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1

INTRODUCTION Observations show that contemporary  

E-print Network

potential for revealing prey transport/discard decisions. In this paper I quantitatively evaluate of bone assemblages that have the best poten- tial for accurately reflecting transport and discard to previously reported observations of body part transport/discard decisions (O'Connell et al. 1988, 1990

Kohler, Tim A.

2

Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Carpenter Observation Station, collapsed ruin showing south wall; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Carpenter Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 275 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

3

Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, closer view showing frame rain; view northeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Honeycutt Observation Station, East side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

4

COBE observations and results  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the results from the COBE satellite mission. Nine years have passed since the launch of COBE and six years since the announcement of the discovery of cosmic microwave background anisotropies by the COBE DMR instrument. This is still a relatively short time to look back and understand the implications of COBE and the anisotropy discovery; however, this 3K Cosmology Conference provides some context. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite has made a major contribution to the field of cosmology and has help create the confidence and high level of interest that propels the field today. Two major CMB observations, the thermal spectrum of the CMB and the CMB anisotropies, plus a host of other observations and conclusions are the basis and a major but not exclusive portion of the legacy of COBE. The recent detection and observation of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) are also part of COBE{close_quote}s major contribution to cosmology. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

Smoot, G.F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Space Sciences Laboratory, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

1999-05-01

5

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

6

Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Battery Berry Observation Station, detail of west side showing former entry recess and typical sash window; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Battery Berry Observation Station, North side of Wood Side Drive approximately 80 feet east of Spring Cove Lane, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

7

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

8

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING FURNACE KEEPER OBSERVING FURNACE THROUGH BLUE GLASS EVERY TWENTY MINUTES TO DETERMINE SIZE AND TEXTURE OF BATCH AND OTHER VARIABLES. FAN IN FRONT COOLS WORKERS AS THEY CONDUCT REPAIRS. FURNACE TEMPERATURE AT 1572 DEGREES FAHRENHEIT. - Chambers-McKee Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, Clay Avenue Extension, Jeannette, Westmoreland County, PA

9

STS-55 Earth observation shows a sunset over South America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-55 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows a spectacular sunset view over South America and the cleanest atmosphere since before the volcanic eruptions of 1991, according to NASA scientists studying the STS-55 photography. A dark cloud layer is evident at an altitude of 7 to 9 kilometers. Five kilometers higher, a pink layer of sulfuric acid droplets and ammonium sulfate particles begins at the tropopause and extends upward into the stratosphere to 19 kilometers. Above that, blue scattering by the atmosphere diminishes until, at an altitude of 60 kilometers, the blackness of space is predominant.

1993-01-01

10

13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. DETAIL VIEW OF BUTTRESS 4 SHOWING THE RESULTS OF POOR CONSTRUCTION WORK. THOUGH NOT A SERIOUS STRUCTURAL DEFICIENCY, THE 'HONEYCOMB' TEXTURE OF THE CONCRETE SURFACE WAS THE RESULT OF INADEQUATE TAMPING AT THE TIME OF THE INITIAL 'POUR'. - Hume Lake Dam, Sequioa National Forest, Hume, Fresno County, CA

11

Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

WorkAmerica, 2001

2001-01-01

12

CASSINI VIMS OBSERVATIONS SHOW ETHANE IS PRESENT IN TITAN'S RAINFALL  

SciTech Connect

Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent 'gentle rainfall' instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Lawrence, Kenneth J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Brown, Robert H. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barnes, Jason W. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID 83844 (United States); Clark, Roger N. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Philip D., E-mail: pauldalba@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

2012-12-20

13

Observe an animation showing the formation of an unconformity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the development of an angular unconformity to high school Earth science students. The introduction defines an unconformity as a gap in sedimentary rock. The animation shows how the cycle of sedimentation and erosion can be interrupted by intrusion of igneous rock. Mountain-building then tilts the rock layers, causing uneven erosion, which leaves pockets of material that are covered by newer sediments. Movie controls allow students to repeat, pause, or step through the animation, giving students more time to analyze the images. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

2003-01-01

14

Observe an animation showing evidence of the carbon cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this visual resource about the carbon cycle, students are presented with an animation and accompanying text that focus on carbon and plants. The text addresses how plants fit into the larger carbon cycle, including how carbon enters and leaves the biosphere, and it explains what students are viewing in the animation. The animation shows false color images on a flat map of the world. When the viewer clicks on the image (or the play button), the animation plays, and color patterns reveal changes in plant growth on land and water over a 3-year period. Movie controls allow students to pause the animation, to replay the animation, or to move backward or forward through the images 1 month at a time. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

TERC. Center for Earth and Space Science Education

2003-01-01

15

ISO observations: results on asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out observations of 16 asteroids with different ISO instruments (PHT-P PHT-S and SWS) obtaining low resolution spectra up to 12 micron high resolution spectra up to 45 micron and spectrophotometric data up to 60 micron. The aim of these observations was to investigate the physical properties of the surface of these bodies and to improve our understanding on the processes which governed their formation and evolution. We interpreted the obtained data in terms of asteroid surface composition comparing the observed spectra with laboratory reflectance spectra of selected mineral mineral mixture and meteorite particulates of different grain sizes. The characterization of the material on the asteroid surfaces (presence abundance and/or composition of minerals or chemical species) was based on the interpretation of observable diagnostic spectroscopic properties. The obtained results will be presented and discussed.

Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, Maria A.; Brucato, John R.; Mueller, Thomas G.; Fulchignoni, Marcello

2005-01-01

16

STS-39 Earth observation of Earth's limb at sunset shows atmospheric layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-39 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows the Earth's limb at sunset with numerous atmospheric scattering layers highlighted. The layers consist of fine particles suspended in very stable layers of the atmosphere. The layers act as a prism for the sunlight.

1991-01-01

17

Nanotribology Results Show that DNA Forms a Mechanically Resistant 2D Network in Metaphase Chromatin Plates  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (? ? 0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (? ? 0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (? ? 0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (? ? 0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

2010-01-01

18

Nanotribology results show that DNA forms a mechanically resistant 2D network in metaphase chromatin plates.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we found that metaphase chromosomes are formed by thin plates, and here we have applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) and friction force measurements at the nanoscale (nanotribology) to analyze the properties of these planar structures in aqueous media at room temperature. Our results show that high concentrations of NaCl and EDTA and extensive digestion with protease and nuclease enzymes cause plate denaturation. Nanotribology studies show that native plates under structuring conditions (5 mM Mg2+) have a relatively high friction coefficient (??0.3), which is markedly reduced when high concentrations of NaCl or EDTA are added (??0.1). This lubricant effect can be interpreted considering the electrostatic repulsion between DNA phosphate groups and the AFM tip. Protease digestion increases the friction coefficient (??0.5), but the highest friction is observed when DNA is cleaved by micrococcal nuclease (??0.9), indicating that DNA is the main structural element of plates. Whereas nuclease-digested plates are irreversibly damaged after the friction measurement, native plates can absorb kinetic energy from the AFM tip without suffering any damage. These results suggest that plates are formed by a flexible and mechanically resistant two-dimensional network which allows the safe storage of DNA during mitosis. PMID:21156137

Gállego, Isaac; Oncins, Gerard; Sisquella, Xavier; Fernàndez-Busquets, Xavier; Daban, Joan-Ramon

2010-12-15

19

Submillimetre observations of galaxies. I - First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from a program of millimeter and submillimeter observations of galaxies using the UKT14 photometer at the JCMT. Three of the five objects discussed here are detected at 450 microns, and most at 800 microns as well. We perform fits to the dust spectrum for these objects, and find that dust temperatures of 28-35 K with a nu-squared emissivity law give the best results. We also investigate the beam corrections that would need to be made if the cool dust distribution were extended, and find that it is possible to hide a substantial amount of cold dust from our observations if this is the case. Future observations using bolometer arrays or large-beam instruments will be necessary to determine whether such a large cold component is actually present.

Clements, D. L.; Andreani, P.; Chase, S. T.

1993-03-01

20

CMB Observational Techniques and Recent Results  

E-print Network

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) consists of photons that were last created about 2 months after the Big Bang, and last scattered about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. The spectrum of the CMB is very close to a blackbody at 2.725 K and upper limits on any deviations of the CMB from a blackbody place strong constraints on energy transfer between the CMB and matter at all redshifts less than 2,000,000. The CMB is very nearly isotropic, but a dipole anisotropy of +/-3.346(17) mK shows that the Solar System barycenter is moving at 368+/-2 km/sec relative to the observable Universe. The dipole corresponds to a spherical harmonic index l=1. The higher indices l geq 2 indicate intrinsic inhomogeneities in the Universe that existed at the time of last scattering. While the photons have traveled freely only since the time of last scattering, the inhomogeneities traced by the CMB photons have been in place since the inflationary epoch only 10^{-35} sec after the Big Bang. These intrinsic anisotropies are much smaller in amplitude than the dipole anisotropy, with Delta T leq 100 microK. Electron scattering of the anisotropic radiation field produces an anisotropic linear polarization in the CMB with amplitudes less than 5 microK. Detailed studies of the angular power spectrum of the temperature and linear polarization anisotropies have yielded precise values for many cosmological parameters. This paper will discuss the techniques necessary to measure signals that are 100 million times smaller than the emission from the instrument and briefly describe results from experiments up to WMAP.

E. L. Wright

2003-12-31

21

ROSAT observations of V471 Tauri, showing that stellar activity is determined by rotation, not age  

E-print Network

I present pointed ROSAT PSPC observations of the pre-cataclysmic binary V471 Tauri. The hard X-ray emission (>0.4keV) is not eclipsed by the K star, demonstrating conclusively that this component cannot be emitted by the white dwarf. Instead I show that its spectrum and luminosity are consistent with coronal emission from the tidally spun-up K star. The star is more active than other K stars in the Hyades, but equally active as K stars in the Pleiades with the same rotation periods, demonstrating that rotation--and not age--is the key parameter in determining the level of stellar activity. The soft X-ray emission (<0.4keV) is emitted predominately by the white dwarf and is modulated on its spin period. I find that the pulse-profile is stable on timescales of hours and years, supporting the idea that it is caused by opacity of accreted material. The profile itself shows that the magnetic field configuration of the white dwarf is dipolar and that the magnetic axis passes through the centre of the star. There is an absorption feature in the lightcurve of the white dwarf, which occurs at a time when our line-of-sight passes within a stellar radius of the K star. The column density and duration of this feature imply a volume and mass for the absorber which are similiar to those of coronal mass ejections of the Sun.

Peter J. Wheatley

1998-02-20

22

1. ABSTRACT We show results from joint TES-OMI retrievals for  

E-print Network

15% 1. ABSTRACT We show results from joint TES-OMI retrievals for May-August, 2006. We combine TES and OMI data by linear updates from the spectral residuals. Combined retrievals from the UV and IR, and of particular interest, increased sensitivity to the planetary boundary layer. Results are compared to the OMI

23

Science Results Enabled by SDSS Astrometric Observations  

E-print Network

We discuss several results made possible by accurate SDSS astrometric measurements in a large sky area, with emphasis on asteroids and stellar proper motions obtained by comparing POSS and SDSS. SDSS has observed over 200,000 moving objects in five photometric bands, corresponding to about two orders of magnitude increase over previous multi--color surveys. These data were used to extend the measurement of asteroid size distribution to a smaller size limit, to demonstrate that asteroid dynamical families, defined as clusters in orbital parameter space, also strongly segregate in color space, and to discover a correlation between asteroid age and colors. A preliminary analysis of SDSS-POSS proper motions for about 1 million M dwarf stars demonstrates that, in the 0.1-1 kpc distance range, the rotational velocity and its dispersion for disk stars increase with the distance from the Galactic plane.

Z. Ivezic; N. Bond; M. Juric; J. A. Munn; R. H. Lupton; J. R. Pier; G. S. Hennessy; G. R. Knapp; J. E. Gunn; C. M. Rockosi; T. Quinn

2007-01-17

24

Hector's dolphin risk assessments: old and new analyses show consistent results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review results of previous research and present new estimates of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) bycatch. Before 2008, an estimated total of 110–150 individuals were caught annually, with 35–46 caught off the east coast South Island (ECSI). We estimate that 23 Hector's dolphins were caught off ECSI during 1 May 2009–30 April 2010 (CV 0.21) based on fisheries observer data.

