle, John A.

1998-04-01

238

Results of Geomagnetic Observations at the Hurbanovo Geomagnetic Observatory in 1985.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absolute observations were made at regular intervals of 7 days, activity of the geomagnetic field permitting. Some observations with the proton magnetometer, however, were made more frequently, i.e., twice a week. Declination, horizontal component, ve...

1986-01-01

239

Surface Tension and Viscosity Measurements in Microgravity: Some Results and Fluid Flow Observations during MSL-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscosity of a liquid metal was successfully measured for the first time by a containerless method, the oscillating drop technique. This method also provides a means to obtain a precise, non-contact measurement of the surface tension of the droplet. This technique involves exciting the surface of the molten sample and then measuring the resulting oscillations; the natural frequency of the oscillating sample is determined by its surface tension, and the damping of the oscillations by the viscosity. These measurements were performed in TEMPUS, a microgravity electromagnetic levitator (EML), on the Space Shuttle as a part of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1), which flew in April and July 1997 (STS-83 and STS-94). Some results of the surface tension and viscosity measurements are presented for Pd82Si18. Some observations of the fluid dynamic characteristics (dominant flow patterns, turbulent transition, cavitation, etc.) of levitated droplets are presented and discussed together with magnetohydrodynamic calculations, which were performed to justify these findings.

Hyer, Robert W.; Trapaga, G.; Flemings, M. C.

1999-01-01

240

Theoretical predictions of experimental observables sensitive to the symmetry energy. Results of the SMF transport model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of mean-field-based transport approaches, we discuss recent results concerning heavy-ion reactions between charge asymmetric systems, from low up to intermediate energies. We focus on isospin sensitive observables, aiming at extracting information on the density dependence of the isovector part of the nuclear effective interaction and of the nuclear symmetry energy. For reactions close to the Coulomb barrier, we explore the structure of collective dipole oscillations, rather sensitive to the low-density behavior of the symmetry energy. In the Fermi energy regime, we investigate the interplay between dissipation mechanisms, fragmentation and isospin effects. At intermediate energies, where regions with higher density and momentum are reached, we discuss collective flows and their sensitivity to the momentum dependence of the isovector interaction channel, which determines the splitting of neutron and proton effective masses. Finally, we also discuss the isospin effect on the possible phase transition from nucleonic matter to quark matter. Results are critically reviewed, also trying to establish a link, when possible, with the outcome of other transport models.

Colonna, Maria; Baran, Virgil; Di Toro, Massimo

2014-02-01

241

Recent results based on continuous GPS observations of the GIA process in Fennoscandia from BIFROST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the latest 3D velocity field of the Fennoscandian glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) process from BIFROST. It is derived from more than 4800 days (13 years) of data at more than 80 permanent GPS sites. We use the GAMIT/GLOBK and the GIPSY/OASIS II software packages for GPS analysis and compare the results. The solution has an internal accuracy at the level of 0.2 mm/year (1 sigma) for horizontal velocities at the best sites. We also present a revised GIA prediction model. At the best sites, the optimal model agrees with the observations to within 0.4 mm/year. However, the model systematically overpredicts the magnitude of horizontal rates in the north. We discuss limitations in computed and presented GNSS station velocities, where especially possible instability over time causing non-linear pattern in vertical time series are considered. In extension, preliminary results from an investigation applying revised analysis strategies on a sparse subset of the database are presented, indicating possible improvements for the future.

Lidberg, Martin; Johansson, Jan M.; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Milne, Glenn A.

2010-07-01

242

Mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter in 1997: Astrometric results of observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, a complete database of the international campaign on photometric observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter in the 1997 epoch of mutual occultations and eclipses was published. Only two thirds of the observations were considered by other authors beforehand. In this study, we have processed the whole observational database with an original technique in order to obtain the

N. V. Emel'Yanov; S. N. Vashkov'yak

2009-01-01

243

First Results of Atmospheric Trace Gases in and around New Delhi using mobile MAX-DOAS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of air pollutants, greatly influence air quality and have direct influence on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI, in month of April 2010, we carried out mobile MAX-DOAS measurements in and around Delhi and made comparison with satellite data. The MAX-DOAS was mounted on a car. The aim of the project was to characterize and quantify pollutants. The mobile observations were conducted in and around New Delhi along circles of different radii. The analysis of MAX-DOAS, satellite observations and meteorological data, is used to quantify the total emissions of trace gases like NO2, HCHO or Glyoxal. The results obtained from the detailed analysis are first time compared with the satellite data. The ground and satellite data show a good correlation over Delhi, capital of India.

Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Marbach, T.; Wagner, T.; Sharma, M.; Chauhan, A.; Singh, R.

2010-12-01

244

On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

Patra, Amit

2012-07-01

245

NOVAC - Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change, First Installations and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NOVAC project, funded by European Union, was started in October 2005 with the aim to establish a global network of stations for the quantitative measurement of volcanic gas emissions. The network is based on a novel type of instrument, the Scanning Dual-beam mini-DOAS. Primarily the instruments will be used to provide new parameters in the toolbox of observatories for gas emission estimates, geophysical research and hazard assessment. In addition, data are exploited for other scientific purposes, e.g. global estimates of volcanic gas emissions, regional to global statistical analysis, and studies of atmospheric chemistry. In particular large scale validation of satellite measurements of volcanic gas emissions will be possible, bringing spaceborne observation volcanoes a significant step forward. The Scanning Dual-beam Mini-DOAS instrument is capable of real-time automatic, unattended measurement of the total emission fluxes of SO2 and BrO from a volcano with better then 5 minutes time resolution during daylight. The high time-resolution of the data enables correlations with other geophysical data, e.g. seismicity, thus significantly extending the information available for real-time hazard assessment and research. By comparing high time resolution gas emission data with emissions from neighboring volcanoes on different geographical scales, or with other geophysical events (earthquakes, tidal waves) mechanisms of volcanic forcing may be revealed. The spectra recorded by the instrument will also be used to derive data that complement global observation networks related to climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion research. The consortium encompasses observatories of 20 volcanoes from five continents, including some of the most active and strongest degassing volcanoes in the world. The project will be presented as well as first results from the recent installations on San Cristobal, Masaya, Tungurahua and Galeras volcanoes.

Galle, B.; Platt, U.; Vanroozendael, M.; Oppenheimer, C.; Hansteen, T.; Boudon, G.; Burton, M.; Delgado, H.; Strauch, W.; Duarte, E.; Garzon, G.; Pullinger, C.; Kasereka, M.; Molina, L.; Carn, S.; Samaniego, P.; Sanchez, E.; Inguaggiato, S.

2007-05-01

246

Deuterium abundances along three extended sightlines from FUSE observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the deuterium abundance, D/H, in the interstellar medium provide important constraints on Galactic chemical evolution models as well as on the Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory. Recent results from FUSE have shown that for sightlines with log N(H) > 20.7, D/H is approximately half of that in the Local Bubble (D/HLB 1.6E-5), with large variations for sightlines with N(H) larger than the Local Bubble but smaller than 20.7. These results, in conjunction with results obtained with other observatories such as Copernicus and IMAPS, have questioned the previously held assumption that D/HLB is representative of the present-epoch abundance of deuterium. The causes of the low D/H at high N(H) as well as of the variations in the intermediate N(H) range are currently unknown. Depletion onto dust grains, infall of metal-poor gas and variable astration are mechanisms being considered to explain the D/H variations. However, the small number of sightlines with log N(H)> 20.7 for which D/H has been measured limits progress in this area. In this work we use new FUSE data to derive column densities of DI, NI, OI, FeII and other species along three sightlines with log N(H) > 20.9, probing gas over distances larger than 1 Kpc. In conjunction with N(HI) derived from IUE data we compute D/H, N/H, O/H, and Fe/H ratios which are then compared to values in the literature. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided in part by NASA contract NAS5-32985 to Johns Hopkins University.

Oliveira, C. M.; Moos, H. W.; Hebrard, G.; Knauth, D. C.

2005-12-01

247

Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled topography changes.

Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

2012-07-01

248

The acidification process under the cloud in southwest China: Observation results and simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mean ionic concentrations in rain water (RW) and cloud water (CW) for urban, suburban and rural locations in southwest (SW) and eastern (E) China, from sampling periods between 1985 and 1989 are reported. In SW China the ammonium, calcium and hydrogen cations, and the sulphate anion are present at elevated levels in urban RW. The mean concentrations of these ions are all lower in CW, so that washout is the predominant process leading to acidification. Washout is also important over suburban regions but rainout provides most of the acidity of precipitation in rural areas. Simultaneous observations of CW and RW concentrations over short time intervals have confirmed the dominance of washout processes in the large cities Chongqing and Guiyang. The chemical compositions of CW and RW exhibit changes with the weather system behaviour as well as with the sampling location. In E China the acidity of rainfall is largely neutralized by alkaline particulates. The mean ionic concentrations in RW show an increasing trend from 1985 to 1988. The ambient air quality in China has deteriorated over the same period, with concentrations of sulphur dioxide and suspended particulates at high levels. The below-cloud acidification process has been simulated by a model which includes scavenging of both gas and aerosol species. The importance of rainout, gas washout or aerosol washout processes is found to vary with the location and with the different ion species considered. Gas washout always leads to overall acidification. Aerosol alkalization has been identified in some suburban areas. The effects on the rainwater acidification predicted from the reduction of sulphur dioxide gas emissions have also been simulated, and are expected to be negligible at Chongqing and Guiyang. The concentration of the hydrogen peroxide oxidant, not that of the pollutant sulphur dioxide, is the controlling factor for the pH of the rainfall in these regions.

Lei, Heng-Chi; Tanner, Peter A.; Huang, Mei-Yuan; Shen, Zhi-Lai; Wu, Yu-Xia

249

Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in tide gauge data north of 40N, in the subpolar SST and in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and in subpolar winter heat flux values. The decadal cycle is a well separated mode in a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for a time series of SST EOF mode 1 with a center over the Gulf Stream extension. Tide gauge and SST data are consistent in that both show a significant subdecadal periodicity exclusively in the subpolar gyre, but in subtropics the 12-14 year period is the prominent, but nonstationary, decadal signal. The main finding of this study is that this 12-14 year cycle can be constructed based on the leading mode of the surface heat flux. This connection to the surface heat flux implicates the participation of the thermohaline circulation in the decadal cycle. During the cycle starting from the positive index phase of NAO, SST and oceanic heat content anomalies are created in subtropics due to local heat flux and intensification of the thermohaline circulation. The anomalies advect to the subpolar gyre where they are amplified by local heat flux and are part of the negative feedback of thermohaline circulation on itself. Consequently the oceanic thermohaline circulation slows down and the opposite cycle starts. The oscillatory nature would not be possible without the active atmospheric participation in the cycle, because it provides the unstable interaction through heat flux, without it, the oceanic mode would be damped. This analysis suggests that the two principal modes of heat flux variability, corresponding to patterns similar to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Western Atlantic (WA), are part of the same decadal cycle and an indirect measure of the north-south movement of the storm tracks.

Hakkinen, Sirpa

1998-01-01

250

SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: SKY MAPS, SYSTEMATIC ERRORS, AND BASIC RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat {Lambda}CDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H{sub 0} from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are {Omega}{sub b} h {sup 2} = 0.02260 {+-} 0.00053, {Omega}{sub c} h {sup 2} = 0.1123 {+-} 0.0035, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.728{sup +0.015}{sub -0.016}, n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, {tau} = 0.087 {+-} 0.014, and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.809 {+-} 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles l {approx}< 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, {Omega}{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1334{sup +0.0056}{sub -0.0055}, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z{sub eq} = 3196{sup +134}{sub -133}, using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3{sigma} detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y{sub He} = 0.326 {+-} 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, {Sigma}M{sub {nu}} {<=} 0.58 eV(95%CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N{sub eff} = 4.34{sup +0.86}{sub -0.88}. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3{sigma}. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.

Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Tucker, G. S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States)

2011-02-01

251

Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buratti, B. J.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R. H.; Hicks, M. D.; Clark, R. N.; Mosher, J. A.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K. H.; Nicholson, P. D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D. P.; Sicardy, B.

2006-01-01

252

Atmospheric turbulence in complex terrain: Verifying numerical model results with observations by remote-sensing instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is situated in an area of complex terrain. Turbulent flow due to terrain disruption could occur in the vicinity of HKIA when winds from east to southwest climb over Lantau Island, a mountainous island to the south of the airport. Low-level turbulence is an aviation hazard to the aircraft flying into and out of HKIA. It is closely monitored using remote-sensing instruments including Doppler LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) systems and wind profilers in the airport area. Forecasting of low-level turbulence by numerical weather prediction models would be useful in the provision of timely turbulence warnings to the pilots. The feasibility of forecasting eddy dissipation rate (EDR), a measure of turbulence intensity adopted in the international civil aviation community, is studied in this paper using the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Super-high resolution simulation (within the regime of large eddy simulation) is performed with a horizontal grid size down to 50 m for some typical cases of turbulent airflow at HKIA, such as spring-time easterly winds in a stable boundary layer and gale-force southeasterly winds associated with a typhoon. Sensitivity of the simulation results with respect to the choice of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) parameterization scheme in RAMS is also examined. RAMS simulation with Deardorff (1980) TKE scheme is found to give the best result in comparison with actual EDR observations. It has the potential for real-time forecasting of low-level turbulence in short-term aviation applications (viz. for the next several hours).

Chan, P. W.

2009-03-01

253

DEEP U BAND AND R IMAGING OF GOODS-SOUTH: OBSERVATIONS, DATA REDUCTION AND FIRST RESULTS ,  

SciTech Connect

We present deep imaging in the U band covering an area of 630 arcmin{sup 2} centered on the southern field of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). The data were obtained with the VIMOS instrument at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope. The final images reach a magnitude limit U {sub lim} {approx} 29.8 (AB, 1{sigma}, in a 1'' radius aperture), and have good image quality, with full width at half-maximum {approx}0.''8. They are significantly deeper than previous U-band images available for the GOODS fields, and better match the sensitivity of other multiwavelength GOODS photometry. The deeper U-band data yield significantly improved photometric redshifts, especially in key redshift ranges such as 2 < z < 4, and deeper color-selected galaxy samples, e.g., Lyman break galaxies at z {approx} 3. We also present the co-addition of archival ESO VIMOS R-band data, with R {sub lim} {approx} 29 (AB, 1{sigma}, 1'' radius aperture), and image quality {approx}0.''75. We discuss the strategies for the observations and data reduction, and present the first results from the analysis of the co-added images.

Nonino, M.; Cristiani, S.; Vanzella, E. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); Dickinson, M.; Reddy, N. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rosati, P. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Grazian, A. [INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Giavalisco, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kuntschner, H.; Fosbury, R. A. E. [ST-ECF, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Daddi, E. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cesarsky, C. [CEA Saclay, Haut-commissaire a l'Energie Atomique, Batiment Siege, FR 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: nonino@oats.inaf.it

2009-08-01

254

Coronae at 3 Gyr: First Results from a Chandra Observation of the Open Cluster Ruprecht 147  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ruprecht 147 is the oldest nearby star cluster, with an age of 3 Gyr and a distance of 300 pc. This makes it an important benchmark in exploring activity-age-rotation relationships, bridging the gap between the Hyades and M67. We present the first results from a deep 250 ksec ACIS-I observation of the cluster. Analysis of the longest (81 ksec) pointing detects more than half of the known members in the field, with spectral types ranging from F6 to K5. The star most like the Sun in our sample, a G2V, has an X-ray luminosity (0.2-7 keV) of L_X ~ 1.1e28 ergs/s, which suggests a scaling with age t of log L_X ~ -b log t where 1.25 < b < 4, possibly steeper than seen at younger ages. This research was supported by Chandra grant G02-13022X.

Saar, Steven H.; Curtis, Jason L.; Wright, Jason

2014-06-01

255

MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF EDGE-ON PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We are undertaking a multi-frequency Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) survey of edge-on protoplanetary disks to probe the growth of solids in each disk, sedimentation of such material into the disk midplane, and the connection of these phenomena to the planet formation process. The projection of edge-on disk systems along our line of sight enables a study of the vertical stratification of large grains with fewer model dependencies than would be required for disks that are more face-on. Robust studies of the spatial distribution of grains up to {approx}1 cm in size are possible with the wavelength range and sensitivity of the EVLA. In this contribution, we describe target selection and observational strategies. First results concerning the Class 0 source IRAS 04368+2557 (L1527 IRS) are presented, including a study of this source's 8.46 GHz continuum variability over short and long time baselines and an indication that its protoplanetary disk may have a dearth of pebble-sized grains.

Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palmer, Patrick [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perrin, M. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Maddison, S. T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Duvert, G. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stapelfeldt, K., E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-900, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-09-20

256

Mutual occultations and eclipses of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter in 1997: Astrometric results of observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, a complete database of the international campaign on photometric observations of the Galilean satellites of Jupiter\\u000a in the 1997 epoch of mutual occultations and eclipses was published. Only two thirds of the observations were considered by\\u000a other authors beforehand. In this study, we have processed the whole observational database with an original technique in\\u000a order to obtain the

N. V. Emel’yanov; S. N. Vashkov’yak

2009-01-01

257

Comparison of EMAC model results to satellite observations in the winter 2008/09 within the HEPPA-II intercomparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High Energy Particle Precipitation in the Atmosphere (HEPPA) initiative compares several satellite observations to results of different atmospheric models. In the current intercomparison the focus is on indirect effects due to energetic particle precipitation (EPP) after the Major Stratospheric Warming during the winter 2008/09. After this event large amounts of NOx are transported downwards from the thermosphere into the mesosphere, despite low geomagnetic activity during this winter and therefore low thermospheric production of NOx. In the HEPPA-II study we focus on the assessment of the EPP source, vertical coupling and on composition changes in the stratosphere and mesosphere due to indirect EPP effects. In our presentation we will show mid-atmospheric composition changes in the model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry) within the HEPPA-II intercomparison. Besides NOx we will show results for other NOy family members, some dynamical tracers and the meteorological conditions in EMAC. We performed a EMAC simulation with prescribed observed NOx vmr from MIPAS at the upper model boundary. Additionally we performed a model run without prescribed NOx to distinguish between indirect effects due to EPP and other atmospheric effects.