E Slooten; N Davies

2012-01-01

25

Hector's dolphin risk assessments: old and new analyses show consistent results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review results of previous research and present new estimates of Hector's dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori) bycatch. Before 2008, an estimated total of 110–150 individuals were caught annually, with 35–46 caught off the east coast South Island (ECSI). We estimate that 23 Hector's dolphins were caught off ECSI during 1 May 2009–30 April 2010 (CV 0.21) based on fisheries observer data.

E Slooten; N Davies

2011-01-01

26

X-ray observation of 3U 1700-37. [showing three categories of flux variability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-ray observations with Copernicus reveal three categories of flux variability in 3U 1700-37. High amplitude hourly variations are energy independent in the 3-11 keV range while a change in the low energy absorbing column causes variations in flux level on an orbital time scale. This absorption is most severe prior to eclipse ingress, suggesting that the distribution of absorbing material around the X-ray source is asymmetrical with respect to the line of centers of the binary system. The absorbing material may be identical with a high density region inferred from optical observations of HD 153919. In the third category, the maximum source intensity per binary cycle is variable by at least a factor of two between observations. Measurement of the eclipse duration on three occasions indicate that it is significantly less than when observed by Uhuru.

Mason, K. O.; Branduardi, G.; Sanford, P. W.

1976-01-01

27

Two for the Show: Observing the Periastron Passages of HD 80606 b  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Cycle 4, we observed a periastron passage of the eccentric giant HD 80606 b in Spitzer's 8-micron IRAC band, obtaining evidence of rapid heating during periastron, as well as discovering that the planet undergoes secondary eclipse several hours prior to periastron. Here, we are proposing to follow up on this success with observations of two near-term periastron passages in the 4.5 micron band. These observations will yield a number of concrete benefits: 1.) Measurement of the baseline flux of the planet at 4.5 microns will improve the characterization of the pre-periastron luminosity of the planet, and will thereby clarify the role of tidal dissipation in heating the planet, which will in turn yield insight into the planetary structure. 2.) Measurements of the secondary transit depth at 4.5 microns will give insight into the bolometric temperature of the planet, providing important constraints on all hydrodynamical models of exoplanet atmospheres. 3.) Measurement of the heating rate at 4.5 microns prior to periastron will improve knowledge of the infrared radiative timescale, which forms an essential constraint on competing exoplanetary general circulation models under development. If one has heating rates at both 4E5 microns and 8 microns, then the bulk energetics of the planet's infrared photosphere are clearer than if one relies on a brightness temperature derived from a single frequency. 4.) The 8-micron observations did not extend long enough after the periastron passage to determine the cooling rate as the planet recedes from its primary. Our proposed observations will run well past periastron, which will allow a more accurate determination of the post-periastron cooling rate, again providing vital constraints on both hydrodynamical and radiative models of strongly irradiated exoplanetary atmospheres. To achieve these goals, we are requesting 40 hours of observation time for each of the two periastron passages that will occur in Cycle 6 -- a total of 80 hours of observation time.

Langton, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Iro, Nicolas; Kasen, Daniel; Laughlin, Gregory

2009-04-01

28

Protanopic observers show nearly normal color constancy with natural reflectance spectra  

PubMed Central

The ability of color-deficient observers to discriminate between illuminant changes and surface-reflectance changes in a scene was tested with natural and Munsell reflectance spectra. To avoid the confounding effects of spatial structure, stimuli were simulations of Mondrian-like colored patterns, presented on a computer-controlled color monitor. Protanopes performed less well than normal trichromats, regardless of the type of reflectance spectra, but they were least disadvantaged with patterns comprising reflectance spectra drawn from urban and rural scenes, more characteristic of the natural environment. PMID:15518212

Baraas, Rigmor C.; Foster, David H.; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

2007-01-01

29

Frequently Asked Questions Instrumental observations over the past 157 years show that  

E-print Network

. This is in accord with physical expectations and most model results. Confirmation of global warming comes from in the second half of the 19th century, is much better after 1957 when measurements began in Antarctica

30

Televised medical talk shows—what they recommend and the evidence to support their recommendations: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the quality of health recommendations and claims made on popular medical talk shows. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Mainstream television media. Sources Internationally syndicated medical television talk shows that air daily (The Dr Oz Show and The Doctors). Interventions Investigators randomly selected 40 episodes of each of The Dr Oz Show and The Doctors from early 2013 and identified and evaluated all recommendations made on each program. A group of experienced evidence reviewers independently searched for, and evaluated as a team, evidence to support 80 randomly selected recommendations from each show. Main outcomes measures Percentage of recommendations that are supported by evidence as determined by a team of experienced evidence reviewers. Secondary outcomes included topics discussed, the number of recommendations made on the shows, and the types and details of recommendations that were made. Results We could find at least a case study or better evidence to support 54% (95% confidence interval 47% to 62%) of the 160 recommendations (80 from each show). For recommendations in The Dr Oz Show, evidence supported 46%, contradicted 15%, and was not found for 39%. For recommendations in The Doctors, evidence supported 63%, contradicted 14%, and was not found for 24%. Believable or somewhat believable evidence supported 33% of the recommendations on The Dr Oz Show and 53% on The Doctors. On average, The Dr Oz Show had 12 recommendations per episode and The Doctors 11. The most common recommendation category on The Dr Oz Show was dietary advice (39%) and on The Doctors was to consult a healthcare provider (18%). A specific benefit was described for 43% and 41% of the recommendations made on the shows respectively. The magnitude of benefit was described for 17% of the recommendations on The Dr Oz Show and 11% on The Doctors. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest accompanied 0.4% of recommendations. Conclusions Recommendations made on medical talk shows often lack adequate information on specific benefits or the magnitude of the effects of these benefits. Approximately half of the recommendations have either no evidence or are contradicted by the best available evidence. Potential conflicts of interest are rarely addressed. The public should be skeptical about recommendations made on medical talk shows. Additional details of methods used and changes made to study protocol PMID:25520234

Kolber, Michael R; McCormack, James; Lam, Vanessa; Overbo, Kate; Cotton, Candra; Finley, Caitlin; Turgeon, Ricky D; Garrison, Scott; Lindblad, Adrienne J; Banh, Hoan Linh; Campbell-Scherer, Denise; Vandermeer, Ben; Allan, G Michael

2014-01-01

31

Space observations of inland water bodies show rapid surface warming since 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface temperatures were extracted from nighttime thermal infrared imagery of 167 large inland water bodies distributed worldwide beginning in 1985 for the months July through September and January through March. Results indicate that the mean nighttime surface water temperature has been rapidly warming for the period 1985–2009 with an average rate of 0.045 ± 0.011°C yr?1 and rates as high

Philipp Schneider; Simon J. Hook

2010-01-01

32

VERITAS Blazar Observations-Recent Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the discovery of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission from the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524 (z = 0.138) and the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lac object W Comae (z = 0.102) with VERITAS. VHE emission was discovered from these objects during the 2007/2008 observing campaign, with a strong outburst from W Comae detected in mid-March, lasting a few days. Quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distributions are presented, incorporating optical (AAVSO), and X-ray (Swift/RXTE) observations. We also present the energy spectrum of the distant BL Lac (z = 0.182) 1ES 1218+304 which was detected by VERITAS during the 2006/2007 observing campaign. The energy spectrum is discussed in the context of different models of absorption from the diffuse extragalactic background radiation. We present multiwavelength observations of the blazar Markarian 421 (z = 0.03), including a strong flare initially detected by the Whipple 10 m gamma-ray telescope. Finally we present a broadband spectral energy distribution for 1ES 2344+514 (z = 0.044) which is successfully fit using a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model.

Cogan, Peter; VERITAS Collaboration

2008-12-01

33

Results From Mars Show Electrostatic Charging of the Mars Pathfinder Sojourner Rover  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Indirect evidence (dust accumulation) has been obtained indicating that the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner, experienced electrostatic charging on Mars. Lander camera images of the Sojourner rover provide distinctive evidence of dust accumulation on rover wheels during traverses, turns, and crabbing maneuvers. The sol 22 (22nd Martian "day" after Pathfinder landed) end-of-day image clearly shows fine red dust concentrated around the wheel edges with additional accumulation in the wheel hubs. A sol 41 image of the rover near the rock "Wedge" (see the next image) shows a more uniform coating of dust on the wheel drive surfaces with accumulation in the hubs similar to that in the previous image. In the sol 41 image, note particularly the loss of black-white contrast on the Wheel Abrasion Experiment strips (center wheel). This loss of contrast was also seen when dust accumulated on test wheels in the laboratory. We believe that this accumulation occurred because the Martian surface dust consists of clay-sized particles, similar to those detected by Viking, which have become electrically charged. By adhering to the wheels, the charged dust carries a net nonzero charge to the rover, raising its electrical potential relative to its surroundings. Similar charging behavior was routinely observed in an experimental facility at the NASA Lewis Research Center, where a Sojourner wheel was driven in a simulated Martian surface environment. There, as the wheel moved and accumulated dust (see the following image), electrical potentials in excess of 100 V (relative to the chamber ground) were detected by a capacitively coupled electrostatic probe located 4 mm from the wheel surface. The measured wheel capacitance was approximately 80 picofarads (pF), and the calculated charge, 8 x 10(exp -9) coulombs (C). Voltage differences of 100 V and greater are believed sufficient to produce Paschen electrical discharge in the Martian atmosphere. With an accumulated net charge of 8 x 10(exp -9) C, and average arc time of 1 msec, arcs can also occur with estimated arc currents approaching 10 milliamperes (mA). Discharges of this magnitude could interfere with the operation of sensitive electrical or electronic elements and logic circuits. Sojourner rover wheel tested in laboratory before launch to Mars. Before launch, we believed that the dust would become triboelectrically charged as it was moved about and compacted by the rover wheels. In all cases observed in the laboratory, the test wheel charged positively, and the wheel tracks charged negatively. Dust samples removed from the laboratory wheel averaged a few ones to tens of micrometers in size (clay size). Coarser grains were left behind in the wheel track. On Mars, grain size estimates of 2 to 10 mm were derived for the Martian surface materials from the Viking Gas Exchange Experiment. These size estimates approximately match the laboratory samples. Our tentative conclusion for the Sojourner observations is that fine clay-sized particles acquired an electrostatic charge during rover traverses and adhered to the rover wheels, carrying electrical charge to the rover. Since the Sojourner rover carried no instruments to measure this mission's onboard electrical charge, confirmatory measurements from future rover missions on Mars are desirable so that the physical and electrical properties of the Martian surface dust can be characterized. Sojourner was protected by discharge points, and Faraday cages were placed around sensitive electronics. But larger systems than Sojourner are being contemplated for missions to the Martian surface in the foreseeable future. The design of such systems will require a detailed knowledge of how they will interact with their environment. Validated environmental interaction models and guidelines for the Martian surface must be developed so that design engineers can test new ideas prior to cutting hardware. These models and guidelines cannot be validated without actual flighata. Electrical charging of vehicles and, one day, astronauts moving across t

Kolecki, Joseph C.; Siebert, Mark W.

1998-01-01

34

SOAR remote observing: tactics and early results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travel from North America to the 4.1m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon exceeds $1000, and takes >16 hours door to door (20+ hours typically). SOAR aims to exploit best seeing, requiring dynamic scheduling that is impossible to accomplish when catering to peripatetic astronomers. According to technical arguments at www.peakoil.org, we are near the peak rate of depleting world petroleum, so can expect travel costs to climb sharply. With the telecom bubble's glut of optical fiber, we can transmit data more efficiently than astronomers and "observe remotely". With data compression, less than half of the 6 Mbps bandwidth shared currently by SOAR and CTIO is enough to enable a high-fidelity observing presence for SOAR partners in North America, Brazil, and Chile. We discuss access from home by cable modem/DSL link.

Cecil, Gerald N.; Crain, J. Adam

2004-09-01

35

Children of Senegal River Basin show the highest prevalence of Blastocystis sp. ever observed worldwide  

PubMed Central

Background Blastocystis sp. is currently the most common intestinal protist found in human feces and considered an emerging parasite with a worldwide distribution. Because of its potential impact in public health, we reinforced the picture of Blastocystis sp. prevalence and molecular subtype distribution in Africa by performing the first survey of this parasite in Senegal. Methods Stool samples from 93 symptomatic presenting with various gastrointestinal disorders or asymptomatic children living in three villages of the Senegal River Basin were tested for the presence of Blastocystis sp. by non-quantitative and quantitative PCR using primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene. Positive samples were subtyped to investigate the frequency of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in our cohort and the distribution of subtypes in the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups of children. Results By the use of molecular tools, all 93 samples were found to be positive for Blastocystis sp. indicating a striking parasite prevalence of 100%. Mixed infections by two or three subtypes were identified in eight individuals. Among a total of 103 subtyped isolates, subtype 3 was most abundant (49.5%) followed by subtype 1 (28.2%), subtype 2 (20.4%) and subtype 4 (1.9%). Subtype 3 was dominant in the symptomatic group while subtypes 1 and 2 were detected with equal frequency in both symptomatic and asymptomatic groups. The distribution of subtypes was compared with those available in other African countries and worldwide. Comparison confirmed that subtype 4 is much less frequently detected or absent in Africa while it is commonly found in Europe. Potential sources of Blastocystis sp. infection including human-to-human, zoonotic, and waterborne transmissions were also discussed. Conclusions The prevalence of Blastocystis sp. in our Senegalese population was the highest prevalence ever recovered worldwide for this parasite by reaching 100%. All cases were caused by subtypes 1, 2, 3 and 4 with a predominance of subtype 3. More than half of the children infected by Blastocystis sp. presented various gastrointestinal disorders. Such high prevalence of blastocystosis in developing countries makes its control a real challenge for public health authorities. PMID:24666632

2014-01-01

36

GNO Solar Neutrino Observations: Results for GNOI  

E-print Network

We report the first GNO solar neutrino results for the measuring period GNOI, solar exposure time May 20, 1998 till January 12, 2000. In the present analysis, counting results for solar runs SR1 - SR19 were used till April 4, 2000. With counting completed for all but the last 3 runs (SR17 - SR19), the GNO I result is [65.8 +10.2 -9.6 (stat.) +3.4 -3.6 (syst.)]SNU (1sigma) or [65.8 + 10.7 -10.2 (incl. syst.)]SNU (1sigma) with errors combined. This may be compared to the result for Gallex(I-IV), which is [77.5 +7.6 -7.8 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1sigma). A combined result from both GNOI and Gallex(I-IV) together is [74.1 + 6.7 -6.8 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1sigma).

GNO Collaboration; M. Altmann; M. Balata; P. Belli; E. Bellotti; R. Bernabei; E. Burkert; C. Cattadori; G. Cerichelli; M. Chiarini; M. Cribier; S. d'Angelo; G. Del Re; K. H. Ebert; F. v. Feilitzsch; N. Ferrari; W. Hampel; J. Handt; E. Henrich; G. Heusser; J. Kiko; T. Kirsten; T. Lachenmaier; J. Lanfranchi; M. Laubenstein; D. Motta; W. Rau; H. Richter; S. Waenninger; M. Wojcik; L. Zanotti

2000-06-29

37

Long-Term Trial Results Show No Mortality Benefit from Annual Prostate Cancer Screening  

Cancer.gov

Thirteen year follow-up data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial show higher incidence but similar mortality among men screened annually with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and digital rectal examination (DRE).

38

Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help to resolve the problem of the 'missing heat' or 'missing energy', respectively, terms coined to grasp the observation that surface temperatures of planet Earth have stalled rising since about 15 years while radiation-affecting atmospheric CO2 concentrations continued to increase. Our results support the finding that excess energy which results from changes in the Earth' radiation balance is transferred into heating of the deep ocean, where it does not contribute to an increase of surface temperatures but inevitably enhances thermosteric sea level rise.

Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

2014-05-01

39

Computational Methods continued In previous work, we showed that while the LDA results systemmatically under-  

E-print Network

electrolytes such as Li3PS4.[1] For a variety of interface configurations, computer modeling studies show that Li3PS4 surfaces are structurally and chemically altered by the presence of Li metal. On the other hand, experiments have shown [1] that an electrochemical cell of Li/Li3PS4/Li can be cycled many times

Holzwarth, Natalie

40

Results of Wedge Resection for Focal Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma Showing Pure Ground-Glass Attenuation on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Focal bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) showing pure ground-glass attenuation (GGA) on thin- section computed tomography (CT), which is considered to be an early-stage adenocarcinoma, has been diagnosed with increasing frequency due to the development and spread of the helical CT scanner. We discussed the appropriateness of limited resection for this type of lesion. Methods. Between July 1996 and June 2001,

Computed Tomography; Shun-ichi Watanabe; Toshio Watanabe; Kazunori Arai; Takahiko Kasai; Joji Haratake; Hiroshi Urayama

2010-01-01

41

NIH trial shows promising results in treating a lymphoma in young people  

Cancer.gov

Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical trial results.

42

Trial results show high remission rate in leukemia following immune cell therapy  

Cancer.gov

Children and young adults (age 1 to age 30) with chemotherapy-resistant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) experienced high remission rates following treatment with an experimental immunotherapy. Results demonstrated that the immunotherapy treatment had anti-leukemia effects in patients and that the treatment was feasible and safe.

43

Stem cells show promising results for lymphoedema treatment - A literature review.  

PubMed

Lymphoedema is a debilitating condition, manifesting in excess lymphatic fluid and swelling of subcutaneous tissues. Lymphoedema is as of yet still an incurable condition and current treatment modalities are not satisfactory. The capacity of mesenchymal stem cells to promote angiogenesis, secrete growth factors, regulate the inflammatory process, and differentiate into multiple cell types make them a potential ideal therapy for lymphoedema. Adipose tissue is the richest and most accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells and they can be harvested, isolated, and used for therapy in a single stage procedure as an autologous treatment. The aim of this paper was to review all studies using mesenchymal stem cells for lymphoedema treatment with a special focus on the potential use of adipose-derived stem cells. A systematic search was performed and five preclinical and two clinical studies were found. Different stem cell sources and lymphoedema models were used in the described studies. Most studies showed a decrease in lymphoedema and an increased lymphangiogenesis when treated with stem cells and this treatment modality has so far shown great potential. The present studies are, however, subject to bias and more preclinical studies and large-scale high quality clinical trials are needed to show if this emerging therapy can satisfy expectations. PMID:25272309

Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Sheikh, Søren Paludan; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

2015-04-01

44

Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography of Breast Masses: Initial Results Show Promise  

PubMed Central

Purpose or Objective To evaluate the performance of Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for classification of breast masses. Materials and Methods CUSE is an ultrasound-based quantitative two-dimensional shear wave elasticity imaging technique, which utilizes multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force (ARF) beams to simultaneously excite the tissue and induce shear waves. Female patients who were categorized as having suspicious breast masses underwent CUSE evaluations prior to biopsy. An elasticity estimate within the breast mass was obtained from the CUSE shear wave speed map. Elasticity estimates of various types of benign and malignant masses were compared with biopsy results. Results Fifty-four female patients with suspicious breast masses from our ongoing study are presented. Our cohort included 31 malignant and 23 benign breast masses. Our results indicate that the mean shear wave speed was significantly higher in malignant masses (6 ± 1.58 m/s) in comparison to benign masses (3.65 ± 1.36 m/s). Therefore, the stiffness of the mass quantified by the Young’s modulus is significantly higher in malignant masses. According to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cut-off value of 83 kPa yields 87.10% sensitivity, 82.61% specificity, and 0.88 for the area under the curve (AUC). Conclusion CUSE has the potential for clinical utility as a quantitative diagnostic imaging tool adjunct to B-mode ultrasound for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses. PMID:25774978

Song, Pengfei; Fazzio, Robert T.; Pruthi, Sandhya; Whaley, Dana H.; Chen, Shigao; Fatemi, Mostafa

2015-01-01

45

Lung cancer trial results show mortality benefit with low-dose CT:  

Cancer.gov

The NCI has released initial results from a large-scale test of screening methods to reduce deaths from lung cancer by detecting cancers at relatively early stages. The National Lung Screening Trial, a randomized national trial involving more than 53,000 current and former heavy smokers ages 55 to 74, compared the effects of two screening procedures for lung cancer -- low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray -- on lung cancer mortality and found 20 percent fewer lung cancer deaths among trial participants screened with low-dose helical CT.

46

Arctic Precipitation and Evaporation: Model Results and Observational Estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observational estimates of precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Estimates of Arctic regional mean precipitation from several observational sources show considerable scatter, and the observational estimates based on gauge-adjusted station data are considerably larger than the other observational

John E. Walsh; Vladimir Kattsov; Diane Portis; Valentin Meleshko

1998-01-01

47

International gene therapy trial for 'bubble boy' disease shows promising early results  

Cancer.gov

Researchers reported promising outcomes data for the first group of boys with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCID-X1), a fatal genetic immunodeficiency also known as "bubble boy" disease, who were treated as part of an international clinical study of a new form of gene therapy. The mechanism used to deliver the gene therapy is designed to prevent the serious complication of leukemia that arose a decade ago in a similar trial in Europe, when one-quarter of boys treated developed the blood cancer. Researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute presented the study results annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology, on behalf of the Transatlantic Gene Therapy Consortium.

48

Updated clinical results show experimental agent ibrutinib as highly active in CLL patients  

Cancer.gov

Updated results from a Phase Ib/II clinical trial led by the Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center – Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute indicates that a novel therapeutic agent for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is highly active and well tolerated in patients who have relapsed and are resistant to other therapy. The agent, ibrutinib (PCI-32765), is the first drug designed to target Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a protein essential for CLL-cell survival and proliferation. CLL is the most common form of leukemia, with about 15,000 new cases annually in the U.S. About 4,400 Americans die of the disease each year.

49

Animation shows promise in initiating timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results of a pilot study.  

PubMed

Delayed responses during cardiac arrest are common. Timely interventions during cardiac arrest have a direct impact on patient survival. Integration of technology in nursing education is crucial to enhance teaching effectiveness. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of animation on nursing students' response time to cardiac arrest, including initiation of timely chest compression. Nursing students were randomized into experimental and control groups prior to practicing in a high-fidelity simulation laboratory. The experimental group was educated, by discussion and animation, about the importance of starting cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognizing an unresponsive patient. Afterward, a discussion session allowed students in the experimental group to gain more in-depth knowledge about the most recent changes in the cardiac resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association. A linear mixed model was run to investigate differences in time of response between the experimental and control groups while controlling for differences in those with additional degrees, prior code experience, and basic life support certification. The experimental group had a faster response time compared with the control group and initiated timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation upon recognition of deteriorating conditions (P < .0001). The results demonstrated the efficacy of combined teaching modalities for timely cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Providing opportunities for repetitious practice when a patient's condition is deteriorating is crucial for teaching safe practice. PMID:24473120

Attin, Mina; Winslow, Katheryn; Smith, Tyler

2014-04-01

50

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also planet-wide phenomena and are a key observation for enhancing our understanding of the global atmospheric flows and CO2 cycle of the Martian atmosphere. The surface pressure is rising at this time of the Martian season, and this is clearly seen by the MSL pressure observations. The current surface pressure is slightly over 8 hPa, which represents a rise of a few % since the beginning of the mission. Our Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) produces similar results to the observations with some deviations. They are currently under investigation. References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [3] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13.

Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri

2013-04-01

51

European heatwave in July 2006: Observations and modeling showing how local processes amplify conducive large-scale conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

July 2006 was particularly warm in Europe. The consistency of this kind of anomaly with large-scale circulation conditions or local processes is a key issue for regional climate evolution. Using observations from space and ground-based observatory, together with simulations from regional model, shows that two concomitant but disconnected drivers explain this heatwave. The first driver corresponds to large-scale conditions (specific atmospheric condition with advection of continental air favoring clear sky). The second condition relates to local processes (dry soil, amplifying surface temperature in heatwave for first 5 days, and making this event warm enough to induce a monthly mean anomaly). This large-scale event is studied at a site in northern France, where comprehensive observation data carefully reanalyzed are available. A regional model is able to produce the amplitude of the event, for both temperature and cloud large-scale anomalies. Coupling model and observations allow discriminating the surface contribution to the temperature anomaly.