Versick, S.; Funke, B.; Gardini, A.; Stiller, G.; von Clarmann, T.; Kirner, O.

2012-04-01

258

Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C -1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ?CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t 0 = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H 0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s-1 Mpc-1. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (ns = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (\\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{-0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further. With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat ?CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2013-10-01

259

Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. III. Observations and Results for a Final Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the fourth in a series whose purpose is to study the interstellar abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and argon in the Galaxy using a sample of 86 planetary nebulae. Here we present new high-quality spectrophotometric observations of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae with spectral coverage from 3700 to 9600 Å. A major feature of our observations throughout the entire

K. B. Kwitter; R. B. C. Henry; J. B. Milingo

2003-01-01

260

Summer-Fall Seasonal Ices at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site: Results from CRISM Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine ground observations from the Mars Phoenix lander with orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to chart the onset of seasonal ice at the landing site from late spring (solar longitude [Ls] ~ 84) to late summer (Ls] ~ 117) . We use 25 CRISM observations acquired directly over the landing site and 13

S. Cull; R. E. Arvidson; R. V. Morris; M. J. Wolff; M. T. Mellon; M. T. Lemmon

2009-01-01

261

Fusing Observations and Model Results for Creation of Enhanced Ozone Spatial Fields: Comparison of Three Techniques  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents three simple techniques for fusing observations and numerical model predictions. The techniques rely on model/observation bias being considered either as error free, or containing some uncertainty, the latter mitigated with a Kalman filter approach or a spati...

262

Results of geomagnetic observations at the Hurbanovo Geomagnetic Observatory in 1985  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The absolute observations were made at regular intervals of 7 days, activity of the geomagnetic field permitting. Some observations with the proton magnetometer, however, were made more frequently, i.e., twice a week. Declination, horizontal component, vertical component, and total field measurements were taken.

263

Offshore advection of particles within the Cape Blanc filament, Mauritania: Results from observational and modelling studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article will review major features of the ‘giant’ Cape Blanc filament off Mauritania with regard to the transport of chlorophyll and organic carbon from the shelf to the open ocean. Within the filament, chlorophyll is transported about 400 km offshore. Modelled particle distributions along a zonal transect at 21°N showed that particles with a sinking velocity of 5 m d -1 are advected offshore by up to 600 km in subsurface particle clouds generally located between 400 m and 800 m water depth, forming an Intermediate Nepheloid Layer (INL). It corresponds to the depth of the oxygen minimum zone. Heavier particles with a sinking velocity of 30 m d -1 are transported from the shelf within the Bottom Layer (BL) of more than 1000 m thickness, largely following the topography of the bottom slope. The particles advected within the BL contribute to the enhanced winter-spring mass fluxes collected at the open-ocean mesotrophic sediment trap site CB-13 (?200 nm offshore), due to a long distance advection in deeper waters. The lateral contribution to the deep sediment trap in winter-spring is estimated to be 63% and 72% for organic carbon and total mass, respectively, whereas the lateral input for both components on an annual basis is estimated to be in the order of 15%. Biogenic opal increases almost fivefold from the upper to the lower mesotrophic CB-13 trap, also pointing to an additional source for biogenic silica from eutrophic coastal waters. Blooms obviously sink in smaller, probably mesoscale-sized patches with variable settling rates, depending on the type of aggregated particles and their ballast content. Generally, particle sinking rates are exceptionally high off NW Africa. Very high chlorophyll values and a large size of the Cape Blanc filament in 1998-1999 are also documented in enhanced total mass and organic carbon fluxes. An increasing trend in satellite chlorophyll concentrations and the size of the Cape Blanc filament between 1997 and 2008 as observed for other coastal upwelling areas is not documented.

Fischer, G.; Reuter, C.; Karakas, G.; Nowald, N.; Wefer, G.

2009-12-01

264

Galactic Observations of Terahertz C+ (GOT C+): First Results: Inner Galaxy Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the lifecycle of the interstellar gas and star formation we need detailed information about the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas cloud properties. The ionized carbon [CII] 1.9 THz fine structure line is an important tracer of the atomic gas in the diffuse regions and the interface regions of atomic gas to molecular clouds. Furthermore, C+ is a major ISM coolant and among the Galaxy's strongest far-IR emission lines, and thus controls the thermal conditions throughout large parts of the Galaxy. Until now our knowledge of interstellar gas has been limited to the diffuse atomic phase traced by HI and to the dense molecular H2 phase traced by CO. However, we are missing an important phase of the ISM called "dark gas” in which there is no or little, HI, and mostly molecular hydrogen but with insufficient shielding of UV to allow CO to form. C+ emission and absorption lines at 1.9 THz have the potential to trace this gas. Galactic Observations of the Terahertz C+ Line (GOT C+) is a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study the diffuse interstellar medium by sampling [CII] 1.9 THz line emission throughout the Galactic disk. We discuss the broader perspective of this survey and the first results of GOT C+ obtained during the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) and Priority Science Phase (PSP) of HIFI, which focus on approximately 100 lines of sight in the inner galaxy. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Pineda, J. L.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Yorke, H. W.

2010-05-01

265

Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and climate systems.

Kabanov, Mikhail V.

2002-03-01

266

Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 degrees-squared of sky area in the 3--79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw exposure time of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3--79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. We close by discussing some challenges inherent in imaging crowded regions with NuSTAR, and how the lessons learned in this pilot study can help scientists who wish to use NuSTAR to observe their favorite targets.

Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William

2014-08-01

267

Some results of geomagnetic storm events observed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather can be defined as the study of solar and interplanetary sources of geomagnetic storms. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large plasma eruptions released from the Sun and they are one of the main solar-interplanetary structures causing the geomagnetic disturbances on Earth. Such events, also named (geomagnetic storms) are caused when there are changes in the plasma and magnetic field in the space that surrounds the Earth's magnetosphere. CME passages are known to be an important origin of such changes. The damage caused by geomagnetic storms are several, including loss of data from satellite, signal scintillation, interference on radar, telecommunications cable disruption, electricity grid disturbance and black-out electrical power. They are also responsible for the appearance of auroras. It is known that quantity of cosmic rays observed in each direction on Earth's surface is approximately unchanged on the time when there are no transient solar-interplanetary events. During disturbed periods, CME may shield cosmic rays, allowing terrestrial detectors to identify some signatures on the same period. Sometimes, these signatures can be identified prior to the occurence of the disturbance using a cosmic ray network around the Earth. With this purpose, a prototype detector of high-energy cosmic rays > 50 GeV, muons, was installed in the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT in 2001. It was composed of 2 layers of 4 detectors (2x2x2) with temporal resolution of one hour. The detector was upgraded in 2005 to 56 detectors (2x4x7) and temporal resolution of one minute. The expansion enabled a decrease of error from 0.16% to 0.06% in the counting of muons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the expansion and to present results of the study of some geomagnetic storm events combining geomagnetic Dst index data, muon count rate data and data from the ACE satellite.

Kemmerich, Níkolas; Dal Lago, Alisson; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Deives Kummer, Fabricio; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Munakata, Kazuoki; da Silva, Marlos; Martins da Silva, Samuel

268

Regolith thickness of the lunar nearside: Preliminary results from Earth-based 70 cm radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous investigations have shown that lunar surface consists of a fine-grained regolith layer that completely covers the underlying bedrock. The lunar regolith is a byproduct of the continuous impact of large and small meteoroids with the lunar surface, and consists largely of fragmented materials and breccias. In general, the thickness of the regolith is an indication of the age of lunar surface: the older the age, the greater the thickness. The regolith contains potentially valuable resources and volatiles (such as ice and helium-3), and all future human activates will use regolith for building materials and shielding. Therefore, knowledge of the regolith layer thickness provides important information about both lunar geology and for future lunar exploration. The regolith thickness over small regions has been estimated previously from direct measurements made during the Apollo missions (such as seismic and multifrequency electromagnetic probing experiments), as well as studies of impact crater morphology and crater size-frequency distributions. From these studies, the average thickness of the regolith is believed to be about 4-5 m in the maria and 10-15 m in the older highland regions. Recently, remote sensing techniques, such as Earth-based radar, Chang-E microwave radiometery, and Kaguya lunar radar sounding, have been used to invert for regolith thickness over large regions. However, the uncertainties in the calibration of these data and the use of a simplified regolith model that did not consider buried rocks have limited the utility of these techniques. In this study, a rigorous radar scattering model based on vector radiative transfer theory and the newly acquired Earth-based 70 cm radar data are used to invert for a much more accurate regolith map for the lunar nearside hemisphere. Three parameters are required for radar studies of the regolith: regolith dielectric permittivity, surface roughness, and subsurface rock size and abundance. Our reinvestigation of the measured dielectric properties of the Apollo samples shows that, when normalized to a constant density (or porosity), the relative permittivity is constant and the loss tangent depends only on the abundance of TiO2. The dielectric permittivity across the lunar surface is then estimated globally using this relation and the regolith composition derived from the Lunar Prospector ?-ray spectrometer. Second, we estimated the surface roughness and abundance of subsurface rocks at the Apollo landing sites, where the regolith thickness and composition are known. Preliminary result shows that, at the scale of 70 cm wavelength, the rms slope of the lunar surface is around 2-10°, and highlands are rougher than the maria. The average population of buried rocks in the regolith is about 0.5 per m3 for effective sizes of 6 cm. Extrapolating these surface roughness and rock abundances globally, we inverted for the regolith thickness using the Earth-based 70 cm opposite sense radar data. Preliminary results show that the regolith thickness of over the maria is smaller than the highlands by at least a factor of 2. The correlation between regolith thickness and lunar surface age is currently being analyzed.

Fa, W.; Wieczorek, M. A.

2010-12-01

269

Groundwater Flow and Salt Transport at a Sand Tailings Dam: Field Observations and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large volumes of sand tailings are produced during the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands of Northeastern Alberta. The long-term groundwater response and subsequent movement of water and solutes within the large permeable sand tailings storage areas is uncertain. At the Southwest Sand Storage (SWSS) Facility, located at Syncrude's Mildred Lake operations near Ft. McMurray, there is concern that salts from the tailings water may discharge to newly placed reclamation material that covers the sand tailings. This saline discharge water could destroy the reclamation soil structure and negatively impact vegetation. The steady-state groundwater flow and transient movement of salts at the local (bench and slope) and intermediate (pile) scales in the SWSS are investigated. Water levels, seepage and groundwater quality (including TDS) have been measured for over a year along two transects of piezometers installed in the SWSS. The field data have been used to complete traditional hydrogeological interpretations of the site, and to develop a conceptual model of flow and transport. The local and intermediate flow systems and salt transport in the dam are being evaluated with numerical models. The models will allow possible future hydrogeological behaviour of the structure to be tested. Preliminary results show differences in flow systems and salinity distribution that depend on the deposition of the SWSS. This research will facilitate better long-term environmental management of this and similar sites.

Price, A. C.; Mendoza, C. A.

2004-05-01

270

Cost Equality and Inequality Results for a Partially Observed Stochastic Optimization Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite-horizon partially observed stochastic optimization problem is presented, where the underlying (or core) process subject to control is a finite-state discrete-time controlled semi-Markov vector process, the information pattern is classical, and times of control reset and noise corrupted observation occur at times of core process transition. Conditions for optimality are stated. The new problem formulation is shown to generalize

Chelsea C. White

1975-01-01

271

Sulfur, Chlorine, and Argon Abundances in Planetary Nebulae. III: Observations and Results for a Final Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the fourth in a series whose purpose is to study the\\u000ainterstellar abundances of sulfur, chlorine, and argon in the Galaxy using a\\u000asample of 86 planetary nebulae. Here we present new high-quality\\u000aspectrophotometric observations of 20 Galactic planetary nebulae with spectral\\u000acoverage from 3700-9600 Angstroms. A major feature of our observations\\u000athroughout the entire study has

2002-01-01

272

Comparison Between Simulated and Observational Results of Galaxy Formation for Large Scale Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium simulation is the largest numerical simulation of how minor fluctuations in the density of the universe's dark matter distribution are amplified by gravity to develop into the large scale structures(LSS) and galaxy clusters seen today(Springel et al. 2005). Although the simulations have been compared with the astronomical observations of the local universe, the simulations have not been widely compared with high redshift, early universe observations. In our study we compare the simulation data(Wang et al. 2008; Guo et al. 2008(in preparation)) for the first time with observations from the COSMOS survey(Scoville et al. 2006). Three quantities are proposed to characterize the structures and the structures distribution, namely the percent area occupied by LSS at each redshift, the average area of LSS and the shapes as characterized by the square root of the area divided by the circumference. We calculate these quantities for both the observations and the simulations, and quantify discrepancies between the existing simulations and observations. In particular, the simulations exhibit earlier development of dense structures than is seen in the observational data.

Li, G.; Scoville, N. Z.

2009-10-01

273

First Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In April 2012, instruments were deployed in over 50 lakes in northern Alaska as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to observe short- and long-term variability in physical, limnological and biogeochemical processes in Arctic lakes. The network currently consists of nine observation nodes on two parallel transects extending from the Arctic Ocean south to the Brooks Range Foothills. At each node, at least six representative lakes that vary by surface area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels: basic, enhanced and comprehensive. At each node we deployed a suite of instrumentation and collected a variety of field measurements. This approach allows for the study of lakes and their diversity across strong physical and biological gradients. To date we have established sites at a wide variety of Arctic lake types; 25 are thermokarst lakes set in ice-rich, fine-grained marine surficial sediments (Outer Coastal Plain), 6 lakes are in alluvial/aeolian sediments (Inner Coastal Plain) and 6 are in ice-rich silt (Arctic Foothills Yedoma), 5 are depressional lakes formed in a late Pleistocene sand sheet (Ikpikpuk Sand Sea), 6 represent glacial thermokarst or kettle lakes near the Brooks Range (Toolik region), 7 lakes are of fluvial or deltaic origin (Fish Creek basin, Ikpikpuk Delta), and Teshekpuk Lake, the largest lake in Arctic Alaska, is of a complex origin. In April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth were deployed through the ice cover, water samples were collected, and real-time time lapse cameras were installed to capture snow melt and ice-off. Sensors were recovered from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording lake regimes and events from ice decay and snowmelt influx to open-water warming and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude; in lakes deeper than 2 m, ice was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the coast of the Arctic Ocean with inter-lake variability related to snow depth. Rapid warming follows ice-off, with water temperature responding synchronously to synoptic weather variations across the area. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, but with high inter-lake variability related to lake depth and area. Inland lakes are warmer in mid-summer than those near the coast, reflecting the regional climate gradient and the maritime effect. All lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with some thermal stratification occurring during calm, sunny periods in deeper lakes. This project also involves measurement of carbon and nutrient dynamics and inorganic geochemistry of the lakes. Preliminary data indicate that brown colored lakes have greater dissolved methane concentrations under ice in winter than clear-water lakes, which is promising for remote sensing applications. Through a collaborative effort between the USGS-Alaska Science Center, the BLM Arctic Field Office, the NSF and other partners, we have established the Teshekpuk Lake Observatory as part of the CALON project in order to assess the past, present, and future response of Teshekpuk Lake ecosystem to environmental stressors and change. All data resulting from this 4-year project will be stored at CADIS and a specially designed web portal, and is currently accessible through the CALON web page at https://sites.google.com/a/giesn.com/nsf-calon/.

Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Frey, K. E.; Lenters, J. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

2012-12-01

274

Comparing offshore wind farm wake observed from satellite SAR and wake model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Offshore winds can be observed from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In the FP7 EERA DTOC project, the European Energy Research Alliance project on Design Tools for Offshore Wind Farm Clusters, there is focus on mid- to far-field wind farm wakes. The more wind farms are constructed nearby other wind farms, the more is the potential loss in annual energy production in all neighboring wind farms due to wind farm cluster effects. It is of course dependent upon the prevailing wind directions and wind speed levels, the distance between the wind farms, the wind turbine sizes and spacing. Some knowledge is available within wind farm arrays and in the near-field from various investigations. There are 58 offshore wind farms in the Northern European seas grid connected and in operation. Several of those are spaced near each other. There are several twin wind farms in operation including Nysted-1 and Rødsand-2 in the Baltic Sea, and Horns Rev 1 and Horns Rev 2, Egmond aan Zee and Prinses Amalia, and Thompton 1 and Thompton 2 all in the North Sea. There are ambitious plans of constructing numerous wind farms - great clusters of offshore wind farms. Current investigation of offshore wind farms includes mapping from high-resolution satellite SAR of several of the offshore wind farms in operation in the North Sea. Around 20 images with wind farm wake cases have been retrieved and processed. The data are from the Canadian RADARSAT-1/-2 satellites. These observe in microwave C-band and have been used for ocean surface wind retrieval during several years. The satellite wind maps are valid at 10 m above sea level. The wakes are identified in the raw images as darker areas downwind of the wind farms. In the SAR-based wind maps the wake deficit is found as areas of lower winds downwind of the wind farms compared to parallel undisturbed flow in the flow direction. The wind direction is clearly visible from lee effects and wind streaks in the images. The wind farm wake cases are modeled by various types of wake models. In the EERA DTOC project the model suite consists of engineering models (Ainslie, DWM, GLC, PARK, WASP/NOJ), simplified CFD models (FUGA, FarmFlow), full CFD models (CRES-flowNS, RANS), mesoscale model (SKIRON, WRF) and coupled meso-scale and microscale models. The comparison analysis between the satellite wind wake and model results will be presented and discussed. It is first time a comprehensive analysis is performed on this subject. The topic gains increasing importance because there is a growing need to precisely model also mid- and far-field wind farms wakes for development and planning of offshore wind farm clusters.