Chiriaco, Marjolaine; Bastin, Sophie; Yiou, Pascal; Haeffelin, Martial; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Stéfanon, Marc

2014-08-01

52

Perception of size and lightness of human observers: two criteria for holistic and analytic processing show no correlation in individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a triad-classification task and a multidimensional-scaling (MDS) experiment are compared for individual observers. Both paradigms are designed to reveal whether stimuli are perceived in aholistic oranalytic manner (Garner 1974). Subjects differed substantially and consistently in their triad classification pattern (Figs. 3, 5): The majority of subjects selected stimuli according todimensional criteria; this classification type is thought to indicate

B. Ronacher; H. Siifl

1990-01-01

53

Healthy Older Observers Show Equivalent Perceptual-Cognitive Training Benefits to Young Adults for Multiple Object Tracking  

PubMed Central

The capacity to process complex dynamic scenes is of critical importance in real life. For instance, traveling through a crowd while avoiding collisions and maintaining orientation and good motor control requires fluent and continuous perceptual-cognitive processing. It is well documented that effects of healthy aging can influence perceptual-cognitive processes (Faubert, 2002) and that the efficiency of such processes can improve with training even for older adults (Richards et al., 2006). Here we assess the capacity of older participants to improve their tracking speed thresholds in a dynamic, virtual reality environment. Results show that this capacity is significantly affected by healthy aging but that perceptual-cognitive training can significantly reduce age-related effects in older individuals, who show an identical learning function to younger healthy adults. Data support the notion that learning in healthy older persons is maintained for processing complex dynamic scenes. PMID:23761025

Legault, Isabelle; Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn

2013-01-01

54

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

55

Cassini observations of Saturn's inner plasmasphere: Saturn orbit insertion results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new and definitive results of Cassini plasma spectrometer (CAPS) data acquired during passage through Saturn's inner plasmasphere by the Cassini spacecraft during the approach phase of the Saturn orbit insertion period. This analysis extends the original analysis of Sittler et al. [2005. Preliminary results on Saturn's inner plasmasphere as observed by Cassini: comparison with Voyager. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L14S07, doi:10.1029/2005GL022653] to L˜10 along with also providing a more comprehensive study of the interrelationship of the various fluid parameters. Coincidence data are sub-divided into protons and water group ions. Our revised analysis uses an improved convergence algorithm which provides a more definitive and independent estimate of the spacecraft potential ?SC for which we enforce the protons and water group ions to co-move with each other. This has allowed us to include spacecraft charging corrections to our fluid parameter estimations and allow accurate estimations of fluctuations in the fluid parameters for future correlative studies. In the appendix we describe the ion moments algorithm, and minor corrections introduced by not weighting the moments with sin ? term in Sittler et al. [2005] (Correction offset by revisions to instruments geometric factor). Estimates of the spacecraft potential and revised proton densities are presented. Our total ion densities are in close agreement with the electron densities reported by Moncuquet et al. [2005. Quasi-thermal noise spectroscopy in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn with Cassini/RPWS: electron temperatures and density. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L20S02, doi:10.1029/2005GL022508] who used upper hybrid resonance (UHR) emission lines observed by the radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) instrument. We show a positive correlation between proton temperature and water group ion temperature. The proton and thermal electron temperatures track each with both having a positive radial gradient. These results are consistent with pickup ion energization via Saturn's rotational electric field. We see evidence for an anti-correlation between radial flow velocity VR and azimuthal velocity V ?, which is consistent with the magnetosphere tending to conserve angular momentum. Evidence for MHD waves is also present. We show clear evidence for outward transport of the plasma via flux tube interchange motions with the radial velocity of the flow showing positive radial gradient with V˜0.12(L/4)5.5km/s functional dependence for 4< L<10 (i.e., if we assume to be diffusive transport then D˜D0L11 for fixed stochastic time step ?t). Previous models with centrifugal transport have used D˜D0L3 dependence. The radial transport seems to begin at Enceladus' L shell, L˜4, where we also see a minimum in the W+ ion temperature T˜35eV. For the first time, we are measuring the actual flux tube interchange motions in the magnetosphere and how it varies with radial distance. These observations can be used as a constraint with regard to future transport models for Saturn's magnetosphere. Finally, we evaluate the thermodynamic properties of the plasma, which are all consistent with the pickup process being the dominant energy source for the plasma.

Sittler, E. C.; Thomsen, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Hartle, R. E.; Burger, M.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D.; Smith, H. T.; Coates, A. J.; Rymer, A. M.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Reisenfeld, D.; Dougherty, M.; Andre, N.

2006-10-01

56

Observation Results of Lightning Performance in Distribution Lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearby trees and buildings affect frequency of direct lightning strokes to distribution lines because the lines can be located lower than nearby structures. It is necessary to grasp lightning performance in distribution lines based on observation data. Lightning phenomena on actual distribution lines have been continuously observed for the last 10 years to rationalize lightning protection designs. The observation has been carried out with still cameras and monitoring sensors of lightning surges. The observation has clarified the frequency of direct lightning strokes to distribution lines, and the ratio of flashover probability. Those results can be useful to calculate the lightning faults rate of distribution lines.

Miyazaki, Teru; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Aiba, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Takao

57

News Note: Long-term Results from Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene Shows Lower Toxicities of Raloxifene  

Cancer.gov

Initial results in 2006 of the NCI-sponsored Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) showed that a common osteoporosis drug, raloxifene, prevented breast cancer to the same degree, but with fewer serious side-effects, than the drug tamoxifen that had been in use many years for breast cancer prevention as well as treatment. The longer-term results show that raloxifene retained 76 percent of the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing invasive disease and grew closer to tamoxifen in preventing noninvasive disease, while remaining far less toxic – in particular, there was significantly less endometrial cancer with raloxifene use.

58

Arctic precipitation and evaporation: Model results and observational estimates  

SciTech Connect

Observational estimates of Precipitation and evaporation over the Arctic Ocean and its terrestrial watersheds are compared with corresponding values from the climate model simulations of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Estimates of Arctic regional mean precipitation from several observational sources show considerable scatter, and the observational estimates based on gauge-adjusted station data are considerably larger than the other observational estimates. While the AMIP model simulations of precipitation also show scatter, the ensemble mean of the models` precipitation exceeds even the higher (gauge-adjusted) observational estimates over the Arctic Ocean and its major watersheds. The difference between simulated precipitation and evaporation (P-E), representing the net freshwater gain (runoff) by the surface, also exceeds the observational estimates by 44%-83% over the Arctic Ocean and by generally smaller percentages over the terrestrial watersheds. The ensemble model mean of the annual P - E exceeds the corresponding river discharges of the Ob and Mackenzie Rivers by 62% and 14%, respectively. The simulated P and E are highly correlated across the AMIP models, and the interannual (as well as the seasonal) variations of P and E are highly correlated in the output of most of the individual models, implying a coupling of the regional P and E in the models. The only formulational feature found to be common to the high-P (and high-E) models is the use of a specified rather than a computed soil moisture. A preliminary examination of the reanalyses of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction shows that the differences between the reanalysis-derived P and E are closer to the observational estimates than are the AMIP estimates. However, the magnitudes of the reanalysis-derived P and E, individually, are higher than the corresponding observational estimates. 25 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

Walsh, J.E.; Portis, D. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Kattsov, V.; Meleshko, V. [Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)] [Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1998-01-01

59

Current Results from Kepler & Follow-on Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All 17 quarters of Kepler data have been now calibrated and deposited in archives. Uniform reprocessing of the entire data set with current software is expected to be completed this Fall. An important aspect of the Mission is the revision of the stellar properties of the target stars needed to get more accurate values of their planets. The Star Working Group has published its first catalog with revised values for R* and Teff for the 196,468 stars observed by Kepler [1]. Their results show that many stars which are unclassified in the Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) are actually giants, while many others stars (in particular M dwarfs) are smaller than that listed. A catalog has been published that contains the results from data acquired during quarters Q1-Q8 and lists a total of 2738 planetary candidates [3]. Revised values of exoplanet and stellar results include the effects of increases in stellar temperature as per the [4] study and stellar property adjustments for consistency with Yale-Yonsei stellar isochrones. Nearly 7300 KOI are currently listed in the NEXSci archive with approximately 3538 classified as planetary candidates or verified as planets. Based on the latest edition the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog [5] an additional 2611 KOI are considered to be eclipsing binaries while the rest are a combination of background eclipsing binaries and background transiting planets. A catalog covering Q1-Q12 data is being developed and is expected to be published this summer (Rowe et al. in progress). It will make substantial corrections to the values of exoplanet characteristics based on revised stellar properties from the Huber et al, 2014 catalog of stellar properties and will use the Dartmouth isochrones for cool stars instead of the Yonsei-Yale values. New discoveries and Mission developments will also be presented.

Borucki, W.

2014-04-01

60

Exhibitor Search I Product Category Search ISession Search I MyShow Return to Search Results or Search Again  

E-print Network

Exhibitor Search I Product Category Search ISession Search I MyShow « Return to Search Results or Search Again Climate Models in Deep Time Require Tight Temporal and Latitudinal Constraints: The Colorado on are often woefully inadequate for global comparisons of climatically relevant data as demonstrated by the 10

Olsen, Paul E.

61

We report results showing that working memory for American Sign Language (ASL) is sensitive to irrelevant signed input  

E-print Network

We report results showing that working memory for American Sign Language (ASL) is sensitive for sign language involves visual or quasi-visual representations, suggesting parallels to visuospatial working memory. We have previously argued that the structure of work- ing memory for sign language

62

MAD@VLT observations in Layer Oriented mode: first results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results obtained from the observations with MAD@VLT of the globular cluster NGC 6388. This study has two aims: first, to assess the capabilities of the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) corrections in crowded fields photometry and, second, to couple the deepest ACS/HST optical observations with comparable NIR observations (in the K_s band), in order to distinguish multiple populations in the color-magnitude diagram of this massive cluster located close to the Galactic bulge.

Moretti, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Lombini, M.; Piotto, G.; Falomo, R.; Farinato, J.; Ragazzoni, R.; Baruffolo, A.; Marchetti, E.

63

Editorial: solar radiophysics — recent results on observations and theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar radiophysics is a rapidly developing branch of solar physics and plasma astrophysics. Solar radiophysics has the goal of analyzing observations of radio emissions from the Sun and understanding basic physical processes operating in quiet and active regions of the solar corona. In the near future, the commissioning of a new generation of solar radio observational facilities, which include the Chinese Spectral Radio Heliograph (CSRH) and the upgrade of the Siberian Solar Radio Telescope (SSRT), and the beginning of solar observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), is expected to bring us new breakthrough results of a transformative nature. The Marie-Curie International Research Staff Exchange (MC IRSES) “RadioSun” international network aims to create a solid foundation for the successful exploitation of upcoming solar radio observational facilities, as well as intensive use of the existing observational tools, advanced theoretical modeling of relevant physical processes and observables, and training a new generation of solar radio physicists. The RadioSun network links research teams from China, Czech Republic, Poland, Russia and the UK. This mini-volume presents research papers based on invited reviews and contributed talks at the 1st RadioSun workshop in China. These papers cover a broad range of research topics and include recent observational and theoretical advances in solar radiophysics, MHD seismology of the solar corona, physics of solar flares, generation of radio emission, numerical modeling of MHD and plasma physics processes, charged-particle acceleration and novel instrumentation.

Nakariakov, Valery M.; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Yan, Yi-Hua

2014-07-01

64

WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojans: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than ~10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 ± 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 ± 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) ~ 1.4 ± 0.2, lower than the 1.6 ± 0.1 value derived by Szabó et al.

Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T., IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.

2011-11-01

65

WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than {approx}10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 {+-} 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 {+-} 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.2, lower than the 1.6 {+-} 0.1 value derived by Szabo et al.

Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCLA, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

2011-11-20

66

Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers.

Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Kemppinen, O.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Haberle, R.; Polkko, J.; Savijärvi, H.; Rennó, N.; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J. A.; Schmidt, W.; Richardson, M.; Siili, T.; Paton, M.; Torre-Juarez, M. De La; Mäkinen, T.; Newman, C.; Rafkin, S.; Mischna, M.; Merikallio, S.; Haukka, H.; Martin-Torres, J.; Komu, M.; Zorzano, M.-P.; Peinado, V.; Vazquez, L.; Urqui, R.

2014-09-01

67

Results of Draconid 2011 observations from the BRAMS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the applicability of the Observability Function (OF) to the BRAMS network is pre- sented. Preliminary results are shown taking into account only geometry. Radiation patterns of the antennas are assumed to be isotropic. Manual counts for the Draconids outburst in 2011 obtained with the BRAMS network data are presented. The differences between the different stations are discussed in terms of the OFs and other parameters.

Calders, Stijn; Verbeeck, Cis; Lamy, Herve; Ranvier, Sylvain; Gamby, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

68

Recombinant PNPLA3 protein shows triglyceride hydrolase activity and its I148M mutation results in loss of function.  

PubMed

The patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3, also called adiponutrin, ADPN) is a membrane-bound protein highly expressed in the liver. The genetic variant I148M (rs738409) was found to be associated with progression of chronic liver disease. We aimed to establish a protein purification protocol in a yeast system (Pichia pastoris) and to examine the human PNPLA3 enzymatic activity, substrate specificity and the I148M mutation effect. hPNPLA3 148I wild type and 148M mutant cDNA were cloned into P. pastoris expression vectors. Yeast cells were grown in 3L fermentors. PNPLA3 protein was purified from membrane fractions by Ni-affinity chromatography. Enzymatic activity was assessed using radiolabeled substrates. Both 148I wild type and 148M mutant proteins are localized to the membrane. The wild type protein shows a predominant lipase activity with mild lysophosphatidic acid acyl transferase activity (LPAAT) and the I148M mutation results in a loss of function of both these activities. Our data show that PNPLA3 has a predominant lipase activity and I148M mutation results in a loss of function. PMID:24369119

Pingitore, Piero; Pirazzi, Carlo; Mancina, Rosellina M; Motta, Benedetta M; Indiveri, Cesare; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Hedfalk, Kristina; Romeo, Stefano

2014-04-01

69

Magnetic field observations near Mercury: Preliminary results from Mariner 10  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a preliminary analysis of data obtained near Mercury by the NASA/GSFC Magnetic Field Experiment on Mariner 10. A very well developed, detached bow shock wave, which developed as the super-Alfvenic solar wind interacted with the planet Mercury was observed. A magnetosphere-like region, with maximum field strength of 98 gamma at closest approach (704 km altitude) was also observed, and was contained within boundaries similar to the terrestrial magnetopause. The obstacle deflecting the solar wind flow was global in size, but the origin of the enhanced magnetic field was not established. The most plausible explanation, considering the complete body of data, favored the conclusion that Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field.

Ness, N. F.; Behannon, K. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Whang, Y. C.; Schatten, K. H.

1974-01-01

70

Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter - Initial cruise results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low frequency (below 1326 kHz) observations of Jupiter obtained from November, 1977 through June, 1978 by the radio astronomy receivers carried by the two Voyager spacecraft are reported and compared with a large body of higher-frequency ground-based observations. Although the morphology of hectometric wavelength (HOM) emissions strongly resembles that of decametric (DAM) wavelength radio noise, they display opposite polarization. DAM emissions are strongly modulated by Io, whereas HOM emissions exhibit little or no influence from any satellite and appear to be modulated by the rotation phase of the planet. Several single-source models could possibly account for these results, including a model assuming emission at two well-separated frequencies above and below the local electron plasma frequency and the model proposed by Barbosa (1976) in which electrostatic waves at twice the upper hybrid frequency couple to both the ordinary and extraordinary electromagnetic modes. However, neither of these is entirely satisfactory.

Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Thieman, J. R.; Riddle, A. C.; Pearce, J. B.; Warwick, J. W.; Lecacheux, A.

1979-01-01

71

Genome-wide meta-analysis of observational studies shows common genetic variants associated with macronutrient intake1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Macronutrient intake varies substantially between individuals, and there is evidence that this variation is partly accounted for by genetic variants. Objective: The objective of the study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with macronutrient intake. Design: We performed 2-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis of macronutrient intake in populations of European descent. Macronutrients were assessed by using food-frequency questionnaires and analyzed as percentages of total energy consumption from total fat, protein, and carbohydrate. From the discovery GWA (n = 38,360), 35 independent loci associated with macronutrient intake at P < 5 × 10?6 were identified and taken forward to replication in 3 additional cohorts (n = 33,533) from the DietGen Consortium. For one locus, fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO), cohorts with Illumina MetaboChip genotype data (n = 7724) provided additional replication data. Results: A variant in the chromosome 19 locus (rs838145) was associated with higher carbohydrate (? ± SE: 0.25 ± 0.04%; P = 1.68 × 10?8) and lower fat (? ± SE: ?0.21 ± 0.04%; P = 1.57 × 10?9) consumption. A candidate gene in this region, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), encodes a fibroblast growth factor involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. The variants in this locus were associated with circulating FGF21 protein concentrations (P < 0.05) but not mRNA concentrations in blood or brain. The body mass index (BMI)–increasing allele of the FTO variant (rs1421085) was associated with higher protein intake (? ± SE: 0.10 ± 0.02%; P = 9.96 × 10?10), independent of BMI (after adjustment for BMI, ? ± SE: 0.08 ± 0.02%; P = 3.15 × 10?7). Conclusion: Our results indicate that variants in genes involved in nutrient metabolism and obesity are associated with macronutrient consumption in humans. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005131 (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities), NCT00005133 (Cardiovascular Health Study), NCT00005136 (Family Heart Study), NCT00005121 (Framingham Heart Study), NCT00083369 (Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Triglycerides), NCT01331512 (InCHIANTI Study), and NCT00005487 (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). PMID:23636237

Tanaka, Toshiko; Ngwa, Julius S; van Rooij, Frank JA; Zillikens, M Carola; Wojczynski, Mary K; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Luan, Jian'an; Mikkilä, Vera; Renstrom, Frida; Sonestedt, Emily; Zhao, Jing Hua; Chu, Audrey Y; Qi, Lu; Chasman, Daniel I; de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Feitosa, Mary F; Johansson, Ingegerd; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lohman, Kurt K; Manichaikul, Ani; McKeown, Nicola M; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Singleton, Andrew; Stirrups, Kathleen; Viikari, Jorma; Ye, Zheng; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barroso, Inês; Deloukas, Panos; Forouhi, Nita G; Hofman, Albert; Liu, Yongmei; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; North, Kari E; Dimitriou, Maria; Hallmans, Goran; Kähönen, Mika; Langenberg, Claudia; Ordovas, Jose M; Uitterlinden, André G; Hu, Frank B; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Raitakari, Olli; Franco, Oscar H; Johnson, Andrew; Emilsson, Valur; Schrack, Jennifer A; Semba, Richard D; Siscovick, David S; Arnett, Donna K; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Lehtimäki, Terho; Loos, Ruth JF; Orho-Melander, Marju; Rotter, Jerome I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Ferrucci, Luigi; Dedoussis, George; Cupples, L Adrienne; Nettleton, Jennifer A

2013-01-01

72

Deep Chandra Observations of NGC 4697: Initial Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In early-type X-ray faint (lowest LX/LB) galaxies, Chandra has resolved most of the X-ray emission into point sources, dominated by low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Studies of these LMXBs, such as the AO-1 observation of NGC 4697, are yielding some understanding of the LMXB populations in early-type galaxies, their relations to globular clusters, their histories of star formation, and comparisons to spiral galaxies; however, deeper observations are required to detect the more numerous, fainter LMXBs. To that end, I present initial results of multiple, deep observations of NGC 4697, the nearest, optically luminous, X-ray faint, elliptical galaxy with a large GC population. Support for this work was provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration through Chandra Award Number GO4-5093X, issued by the Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS8-39073. GRS acknowledges the receipt of an Achievement Reward for College Scientists fellowship.

Sivakoff, G. R.; Côté, P.; Jordán, A.; Sarazin, C. L.

2004-08-01

73

Complete results for five years of GNO solar neutrino observations  

E-print Network

We report the complete GNO solar neutrino results for the measuring periods GNO III, GNO II, and GNO I. The result for GNO III (last 15 solar runs) is [54.3 + 9.9 - 9.3 (stat.)+- 2.3 (syst.)] SNU (1 sigma) or [54.3 + 10.2 - 9.6 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1 sigma) with errors combined. The GNO experiment is now terminated after altogether 58 solar exposure runs that were performed between May 20, 1998 and April 9, 2003. The combined result for GNO (I+II+III) is [62.9 + 5.5 - 5.3 (stat.) +- 2.5 (syst.)] SNU (1 sigma) or [62.9 + 6.0 - 5.9] SNU (1 sigma) with errors combined in quadrature. Overall, gallium based solar observations at LNGS (first in GALLEX, later in GNO) lasted from May 14, 1991 through April 9, 2003. The joint result from 123 runs in GNO and GALLEX is [69.3 +- 5.5 (incl. syst.)] SNU (1 sigma). The distribution of the individual run results is consistent with the hypothesis of a neutrino flux that is constant in time. Implications from the data in particle- and astrophysics are reiterated.

GNO COLLABORATION; M. Altmann; M. Balata; P. Belli; E. Bellotti; R. Bernabei; E. Burkert; C. Cattadori; R. Cerulli; M. Chiarini; M. Cribier; S. d'Angelo; G. Del Re; K. H. Ebert; F. v. Feilitzsch; N. Ferrari; W. Hampel; F. X. Hartmann; E. Henrich; G. Heusser; F. Kaether; J. Kiko; T. Kirsten; T. Lachenmaier; J. Lanfranchi; M. Laubenstein; K. Luetzenkirchen; K. Mayer; P. Moegel; D. Motta; S. Nisi; J. Oehm; L. Pandola; F. Petricca; W. Potzel; H. Richter; S. Schoenert; M. Wallenius; M. Wojcik; L. Zanotti

2005-04-19

74

EarthScope's USArray: A Decade of Observations and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EarthScope's USArray observatory provides unprecedented observations of geophysical targets across the contiguous United States through the systematic deployment of seismic, magnetotelluric, and atmospheric instruments. In addition, USArray includes tightly integrated data management and outreach activities. The seismic and atmospheric components of USArray consist of a Transportable Array (TA), Flexible Array (FA), and Reference Network. The TA has now occupied approximately 1700 sites spanning the entire contiguous 48 states, at 70 km inter-station spacing. These stations have provided broadband seismic, barometric pressure and atmospheric infrasound observations. The pool of instruments that comprise the FA have been deployed by numerous individual investigators in dense arrays to investigate local and regional features over time periods ranging from days to years. The Reference Network provides a permanent, stationary foundation for the TA and FA, with approximately 100 broadband stations deployed across the contiguous US at roughly 300 km spacing. The magnetotelluric (MT) component of USArray has provided both fixed and campaign-style long-period magnetotelluric observations at hundreds of locations across the US. Many of the field activities of USArray engaged both students and the public in important ways and this has been a significant component of USArray outreach. The TA alone has engaged well over one hundred students in site reconnaissance activities and placed seismic stations on the property of roughly a thousand different landowners. All data collected by USArray are openly available, most in real time. Many of the observations have also been incorporated into a variety of data products that have been developed to facilitate use of USArray by many different audiences. The scientific community has used USArray data to achieve a wide range of results--some that were anticipated when the facility was proposed and some that were completely unanticipated. Data products such as direct visualizations of seismic wave propagation observed by the TA have been viewed hundreds of thousands of times on the web by the general public. We will provide a brief overview of the deployments and accomplishments of USArray from the past ten years, and an overview of the significant and diverse scientific results that have been achieved. We will touch on some of the technologies and organizational and operational strategies that have enabled the success of USArray. We will conclude with a brief discussion of USArray plans for the next five years.

Woodward, R.; Busby, R. W.; Hafner, K.; Gridley, J. M.; Schultz, A.; Frassetto, A.; Simpson, D. W.