Bay Hasager, Charlotte

2014-05-01

275

Neogene transtensive faulting in the Rawil axial depression (SW Switzerland): preliminary results from field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helvetic nappe stack in the Rawil depression between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs is affected by dominantly dextral transtensional faults developed or reactivated during the Neogene. This area shows the evolution of a fault system from partially ductile to brittle conditions and is currently one of the most seimogenically active zones in Switzerland. This field study aims to establish which fault sets have been activated during the Neogene and possibly Quaternary to Recent, to better constrain their relative age and kinematics, and to study the transition from ductile to brittle behaviour. The observed faults can be assigned to three general sets on the basis of their strike orientation. The first set (1) strikes NE-SW. Faults with distinctly different ages of initial activity are part of this set: Cretaceous normal faults with syn-sedimentary features; thrusts due to nappe-stacking; and later normal to oblique faults. All of these faults dip mainly to the SE. Paleo-tectonic features exposed in Plaine des Roses, les Audannes and Plaine Morte suggest that faults with this general orientation were already active during Cretaceous sedimentation. The post Aptian Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence is influenced by paleo-escarpments directly related to syn-sedimentary faults. These surfaces are marked in many places by karstification and silicification, sedimentary dykes and onlap of basinal younger formations. Some of these faults have been subsequently reactivated during Neogene syn- and post-collisional extension with normal to oblique kinematics. Transtensive reactivation of Cretaceous faults initially developed a ductile mylonitic fabric (expecially in limestones) that is overprinted by cataclasites and more discrete faults surfaces. Similarly oriented NE-striking veins were also developed under transitional brittle-ductile conditions in the limestones and, from relative age relationships, are the oldest veins developed in the area. The transtensive fault sets striking (2) E-W and (3) NW-SE generally dip at a low to moderate angle to the S or SW. The two sets are broadly coeval, as indicated in the Rawil-Plaine Morte area by many examples of branching and bending of one set into the other and by similar displacement directions and deformation fabrics. Transtensional movements must largely post-date folding, because faults of sets (2) and (3) obliquely crosscut the fold system and the fold geometry can be matched to either side. Folding and the initial stage of normal to oblique faulting developed under very low grade metamorphic conditions, with exhumation during the Neogene related to extension that was parallel or slightly oblique to the main Alpine fold axis-trend. Also for these fault sets there is locally a transition from an initial more ductile mylonitic fabric to cataclasite. Calcite slickenlines and fibres on these Neogene fault planes indicate two main stretching directions. The older one is WSW-directed and generally plunges around 25°, whereas the younger one plunges S, with a steeper, mainly dip-slip movement. Crosscutting vein relationships and bending of vein tails planes indicate a counter-clockwise rotation of the stretching direction, from WSW toward S. The WSW-directed orogen-parallel stretching is similar in orientation to that associated with the Simplon-Rhône Fault and is probably coeval, implying possible activity throughout much of the Neogene. The orientation of the transtensive faults outcropping in the Rawil depression is consistent with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the Rhone Valley. Establishing the kinematics and mechanics of these faults developed at depth in this seismically active region can therefore help in understanding earthquake processes.

Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Mancktelow, Neil

2010-05-01

276

Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

2006-06-01

277

A comparison study between observations and simulation results of Barghouthi model for O+ and H+ outflows in the polar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To advance our understanding of the effect of wave-particle interactions on ion outflows in the polar wind region and the resulting ion heating and escape from low altitudes to higher altitudes, we carried out a comparison between polar wind simulations obtained using Barghouthi model with corresponding observations obtained from different satellites. The Barghouthi model describes O+ and H+ outflows in the polar wind region in the range 1.7 RE to 13.7 RE, including the effects of gravity, polarization electrostatic field, diverging geomagnetic field lines, and wave-particle interactions. Wave-particle interactions were included into the model by using a particle diffusion equation, which depends on diffusion coefficients determined from estimates of the typical electric field spectral density at relevant altitudes and frequencies. We provide a formula for the velocity diffusion coefficient that depends on altitude and velocity, in which the velocity part depends on the perpendicular wavelength of the electromagnetic turbulence ?bot. Because of the shortage of information about ?bot, it was included into the model as a parameter. We produce different simulations (i.e. ion velocity distributions, ions density, ion drift velocity, ion parallel and perpendicular temperatures) for O+ and H+ ions, and for different ?bot. We discuss the simulations in terms of wave-particle interactions, perpendicular adiabatic cooling, parallel adiabatic cooling, mirror force, and ion potential energy. The main findings of the simulations are as follows: (1) O+ ions are highly energized at all altitudes in the simulation tube due to wave-particle interactions that heat the ions in the perpendicular direction, and part of this gained energy transfer to the parallel direction by mirror force, resulting in accelerating O+ ions along geomagnetic field lines from lower altitudes to higher altitudes. (2) The effect of wave-particle interactions is negligible for H+ ions at altitudes below ~7 RE, while it is important for altitudes above 7 RE. For O+ wave particle interaction is very significant at all altitudes. (3) For certain ?bot and at points, altitudes, where the ion gyroradius is equal to or less than ?bot, the effect of wave-particle interactions is independent of the velocity and it depends only on the altitude part of the velocity diffusion coefficient; however, the effect of wave-particle interactions reduce above that point, called saturation point, and the heating process turns to be self-limiting heating. (4) The most interesting result is the appearance of O+ conics and toroids at low altitudes and continue to appear at high altitudes; however, they appear at very high altitudes for H+ ions. We compare quantitatively and qualitatively between the simulation results and the corresponding observations. As a result of many comparisons, we find that the best agreement occurs when ?bot equals to 8 km. The quantitative comparisons show that many characteristics of the observations are very close to the simulation results, and the qualitative comparisons between the simulation results for ion outflows and the observations produce very similar behaviors. To our knowledge, most of the comparisons between observations (ion velocity distribution, density, drift velocity, parallel and perpendicular temperatures, anisotropy, etc.) and simulations obtained from different models produce few agreements and fail to explain many observations (see Yau et al., 2007; Lemaire et al., 2007; Tam et al., 2007; Su et al., 1998; Engwall et al., 2009). This paper presents many close agreements between observations and simulations obtained by Barghouthi model, for O+ and H+ ions at different altitudes i.e. from 1.7 RE to 13.7 RE.

Barghouthi, I. A.; Ghithan, S. H.; Nilsson, H.

2011-11-01

278

Results of double-station TV observations in 1998 and 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out double-station TV observations in 1998 and 1999. Numbers of meteors of which the orbits could be determined were 77 and 186 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Among them, stream meteors are 263 in total: 22 of Leonids, 13 of Northern Taurids, two of Perseids, one of Arietids, 13 of Northern Taurids, two of Perseids, one of Arietids(Daytime shower), and one of ? Perseids(Daytime shower). The number of sporadic meteors was 224. From this database, distributions of radiant points, velocities and magnitudes are investigated for Leonids and Northern Taurids. There was a lack of Leonid meteors with magnitude not brighter than +6. After November 13, Northern Taurids becamed active and doubly meteors were recorded, whereas the Southern Taurids were not observed. Doubly TV observation was successful for meteors of daytime shower just before dawn in June 1999.

Ueda, Masayoshi; Fujiwara, Yasunori; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Kinoshita, Masao

2001-11-01

279

Observational Results of the ChangE-1 Solar X-Ray Monitor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the primary observations of the Solar X-ray Monitor (SXM) payload onboard the ChangE-1 lunar exploration satellite, which was launched on 24 October 2007. The SXM payload uses a solid-state silicon P-I-N photo-diode (Si-PIN) whose dynamic energy ranges from 1 keV to 10 keV. The long-term integrated spectra at different solar-activity levels as observed by the SXM are presented. By fitting these spectra with an optically thin plasma model, the two-minute temperature variation of the solar coronal plasma during a solar flare is also presented.

Cui, X. Z.; Wang, H. Y.; Peng, W. X.; Zhang, C. M.; Liang, X. H.; Wang, J. Z.; Gao, M.; Yang, J. W.; Cao, X. L.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wu, M. Y.; Chang, J.; Sun, H. X.; OuYang, Z. Y.; Zhou, Y. L.; Li, C. L.

2013-12-01

280

Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs  

SciTech Connect

The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs.

Starrfield, S.

1986-07-07

281

In-flight performance and preliminary observational results of Solar Wind Ion Detectors (SWIDs) on Chang'E-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SWIDs (Solar Wind Ion Detectors, SWID-A and SWID-B) are two of the scientific instruments on Chang'E-1, the first Chinese lunar mission. SWIDs utilize top-hat electrostatic analyzer to measure the low energy (<20 keV/q) ion distribution of solar wind and the plasma environment around the Moon. SWIDs consist of two identical instruments with two perpendicular fan shaped field-of-views of 180°×6°. The preliminary observational results of SWIDs show that SWIDs were sufficient to measure the basic characteristics of the Moon-plasma interaction. A typical event about the Moon and solar wind interaction is discussed in this paper. Another new observational result near the Moon reported in this paper is the double proton beams coupled with a single alpha beam in solar wind. This is the first double ion beams event reported near the Moon. The double ion beams appeared having relatively anisotropic characteristics due to the interaction between solar wind and the Moon.

Kong, L. G.; Wang, S. J.; Wang, X. Y.; Zhang, A. B.; Zhu, G. W.; Yu, D. J.; Ren, Q. Y.; Reme, H.; Aoustin, C.; Zhang, X. G.; Feng, Y. B.; Zeng, L.

2012-03-01

282

Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in...

S. Hakkinen

1998-01-01

283

Preliminary results from the observation of DT Lupus, a newly discovered oscillating Algol binary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations using personal telescopes in light-polluted skies in Kyalami, Johannesburg, suggest that the Algol system DT Lup be re-classified as an oscillating eclipsing Algol system. Preliminary frequency calculations produce an oscillation frequency of ~8.73 cycles per day.

Middleton, C. T.

2011-10-01

284

Characteristics of Open Education: Results from a Classroom Observation Rating Scale and a Teacher Questionnaire.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A classroom observation rating scale, based upon a recent analysis of the literature and conceptually verified by open education advocates, effectively differentiated British and American open classrooms from American traditional classrooms. The influence of socio-economic settings was also demonstrated. For the three comparison groups, more…

Evans, Judith T.

285

Single baseline GLONASS observations with VLBI: data processing and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several tests to observe signals transmitted by GLONASS (GLObal NAvigation Satellite System) satellites have been performed using the geodetic VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) technique. The radio telescopes involved in these experiments were Medicina (Italy) and Onsala (Sweden), both equipped with L-band receivers. Observations at the stations were performed using the standard Mark4 VLBI data acquisition rack and Mark5A disk-based recorders. The goals of the observations were to develop and test the scheduling, signal acquisition and processing routines to verify the full tracking pipeline, foreseeing the cross-correlation of the recorded data on the baseline Onsala-Medicina. The natural radio source 3c286 was used as a calibrator before the starting of the satellite observation sessions. Delay models, including the tropospheric and ionospheric corrections, which are consistent for both far- and near-field sources are under development. Correlation of the calibrator signal has been performed using the DiFX software, while the satellite signals have been processed using the narrow band approach with the Metsaehovi software and analysed with a near-field delay model. Delay models both for the calibrator signals and the satellites signals, using the same geometrical, tropospheric and ionospheric models, are under investigation to make a correlation of the satellite signals possible.

Tornatore, V.; Haas, R.; Duev, D.; Pogrebenko, S.; Casey, S.; Molera Calvés, G.; Keimpema, A.

2011-07-01

286

Observing Two Pluto Stellar Approaches In 2006: Results On Pluto's Atmosphere And Detection Of Hydra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two stellar approaches of Pluto - on 10 April and 12 June 2006 - have been used to probe the planet's surroundings and atmosphere. On 10 April 2006, Pluto missed the star by 0.5 arcsec, as seen from Chile (ESO La Silla and Paranal). The appulse was observed from VLT (AO, K band), NTT (H band) and 2.2-m reflector (I

Bruno Sicardy; W. Beisker; V. Batista; F. Colas; E. Gendron; J. Lecacheux; F. Roques; T. Widemann; A. Doressoundiram; N. Ageorges; C. Foellmi; V. Ivanov; O. Marco; O. Mousis; P. Rousselot; R. Behrend; M. Assafim; J. Camargo; D. da Silva Neto; A. Andrei; R. Vieira Martins; D. Gault; M. Richmond; J. Greenhill; S. Dieters; A. Gilmore; P. Kilmartin; J. Hearnshaw; S. Mathers; L. Priest

2006-01-01

287

Systemic meningococcal infection: Which children may benefit from adjuvant haemostatic therapy? Results from an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefits of haemostatic therapy (heparin, antithrombin (AT) concentrate, fresh frozen plasma (FFP)) in severe systemic meningococcal infections (SMI) are controversial. A reduction of the still high case fatality rate would be an important indicator for potential benefits of adjuvant haemostatic therapy in children with SMI. Observational data from nationwide, active surveillance for SMI in children under 16 years

W. Nürnberger; R. v. Kries; O. Böhm; U. Göbel

1999-01-01

288

Direct Imaging of an Emerging Flux Rope and a Resulting Chromospheric Jet Observed by Hinode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic flux emergence has been traditionally observed on the disk by identifying changes in magnetograms. Observations near the limb offer an alternative perspective and allow direct imaging of emerging flux ropes. We present Hinode/SOT Ca II H observations of such an event in an equatorial coronal hole on 2007 February 9. The precursor of the event was a bundle of fine material threads that extended at an oblique angle above the chromosphere and appeared to rotate about a common axis. This bundle first slowly and then rapidly swung up, accompanied by a loop that appeared at the base of the bundle and expanded at comparable rates. During the first (slow rise) stage, the apex of the loop ascended at 16 km/s, a velocity similar to that of H-alpha arch filaments (e.g., Chou & Zirin) and of emerging flux ropes expanding into the corona as found in MHD simulations (e.g., Fan & Gibson; Martinez-Sykora). The second stage started at the onset of a GOES A5 flare and the loop expansion accelerated, reaching a velocity of 130 km/s when the loop appeared to rupture near the peak of the flare. The material bundle then swung back in a whiplike manner and developed into a collimated jet, exhibiting oscillatory transverse motions across its axis, as expected from unwinding twists. Some jet material fell back along smooth streamlines, which bypass an unseen dome and presumably a null point in the low corona, depicting an inverted-Y shape. Some of these observations resemble the model (e.g., Uchida & Shibata) of the emergence of a twisted flux rope into an open field region that leads to reconnection and formation of a jet. Some observations are, however, not predicted in previous models and we will discuss their implications.

Liu, Wei; Berger, T.; Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; DeRosa, M.

2010-05-01

289

Scale Dependence of the Thermodynamic Forcing of Tropical Monsoon Clouds: Results from TRMM Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clouds exert a thermodynamic forcing on the ocean-atmosphere column through latent heating, owing to the production of rain, and through cloud radiative forcing, owing to the absorption of terrestrial infrared energy and the reflection of solar energy. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite provides, for the first time, simultaneous measurements of each of these processes on the spatial scales of individual clouds. Data from TRMM are used to examine the scale dependence of the cloud thermodynamic forcing and to understand the dominant spatial scales of forcing in monsoonal cloud systems. The tropical Indian Ocean is chosen, because the major monsoonal cloud systems are located over this region. Using threshold criteria, the satellite data are segmented into rain cells (consisting of only precipitating pixels) and clouds (consisting of precipitating as well as nonprecipitating pixels), ranging in scales from 103 km2 to 106 km2. For each rain cell and cloud, latent heating is estimated from the microwave imager and radiative forcing is estimated from the Cloud and the Earth's Radiant Energy System radiation budget instrument.The sizes of clouds and rain cells over the tropical Indian Ocean are distributed lognormally. Thermodynamic forcing of clouds increases with rain cell and cloud area. For example, latent heating increases from about 100 W m2 for a rain cell of 103 km2 to as high as 1500 W m2 for a rain cell of 106 km2. Correspondingly, the liquid water path increases tenfold from 0.3 to nearly 3 kg m2, the longwave cloud forcing from 30 to 100 W m2, and the diurnal mean shortwave cloud forcing from 50 to 150 W m2. Previous studies have shown that in regions of deep convection, large clouds and rain cells express greater organization into structures composed of convective core regions attached to stratiform anvil cloud and precipitation. Entrainment of moist, cloudy air from the stratiform anvil into the convective core helps to sustain convection against the entrainment of unsaturated air. Thus large clouds produce more rain, trap more terrestrial radiation, and reflect more solar energy than do smaller clouds. The combined effect of increased forcing and increased spatial coverage means that larger clouds contribute most of the total forcing. Rain cells larger than 105 km2 make up less than 2% of the rain cell population, yet contribute greater than 70% of the latent heating. Similarly, the clouds larger than 105 km2, in which the largest rain cells are embedded, make up less than 3% of clouds, yet are the source of greater than 90% of the total thermodynamic forcing. Significant differences are apparent between the scales of latent heating and radiative forcing, as only about 25% of cloud area is observed to precipitate. The fraction of clouds that contain some rain increases dramatically from about 5% for the smaller scale (103 km2) to as high as 90% for the largest scale considered here (106 km2). The fractional area of the precipitating cloud ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 with a hybrid-scale dependence. Greater than one-half of radiative forcing is provided by nonprecipitating anvil portions of deep convective cloud systems. The results presented here have significant implications for the parameterization of clouds and rain in GCMs and washout of solute trace gases and aerosols in chemistry and transport models.

Wilcox, Eric M.; Ramanathan, V.

2001-04-01

290

Analysis of Students' Responses to Contradictory Results Obtained by Simple Observation or Controlling Variables.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates students' responses to presentations of experimental results that conflicted with their preconceptions regarding electric circuits, and how those responses varied according to the type of inquiry skills required to obtain the results. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

Park, Jongwon; Kim, Ikgyun

1998-01-01

291

Radio Recombination Line (RRL) Observations: Primordial Helium Determination and First Results at 408 MHz with the Croce del Nord Radiotelescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New results of the Primordial Helium abundance (Y p ) measurement by radio recombination line (RRL) observations from five galactic HII regions are presented. The RRL observations were carried out with two telescopes: RT32 (22.4 and 8.3 GHz, Medicina, Italy) and RT22 (36.5 and 22.4 GHz, Pushchino, Russia). The results of the first run of the low frequency RRL observations (408 MHz) with the Croce del Nord radiotelescope (Medicina Observatory, Italy) are also presented.

Tsivilev, A. P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Poppi, S.; Montebugnoli, S.

292

Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 ?m) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 ?m. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer (GSR). Data from these instruments, as well as from frequently launched radiosondes, were used to characterize the atmospheric state needed as input for line-by-line radiative transfer calculations. By comparing these calculations with the TAFTS and AERI-ER observations, it is possible to test the effectiveness of ice crystal size distribution parameterizations (which are generally derived from mid-latitude and tropical in-situ observations) when applied to Arctic cirrus. The influence of the assumed single scattering properties (here calculated for ice aggregates by A. Baran of the UK Met Office) on the calculated spectra is also considered in this work.

Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

2009-03-01

293

The Results From 5 Years of Shipboard ADCP Observations on Georges Bank During the N.W. Atlantic GLOBEC Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADCP data have been routinely collected on a total of 81 survey, mooring, and process cruises to Georges Bank between 1995 and 1999 during the GLOBEC program, yielding a total of ~660 days of current observations. These data have been carefully processed and edited and are available through a web site: www.oasdpo.bnl.gov.mosaic/globec. Georges Bank is a tidally dominated regime so the first requirement has been to develop an observationally based detiding method. This has been accomplished with an adaptation of the Candela, et al. (1992) with nine constituents as described by Dunn et al. (2001, in preparation). This methodology reduces the space-time barotropic current variance by between 85 and 95 percent. The residual currents have been investigated for the mean and seasonal signals using Gaussian basis functions and knots whose distribution is based upon a sufficient density of observations. The results show a detailed description of the expected clockwise gyre and its seasonal intensification during the late summer and early fall. Maximal along-isobath flow occurs around yearday 270 on the southern flank which correspond to the maximal northward recirculation flow in the Great South Channel. The seasonal fluctuations are shown to be greatest over the northern flank and in the Great South and Northeast Channels, with reduced variability over the southern flank. Extending the investigation to look at the synoptic scale variability, we have been able to explain a total of about 20 to 30 percent of the residual variance through a regression analysis between local wind stress and adjusted sea level fluctuations at Woods Hole and Halifax. Examination of various repeat transects across the Bank show details of the spatial and temporal variability of Bank structures. One section across the southern flank shows the tidal mixing front as a distinct alongshore jet with a cross-shelf scale of ~20 km and maximal speeds during the summer. The same section also shows the extreme variability of the shelf/slope front with currents varying between more than 1 m/s to the east when a warm ring impinged on the Bank, to a maximum of ~0.5 m/s to the west when rings were not present.

Flagg, C. N.; Dunn, M.

2001-12-01

294

NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

295

Results from CoMStOC - The Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign (CoMStOC) was designed to measure the magnetic field strength and determine its structure in the solar corona. Simultaneous soft X-ray and microwave observations were taken by the Solar Maximum Mission's X-ray Polychromator (XRP) and the Very Large Array (VLA) on four days in the campaign period (Nov 25 to Dec 21, 1987). XRP maps in soft X-ray resonance lines formed at different coronal temperatures provide accurate temperature and emission measure diagnostics. VLA maps at several frequencies in the 20 cm and 6 cm bands yield information on microwave structure, spectrum and polarization. The combined data set separates contributions from the two dominant microwave emission mechanisms, thermal bremsstrahlung and gyroresonance. Where gyroresonance dominates, the coronal magnetic field strength has been determined with the aid of theoretical modeling.

Schmelz, J. T.; Holman, G. D.

1991-01-01

296

New results from long-term observations of Cyg X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observations of Cyg X-1 between October 1974 and July 1975 reveal a persistent 5.6 day modulation of the 3 to 6 keV X-ray intensity, having a minimum in phase with superior conjunction of the HDE 226868 binary system. The modulation is found to be most pronounced just prior to the April-May 1975 increase of Cyg X-1, after which both the modulation and intensity are at their lowest values for the entire duration of the observations. These data imply that the X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 arises from the compact member of HDE 226868, and that the increase of April-May 1975 may have represented the depletion of accreting material which was not mixed into a cylindrically symmetric accretion disk about the compact member.

Holt, S. S.; Boldt, E. A.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Kaluzienski, L. J.

1975-01-01

297

Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age\\u000a 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received\\u000a either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared\\u000a the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each

Helmut H. Wolff; Meinhard Kieser

2007-01-01

298

Ionospheric Alfven resonance at middle latitudes: results of observations at Kamchatka  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics of spectral resonance structures of the ionospheric Alfven resonances (IAR) in the ULF frequency range 0.1–5.0 Hz is presented on the basis of the analysis of data obtained from July 2000 to December 2002 (2.5 years of observations) at the Karimshino station (Kamchatka, Russia) by the conventional three component search-coil magnetometer. We analyze both the dynamic spectra of three

O. A. Molchanov; A. Yu. Schekotov; E. Fedorov; M. Hayakawa

2004-01-01

299

The Ionosphere of Jupiter: A Comparison of Galileo Radio Occultation Results With Previous Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 5, 1995, shortly after the Galileo spacecraft was inserted into orbit, its S-band radio signal was occulted by Jupiter.During entry into occultation at a latitude of 24.3deg S and a solar zenith angle (SZA) of 88.6deg a narrow ionospheric peak of about 107,000 cm(-3) was observed at an altitude of about 870 km above the 1-bar level. During

A. J. Kliore; R. Woo; R. G. Herrera; P. Priest; S. W. Asmar; D. P. Hinson; J. D. Twicken; H. T. Howard; F. M. Flasar; P. J. Schinder

1996-01-01

300

Results From GPS Observations: No Evidence for Displacement Along the Polochic Fault in Southeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2000 to 2005 we performed GPS observations in nine sites (occupational) in southeastern Mexico. At the same time, french colleagues measured 24 sites in Guatemala. We obtained displacement vectors, with respect to a stable North America and with respect to a no-net-rotation frame of reference (ITRF2000). In Guatemala, where the trace of the fault has a well-defined surface trace,

M. Guzman-Speziale; V. Kostoglodov; M. Manea; V. Manea

2007-01-01

301

Observation of flow processes in the vadose zone using ERT on different space and time scales: results, obstacles, and suggestions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) observes the flow processes in the vadose zone indirectly. ERT has been used to estimate water flow in different soil types and under different flow conditions using active experiments or monitoring the natural process in many cases. Our experiments in sand and loess soil connected ERT with local soil probing using TDR devices and tensiometers in order to proof the reliability of the ERT inversion results in terms of infiltration velocity. Additionally, a colour tracer was used and sections through the infiltration zones were excavated in order to compare the shape of the dye -stained infiltration zone with the results of the ERT inversion. The data revealed the complicated infiltration pattern with a higher transport velocity in sand and a different shape than expected by classical soil hydraulic models. These results indicate the need for independent observations in order to correctly assess the water storage in the vadose zone with its hydrological consequences, the groundwater recharge and the contamination risk caused by rapid movement of water. ERT can be used for this purpose on different spatial- and time scales but for reliable results various obstacles need to be dealt with. Firstly, the ambiguity of the resistivity because soil resistivity depends on both, soil water content and electrical soil/water conductivity. This obstacle is less severe when the infiltration velocity is investigated, because then only the first onset of resistivity change is interpreted as the water arrival time. Our results show that the arrival of the water front as well as the final infiltration depth can be reliably detected. In contrast, this obstacle is very severe when the amount of water stored is observed using conductive tracer. The problem is not critical during a passive experiment when the natural rain fall and the waters fate through the vadose zone is monitored. The second obstacle is the limited resolution of ERT which deteriorates with depth. The resolution depends on the electrode distances and the depth resolution can be increased by using borehole electrodes. However, if one ha of land is to be observed with a reasonable number of electrodes (some 100) the resolution will be some 10 m. The structures, however, that influence the infiltration process, might be much smaller. Therefore, it is suggested to use ERT as the tool to observe and quantify the infiltration process with regard to time and space on a scale of some meters. For independent proof local TDR devices should be inserted within the investigated area for calibration. These results should then be used to establish a physical soil model that grasps the observed process correctly in time and space. The next step would then be to repeat these local measurements at different locations where the similarity of the processes is at doubt. Only when this is confirmed or discarded, further upscaling steps can be done reliably.

Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Lamparter, Axel; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Bachmann, Jörg

2013-04-01

302

Water Vapor Feedback in the Tropical Upper Troposphere: Model Results and Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of water vapor in the tropical upper troposphere to changes in surface temperature is examined using a single-column, radiative convective model that includes couplings between the moistening effects of convective detrainment, the drying effects from clear-air subsidence, and radiative heating and cooling from water vapor. Equilibrium states of this model show that as the surface warms, changes in

Ken Minschwaner; Andrew E. Dessler

2004-01-01

303

Quantitative comparison of CTIPe model results with ground and space-based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical models are valuable tools in the task to understand and forecast complex non-linear systems. Their value has been demonstrated in the past by comparing the output of numerical simulations with reliable observations, analyzing the driving terms in the mathematical equations, and so determine the relative importance of the various physical processes. Over the past 40 years, this methodology has enabled great advances in the scientific knowledge of the complex Sun-Earth system. However, the validation of the dynamics of the best available physics-based models has been far from comprehensive, even though the pathways for atmospheric response to forcing are apparently well understood. Energy input drives temperature and density changes, which in turn drive winds, which in turn drive changes in composition, electrodynamics, and the ionosphere. There has to be consistency in all the basic state parameters, otherwise the foundation of our perception is unfounded. This study aims to quantitatively assess the capability as well as the limitations of the global, three-dimensional, time-dependent, non-linear coupled model of the thermosphere, ionosphere, plasmasphere, and electrodynamics (CTIPe) in specifying and predicting the upper atmosphere neutral and plasma response to changes in external drivers using a comprehensive observational data set from ground and space and, at the same time, advance the understanding of the T-I system dynamics on different spatial and temporal scales. Observations from CHAMP and TIMED-GUVI satellites, ionosondes and Fabry-Perot Interferometers are among the measurements used in these model/data comparisons.

Fedrizzi, M.; Olsen, J. R.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Codrescu, M.

2012-12-01

304

Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Sky Maps, Systematic Errors, and Basic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit

N. Jarosik; C. L. Bennett; J. Dunkley; B. Gold; M. R. Greason; M. Halpern; R. S. Hill; G. Hinshaw; A. Kogut; E. Komatsu; D. Larson; M. Limon; S. S. Meyer; M. R. Nolta; N. Odegard; L. Page; K. M. Smith; D. N. Spergel; G. S. Tucker; J. L. Weiland; E. Wollack; E. L. Wright

2011-01-01

305

Mars Pathfinder meteorological observations on the basis of results of an atmospheric global circulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Package (ASI/MET) will measure the local pressure, temperature, and winds at its future landing site, somewhere between the latitudes 0 deg N and 30 deg N. Comparable measurements have already been obtained at the surface of Mars by the Viking Landers at 22 deg N (VL1) and 48 deg N (VL2), providing much useful information on the martian atmosphere. In particular the pressure measurements contain very instructive information on the global atmospheric circulation. At the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), we have analyzed and simulated these measurements with a martian atmospheric global circulation model (GCM), which was the first to simulate the martian atmospheric circulation over more than 1 year. The model is able to reproduce rather accurately many observed features of the martian atmosphere, including the long- and short-period oscillations of the surface pressure observed by the Viking landers. From a meteorological point of view, we think that a landing site located near or at the equator would be an interesting choice.

Forget, Francois; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.

1994-01-01

306

The MACHO Project: Microlensing Results from 5.7 Years of Large Magellanic Cloud Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on our search for microlensing toward the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Analysis of 5.7 yr of photometry on 11.9 million stars in the LMC reveals 13-17 microlensing events. A detailed treatment of our detection efficiency shows that this is significantly more than the ~2-4 events expected from lensing by known stellar populations. The timescales (t) of the events

C. Alcock; R. A. Allsman; D. R. Alves; T. S. Axelrod; A. C. Becker; D. P. Bennett; K. H. Cook; N. Dalal; A. J. Drake; K. C. Freeman; M. Geha; K. Griest; M. J. Lehner; S. L. Marshall; D. Minniti; C. A. Nelson; P. Popowski; M. R. Pratt; P. J. Quinn; C. W. Stubbs; W. Sutherland; A. B. Tomaney; T. Vandehei; D. Welch

2000-01-01

307

Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Sky Maps, Systematic Errors, and Basic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Abridged) New full sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven\\u000ayears of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with\\u000aprevious results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional\\u000aintegration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and\\u000aimproved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail.\\u000aThe seven year data set

N. Jarosik; C. L. Bennett; J. Dunkley; B. Gold; M. R. Greason; M. Halpern; R. S. Hill; G. Hinshaw; A. Kogut; E. Komatsu; D. Larson; M. Limon; S. S. Meyer; M. R. Nolta; N. Odegard; L. Page; K. M. Smith; D. N. Spergel; G. S. Tucker; J. L. Weiland; E. Wollack; E. L. Wright

2010-01-01

308

Analysis of student’s responses to contradictory results obtained by simple observation or controlling variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated students’ responses to presentations of experimental results that conflicted with their preconceptions\\u000a regarding electric circuits, and how those responses varied according to the type of inquiry skills required to obtain the\\u000a results. One hundred and twenty students of both sexes were randomly selected from a science high school in Korea. They were\\u000a questioned about their preconceptions regarding

Ikgyun Kim

1998-01-01

309

Is the observed chemical heterogeneity of the Hawaiian mantle plume real or a result of melting and mixing processes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and isotopic heterogeneity of lavas derived from Hawaiian volcanoes has resulted in a standard model of a compositionally zoned Hawaiian mantle plume. Particularly He isotope data from Loihi, Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea have been interpreted in terms of a concentrically zoned plume, with some of the Hawaiian volcanoes having never been above the plume center. Based on He, Ne and Ar fusion data from olivines derived from Mauna Kea (surface and Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project samples), Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Kohala (Big Island) as well as Haleakala (Maui) we show that the Hawaiian plume might not be zoned but that the heterogeneities observed in the lavas can be derived from melting and mixing processes. This is in accordance with other, recently developed models. The He isotopic ratios of the studied samples vary from 7 to 18 RA, whereas Ne isotopic ratios plot along the Loihi-Kilauea line in a Ne-three isotope plot. Thus the He isotopes range from ratios typical for the upper mantle to ratios more typical for a primitive mantle source. All Ne isotopic ratios are typical for a more primitive mantle. This indicates a decoupling of He from Ne as well as a homogeneous plume source. Combined He, Ne and Ar systematics show that this decoupling is caused by predegassing fractionation process, which leaves the He isotope ratio more susceptible for changes than Ne or Ar isotope ratios. Basically, this process caused a He deficit of melts generated by the plume, as shown by 3He/22Ne below current estimates of solar composition and 4He*/21Ne* and 4He*/40Ar* lower than the theoretical production ratios. These observations can best be explained by a model in which He is fractionated from Ne and Ar during formation of plume melts generated by low melting degrees and subsequent mixing with upper mantle melts generated by higher degrees of melting. This requires He to be more compatible during melt formation than Ne and Ar. Depending on the relative proportion of mixing the resulting lavas will cover the whole observed He isotope range, whereas Ne isotopes remain relatively homogeneously distributed.

Stroncik, N. A.; Krüsmann, T.; Niedermann, S.; Erzinger, J.

2008-12-01

310

Initial ISEE magnetometer results - Shock observation. [magnetic field profiles across terrestrial bow and interplanetary shocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A selection of early measurements is used to illustrate the three advantages brought by ISEE to the study of natural collisionless shocks. These advantages are the ability to resolve most space/time ambiguity by means of simultaneous two-point measurements, instrumentation to make comprehensive field and particle observations covering all important quantities, and the capacity to record data at high time resolution. Magnetic-field records from shocks of various types are presented; the types of shock include laminar, supercritical, quasi-perpendicular, high-beta, and quasi-parallel. The spacing of the two spacecraft and the resolution of the system are employed to develop numerous kinematic descriptions of the shocks and the waves that compose and surround them. Data from a single particle experiment are correlated with field data for three cases to demonstrate the important role of comprehensive instrumentation.