2013-12-01

75

Not all Surface Waters show a Strong Relation between DOC and Hg Species: Results from an Adirondack Mountain Watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several recent papers have highlighted the strong statistical correlation between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and total dissolved mercury (THgd) and/or dissolved methyl Hg (MeHgd). These relations of organic carbon with Hg species are often even stronger when a measurement that reflects some fraction of the DOC is used such as UV absorbance at 254 nm or the hydrophobic acid fraction. These strong relations are not surprising given the pivotal role DOC plays in binding and transporting Hg, which is otherwise relatively insoluble in dilute waters. In this study, we show data collected monthly and during some storms and snowmelt over 2.5 years from the 65 km2 Fishing Brook watershed in the Adirondack Mountains of New York. This dataset is noteworthy because of a weak and statistically non-significant (p > 0.05) relationship between DOC and either of THgd or MeHgd over the entire study period. We believe that the lack of a strong DOC-Hg relation in Fishing Brook reflects the combined effects of the heterogeneous land cover and the presence of three ponds within the watershed. The watershed is dominantly (89.3%) hardwood and coniferous forest with 8% wetland area, and 2.7% open water. Despite the lack of a strong relation between DOC and Hg species across the annual hydrograph, the dataset shows strong within-season correlations that have different y-intercepts and slopes between the growing season (May 1 - Sept. 30) and dormant season (Oct. 1 - April 30), as well as strong, but seasonally varying DOC-Hg correlations at smaller spatial scales in data collected on several occasions in 10 sub-watersheds of Fishing Brook. We hypothesize that a combination of several factors can account for these annually weak, but seasonally and spatially strong DOC-Hg correlations: (1) seasonal variations in runoff generation processes from upland and wetland areas that may yield DOC with varying Hg-binding characteristics, (2) photo-induced losses of Hg species and DOC in ponded areas, and (3) the effects of the widely varying seasonal temperature and snow cover on the rates of microbial processes such as the decomposition of soil organic matter and methylation of Hg. These results emphasize that not all watersheds show simple linear relations between DOC and Hg species on an annual basis, and provide a caution that measurements such as the optical properties of waters are not always a strong surrogate for Hg.

Burns, D. A.; Schelker, J.; Murray, K. R.; Brigham, M. E.; Aiken, G.

2009-12-01

76

Betaine and Trimethylamine-N-Oxide as Predictors of Cardiovascular Outcomes Show Different Patterns in Diabetes Mellitus: An Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Betaine is a major osmolyte, also important in methyl group metabolism. Concentrations of betaine, its metabolite dimethylglycine and analog trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in blood are cardiovascular risk markers. Diabetes disturbs betaine: does diabetes alter associations between betaine-related measures and cardiovascular risk? Methods Plasma samples were collected from 475 subjects four months after discharge following an acute coronary admission. Death (n?=?81), secondary acute MI (n?=?87), admission for heart failure (n?=?85), unstable angina (n?=?72) and all cardiovascular events (n?=?283) were recorded (median follow-up: 1804 days). Results High and low metabolite concentrations were defined as top or bottom quintile of the total cohort. In subjects with diabetes (n?=?79), high plasma betaine was associated with increased frequencies of events; significantly for heart failure, hazard ratio 3.1 (1.2–8.2) and all cardiovascular events, HR 2.8 (1.4–5.5). In subjects without diabetes (n?=?396), low plasma betaine was associated with events; significantly for secondary myocardial infarction, HR 2.1 (1.2–3.6), unstable angina, HR 2.3 (1.3–4.0), and all cardiovascular events, HR 1.4 (1.0–1.9). In diabetes, high TMAO was a marker of all outcomes, HR 2.7 (1.1–7.1) for death, 4.0 (1.6–9.8) for myocardial infarction, 4.6 (2.0–10.7) for heart failure, 9.1 (2.8–29.7) for unstable angina and 2.0 (1.1–3.6) for all cardiovascular events. In subjects without diabetes TMAO was only significant for death, HR 2.7 (1.6–4.8) and heart failure, HR 1.9 (1.1–3.4). Adding the estimated glomerular filtration rate to Cox regression models tended to increase the apparent risks associated with low betaine. Conclusions Elevated plasma betaine concentration is a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes; conversely low plasma betaine concentrations indicate increased risk in the absence of diabetes. We speculate that the difference reflects control of osmolyte retention in tissues. Elevated plasma TMAO is a strong risk marker in diabetes. PMID:25493436

Lever, Michael; George, Peter M.; Slow, Sandy; Bellamy, David; Young, Joanna M.; Ho, Markus; McEntyre, Christopher J.; Elmslie, Jane L.; Atkinson, Wendy; Molyneux, Sarah L.; Troughton, Richard W.; Frampton, Christopher M.; Richards, A. Mark; Chambers, Stephen T.

2014-01-01

77

First results from the Comet ISON Observing Campaign (CIOC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comet ISON came fresh from the Oort Cloud as predicted, coming within 0.07 au of Mars, 0.24 au of Mercury, and 10^{6} km of the solar photospheric surface. It did not become the ''Comet of the Century'' in terms of its brightness in the Earth's night-time sky as predicted, but instead became one of the rare dynamically new Oort Cloud comets to graze the Sun's corona (these occur every few decades; the last one observed was C/Ikeya-Seki 1965). For an initially bright comet detected as far out as the orbit of Saturn in Sept 2011, the comet worried us all quite a bit with its flat-lining activity from 4 to 0.8 au (March to Oct 2013). It thus put on a somewhat disappointing showing at Mars in early October, but then defied predictions of its demise and a government shutdown, ramping up instead to become a beautiful early morning green ''lollipop'' as it passed Mercury in mid-November (Figure). ISON ultimately peaked at maximum Q_{gas} = 2 × 10^{30} mol/s of water [1] within the last few days before perihelion, then seemed to have almost no gas output the day of perihelion, 28 Nov 2013 [2] before spectacularly disrupting under the watchful eyes of the SOHO and STEREO spacecraft (Figure), after which its debris fan was tracked for days until it finally disappeared [3,4]. Over 19 NASA and ESA spacecraft ultimately pointed at the comet, with at least 14 reporting detections of it ranging from the X-rays through the infrared. More than 30 ground-based observatories observed ISON from at UV to radio wavelengths. Important findings concerning the comet's size, rotation state, dust to gas ratio, composition, and coma and tail structure were made during ISON'S apparition. Numerous observing groups produced evidence for a small and CO poor (but rich in solid carbon and CO_2) nucleus that was rapidly evolving. Throughout this time, parallels to the behavior of other dynamically new comets, like C/1973 E (Kohoutek), were readily apparent. In this talk I present an overview of the observational findings for ISON.

Lisse, C.

2014-07-01

78

DUst around NEarby Stars. The Survey Observational Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts.Aims. The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems.Methods. We used Herschel PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 micron were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 micron, and at 250, 350 and 500 micron using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 micron to detect the stellar photosphere. Results. Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of approx. 12.1% +/- 5% before Herschel to approx 20.2 % +/- % 2. A significant fraction (approx. 52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160 micron range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age.

Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J. Ch.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; delBurgo, C.; Ertel, S..; Fridlund, M.; Heras, A. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Lohne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Rodman, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Ardila, D.; Beichmann, C.

2013-01-01

79

Genomic and Enzymatic Results Show Bacillus cellulosilyticus Uses a Novel Set of LPXTA Carbohydrases to Hydrolyze Polysaccharides  

PubMed Central

Background Alkaliphilic Bacillus species are intrinsically interesting due to the bioenergetic problems posed by growth at high pH and high salt. Three alkaline cellulases have been cloned, sequenced and expressed from Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4 (Bcell) making it an excellent target for genomic sequencing and mining of biomass-degrading enzymes. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome of Bcell is a single chromosome of 4.7 Mb with no plasmids present and three large phage insertions. The most unusual feature of the genome is the presence of 23 LPXTA membrane anchor proteins; 17 of these are annotated as involved in polysaccharide degradation. These two values are significantly higher than seen in any other Bacillus species. This high number of membrane anchor proteins is seen only in pathogenic Gram-positive organisms such as Listeria monocytogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Bcell also possesses four sortase D subfamily 4 enzymes that incorporate LPXTA-bearing proteins into the cell wall; three of these are closely related to each other and unique to Bcell. Cell fractionation and enzymatic assay of Bcell cultures show that the majority of polysaccharide degradation is associated with the cell wall LPXTA-enzymes, an unusual feature in Gram-positive aerobes. Genomic analysis and growth studies both strongly argue against Bcell being a truly cellulolytic organism, in spite of its name. Preliminary results suggest that fungal mycelia may be the natural substrate for this organism. Conclusions/Significance Bacillus cellulosilyticus N-4, in spite of its name, does not possess any of the genes necessary for crystalline cellulose degradation, demonstrating the risk of classifying microorganisms without the benefit of genomic analysis. Bcell is the first Gram-positive aerobic organism shown to use predominantly cell-bound, non-cellulosomal enzymes for polysaccharide degradation. The LPXTA-sortase system utilized by Bcell may have applications both in anchoring cellulases and other biomass-degrading enzymes to Bcell itself and in anchoring proteins other Gram-positive organisms. PMID:23593409

Mead, David; Drinkwater, Colleen; Brumm, Phillip J.

2013-01-01

80

Results of solar observations by the CORONAS-F payload  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CORONAS-F mission experiments and results have been reviewed. The observations with the DIFOS multi-channel photometer in a broad spectral range from 350 to 1500 nm have revealed the dependence of the relative amplitudes of p-modes of the global solar oscillations on the wavelength that agrees perfectly well with the earlier data obtained in a narrower spectral ranges. The SPIRIT EUV observations have enabled the study of various manifestations of solar activity and high-temperature events on the Sun. The data from the X-ray spectrometer RESIK, gamma spectrometer HELICON, flare spectrometer IRIS, amplitude-temporal spectrometer AVS-F, and X-ray spectrometer RPS-1 have been used to analyze the X- and gamma-ray emission from solar flares and for diagnostics of the flaring plasma. The absolute and relative content of various elements (such as potassium, argon, and sulfur) of solar plasma in flares has been determined for the first time with the X-ray spectrometer RESIK. The Solar Cosmic Ray Complex monitored the solar flare effects in the Earth's environment. The UV emission variations recorded during solar flares in the vicinity of the 120-nm wavelength have been analyzed and the amplitude of relative variations has been determined.

Kuznetsov, V. D.; Sobelman, I. I.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Kuzin, S. V.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Charikov, Yu. E.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Mazets, E. P.; Nusinov, A. A.; Pankov, A. M.; Sylwester, J.

2011-05-01

81

Spacelab Science Results Study. Volume 1; External Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the 36 Spacelab missions were more or less dedicated to specific scientific disciplines, while other carried a eclectic mixture of experiments ranging from astrophysics to life sciences. However, the experiments can be logically classified into two general categories; those that make use of the Shuttle as an observing platform for external phenomena (including those which use the Shuttle in an interactive mode) and those which use the Shuttle as a microgravity laboratory. This first volume of this Spacelab Science Results study will be devoted to experiments of the first category. The disciplines included are Astrophysics, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Sciences, and Earth Sciences. Because of the large number of microgravity investigations, Volume 2 will be devoted to Microgravity Sciences, which includes Fluid Physics, Combustion Science, Materials Science, and Biotechnology, and Volume 3 will be devoted to Space Life Sciences, which studies the response and adaptability of living organisms to the microgravity environment.