Russell, C. T.; Greenstadt, E. W.

1979-01-01

311

Results of UHF radar observation of the nocturnal low-level jet for wind energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two series of eight-month UHF radar observations collected during the dry and wet seasons of AMMA field campaign. The ultimate goal is to do preliminary work to know whether the lowest layers are suitable for wind energy applications. Surface wind is usually weak in West Africa, but the regular occurrence of a nocturnal low level jet (NLLJ) could provide interesting conditions for wind energy. This work is two-fold: it first aims at improving our knowledge about the NLLJ in West Africa regarding its structure and its variability during the year. Then, special attention is paid to the first 200 m agl, to study the possibility to use the sub-jet wind as a source of energy. A set of enhanced radio-soundings is taken to help to understand the dynamics and thermodynamics and to find a way to extrapolate the wind at low level, where the UHF radars do not provide data.

Madougou, Saïdou; Saïd, Frederique; Campistron, Bernard; Lothon, Marie; Kebe, Cheikh F.

2012-10-01

312

New Variable Stars Discovered by the APACHE Survey. I. Results After the First Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present more than 80 new variable stars discovered during the first observing season of the APACHE survey. APACHE is a project aimed at detecting extrasolar planets transiting nearby, bright M dwarfs by using an array of small-aperture telescopes. Despite that the survey is targeted to a well-defined sample of cool stars, we also reduce and analyze data for all the detected field stars. Since July 2012 dozens of different stellar fields have been monitored, leading to the detection of several variables for which we propose a classification and estimate a period, when a periodicity is evident in the data. Thanks to the SuperWASP public archive, we have also retrieved and analyzed photometric data collected by the SWASP survey, which helped us to refine the classification and the period estimation of many variables found in the APACHE database. Some of the variables present peculiarities and thus are discussed separately.

Damasso, M.; Bernagozzi, A.; Bertolini, E.; Calcidese, P.; Carbognani, A.; Cenadelli, D.; Christille, J. M.; Giacibbe, P.; Lanteri, L.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Smart, R.; Sozzetti, A.

2014-06-01

313

Pluto Occultation of P131.1 in 2002 August: Overview of Observations and Infrared Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pluto's occultation of the star P131.1 (R = 15.7, K = 13.3; see McDonald & Elliot, 2002, AJ 120, 1599) on 2002 August 21 was successfully observed with nine telescopes: the IRTF, UH 2.2m, UH 0.6m, UKIRT, and CFHT on Mauna Kea; the AEOS telescope on Haleakala, the Shane telescope at Lick Observatory, the Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory, and the Hale telescope at Palomar Observatory. Occultation light curves were recorded at a variety of time resolutions and wavelengths in order to facilitate several investigations of Pluto's atmosphere (see Pasachoff et al., Person et al., Clancy et al., this meeting). We confirm the main conclusion from the P126 occultation (Buie et al., BAAS 34, 877) that the structure of Pluto's atmosphere has changed substantially since it was last observed in 1988 (Elliot & Young et al., AJ 103, 991). The multi-wavelength nature of our P131.1 data set allows us to elucidate these changes. The IRTF data were recorded with SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003 PASP, in preparation) and span the 0.8 to 2.5 micron region of the spectrum. Although recorded at lower time resolution (about 4 spectra per minute) than the other data sets, comparison of the SpeX light curves at different wavelengths (and comparing them with the visible light curves) is being used to establish the role of extinction by possible hazes and clouds in Pluto's atmosphere throughout the occultation. These IR data and the UKIRT light curve with the H filter will be used to correct the visible-light curves for extinction effects (if present) prior to inverting the light curves to obtain temperature, pressure, and number-density profiles of Pluto's atmosphere. This work has been supported in part by Research Corporation, NASA, and NSF.

Elliot, J. L.; Clancy, K. B.; Rayner, J. T.; Tholen, D. J.; Person, M. J.; Osip, D. J.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Ticehurst, D. R.; Hall, D.; Roberts, L. C., Jr.; Bosh, A. S.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Moon, D.-S.; Buie, M. W.; Dunham, E. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Taylor, B.; Kern, S. D.; Qu, S.; Salyk, C. V.; Leggett, S. K.; Levine, S. E.; Stone, R. C.

2002-12-01

314

Lava erosion on Mercury: Model results using new observations from MESSENGER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanism has been conclusively identified on the surface of Mercury from images and color data collected by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) instrument aboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Most of the volcanic deposits on Mercury are similar in morphology to lunar mare flood basalt deposits and are found on Mercury in smooth plains regions such as in the extensive northern smooth plains. Adjacent to the northern smooth plains is an unusual assemblage of 5-10-km-diameter pits, teardrop-shaped hills, rough plains, and distal lobate-margined smooth plains; these features are interpreted to represent source vents, lava sculpting of underlying terrain, and distal emplacement of extensive flow lobes. These features are consistent with eruption of high-temperature, low-viscosity komatiite-like flood lavas that erode and sculpt the underlying terrain during flow on Mercury. Evidence of this process is observed extensively on other terrestrial planets where eroded channels are often seen in association with source depressions. Here we analyze Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) data and MDIS images to document morphologic and morphometric constraints on the amount of erosion that occurred and the amount of lava that was emplaced during the formation of this scoured surface. These constraints are used as inputs into models of mechanical and thermal erosion to determine which erosion regime, mechanical or thermal, was dominant during the formation of this terrain, as well as to determine plausible erosion rates and eruption durations required to form the observed scoured terrain. We compare processes of volcanism and thermal/mechanical erosion on Mercury with similar processes on Earth, the Moon, Mars and Venus.

Hurwitz, D. M.; Head, J. W.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Strom, R. G.; Fassett, C. I.; Denevi, B. W.; Blewett, D. T.; Ernst, C. M.; Watters, T. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Byrne, P. K.; Klimczak, C.; Murchie, S. L.; Prockter, L. M.; Chabot, N. L.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Whitten, J.; Goudge, T. A.; Baker, D. M.; Ostrach, L. R.; Xiao, Z.; Merline, W. J.; Dickson, J. L.; Oberst, J.; Nittler, L. R.

2011-12-01

315

Preliminary results on SAS-2 observations of greater than 30 MeV gamma radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the SAS-2 detector and its measurements of gamma ray sources greater than 30 MeV. Results indicate that gamma rays come from discrete energetic sources, the galactic plane, and diffuse presumably extragalactic regions not associated with the galactic plane.

Kniffen, D. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.

1963-01-01

316

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

Turner, David D.

2005-04-01

317

Geographical statistical assessments of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China: Results from upscaling network observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantifying the magnitudes and distributions of carbon budgets is helpful for strategies in mitigating global climate change. Based on spatial patterns of carbon fluxes (gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and their drivers, we constructed geographical statistical assessment schemes and quantified the magnitudes of carbon fluxes in China. The optimal assessment scheme was then validated with observed eddy covariance data to analyze the spatial distributions of carbon fluxes. Using climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes, our estimates of GEP, ER and NEP in China during 2000s were 7.51 ± 0.51, 5.82 ± 0.16 and 1.91 ± 0.15 PgC yr- 1, corresponding to 4.29%-6.80%, 5.65%-6.06% and 9.10%-12.73% of global annual carbon fluxes, respectively. The spatial distributions of GEP, ER and NEP, generated from the optimal scheme, were similar, following a southeast-northwest decreasing gradient. The maximum values for GEP, ER and NEP were 1790, 1300 and 490 gC m- 2 yr- 1, respectively, which occurred in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics. Climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes provided an independent dataset for the regional carbon budget assessment, which can be deemed as the potential carbon fluxes. Meanwhile, most areas in China were potential carbon sink especially Eastern China and the largest potential carbon sink appeared in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics.

Zhu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Gui-Rui; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li; Fu, Yu-Ling; Wen, Xue-Fa; Liu, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min

2014-07-01

318

Long-acting paliperidone palmitate - interim results of an observational study of its effect on hospitalization  

PubMed Central

Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently introduced long-acting atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotic. Published data on PP are currently limited to controlled trials and case reports. In this observational study, we followed up 200 consecutive patients prescribed PP in normal practice. After 1 year, 65% of patients were still receiving PP. The number of admissions to hospital in the year following PP initiation was 0.49/patient compared with 0.69/patient/year, 3 years before initiation (P=0.0001). The mean number of bed days fell from 38.78 to 23.09/patient/year over the corresponding period (P=0.0001). The median number of bed days 3 years before PP initiation was 21.50/year and in the year following PP initiation, it was 0. Outcomes were numerically but not statistically better in those continuing PP than in those who ceased PP within a year of initiation. PP was effective and well-tolerated and, given its positive effect on hospital bed days, broadly cost-effective.

Olofinjana, Olubanke

2014-01-01

319

Observations of the chromospheric network - Initial results from the Apollo Telescope Mount  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A preliminary analysis of early data taken by the HCO spectrometer on Skylab shows that the solar chromospheric network can be clearly seen with varying contrast in the extreme-ultraviolet emission characteristic of temperatures between 10,000 K (the Lyman continuum) and 300,000 K (O VI). In the emission of Mg X, a coronal line formed at about 1,500,000 K, the network is generally unrecognizable. This is interpreted as being due to a spreading of the magnetic field lines of the network boundary in the height interval corresponding to the temperature difference between 300,000 and 1,500,000 K. We note that in certain anomalous cases, bright points of the network are seen to extend with high contrast and essentially unchanged in their cross-section through the full range of temperatures characteristic of the chromosphere, transition region, and low corona.

Reeves, E. M.; Foukal, P. V.; Noyes, R. W.; Schmahl, E. J.; Timothy, J. G.; Vernazza, J. E.; Withbroe, G. L.; Huber, M. C. E.

1974-01-01

320

Transfer Paths of Research Results to the Practice: Observations From the Receiving End  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered especially useful. Conferences and special symposia offer the opportunity to practicing professionals to find out what is the latest in different subject areas, but many view such meetings as having either a practical or a research character, and expressed the desire for more meetings that would bring together the practitioners and the researchers. Commercialization is another path for bringing research results to the practice, but is limited to areas where the size of the market for the commercial application of research findings makes it economically viable. The extent of the adoption of research findings in the practice varies across subjects. The results of research in subjects driven by pressing practical needs, such as remediation of contaminated groundwater or hydraulic testing have been passed quickly to the practice. Using the results of research in subjects such as fracture flow and stochastic hydrogeology seems more elusive.

Findikakis, A. N.

2005-12-01

321

VLF campaign during the total eclipse of July 22nd, 2009: Observational results and interpretations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) provides us with an exciting opportunity to study the VLF propagation effects under a controlled experimental condition where the extreme ultraviolet and the X-rays from the sun are totally blocked by the moon. During the total eclipse of July 22nd, 2009, the Indian Centre for Space Physics conducted a VLF campaign to obtain the signal from a dozen of places in the Indian sub-continent. Six of these locations gave very good and noise-free data. In some of these data, the signal amplitude is found to be higher than that at non-eclipse condition, while in some other places, it is lower. We present the results of our campaign and give an interpretation of the results using the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code in a perturbed waveguide both for the easterly and westerly propagation paths.

Chakrabarti, S. K.; Pal, S.; Sasmal, S.; Mondal, S. K.; Ray, S.; Basak, T.; Maji, S. K.; Khadka, B.; Bhowmick, D.; Chowdhury, A. K.

2012-09-01

322

Earth-based Radar Observations of Mercury: Imaging Results with the Upgraded Arecibo Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the completion of the Arecibo upgrade in 1998 came the opportunity to do Mercury radar imaging of unprecedented quality. Among the early results with the upgraded S-band radar was the delay-Doppler imaging of the north polar ice features at 1.5-km resolution (Harmon et al., 2001). These images provided accurate mapping of the putative ice deposits within shaded crater floors

J. Harmon

2004-01-01

323

Shock metamorphism of some rock-forming minerals: Experimental results and natural observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The products of shock metamorphism in the Jnisjrvi astrobleme in Karelia, Russia, are compared with the results of experiments\\u000a in which spherical converging shock waves affected a spherical rock sample. The sample was loaded by a broad spectrum of shock\\u000a pressures, which increased from ?20 GPa at the periphery of the rock sphere to > 200 GPa at its center.

V. I. Fel’dman; L. V. Sazonova; E. A. Kozlov

2006-01-01

324

Preliminary Results of Observations of Comets De Vico and Hyakutake by the Ulysses Comet Watch Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cometary interactions with the solar wind allow us to use comets as probes of the inner regions of the heliosphere. During their close passage to the Sun, comets are exposed to different environments depending on their latitude. Until recently, characterizing these environments has been difficult because most spacecraft studying the sun have been confined to studying its mid-latitudes. A valuable source of information about the differing regimes of the solar wind is the joint ESA/NASA ULYSSES mission, which is the first spacecraft to explore the polar regions of the heliosphere. In 1995, ULYSSES' orbit covered a range of solar latitudes from -80 degrees to +80 degrees - an interval referred to as the 'fast latitude scan.' The Ulysses Comet Watch incorporates in-situ measurements during these periods by the ULYSSES spacecraft with images contributed by a world-wide network of observers (both amateur and professional). Bright comets whose paths come within 20 degrees solar latitude of the spacecraft are considered especially good targets for correlation between spacecraft data and plasma tail activity. Ulysses findings of interest to cometary plasma research are: Verification of global differences in solar wind properties (speed and density) at different solar latitudes. At polar latitudes - ranging from roughly +/-30 degrees to +/-80 degrees - the solar wind speed is about 750 kilometers/sec, and has a proton density (1 AU) around 3 cm(exp -3). Changes in properties are small and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is not seen. In the equatorial latitudes (roughly +30 to -30 degrees), the average solar wind speed is about 450 kilometers/sec, with an average proton density (at 1 AU) around 9 cm(exp -3). The HCS is seen and changes in properties can be large. An object, spacecraft or comet, at a given latitude, can be entirely in the polar, entirely in the equatorial, or can experience both - sort of a transition region.

Petersen, C. C.; Brandt, J. C.; Yi, Y.

1996-01-01

325

Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? b h 2, ? c h 2, and ??, are each determined to a precision of ~1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to \\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{- 0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m ? < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N eff and the primordial helium abundance, Y He, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

2013-10-01

326

Full non-linear treatment of the global thermospheric wind system. Part 2: Results and comparison with observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inclusion effects of the nonlinear parts of the convective derivative on the resulting wind pattern are considered. A comparison is made with earlier theoretical work and with winds deduced from observations.

Blum, P. W.; Harris, I.

1973-01-01

327

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Cloud Properties Observed by MODIS: Preliminary Level-3 Results from the Collection 5 Reprocessing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and Aqua spacecraft on May 4, 2002. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000 for Terra and June 24, 2002 for Aqua. A comprehensive set of operational algorithms for the retrieval of cloud physical and optical properties (optical thickness, effective particle radius, water path, thermodynamic phase) have recently been updated and are being used in the new "Collection 5" processing stream being produced by the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) at NASA GSFC. All Terra and Aqua data are undergoing Collection 5 reprocessing with an expected completion date by the end of 2006. The archived products from these algorithms include 1 km pixel-level (Level-2) and global gridded Level-3 products. The cloud products have applications in climate change studies, climate modeling, numerical weather prediction, as well as fundamental atmospheric research. In this talk, we will summarize the available Level-3 cloud properties and their associated statistical data sets, and show preliminary Terra and Aqua results from the available Collection 5 reprocessing effort. Anticipated results include the latitudinal distribution of cloud optical and radiative properties for both liquid water and ice clouds, as well as joint histograms of cloud optical thickness and effective radius for selected geographical locations around the world.

King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Hubanks, Paul; Pincus, Robert

2006-01-01

328

Cloud Observation and Modeling Test Bed for Air Force Weather Applications: Overview and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Air Force Weather (AFW) has documented requirements for real-time cloud analysis and short range cloud forecasts to support DoD missions around the world. To meet these needs, AFW utilizes the Cloud Depiction and Forecast System (CDFS) II system to develop a hourly cloud analysis and short range forecast. The system creates cloud masks from 16 different satellite sources and optimally merges them to create the analysis. This analysis then forms the initialization field for a short range 'advective' based cloud forecast. Northrop Grumman Corp. has recently delivered a CDFS II based Cloud Model Test Bed. This system offers the ability to test several aspects of the CDFS II system including: the effect of adding and subtracting sources of cloud imagery, the effect of changing source and skill of required external data sources, and the impact of changing the cloud information merge process among the various sources. In addition, the test bed offers a capability to generate a robust cloud modeling baseline against which to measure progress of a next generation Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) based advanced data assimilation system. Finally, the test bed allows the development and testing of new cloud modeling validation techniques (and sources) to provide greater confidence in results generated from the test bed. This presentation will provide a basic overview of the CDFS II system and of the newly developed Test Bed and will include results from the first series of experiments conducted using the Test Bed.

Nobis, T. E.

2012-12-01

329

Some observational aspects and modeling results of the Orissa super cyclone, October 1999  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The super cyclone that crossed the Orissa coast near Paradeep port (20.3 N, 86.7 E) around 0600 UTC on 29 October 1999, caused enormous damage - death of 10,000 people and 400,000 cattle, property damage worth Ind. Rs. 10,000 crores ( about USD 2 billion), salinization of about 1.8 million hectares of agricultural land, destruction of paddy crop paddy crop worth Ind. Rs.1,500 crores (USD 300 million), and severe damage to transmission lines, power supply, roads and buildings sustained severe damages. This cyclone was identified as a low pressure in the Gulf of Thailand on 24th October 1999. It moved westwards and gradually intensified reaching the intensity of a severe cyclonic storm on 27 October. The cyclone further intensified reaching very high intensity to be called as a super cyclone when it crossed the Orissa coast near Paradeep around 0600 UTC of 29 October. The observational installations on the Orissa coast were severely damaged and failed to record. However rough estimates have been made using the satellite and radar pictures. Average speed of the storm was about 20 km/hour and increased to 30 km/hour while intensifying, but reduced before and after crossing the coast. The central surface pressure is estimated as 912 hPa on 29 October with the T-number as T7; correspondingly the maximum wind speed is estimated as 260 km/hour with the radius of the eye at 15 km. Heavy rainfall was reported on 29, 30 and 31 October with maximum amounts of 955 mm in Bhadrak district of Orissa and 600-800 mm in Mahanadi river basin. A storm surge of 5 to 6m above the astronomical tide is reported at Paradeep on 29 October. All the above parameters, namely, strong winds with gale, torrential rains with heavy rainfall rate and high storm surge, caused the devastation. An attempt has been made to simulate the intensification and movement of the cyclone using a high resolution mesoscale model. The simulation study indicated that the models are capable of predicting the intensification of the storm as well as the movement. However the model errors range below 50 km with respect to the track.

Rao, N. J.; Rao, D. B.

2001-05-01

330

Further results on adaptive full-order and reduced-order observers for Lur'e differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is concerned with the adaptive observer design of Lur'e differential inclusions with unknown parameters. Under a relaxed assumption on nonlinear perturbation functions, a sufficient condition for the existence of an adaptive full-order observer is established. Comparing with results in the literature, the present conditions are complemented with a numerically reliable computational approach, which can be checked by means of linear matrix inequalities. Furthermore, it is shown that, under the sufficient condition, the existence of a reduced-order observer is guaranteed. Also, the reduced-order observer is designed. The effectiveness of the proposed design is illustrated via a simulation example.

Zhang, Junfeng; Han, Zhengzhi; Zhu, Fubo; Zhang, Wei

2014-05-01

331

Show-Me Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Show-Me Center, located at the University of Missouri, is a math education project of the National Science Foundation. The center's Web site "provides information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematic curricula." There are some sample lesson plans offered, but most of the material is solely for use by teachers. Five different middle grade math curriculums were started in 1992, and now, the implementation and results of each curriculum are presented on this site. Teachers can examine each one, view video clips, and read case studies and other reports to choose which parts of the curriculums would fit best into their own classes.

332

Experimental results of radio observations at the Yakutsk EAS in 2009-2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of radio emission measurements at 30-34 MHz from extensive air shower particles with primary energy above 1017 eV are presented. The data recorded at the Yakutsk EAS for the period 2009 - 2011 years with energies above 1017 eV, zenith angles less than 60 degree, the axes of which were within a large EAS. The shape of the spatial distribution has a different slope, depending on the distance to the shower axis. At large distances R > 500 m from the shower radio emission is small and almost constant up to a distance of 800 m. The primary energy of EAS and the amplitude of the peak radio pulse are correlated.

Knurenko, S. P.; Kozlov, V. I.; Petrov, Z. E.; Pravdin, M. I.

2013-02-01

333

Artificial cochlea and acoustic black hole travelling waves observation: Model and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inhomogeneous fluid structure waveguide reproducing passive behaviour of the inner ear is modelled with the help of the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin method. A physical setup is designed and built. Experimental results are compared with a good correlation to theoretical ones. The experimental setup is a varying width plate immersed in fluid and terminated with an acoustic black hole. The varying width plate provides a spatial repartition of the vibration depending on the excitation frequency. The acoustic black hole is made by decreasing the plate?s thickness with a quadratic profile and by covering this region with a thin film of viscoelastic material. Such a termination attenuates the flexural wave reflection at the end of the waveguide, turning standing waves into travelling waves.

Foucaud, Simon; Michon, Guilhem; Gourinat, Yves; Pelat, Adrien; Gautier, François

2014-07-01

334

A summary of results from the first Nimbus 7 SMMR observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selected data obtained during the first year of operation of the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 7 satellite (launched in late October 1978) have been used to calculate, on a global basis, various geophysical parameters over open oceans, polar regions, and terrain. Over open oceans these calculations have provided values for sea surface temperatures, near-surface winds, atmospheric water vapor in a column, and rainfall rates. In polar regions, sea ice concentration, multiyear ice fraction, and radiating temperatures have been obtained. Finally, the extent and water equivalence of snow cover over terrain have been calculated. These parameters have been compared with in situ measurements of the same geophysical parameters, where available, and the results of these comparisons are described. The self-consistency of the global displays of all the parameters is discussed along with the plans for archiving them for subsequent research purposes. A description of the SMMR calibration and data processing scheme is also given.

Gloersen, P.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, A. T. C.; Campbell, W. J.; Johannessen, O. M.; Katsaros, K. B.; Kunzi, K. F.; Ross, D. B.; Staelin, D.

1984-01-01

335

Dust Emissions Related to Convective Cold Pools along the Saharan Side of the Atlas Mountains: Observations, Climatology and Modelling Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling by evaporation of convective precipitation in the deep and dry sub-cloud layer over desert regions can generate intense downdrafts, and long-lived and extensive atmospheric density currents. The strong gusts at their leading edges can cause so-called haboob dust storms. Despite their importance for the dust cycle, the climatology and the ability of state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction models to realistically simulate the associated convective cold pools has been investigated very little to date. During the first field campaign of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM) in southern Morocco in May/June 2006 several density currents were observed. They were triggered by deep moist convection over the Atlas Mountains during the afternoon and propagated into the foothills in the course of the evening. The passage of the leading edge is associated with a marked increase in dew point, wind speed and pressure, a change in wind direction, and a decrease in temperature and visibility. Here we present numerical simulations of three of these density currents using the non-hydrostatic COSMO model with 2.8 km horizontal grid spacing, which allows an explicit treatment of deep convection. The model is capable of simulating the timely initiation of convective cells over the Atlas Mountains and the subsequent formation of long-lived, extensive cold pools with a realistic three-dimensional structure. Deviations from available surface and satellite observations are closely related to model deficiencies in simulating precipitating convection over the Algerian Sahara. Sensitivity studies with modified microphysics and boundary layer turbulence schemes reveal a large influence of raindrop size distributions on evaporation and surface rainfall, but a rather moderate influence on the cold pool evolution, while changes to the turbulence length scale affect all three parameters more substantially. In addition a climatology of density currents in southern Morocco is presented that is based upon 5 years of surface observation from the climate station network of the IMPETUS project (www.impetus.uni-koeln.de). The results show that density currents are predominantly a warm-season phenomenon with an occurrence maximum during the late afternoon and evening. Most systems reach southern Morocco from the Atlas Mountains, but on occasion density currents related to moist convection over the adjacent Mauritanian and Algerian Sahara are observed. The occurrence of density currents is linked with the passage of a weak disturbance across the region that allows a northward transport of moist tropical air along its eastern flank and then contributes to destabilizing the vertical column while over northwestern Africa.

Knippertz, P.; Deutscher, C.; Trentmann, J.; Seifert, A.; Kandler, K.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, L.

2009-04-01

336

Preliminary results from the retrieval and assimilation of GPS radio occultation refractivity observations during tropical storm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne GPS radio occultation (RO) data have been collected by the GNSS Instrument System for Multi-static and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) during the 2010 PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment to study developing Atlantic tropical storms. This airborne system is designed to receive and record radio signals from setting and rising GPS satellites. The additional phase delay of the GPS radio signals due to refraction in the atmosphere is used to retrieve vertical profiles of refractivity, which depend strongly on moisture. A large airborne RO dataset was acquired from twenty-six research flights and refractivity profiles have been derived from the GISMOS geodetic GPS receivers. The airborne RO profiles consistently agree within ~2% with refractivity profiles calculated from ECMWF model analyses above 5 km altitude and with nearby dropsonde profiles. Accurate refractivity results are an important first step in investigating the impact of assimilating moisture profiles within the mesoscale environment of developing storms. A case study is conducted for pre-Hurricane Karl. The evolution of refractivity derived from RO data over the five days leading to the genesis of tropical storm Karl are consistent with mid-tropospheric moistening in the vicinity of the storm center. The algorithm to assimilate airborne GPS observations has been implemented in the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) Data Assimilation (DA) system of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We use a non-local operator for the integrated excess phase, defined as the integrated value of refractivity along the GPS radio ray path. One observation per horizontal and vertical model grid point is assimilated instead of only one per vertical model level, so that the horizontal drift of the occultation points within each model level is considered. Three data assimilation experiments were conducted: 1) NONE: No data are assimilated during data cycling. 2) DRPS: Dropsonde observations are assimilated every three hours during data cycling. 3) DRPS+GPS: Refractivity retrieved from the airborne GPS system above 5 km is included in the data assimilation process used for the DRPS experiment. Preliminary numerical experiments show a positive impact from the assimilation of both dropsondes and airborne GPS observations on Karl simulations, with improvements in refractivity and moisture fields above ~2.5 km. GPS signals from the GISMOS radio frequency (RF) recording system are being analyzed with a more robust open loop tracking method than the real-time phase-locked loop tracking used in the conventional receivers, which is expected to provide many more profiles. A test case using open loop mode tracked ~2 km deeper into the troposphere than the conventional geodetic receiver.

Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Muradyan, P.; Nievinski, F. G.; Larson, K. M.; Garrison, J. L.; Wang, E. K.; Chen, S.

2012-12-01

337

Geomorphic expression of strike-slip faults: field observations vs. analog experiments: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this project is to study the surface expression of strike-slip faults with main aim to find rules how these structures can be extrapolated to depth. In the first step, several basic properties of the fault architecture are in focus: (1) Is it possible to define the fault architecture by studying surface structures of the damage zone vs. the fault core, particularly the width of the damage zone? (2) Which second order structures define the damage zone of strike-slip faults, and how relate these to such reported in basement fault strike-slip analog experiments? (3) Beside classical fault bend structures, is there a systematic along-strike variation of the damage zone width and to which properties relates the variation of the damage zone width. We study the above mentioned properties on the dextral Altyn fault, which is one of the largest strike-slip on Earth with the advantage to have developed in a fully arid climate. The Altyn fault includes a ca. 250 to 600 m wide fault valley, usually with the trace of actual fault in its center. The fault valley is confined by basement highs, from which alluvial fans develop towards the center of the fault valley. The active fault trace is marked by small scale pressure ridges and offset of alluvial fans. The fault valley confining basement highs are several kilometer long and ca. 0.5 to 1 km wide and confined by rotated dextral anti-Riedel faults and internally structured by a regular fracture pattern. Dextral anti-Riedel faults are often cut by Riedel faults. Consequently, the Altyn fault comprises a several km wide damage zone. The fault core zone is a barrier to fluid flow, and the few springs of the region are located on the margin of the fault valley implying the fractured basement highs as the reservoir. Consequently, the southern Silk Road was using the Altyn fault valley. The preliminary data show that two or more orders of structures exist. Small-scale develop during a single earthquake. These finally accumulate to a several 100 m wide fault core, which is in part exposed at surface to arid climate and a km wide damage zone. The basic structures of analog experiments can be well transferred to nature, although along strike changes are common due to fault bending and fracture failure of country rocks.

Hsieh, S. Y.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2012-04-01

338

Active layer thickness and thaw subsidence in permafrost terrain: results from long-term observations near Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of active-layer thickness (ALT) on the North Slope of Alaska are highly variable, both spatially and temporally. Although geographic patterns of ALT repeat themselves from year to year, ALT is an integrated response to a large number of parameters. Thaw penetration into an ice-rich layer at the base of the active layer is accompanied by loss of volume (thaw consolidation) and results in subsidence at the ground surface. Differential thaw settlement occurs annually in permafrost environments as the layer of annual thaw (the active layer) develops. Significant ice segregation can occur at the bottom of the active layer during "cold" periods, due predominantly to freezing from below in the autumn and winter. This study examines trends in seasonal thawing of soils and vertical movements of the ground surface associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table in the Barrow region. The core thaw depth data set consists of ALT measurements conducted under the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program. The Barrow CALM site, represented by a regular 1 km2 grid, was established in the early 1990s. The reported ALT observations were initiated in 1992 and are measured annually in late August. Additional ALT measurements are available from a series of 10 x 10 meter plots established in 1962 as part of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research program at Barrow. Annual observations were made between 1962 and 1970. Measurements were reestablished in 1991 under the CALM program, following the original methodology. Field investigations to track interannual vertical movements associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table were initiated in 2003. Measurements continue annually at several CRREL plots representative of different elements of the tundra landscape. Observations were made at the end of the thawing season using Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) technology. Results from data analysis indicate that long-term changes in ALT are accompanied by pronounced interannual variability. No significant trends are observed in the active-layer record over the last 20 years. The values from the 1960s are generally higher than in the 1990s and are very similar to those of the 2000s. Following below-average thaw in 1991-1993, there was a general increase in ALT, followed by stabilization in the thawing regime during 1999-2011. The sampled areas showed net subsidence of the ground surface over the period of observation (2003-2011), reducing average surface elevation by 0.13 m. To evaluate the integrated thermal response of this permafrost landscape to climatic forcing, site-average annual thaw depth values were correlated with the square root of DDT, estimated from site-specific air temperature records and accumulated by the date of thaw depth and surface elevation measurements. The linear best-fit regression equation was used, in conjunction with the DDT record, to estimate the vertical position of the ground surface years prior to 2003, when DGPS surveys were initiated. Results indicate that over the 18 year period the elevation of the permafrost table has decreased by 0.33 m. Only 36% (0.12 m) of this change is attributable to increased active-layer thickness, while 64% (0.21m) is attributable to subsidence of the ground surface.

Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.

2012-12-01

339

First Results of High-Definition TV Spectroscopic Observations of the 1999 Leonid Meteor Shower  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1999 Leonids, an intensified HDTV camera was used for slitless meteor spectroscopy at visible and near-UV wavelengths in three night flights of the Leonid Multi-instrument Aircraft Campaign. The IIDTV system provided a high dynamic range (digital 10-bit) and a wide field of view of 37 × 21 degrees. The maximum spectral sensitivity is at 405 nm, while the resolving power of the spectrograph was ?/?? ~ 250. Here, we report on the results for one particularly nice spectrum from a Leonid meteor at 03:24:40 UT. Numerous atomic emission lines of magnesium and iron were detected, with an excitation temperature of T = 5,000 +/- 1,000. It is confirmed that sodium is released from the meteoroid earlier than iron and magnesium, just as in meteors of the 1998 Leonid shower. Rovibrational bands of N_2 dominate the spectrum in the visible and near-IR. We searched for CN band emission at 389 nm, but could not detect it due to the overlap of numerous iron lines.

Abe, Shinsuke; Yano, Hajime; Ebizuka, Noboru; Watanabe, Jun-Ichi

340

Venus surface and near surface anomalies on the Northern hemisphere observed by VIRTIS/VEX: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus nightside emission measurements of VIRTIS on Venus Express provide the opportunity of surface studies in the narrow near infrared atmospheric windows. The measurements as well as detailed new radiative transfer simulations show that radiance ratios in the emission windows between 1.0 and 1.35 m with respect to the 1.02 m window can be used to extract information about the surface elevation and temperature. Based on these analyses, first surface and near surface anomalies are identified on the Northern hemisphere of Venus, which are due to deviations of the elevation - temperature correlation in certain small areas. The data are selected from VIRTIS-M-IR nightside measurements. To ensure minimal atmospheric influence on the measured signatures, only pushbroom observations with small observation angles close to nadir are taken into account. The radiative transfer simulation technique considers absorption, emission, and multiple scattering by gaseous and particulate constituents of the atmosphere. Look-up tables of quasi-monochromatic gas absorption cross-sections are calculated using appropriate spectral line data bases and line profiles and a line-by-line procedure. Empirical continuum absorption coefficients are determined from a 'VIRTIS reference spectrum'. In order to derive the parameters of the H2SO4 clouds, Mie theory is applied. Multiple scattering is considered by a Successive Order procedure. The synthetic quasi-monochromatic intensity spectra at the model top level of the atmosphere are convolved with the VIRTIS spectral response function. The surface windows at 1.02, 1.10 and 1.18 m exhibit a clear dependence of transmitted radiation on topographical features and, thus, on surface thermal emission, since an elevation change of 12 km results in a temperature change of 100 K. In the first approximation, the radiance ratios are affine linear functions of the surface temperature. This is demonstrated by both measurements and simulations. In general, the ratio-based VIRTIS topography correlates well with the Magellan topography, but differences occur in localized areas. Different local surface anomalies do exist. These anomalies are probably a result of the lower atmosphere dynamics, errors in Magellan elevation determinations, or variations in the surface emissivity. Surface emissivity variations are important indicators of the nature of surface material. They may be due to variations in mineralogy and surface texture. While most of Venus' geologic units are thought to be basaltic in composition, some of them (tessera terrains) could be felsic. The 1 m emissivity of felsic materials is lower compared to basalts at similar texture conditions. Nevertheless, we found that anomalous areas comprise practically the same geologic units as adjacent non-anomalous terrains. The surface texture (grain size, packing density, surface roughness) is another important factor for emissivity anomalies. Grain size affects the spectral characteristics. Laboratory measurements of basalts and oxidized basalts show significant changes in the contrast of the 1 m reflectivity band. Although most of the surface of Venus is not very rough, roughness variations exist. Tesserae and rifts show a higher surface roughness compared to other areas. Finally, the Magellan radar data that represent the base of the topography information of the Venus surface result from a surface layer of about 1 m in thickness, whereas the VIRTIS-NIR data describe the optical upper surface layer only. The radiative transfer simulations show the capability of our algorithm to investigate the surface of Venus. Based on these simulations and the VIRTIS/VEX measurements, the extracted anomalies are discussed in the framework of these processes and influences mentioned above. Future improvements will contribute to eliminate the masking of the Venus nightside windows by far wing and pressure-induced absorptions of the deep atmosphere constituents. This will allow a better separation of deep atmosphere, temperature, and emissivity contributions to the Venus nightside e

Arnold, G.; Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Basilevski, A.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.