Naumann, Robert J. (Compiler)

1999-01-01

82

Seismic Observations From the Afar Rift Dynamics Project: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the 2005 Dabbahu rifting event in Afar, 9 broadband seismometers were installed around the active rift segment to study the microseismicity associated with this and subsequent dyking events. These recorded more than one year of continuous data. In March 2007, 41 stations were deployed throughout Afar and the adjacent rift flanks as part of a large multi-national, collaboration involving universities and organisations from the UK, US and Ethiopia. This abstract describes the crustal and upper mantle structure results of the first 19 months of data. Bulk crustal structure has been determined using the H-k stacking of receiver functions and thickness varies from ~45 km on the rift margins to ~16 km beneath the northeastern Afar stations. Estimates of Vp/Vs show normal continental crust values (1.7-1.8) on the rift margins, and very high values (2.0-2.2) in Afar. A study of seismic noise interferometry is in early stages, but inversions using 20 s Green's function estimates, with some control from regional surface waves, show evidence for thin crustal regions around the recently rifted Dabbahu segment. To improve our understanding of the physical and compositional properties of the crust and locate regions of high attenuation (an indicator of melt), we determine attenuation (Q) using t* values measured from spectra of P wave arrivals. We present whole path attenuation from source to receiver, which will provide a starting point for a future tomographic inversion. SKS-wave splitting results show sharp changes over small lateral distances (40° over <30 km), with fast directions overlying the Dabbahu segment aligning parallel with the recent diking. This supports ideas of melt dominated anisotropy beneath the Ethiopian rift. Seismic tomography inversions show that in the top 150 km low velocities mimic the trend of the seismicity in Afar. The low velocity anomalies extend from the main Ethiopian rift NE, towards Djibouti, and from Djibouti NW towards the Dabbahu segment. Outside of these linear regions the velocities are relatively fast. Below ~250 km the anomaly broadens to cover most of the Afar region with only the rift margins remaining fast. The seismic studies will be integrated with results from other areas of the consortium project (e.g., Magneto- tellurics, GPS, insar, gravity, petrology, geochemistry), enabling us to develop a greater understanding of rifting beneath an area of incipient oceanic spreading.

Hammond, J. O.; Guidarelli, M.; Belachew, M.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ebinger, C.; Stuart, G.; Kendall, J.

2008-12-01

83

Recent results from CHAMP plasma parameter and magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-year data base of magnetic field and ionospheric measurements from the CHAMP satellite contains an enormous potential to investigate the behaviour and the origin of currents in the F region. Very prominent phenomena are the post-sunset equatorial plasma irregularities (commonly known as "bubbles", or "Equatorial Spread-F" (ESF)) which cause also signatures in the total magnetic field due to diamagnetic currents. The continuous magnetic observations, available at a 1Hz rate, have allowed for the compilation of a comprehensive climatology of the magnetic signatures due to ESF. It reveals a distinct seasonal/longitudinal (S/L) distribution, and the occurrence rate reduces considerably with decreasing solar flux. The (S/L) distribution of bubbles has been found to correlate very well, up to 90 percent, with the pre-reversal enhancement vertical plasma drift peak. This provides strong evidence for the close relation between these phenomena. Since the amplitude of the diamagnetic effect depends on the ambient magnetic field strength and on the background electron density, the global distribution shows also slight differences to the ESF climatology based on plasma depletions. Although electron density readings are only available every 15s, CHAMP data suggest that the plasma irregularities are less structured at places where the ambient magnetic field is strong (e.g. East Asia, Indonesia). In these regions the bubble statistic based on magnetic signatures is systematically lower than that from plasma measurements.

Stolle, Claudia; Luehr, Hermann; Park, Jaeheung; Xiong, Chao; Fejer, B. G.

84

Earth observations and photography experiment: Summary of significant results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Observation and photographic data from the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are analyzed. The discussion is structured according to the fields of investigation including: geology, desert studies, oceanography, hydrology, and meteorology. The data were obtained by: (1) visual observations of selected Earth features, (2) hand-held camera photography to document observations, and (3) stereo mapping photography of areas of significant scientific interest.

El-Baz, F.

1978-01-01

85

Plasma observations near Neptune - Initial results from Voyager 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma science experiment on Voyager 2 made observations of the plasma environment in Neptune's magnetosphere and in the surrounding solar wind. Because of the large tilt of the magnetic dipole and fortuitous timing, Voyager entered Neptune's magnetosphere through the cusp region, the first cusp observations at an outer planet. Thus the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere observed

J. W. Belcher; H. S. Bridge; B. Coppi; G. S. Gordon Jr.; A. J. Lazarus; R. L. McNutt Jr.; F. Bagenal; O. Divers; A. Eviatar; K. W. Ogilvie; L. Villanueva; M. Zhang; E. C. Jr. Sittler; G. L. Siscoe; V. M. Vasyliunas

1989-01-01

86

DUst around NEarby Stars. The survey observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Debris discs are a consequence of the planet formation process and constitute the fingerprints of planetesimal systems. Their solar system counterparts are the asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Aims: The DUNES survey aims at detecting extra-solar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt around solar-type stars, putting in this way the solar system into context. The survey allows us to address some questions related to the prevalence and properties of planetesimal systems. Methods: We used Herschel/PACS to observe a sample of nearby FGK stars. Data at 100 and 160 ?m were obtained, complemented in some cases with observations at 70 ?m, and at 250, 350 and 500 ?m using SPIRE. The observing strategy was to integrate as deep as possible at 100 ?m to detect the stellar photosphere. Results: Debris discs have been detected at a fractional luminosity level down to several times that of the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. The incidence rate of discs around the DUNES stars is increased from a rate of ~12.1% ± 5% before Herschel to ~20.2% ± 2%. A significant fraction (~52%) of the discs are resolved, which represents an enormous step ahead from the previously known resolved discs. Some stars are associated with faint far-IR excesses attributed to a new class of cold discs. Although it cannot be excluded that these excesses are produced by coincidental alignment of background galaxies, statistical arguments suggest that at least some of them are true debris discs. Some discs display peculiar SEDs with spectral indexes in the 70-160 ?m range steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans one. An analysis of the debris disc parameters suggests that a decrease might exist of the mean black body radius from the F-type to the K-type stars. In addition, a weak trend is suggested for a correlation of disc sizes and an anticorrelation of disc temperatures with the stellar age. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTables 14 and 15 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A11Full Tables 2-5, 10 and 12 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A11

Eiroa, C.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Absil, O.; Augereau, J. Ch.; Bayo, A.; Bryden, G.; Danchi, W.; del Burgo, C.; Ertel, S.; Fridlund, M.; Heras, A. M.; Krivov, A. V.; Launhardt, R.; Liseau, R.; Löhne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Roberge, A.; Rodmann, J.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Solano, E.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; Wolf, S.; Ardila, D.; Arévalo, M.; Beichmann, C.; Faramaz, V.; González-García, B. M.; Gutiérrez, R.; Lebreton, J.; Martínez-Arnáiz, R.; Meeus, G.; Montes, D.; Olofsson, G.; Su, K. Y. L.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.; Fukagawa, M.; Grün, E.; Kamp, I.; Lorente, R.; Morbidelli, A.; Müller, S.; Mutschke, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Ribas, I.; Walker, H.

2013-07-01

87

New results of the spectral observations of CP stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithium problem in Ap-CP stars has been, for a long time, a subject of debate. Individual characteristics of CP stars, such as high abundance of the rare-earth elements presence of magnetic fields, complicate structure of the surface distribution of chemical elements, rapid oscillations of some CP-stars, make the detection of the lithium lines and the determination of the lithium abundance, a difficult task. During the International Meeting in Slovakia in 1996, the lithium problem in Ap-CP stars was discussed. The results of the Li study carried out in CrAO Polosukhina (1973-1976), the works of Hack & Faraggiana (1963), Wallerstein & Hack (1964), Faraggiana et al. (1992-1996) formed the basis of the International project ‘Lithium in the cool CP-stars with magnetic fields’. The main goal of the project was, using systematical observations of Ap-CP stars with phase rotation in the spectral regions of the resonance doublet Li I 6708 Å and subordinate 6104 Å lithium lines with different telescopes, to create a database, which will permit to explain the physical origin of anomalous Li abundance in the atmospheres of these stars.

Polosukhina, N. S.; Shavrina, A. V.; Drake, N. A.; Kudryavtsev, D. O.; Smirnova, M. A.

2010-04-01

88

Results of wedge resection for focal bronchioloalveolar carcinoma showing pure ground-glass attenuation on computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Focal bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) showing pure ground-glass attenuation (GGA) on thin-section computed tomography (CT), which is considered to be an early-stage adenocarcinoma, has been diagnosed with increasing frequency due to the development and spread of the helical CT scanner. We discussed the appropriateness of limited resection for this type of lesion.Methods. Between July 1996 and June 2001, 17 patients

Shun-ichi Watanabe; Toshio Watanabe; Kazunori Arai; Takahiko Kasai; Joji Haratake; Hiroshi Urayama

2002-01-01

89

Peripheral obstructions influence marmot vigilance: integrating observational and experimental results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animals generally allocate some time during foraging to detecting predators. We used a combination of observations and an experiment to examine how vegetation height and peripheral obstructions influence vigilance by foraging yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris). First, we analyzed a large sample of observations of marmots foraging in nature. Marmots increased vigilance with vegetation height and reared on their hind legs

Peter A. Bednekoff; Daniel T. Blumstein

2009-01-01

90

Initial Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About half of the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of northern Alaska is covered with thermokarst lakes and drained lake basins, making lakes a dominant landscape element and a crucial component of the Arctic permafrost system. However, to date there has been no systematic collection of key lake parameters or baseline data with which to make spatial and temporal comparisons to assess the impact of warmer temperatures, changing cloud cover and precipitation patterns, permafrost degradation, and direct human impacts on lakes. As separate groups, we have been working on lakes in arctic Alaska for the past decade and are currently monitoring some lakes. This effort has recently been organized into the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) with funding from NSF's Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The objective of CALON is to expand and integrate our existing lake monitoring network across arctic Alaska to provide data for key indices using in situ measurements, field surveys, interviews with members of the indigenous community, and remote sensing/GIS technologies. In 2012, we will enhance the existing in situ network by developing lake monitoring sites to collect year-round baseline data and assess physical, chemical, and biological lake characteristics across environmental gradients. This will be accomplished by implementing a multiscale (hierarchical) lake instrumentation scheme such that basic data are collected from 51 lakes, while a subset of 16 lakes is more intensively instrumented. Regional scaling and extrapolation of key metrics is accomplished through validation of satellite imagery with ground measurements, and standardized protocols will be developed to enable inter-site comparison and to prepare for expansion towards a pan-Arctic network. Initial results are available from lake water profile temperature measurements made in summer 2010 along a 130-km transect extending from Barrow southward toward the interior. Ice-out occurs about 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the Arctic coast, reflecting the marine influence. Rapid warming follows ice-cover decay, with water temperature responding synchronously to daily and synoptic weather variations across the area. Inland lakes are significantly (6°C) warmer in mid-summer than those near the coast, which is also in accordance with the regional climatic gradient. All lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minimal thermal stratification (< 2°C) occurring only during calm, sunny periods in deeper lakes (> 2m). During the last several years lake water temperature, water level, and ice thickness measurements have also been collected from in a number of lakes located near a coastal hub site in the vicinity of Teshekpuk Lake. This dataset also reveals variability in the thermal regime over small geographic areas both within and between years with respect to differences in lake depth, lake size, and local environmental conditions.

Hinkel, K. M.; Lenters, J. D.; Grosse, G.; Arp, C. D.; Jones, B.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Liu, H.; Kim, C.; Townsend-Small, A.