2009-04-01

341

Spatiotemporal ecohydrological patterns and processes in temperate uplands: linking field observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are obvious surface expressions - in terms of vegetation patterning - of ecohydrological feedbacks on dryland and peatland hillslopes. Much less is known about subsurface ecohydrological patterns, and whether or not they 'map onto' surface patterns. Likewise, few attempts have been made to investigate how such ecohydrological patterns affect whole-hillslope hydrological behaviour or how widespread they are in non-dryland and non-peatland hillslopes. In this study we investigate surface and near- surface patterning in temperate hillslopes, which to date have been the focus of much hydrological work but little ecohydrological work. In particular, we consider the extent to which the direct and the indirect effects of past and present plant assemblages on local and whole-hillslope soil moisture conditions may contribute to patterning. We have conducted a field study of two temperate upland hillslopes in Northern Scotland, UK, on one of which human intervention plays a major part in shaping the landscape. Repeat measurements have been made of near- surface soil-moisture content, taken at lag distances of 0.25 m to 20 m, under different antecedent hydrological conditions together with characterisation of plant assemblages at the same points through both ground-based vegetation surveys of 1 m × 1 m plots and kite aerial photography (KAP) of > 20 m2 plots. Results from this have indicated that changes in ecohydrological patterns can occur over small spatial scales (< 1 m2) and short time scales (< 1 day). Comparison of values of near-surface soil moisture content with topographic wetness indices, calculated using 1 -m resolution topographic data collected in the field, has highlighted that topography does not explain all of the spatial variation in soil moisture content at this scale. KAP images allowed detection of vegetation patterns not obvious from the ground. Comparison of KAP images and historic aerial photographs has highlighted the persistence of vegetation patterns over time at both sites, and that the current structure of the landscape is clearly related to current and past vegetation management practices. Evidence of sustained patterning under relatively steady environmental conditions has prompted us to consider how internal system dynamics such as competition and facilitation between different plant assemblages, and persistence of ecological memory at a range of timescales may lead to a range of ecohydrological behaviours at the scale of whole hillslopes. To help conceptualize ways in which patterning may arise, we have built a two-dimensional cellular automata-type model in which local interactions between biotic and abiotic components have the potential to lead to emergence of larger-scale patterns within the model landscape. Results from the field study have been used to gauge how well temperate hillslope ecohydrological dynamics are represented in our model, and to check that local neighbourhood patterns in the model outputs resemble real-world patterning. Key words: temperate upland ecohydrology, plant assemblage dynamics, ecological memory, kite aerial photography, cellular automata.

Dodd, N. H.; Baird, A. J.; Wainwright, J.; Dunn, S. M.

2011-12-01

342

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, ?. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ?CDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): ? b h 2 = 0.02267+0.00058 -0.00059, ? c h 2 = 0.1131 ± 0.0034, ?? = 0.726 ± 0.015, ns = 0.960 ± 0.013, ? = 0.084 ± 0.016, and ?_{R}^2 = (2.445± 0.096)× 10^{-9} at k = 0.002 Mpc-1. From these we derive ?8 = 0.812 ± 0.026, H 0 = 70.5 ± 1.3 km s-1 Mpc-1, ? b = 0.0456 ± 0.0015, ? c = 0.228 ± 0.013, ? m h 2 = 0.1358+0.0037 -0.0036, z reion = 10.9 ± 1.4, and t 0 = 13.72 ± 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0.22(95%CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dns /dln k = -0.028 ± 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 < 1 + w < 0.12(95%CL) and -0.0179 < ? k < 0.0081(95%CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N eff = 4.4 ± 1.5 (68% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N eff = 0 are disfavored at >99.5% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f local NL < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f equil NL < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively. WMAP is the result of a partnership between Princeton University and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Scientific guidance is provided by the WMAP Science Team.

Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2009-02-01

343

Lithospheric geometries revealed through electromagnetic imaging: SAMTEX (Southern Africa MagnetoTelluric Experiment) observations and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is imaging the properties and geometries of the lithosphere below southern Africa to depths of 200+ km. Electrical conductivity is highly sensitive to ambient temperature, and to the presence of an interconnected conducting phase, such as a solid phase like graphite or sulphides, a fluid phase like partial melt, or bound water through hydrogen diffusion. Thus, primary geometrical information can be readily obtained from lithospheric-scale MT experiments about the three-dimensional variation in conductivity that can be related to formation and deformation processes. One important piece of information easily obtained from MT data is the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), due to the sensitivity of conductivity to small fractions (<1%) of partial melt and/or of some hundreds of ppm of bound water. SAMTEX measurements have been made at a total of more than 750 MT sites over an area in excess of a million square kilometres, making it by far the largest-ever regional MT project undertaken. One of the most significant results from SAMTEX is the mapping of the LAB beneath the Archean cratons and bounding mobile belts of Southern Africa, particularly of the previously unknown regions of Namibia and Botswana. The LAB is shallow (150 km) beneath the mobile belts, deep (250 km) in the centres of the cratons, and transitional at the edges. Diamondiferous kimberlites are located primarily where lithosphere is transitional in thickness, or where there is a change in its anisotropy properties, both of which are craton edge effects. The electrical properties of the continental mantle derived from SAMTEX data can be compared with seismic ones derived from data from the South African Seismic Experiment (SASE) of the Kaapvaal Project. Generally there is very good predictive linear agreement between seismic velocity and log(conductivity), indicative of both being influenced by the same bulk property factors, such as temperature, Mg# and composition.

Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Evans, R. L.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Samtex Team

2011-12-01

344

Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P?=?0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: ?0.10, 95% CI: ?0.15 to ?0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p?=?0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of openness were evaluated as less adequate feedback-givers. Non-surgical attending physicians who were conscientious seem to be good at evaluating residents. These insights could contribute to future work on development paths of attending physicians in medical education.

Scheepers, Renee A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

2014-01-01

345

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

346

Initial results of VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-Chain) over Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whistler-mode waves in the VLF/ELF frequency range interact with high-energy (~10 keV) electrons to cause diffuse and pulsating auroras, and with MeV electrons in the radiation belts. However, simultaneous high-time resolution measurements of aurora and these waves have previously not been done sufficiently. We made a campaign observation of such high-time resolution measurements at Athabasca (54.72N, 246.69E, MLAT=61.3) and Fort Vermillion (58.38N, 243.99E, MLAT=64.5) using two loop antennas and several auroral cameras for February 16-26, 2012. The loop antennas at both stations measure east-west and north-south magnetic field variations with a sampling rate of 100 kHz. The panchromatic all-sky cameras at both stations measure auroras with a sampling rate of 30 Hz. The sampling timings of both instruments are corrected by GPS receivers. In addition we installed an oblique looking narrow-FoV EMCCD camera at Athabasca with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, to measure height variation of pulsating aurora. At Athabasca, routine measurements by an induction magnetometer, a proton photometer, an all-sky airglow imager, LF standard wave receiver, were also carried out. We also tried to compare these observations with satellite measurements by REIMEI, THEMIS, NOAA, and DMSP. In this presentation we will show initial results obtained from this comprehensive campaign of aurora and radio wave measurements at subauroral latitudes.

Shiokawa, Kazuo

2012-07-01

347

X-ray observations of characteristic structures and time variations from the solar corona: preliminary results from Skylab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples taken from the S-054 X-ray telescope observations made during ; the first Skylab mission show the hot coronal plasma tracing the configuration of ; the magnetic fields. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of the ; instrument has enabled the following two facts to be more firmly established: (a) ; that the quiet homogeneous corona'' is in fuct highly

G. S. Valana; J. M. Davis; R. Giacconi; A. S. Krieger; J. K. Silk; A. F. Timothy; M. Zombeck

1973-01-01

348

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus 0.013, OMEGA(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.1358(sup +0.0037)(sub -0.0036), z reion = 10.9 plus or minus 1.4, and t(sub 0) = 13.72 plus or minus 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ration is r less than 0.22 (95% CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dn(sub s)/d ln k = -0.028 plus or minus 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 less than 1 + w less than 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 less than OMEGA(sub k) less than 0.0081 (95% CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N(sub eff) = 4.4 plus or minus 1.5 (69% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N(sub eff) = 0 are disfavored at greater than 99% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 less than f(sup local)(sub NL) less than 111 (95% CL) and -151 less than f(sup equal)(sub NL) less than 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.

Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2010-01-01

349

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

350

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

351

A mammographic mass CAD system incorporating features from shape, fractal, and channelized Hotelling observer measurements: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present preliminary results from a highly sensitive and specific CAD system for mammographic masses. For false positive reduction, the system incorporated features derived from shape, fractal, and channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) measurements. The database for this study consisted of 80 craniocaudal mammograms randomly extracted from USF"s digital database for screening mammography. The database contained 49 mass findings (24 malignant, 25 benign). To detect initial mass candidates, a difference of Gaussians (DOG) filter was applied through normalized cross correlation. Suspicious regions were localized in the filtered images via multi-level thresholding. Features extracted from the regions included shape, fractal dimension, and the output from a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) CHO. Influential features were identified via feature selection techniques. The regions were classified with a linear classifier using leave-one-out training/testing. The DOG filter achieved a sensitivity of 88% (23/24 malignant, 20/25 benign). Using the selected features, the false positives per image dropped from ~20 to ~5 with no loss in sensitivity. This preliminary investigation of combining multi-level thresholded DOG-filtered images with shape, fractal, and LG-CHO features shows great promise as a mass detector. Future work will include the addition of more texture and mass-boundary descriptive features as well as further exploration of the LG-CHO.

Catarious, David M., Jr.; Baydush, Alan H.; Abbey, Craig K.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

2003-05-01

352

Neutralization of soil aerosol and its impact on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia: Observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive Air Quality Prediction Modeling System is applied to simulate the pH values in precipitation and to investigate neutralization by soil aerosols and their influence on the distribution of acid rain over east Asia. A modified deflation module is designed to provide explicit information on the soil aerosol loading. Numerical simulation was performed for 1 year, from 15 December 1998 to 31 December 1999. Wet deposition monitoring data at 17 sites of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in east Asia in addition to State Environmental Protection Agency data were used to evaluate the model, and a reasonable agreement was obtained. Observed evidence clearly shows that in northern China acid deposition is heavily influenced and buffered by natural soil dust from desert and semiarid areas. The observed mean rainwater pH value in northern China is the highest, between 6.0 and 7.2, while in southern China, where many areas severely impacted by acid precipitation are located, the pH value is much lower, between 3.5 and 5. In Japan the mean pH value is 4.7, significantly higher than that in southern China, while in South Korea the pH value is intermediate between those in northern China and Japan. The model is capable of reproducing this geographical distribution of rainwater pH over east Asia. The simulation results for 1999 demonstrated strong neutralization of precipitation by soil aerosols over northeast Asia, and the distribution pattern of acid rain was also altered. The annual mean pH values in northern China and Korea show a remarkable increase of 0.8-2.5, while the increase in mean pH values over southern China and Japan are less than 0.1. The neutralization effects vary by season, with the greatest influence in spring, when pH values increased by 0.1-0.4 in Japan, 0.5-1.5 in Korea, and more than 2 in northern China.

Wang, Zifa; Akimoto, Hajime; Uno, Itsushi

2002-10-01

353

Evidencing the transition from Mode I cracking to dilation banding: Results from physical experiments with fractographic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of quasi-brittle fracture/rupture remains one of the central problems in different domains of material science/mechanics including geomechanics. There are basically two approaches to this problem. One is the fracture mechanics dealing with stability conditions of cracks characterized by a strong stress concentration at the tips causing crack propagation. The other approach is the formation of deformation localization bands as constitutive instabilities, whose onset in quasi-brittle rocks can be considered as corresponding to the inception of rupture. We investigate the conditions of applicability of these end-member approaches and show a continuous transition from one to another with an increase in the confining pressure P in the experimental extension tests on a synthetic physical rock analogue (granular, frictional, cohesive and dilatant) material GRAM1. Discontinuities/fractures perpendicular to the least (axial) stress ?3 were generated in GRAM1 samples. These fractures form dynamically and are of two types defined by the mean stress ? or P. When ? is very small, the fractures form through mode I cracking with ?3 equal to the material tensile strength. The fracture walls have smooth surfaces in this case. Increase in ? causes increase in ?3 at fracturing, which becomes less negative and reaches small positive (compression) values, while the failure still occurs along a discontinuity perpendicular to ?3. Thus, the discontinuities generated starting from a certain ? value cannot be mode I fractures. Increase in ? also results in changes in the relief of the surfaces of discontinuities after their postmortem opening (separation of the walls): the surfaces become rougher, with the topography features forming faint/delicate plumose patterns very similar to those on the geological joint walls. SEM observations of the unopened discontinuities show that they represent several grain sizes-thick bands of a material which underwent a heterogeneous decohesion and volume/porosity increase. This suggests a dilatancy within bands. After opening they become fractures with plumose fractography. As indicated, these fractures could not be formed through the mode I mechanism. The true formation mechanism is not completely clear, but it is suggested that it represents a running constitutive instability in the form of dilation banding (with further ? increase the bands become inclined to ?1, i.e., shear; inclination angle grows with ?). The morphological similarity between the experimentally generated plumose-surface fractures and natural joints surfaces is shown. On the other hand, MEB observations evidence a textural similarity between the experimental bands and some natural unopened incipient joints found in fine grained rocks. It is proposed that propagating dilation bands could be an important mechanism for the generation of natural joints.

Nguyen, S.; Chemenda, A.; Petit, J.; Ambre, J.; Geo-Fracnet-Géoazur

2010-12-01

354

In situ observations of BrO over Antarctica: ER-2 aircraft results from 54 S to 72 S latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bromine monoxide was observed in situ at approximately 18 km altitude during nine flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft from Punta Arenas, Chile (54 altitude) to 72 S latitude over the Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica. The first flight for the BrO detection system was on 28 August. Here, the results from the flights over Antarctica and from the ferry flights from Punta Arenas to Moffett Field, CA (37 N latitude are reported. A key question concerning BrO, then, is how it is distributed with respect to the chemical containment vessel defined by elevated ClO mixing ratios. This question is answered with greatest statistical significance if the data are averaged into five regions: outside the vessel, aircraft heading south; inside the vessel on the same potential temperature surface; in the dive region; inside the vessel on a given potential temperature surface, aircraft heading north; and outside the vessel on the same surface. The result is that the BrO distribution inside the chemical containment vessel was different from that found outside. Inside, the BrO mixing ratio was (5.0 plus or minus 1.1) pptv between the 400 K and 460 K potential temperature surfaces, decreasing only slightly with potential temperature, and was less than 3.6 pptv below the 4 00 K surface. The abundance of BrO inside the chemical containment vessel showed no discernible temporal trend during the course of the nine flights. Outside the vessel, the BrO mixing ratio was (4.7 plus or minus 1.3) pptv near the 450 K surface, but decreased to (2.8 plus or minus 1.0) pptv near the 420 K surface.

Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.

1988-01-01

355

Mars surface mineralogy from Hubble Space Telescope imaging during 1994-1995: Observations, calibration, and initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visible to near-infrared observations of Mars were made with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during 1994-1995 with the goals of monitoring seasonal variability of the surface and atmosphere and mapping specific spectral units to constrain the planet's surface mineralogy. This paper presents the details of the collection and calibration of the data, concentrating specifically on the near-IR data that were obtained exclusively for the surface mineralogy aspect of our HST Mars observing program. We also present some initial results from the calibrated data set. Our calibration procedures included the standard ``pipeline'' processing steps, supplemented by special procedures required for use with the linear ramp filters on the Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 instrument, and an additional point spread function deconvolution procedure applied in order to realize the full potential spatial resolution of the images (23 to 64 km/pixel between August 1994 and August 1995). The calibration results in a set of images projected onto a standard map grid and presented in radiance factor (I/F) units, having an estimated ~5% photometric accuracy based on the performance of HST and comparisons with previous ground-based and spacecraft Mars spectra. Initial scientific analyses of these data reveal (1) distinct red/blue color units within the classical bright regions, similar to those seen in Viking Orbiter images and possibly related to variations in nanophase and/or crystalline ferric mineral abundance; (2) near-IR spectral slope variations correlated with albedo on a large scale (darker is ``bluer'' near-IR slope) but exhibiting wider variations among many of the small-scale features visible in the data; (3) an absorption at 860 nm that occurs in all regions but which is 3 to 5% stronger in many of the classical dark regions than in the bright regions, possibly because of a greater abundance of a well-crystalline ferric phase like hematite or a very low Ca pyroxene or opx/cpx mixture; and (4) an absorption from pyroxene at 953 nm with a band depth that is inversely correlated with albedo (bright regions 0 to 5% deep; dark regions 7 to 15% deep) and which shows the highest band depth values in individual craters, calderas, and other small geologic units that are resolved in the images.

Bell, James F.; Wolff, Michael J.; James, Philip B.; Clancy, R. Todd; Lee, Steven W.; Martin, Leonard J.

1997-04-01

356

Homemade Laser Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

Houston, Children'S M.

2011-01-01

357

A Holographic Road Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

1979-01-01

358

Trade Show Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trade show management is a multi-faceted field, requiring a breadth of skills on the part of those engaged in the craft. Whether they go by the title of Show Manager, Director of Marketing, Vice President of Meetings\\/Conventions, or Director of Meetings\\/Conventions, these professionals work with exhibitors, attendees, and service providers to produce their events. The managers of the 200 largest

Susan Gregory; Deborah Breiter

2001-01-01

359

EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser polarization in massive star-forming regions. II. First statistical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Magnetic fields have only recently been included in theoretical simulations of high-mass star formation. The simulations show that magnetic fields play an important role in the formation and dynamics of molecular outflows. Masers, in particular 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers, are the best probes of the magnetic field morphologies around massive young stellar objects on the smallest scales of 10-100 AU. Aims: Providing new observational measurements of the morphology of magnetic fields around massive young stellar objects by using 6.7-GHz CH3OH maser emission is very important for setting constraints on the numerical simulations of massive star formation. Methods: This paper focuses on 4 massive young stellar objects, IRAS 06058+2138-NIRS 1, IRAS 22272+6358A, S255-IR, and S231, which complement our previous 2012 sample (the first EVN group). From all these sources, molecular outflows have been detected in the past. Seven of the European VLBI Network antennas were used to measure the linear polarization and Zeeman-splitting of the 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers in the star-forming regions in this second EVN group. Results: We detected a total of 128 CH3OH masing cloudlets. Fractional linear polarization (0.8%-11.3%) was detected towards 18% of the CH3OH masers in our sample. The linear polarization vectors are well ordered in all the massive young stellar objects. We measured significant Zeeman-splitting in IRAS 06058+2138-NIRS 1 (?VZ = 3.8 ± 0.6 m s-1) and S255-IR (?VZ = 3.2 ± 0.7 m s-1). Conclusions: By considering the 20 massive young stellar objects towards which the morphology of magnetic fields was determined by observing 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers in both hemispheres, we find no evident correlation between the linear distributions of CH3OH masers and the outflows or the linear polarization vectors. On the other hand, we present first statistical evidence that the magnetic field (on scales 10-100 AU) is primarily oriented along the large-scale outflow direction. Moreover, we empirically find that the linear polarization fraction of unsaturated CH3OH masers is Pl < 4.5%. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Hutawarakorn Kramer, B.; Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.

2013-08-01

360

Seismicity along the Nankai trough seismogenic zone: results from micro-seismicity observations using ocean bottom seismographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the Nankai Trough, southwestern Japan, the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate with a convergence rate of about 4 cm/year. Large interplate thrust earthquakes that are caused by the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate have occurred repeatedly. Records of the great earthquakes can be seen in historical documents since the seventh century and the recurrence interval between them is about 100-200 years. Most recent events are the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes occurred in the eastern and the western part of the Nankai trough, respectively. On the other hand, current seismicity is very low and hypocenters are not determined accurately by the land seismic network. Many seismic surveys using controlled sources have been conducted to obtain crustal structure at the Nankai trough seismogenic zone. We performed micro-seismicity observations using ocean bottom seismographs at the coseismic slip area of the 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes. Hypocenters were determined using 2- or 3-D realistic velocity structure based on the results of the seismic surveys. Off cape Muroto, fault area of the 1946 Nankai earthquake, several micro earthquake clusters locate around the plate interface. The seaward limit of the seismicity is characterized by clusters of earthquakes with very similar waveforms. These clusters locate about 30-45 km landward from the deformation front and coincide with the stepping down of the decollement. These earthquakes are considered to occur at small asperities in the aseismic-seismogenic transition zone of the plate interface. Off Kii peninsula, the rupture area of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake, seismicity is locally active near the axis of the Nankai trough. Although the depths of these earthquakes are not constrained well, they are considered to be shallower than the Moho of the subducting oceanic crust. On the other hand, micro-seismicity in the rupture area of the 1944 Tonankai earthquake is very low. The recent GPS survey shows a fully coupled plate interface along the Nankai trough seismogenic zone. Analyses of the seismic and tsunami waves show a uniform distribution of the coseismic slip during the 1944 Tonankai Earthquake. These facts imply an existence of a large asperity with a uniform interplate coupling off Kii Peninsula.

Obana, K.; Kodaira, S.; Mochizuki, K.; Shinohara, M.; Suyehiro, K.; Kaneda, Y.

2003-12-01

361

Preliminary Results From Observing The Fast Stardust Sample Return Capsule Entry In Earth's Atmosphere On January 15, 2006.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order for NASA's Stardust mission to return a comet sample to Earth, the probe was put in an orbit similar to that of Near Earth Asteroids. As a result, the reentry in Earth's atmosphere on January 15, 2006, was the fastest entry ever for a NASA spacecraft, with a speed of 12.8 km/s, similar to that of natural fireballs. A new thermal protection material, PICA, was used to protect the sample, a material that may have a future as thermal protection for the Crew Return Vehicle or for future planetary missions. An airborne and ground-based observing campaign, the "Stardust Hyperseed MAC", was organized to observe the reentry under good observing conditions, with spectroscopic and imaging techniques commonly used for meteor observations (http:// reentry.arc.nasa.gov). A spectacular video of the reentry was obtained. The spectroscopic observations measure how much light was generated in the shock wave, how that radiation added to heating the surface, how the PICA ablated as a function of altitude, and how the carbon reacted with the shock wave to form CN, a possible marker of prebiotic chemistry in natural meteors. In addition, the observations measured a transient signal of zinc and potassium early in the trajectory, from the ablation of a white paint layer that had been applied to the heat shield for thermal control. Implications for sample return and the exploration of atmospheres in future planetary missions will be discussed.

Jenniskens, P.; Jordan, D.; Kontinos, D.; Wright, M.; Olejniczak, J.; Raiche, G.; Wercinski, P.; Schilling, E.; Taylor, M.; Rairden, R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; McHarg, M. G.; Abe, S.; Winter, M.

2006-08-01

362

Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

2011-12-01

363

Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

Shropshire, Steven

2009-04-06

364

Showing What They Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

365

The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

366

Blue Ribbon Art Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

Bowen, Judy Domeny

2002-01-01

367

Results from parallel observations of superconducting and absolute gravimeters and GPS at the Hsinchu station of Global Geodynamics Project, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hsinchu (HS) superconducting gravimeter (SG, serial T48) station is a newly established site in the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP). Simultaneous observations of T48, three FG5 absolute gravimeters, and GPS at four stations are studied. GPS shows few mm a-1 of horizontal and vertical motions around HS. The calibration factor and drifting rate of T48 are -75.96 ± 0.07 ?Gal V-1 and 0.2 ± 0.7 ?Gal a-1 (1 ?Gal = 10-8 m s-2). Both the SG and absolute gravity records contain trends of about 2-3 ?Gal a-1. The ocean tide gravity effects (OTGEs) were estimated from NAO.99b, FES2004, and CSR4.0, and their amplitudes agree with the SG observations at the submicroGal level, but their phases differ from the observations up to 10°. The Newtonian effect of ocean tide contributes 20% to the total OTGE at HS, and it is larger at islands in the Taiwan Strait. The inelastic body tide model of Dehant et al. (1999) is more consistent with the SG observations than the elastic model. Modeled gravity-atmosphere admittances based on an exponential distribution of air mass explain well the observed admittances. The average gravity-atmosphere admittance during typhoons is 30% larger than that in a nontyphoon time. A list of coseismic gravity changes from T48 caused by earthquakes over 2006-2007 is given for potential studies of fault parameters. The modeled effects of atmospheric pressure, groundwater, soil moisture, and polar motion explain the FG5 observed gravity trend to 1.1 ?Gal a-1. Seasonally, the groundwater-induced gravity change contributes the most to the SG residual gravity, but its phase leads the latter by 63 days.

Hwang, Cheinway; Kao, Ricky; Cheng, Ching-Chung; Huang, Jiu-Fu; Lee, Chiung-Wu; Sato, Tadahiro

2009-07-01

368

Show-Me Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

369

The Graphing Game Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

2011-01-01

370

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. Preliminary results from the SNSPOL project provide support for the increasingly popular hypothesis that many supernovae are aspherical explosion events. Thus far, we have observed 27 different SNe, many over multiple epochs, over the course of the last three years. While the history and evolution of these events is often studied with photometric and spectroscopic information, most supernovae are not studied with the combined advantage that spectropolarimetric data provides. The use of polarimetry allows us to probe the extent of the asphericity of the explosions while the use of spectroscopy allows us to characterize this asphericity across a variety of chemical species individually and as a function of velocity. Modern 3-D model simulations favor an explosion mechanism that is often inherently asymmetric in nature. Here, we showcase some of our initial results for the nearby type-IIb SN 2011dh that demonstrate the unique information that spectropolarimetric observations provide.

Bilinski, Christopher; Williams, G. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, N.; Milne, P.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Dessart, L.

2014-01-01

371

Education Statistics Slide Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Grace York, coordinator of the University of Michigan's Documents Center, the Education Statistics Slide Show is an online presentation demonstrating how to locate, obtain, and manipulate educational data on the Web. The presentation consists of 72 slides and offers instruction on the use of several Websites including the US Census Bureau's American Factfinder site (see the April 2, 1999 Scout Report), the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Census Mapping site, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) site, the FEDSTATS site (see the May 30, 1997 Scout Report), and many more. The tutorial presentation also provides ten practice questions and a detailed Webliography.

372

Data analysis of and results from observations of the cosmic microwave background with the Cosmic Background Imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) with the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI), a sensitive 13-element interferometer located high in the Chilean Andes. We also discuss methods of analyzing the data from the CBI, including an improved way of measuring the true power spectrum using maximum likelihood estimation. This improved method leads to a saving of a factor of two in memory usage, and an increase in speed of order the number of points in the spectrum. The initial results are discussed, in which the fall-off in power at ell > 1000 (the "damping tail") was first observed. We also present the results from the first year of observations with the CBI, and discuss cosmological interpretations both alone and in concert with the results from other experiments. These provide tight constraints on cosmological parameters, including a Hubble constant of 69 +/- 4 km/s/Mpc, an age of the universe of 13.7 +/- 0.2 billion years, and a density of dark energy of 0.70 +/- 0.05 of the critical density of the universe. Finally, we discuss an alternate method of data compression, with great flexibility in what information is kept, while being computationally tractable. We then apply this method to the CBI data to constrain the potential emission from foreground contaminants contributing to the observed CMB radiation. We find that the data is consistent with zero foreground, with a maximum allowed foreground contribution between about 8% and 12% of the total signal (at an ell of 600 and frequency of 30 GHz), depending on the spectral index of foreground emission.

Sievers, Jonathan Leroy

2004-12-01

373

Factors influencing asthma control: results of a real-life prospective observational asthma inhaler treatment (ASIT) study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the availability of new pharmacological options and novel combinations of existing drug therapies, the rate of suboptimal asthma control is still high. Therefore, early identification of the clinical and behavioral factors responsible for poor asthma control, and interventions during routine outpatient visits to improve asthma trigger management, are strongly recommended. This study was designed to evaluate the profiles of asthmatic patients and their inhaler treatment devices in relation to asthma control in Turkey. Methods A total of 572 patients with persistent asthma (mean [standard deviation] age: 42.7 [12.1] years; 76% female) were included in this prospective observational study. A baseline visit (0 month, visit 1) and three follow-up visits (1, 3 and 6 months after enrolment) were conducted to collect data on demographics, past medical and asthma history, and inhaler device use. Results Asthma control was identified in 61.5% of patients at visit 1 and increased to 87.3% at visit 4 (P < 0.001), regardless of sociodemographics, asthma duration, body mass index or smoking status. The presence of asthma-related comorbidity had a significantly negative effect on asthma control (P = 0.004). A significant decrease was determined, in the rate of uncontrolled asthma, upon follow-up among patients who were using a variety of fixed dose combination inhalers (P < 0.001 for each). Logistic regression analysis was used to show that the presence of asthma-related comorbidity (odds ratio [OR], 0.602; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.419; 0.863, P = 0.006) and active smoking (OR, 0.522; 95% CI, 0.330; 0.825, P = 0.005) were significant predictors of asthma control. Conclusion Our findings indicate that, despite ongoing treatment, asthma control rate was 61.5% at visit 1 in adult outpatients with persistent asthma. However, by the final follow-up 6 months later, this had increased to 87.3%, independent of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Poor asthma control was associated with asthma-related comorbid diseases, while the efficacy of fixed dose combinations was evident in the achievement of asthma control.

Y?ld?z, Fusun

2013-01-01

374

Observations and Parameterizations of Particle Size Distributions in Deep Tropical Cirrus and Stratiform Precipitation Clouds: Results from In-Situ Observations in TRMM Field Campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we report on the evolution of particle size distributions (PSDs) and habits as measured during slow, Lagrangian-type spiral descents through deep subtropical and tropical cloud layers in Florida, Brazil, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, most of which were precipitating. The objective of the flight patterns was to learn more about how the PSDs evolved in the vertical and to obtain information of the vertical structure of microphysical properties. New instrumentation yielding better information on the concentrations of particles in the size (D) range between 0.2 and 2 cm, as well as improved particle imagery, produced more comprehensive observations for tropical stratiform precipitation regions and anvils than have been available previously. Collocated radar observations provided additional information on the vertical structure of the cloud layers sampled. Most of the spirals began at cloud top, with temperatures (T) as low as -50 C, and ended at cloud base or below the melting layer (ML). The PSDs broadened from cloud top towards cloud base, with the largest particles increasing in size from several millimeters at cloud top to one centimeter or larger towards cloud base. Some continued growth was noted in the upper part of the ML. Concentrations of particles less than 1 mm in size decreased with decreasing height. The result was a consistent change in the PSDs in the vertical. Similarly, systematic changes in the size dependence of the particle cross-sectional area was noted with decreasing height. Aggregation-as ascertained from both the changes in the PSDs and evolution of particle habits as observed in high detail with the cloud particle imager (CPI) probe-was responsible for these trends. The PSDs were generally well-represented by gamma distributions of the form N = N0 gamma D microns e- lambda gamma D that were fitted to the PSDs over 1-km horizontal intervals throughout the spirals. The intercept (N0 gamma), slope (lambda gamma), and dispersion (microns) values were derived for each PSD. Exponential curves (N = N0e- lambdaD; micron = 0) were also fitted to the distributions. The lambda gamma values for given spirals varied systematically with temperature as did the values of lambda (exponential), and the data generally conformed to values found in previous studies involving exponential fits to size distributions in mid-latitude frontal and cirrus layers. Considerable variability often noted in the PSD properties during the loops of individual spirals was manifested primarily in large changes in N0 gamma and N0, but micron, lambda gamma and lambda remained fairly stable. Temperature is not found to be the sole factor controlling lambda gamma or lambda but is a primary one. Direct relationships were found between lambda gamma and N0 gamma or lambda gamma and micron for the gamma distributions and lambda and N0 for the exponential. The latter relationship was not found as distinctly in earlier studies; observed PSDs in this study had better fidelity with less scatter. The micron values changed monotonically with T over the range of temperatures and were directly related to N0 gamma or lambda gamma, thereby reducing the number of variables in the PSD functional equation to two. In the upper part of the ML, N0 and lambda continued to decrease, and in the lower part these values began to increase as the largest particles melted. We developed general expressions relating various bulk microphysical, radar, and radiative transfer-related variables to N0 gamma and lambda gamma, useful for both tropical and mid-latitude clouds. These relationships facilitate the specification of a number of bulk properties in cloud and climate models. The results presented in this paper apply best to temperatures between 0 and -40 C, for which the measured radar reflectivities fall in the range of 0 to 25 dBZe.

Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Field, Paul R.; Durden, Stephen L.; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Dye, James E.; Hall, William; Grainger, Cedric A.

2002-01-01

375

Using Graphs to Show Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

376

Platinum Group Element Distribution and Mineralogy of the Finero Chromitites: How Analytical Results Should be Supported by Mineralogical Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Finero phlogopite peridotite represents a metasomatized residual mantle harzburgite, ex-posed at the base of the lower-crust section, in the Ivrea Zone (Western Italian Alps). It forms the core of a concentrically zoned sequence of layered gabbro and pyroxenite, amphibole-rich peridotite, and gabbro. The phlogopite peridotite contains small-size podiform chromitites that represent a rare example of chromitites formed by metasomatic processes within the mantle. The available literature data on platinum group elements (PGE) for the Finero chromitites are fragmentary, due to high values of the detection limits for the analytical method. Therefore the trends of chondritic-normalized PGE patterns obtained from these data, remain undefined in most cases. Here we report the results of the Finero chromitites performed with a simple and very effective procedure for the determination of Ru, Rh, Pd, Re, Os, Ir and Pt concentration. Samples are spiked with enriched isotopes and digested in a HNO3/HCl (5+2) acid mixture at 300° C and 125 bar pressure in a high pressure asher (HPA-S, Anton Paar) for 4 to 12 hours. The PGEs are then measured in an ICP-MS after a simple on-line matrix removal determined with an ICP-MS system. The acid digestion procedure does not require an optimization for each chromite composition as it is required for the flux for NiS fire assay digestions. Our results, normalized to the mantle (ca. 0.085 CI chondrite) show a peculiar shape. Osmium, Ir, Ru are unfractionated