2011-12-01

91

Early Results Show Reduced Infection Rate Using No-touch Technique for Expander/ADM Breast Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Summary: Infection is a common complication of immediate breast reconstruction that often leads to device removal, a result emotionally devastating to the patient and frustrating for her surgeon. “No-touch” techniques have been used in other surgical disciplines and plastic surgery, but they have not been reported for breast reconstruction with tissue expanders or implants and acellular dermis. We report a novel technique of tissue expander and acellular dermis placement using no-touch principles with a self-retaining retractor system that holds promise to decrease infectious complications of breast reconstruction. PMID:25878928

2015-01-01

92

Cloud radar deployment for Indian Monsoon observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM)'s acquired Ka-band radar for the Study of the interaction between Cloud and Environment for formation of Precipitation. Main objective of it is to make simultaneous high resolution measurements on dynamical, cloud microphysical and precipitation parameters pertain to monsoon system probably at diverse locations. The goal is to understand the interplay between cloud processes and environment that not only allow understanding the fundamental cloud-environment interactions but also precipitation formation mechanisms and further to estimate cloud contribution to the re-distribution of energy and water in climate system. For this, Polarimetric weather Doppler Radar at higher frequencies (9.5 and 35 GHz) can be a potential tool to gain knowledge on this scientific as well as societal application oriented programme. IITM's Polarimetric scanning Ka-band (cloud) radar operations started recently during May 2013. Mobile Ka-band Scanning Polarimetric Doppler Radar (KaSPR) is a cloud radar operating at wavelength of 8.5 mm with average powers of 110 W. KaSPR incorporates a conduction cooled Extended Interaction Klystron Amplifier. It is having four foot diameter Ka-band cassegrain antenna. Liquid cooled air-sealed RF unit provides excellent temperature stability. Antenna on the top of RF unit is mounted on the Elevation over azimuth pedestal which is designed to rotate continuously in the azimuth axis and a full 180 degrees in the elevation axis (horizon to horizon) with a maximum velocity of 200/sec and maximum acceleration of 120/s2. KaSPR uses dual channel 16-bit digital receiver having dynamic range of more than 80 dB with bandwidths 10 MHz. Arbitrary waveform generator capable of generating any user-defined waveform of up to 16K samples in length. It is having sensitivity of the order -45 dBZ at 5 km. KaSPR has been providing high sensitivity versatile measurements of cloud and precipitation at tropical site (Manderdev, 18.04290 N, 73.86890 E, 1.35 km AMSL) from a scanning mobile platform since May, 2013. The initial results of the above cloud radar observations on Indian monsoon will be discussed.

Chakravarty, K.; Kalapureddy, M.; Pa, M.; Deshpandy, S.; Das, S.; Pandithurai, G.; Prabhakaran, T.; Chandrasekar, C. V.; Goswami, B.

2013-12-01

93

Cassini Observations of Saturn's Dawn-Magnetotail Region: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Cassini thermal plasma, hot plasma and magnetic field observations for several intervals between the dawn meridian of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and Saturn's magnetotail region, we investigate the structure of the magnetotail, plasma and magnetic field properties within tail-like current sheet regions and ion flows within the dawn to magnetotail regions. We use Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) and Electron Plasma Spectrometer (ELS) observations and MIMI LEMMS ion and electron observations to characterize the plasma environment. LMS observations are used to measure plasma flow velocities from which one can infer rotation versus convective flows. IMS composition measurements are used to trace the, source of plasma from the inner magnetosphere (protons, H(2+) and water group ions) versus an external solar wind source (protons and He++ ions). A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. For example, are there significant return flows (i.e., negative radial velocities, V(sub R) < 0) and/or plasmoids (V(sub R) > 0) within the magnetotail region?

Sittler, Edward C.

2007-01-01

94

Cassini Observations of Saturn's Magnetotail Region: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Cassini thermal plasma, hot plasma and magnetic field observations for several intervals between the dawn meridian of Saturn's outer magnetosphere and Saturn's magnetotail region, we investigate the structure of the magnetotail, plasma and magnetic field properties within tail-like current sheet regions and ion flows within the magnetotail regions. We use Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS), Electron Plasma Spectrometer (ELS) observations, MIMI LEMMS ion and electron observations and Cassini magnetometer data (MAG) to characterize the plasma environment. IMS observations are used to measure plasma flow velocities from which one can infer rotation versus convective flows. IMS composition measurements are used to trace the source of plasma from the inner magnetosphere (protons, H2+ and water group ions) versus an external solar wind source (protons and e +i+on s). A critical parameter for both models is the strength of the convection electric field with respect to the rotational electric field for the large scale magnetosphere. For example, are there significant return flows (i.e., negative radial velocities, VR < 0) and/or plasmoids (V(sub R) > 0) within the magnetotail region? Initial preliminary evidence of such out flows and return flows was presented by Sittler et al. This talk complements the more global analysis by McAndrews et al.

Sittler, E. C.; Arridge, C.; Rymer, A.; Coates, A.; Krupp, N.; Blanc, M.; Richardson, J.; Andre, N.; Thomsen, M.; Tokar, R. L.; McAndrews, H. J.; Henderson, Mike; Cooper, J. F.; Burger, M.; Simpson, D.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C.; Dougherty, M.; Young, D. T.

2007-01-01

95

Sensor Web Interoperability Testbed Results Incorporating Earth Observation Satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an Earth Observation Sensor Web scenario based on the Open Geospatial Consortium s Sensor Web Enablement and Web Services interoperability standards. The scenario demonstrates the application of standards in describing, discovering, accessing and tasking satellites and groundbased sensor installations in a sequence of analysis activities that deliver information required by decision makers in response to national, regional or local emergencies.

Frye, Stuart; Mandl, Daniel J.; Alameh, Nadine; Bambacus, Myra; Cappelaere, Pat; Falke, Stefan; Derezinski, Linda; Zhao, Piesheng

2007-01-01

96

Crustal dynamics project observations: 1982 results and plans for 1983  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 1982 Crustal Dynamics Project observations by fixed and mobile SLR and VLBI systems are reviewed. Plate motion measurements between North America and Europe were conducted by both techniques and SLR measurements were also made between North America, the Pacific, Australia and South American plates. Regional deformation measurements by VLBI and SLR systems were restricted to the western United States in 1982, including a number of important intercomparison baseline measured by both techniques. In 1983 the observing program grows significantly, with new SLR systems in Mexico, Easter Island, the Pacific and Italy. New VLBI systems will include a dedicated VLBI site at Weltzell, in Germany. Two highly mobile SLR and two highly mobile VLBI systems will greatly increase the regional deformation measurements in California and through the Basin and Range, where more than 25 sites will be occupied in 1983.

Frey, H.

1983-01-01

97

Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jupiter's hectometric (HOM) wave-length radio emissions have been detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the decametric (DAM) wavelength Jovian radio noise that has been observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. The HOM emissions are predominantly left-hand polarized and their

M. L. Kaiser; M. D. Desch; A. C. Riddle; A. Lecacheux; J. B. Pearce; J. K. Alexander; J. W. Warwick; J. R. Thieman

1979-01-01

98

Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

1979-01-01

99

GALLEX solar neutrino observations: results for GALLEX IV  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the GALLEX solar neutrino results for the measuring period GALLEX IV, from 14 February 1996 until 23 January 1997. Counting for the GALLEX IV runs was completed on 19 June 1997. The GALLEX IV result from 12 solar runs is [118.4 ± 17.8 (stat.) ± 6.6 (sys.)] SNU (1?). The combined result for GALLEX I+II+III+IV, which comprises 65

W. Hampel; J. Handt; G. Heusser; J. Kiko; T. Kirsten; M. Laubenstein; E. Pernicka; W. Rau; M. Wojcik; Yu. Zakharov; R. v. Ammon; K. H. Ebert; T. Fritsch; D. Heidt; E. Henrich; L. Stielglitz; F. Weirich; M. Balata; M. Sann; F. X. Hartmann; E. Bellotti; C. Cattadori; O. Cremonesi; N. Ferrari; E. Fiorini; L. Zanotti; M. Altmann; F. v. Feilitzsch; R. Mößbauer; S. Wanninger; G. Berthomieu; E. Schatzman; I. Carmi; I. Dostrovsky; C. Bacci; P. Belli; R. Bernabei; S. d'Angelo; L. Paoluzi; M. Cribier; J. Rich; M. Spiro; C. Tao; D. Vignaud; J. Boger; R. L. Hahn; J. K. Rowley; R. W. Stoenner; J. Weneser

1999-01-01

100

WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE HILDA POPULATION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary analysis of 1023 known asteroids in the Hilda region of the solar system observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The sizes of the Hildas observed range from {approx}3 to 200 km. We find no size-albedo dependency as reported by other projects. The albedos of our sample are low, with a weighted mean value of p{sub V} = 0.055 {+-} 0.018, for all sizes sampled by the NEOWISE survey. We observed a significant fraction of the objects in the two known collisional families in the Hilda population. It is found that the Hilda collisional family is brighter, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.061 {+-} 0.011, than the general population and dominated by D-type asteroids, while the Schubart collisional family is darker, with a weighted mean albedo of p{sub V} = 0.039 {+-} 0.013. Using the reflected sunlight in the two shortest WISE bandpasses, we are able to derive a method for taxonomic classification of {approx}10% of the Hildas detected in the NEOWISE survey. For the Hildas with diameter larger than 30 km, there are 67{sup +7}{sub -15}% D-type asteroids and 26{sup +17}{sub -5%} C-/P-type asteroids (with the majority of these being P-types).

Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [UCLA Astronomy, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

2012-01-10

101

Mechanical thinning pillar peach trees - second year results and observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Columnar (pillar) form peach trees were mechanically thinned at 50 days after full bloom during the pit hardening stage of development. A spike-drum mechanical shaker, which showed promise for peach fruit thinning, during preliminary tests in 2005 was used to remove the young fruits. The shaker wa...

102

Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.  

PubMed

In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

2014-07-01

103

Results of assessments by year of cohort The following pages show the results of the assessments carried out over the six-year period of the  

E-print Network

ways, always comparing the inter-cohort analysis. Box and whisker plots The first is a box and whisker generated using the Comparative Statistics package that comes in Analyse-It, an Excel add-on. Box-plots and parametric statistics The first table below the box-plot chart shows the data used to draw the box-plots

Bradbeer, Robin Sarah

104

Magic Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

With a concentration in theatre, I created a magic show from scratch. Over the course of the semester, I researched both the effects (more commonly known as magic tricks) in a variety of styles, especially mentalism, along with the patter, or script, that is integral in making a good effect into something utterly amazing. I chose a certain set of

Zachary Brass

2012-01-01

105

`Dust around Nearby Stars' The Survey Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this conference proceedings we summarize the key observational findings of the Herschel DUNES survey. We found 31 discs in our sample, equating to an increased dust incidence with Herschel of 20.2 +/-2.0% compared to previous measurement of ~12.5+/-5% with Spitzer for the same population of nearby, Sun-like stars. We identify no trend towards fewer discs around later spectral types, as had previously been reported for A-M stars. Around half of the discs exhibit extended emission, representing a vast improvement in the number of spatially resolved debris discs and thereby the quality of modelling that can be applied to those systems. We also identify unusual sub-groups of discs, including `steep SED' sources with dust spectral indexes in the 70-160 ?m range, steeper than the Rayleigh-Jeans tail which, whilst not unheard of, are more typically seen at sub-mm wavelengths and candidate `cold discs' which are identified through their lack of significant excess emission at wavelengths shorter than 100 ?m.

Marshall, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

106

Comparison and Evaluation of SCM Results against Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Midlatitude frontal clouds during the subperiods A and E of the ARM March 2000 Cloud IOP at the SGP site have been simulated using SCMs, CRMs, and GCMs. These studies suggest that model problems could arise from biases/uncertainties in the large-scale forcing data, the retrieved cloud properties as evaluation data, and the imperfect physical parameterizations. Our study aims to further evaluate performances of the SCMs derived from the NCAR, GISS, GFDL GCMs and ECMWF IFS and quantify the influences of these uncertainties on the SCM results with a focus on cloud macrophysics, convective-stratiform partitioning, cloud effects on TOA and surface radiative fluxes, precipitation, as well as the effect of precipitation recycling on the evolution of cloud system. Furthermore, a set of forcings will be constructed based on available multiple analysis data, taking into account the relative sensitivity factors of different large-scale meteorological parameters, to drive ensemble SCM simulations and confirm the influence of uncertainties in forcing data. Uncertainties due to model physical parameterizations will be investigated using SCM sensitivity experiments on key parameters associated with some essential fast physics parameterizations (e.g., cloud microphysical, macrophysical, and convective parameterizations).

Song, H.; Lin, W.; Donner, L.; Lin, Y.; Genio, A. D.; Wolf, A.; Neggers, R.; Liu, Y.

2010-12-01

107

Results from comparing THEMIS satellite and ground based observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) project is intended to investigate the major controversy in substorm science, the uncertainty whether the instability leading to the substorm is initiated near the Earth or in the more distant >20 Re magnetic tail. THEMIS will use the timing of the occurrence of substorm signatures at five satellites and at ground based all-sky imagers and magnetometers to infer the propagation direction. The array of stations consists of 20 all-sky imagers and 30 plus magnetometers deployed in the North American continent from Alaska to Labrador. Each ground based observatory contains a white light imager taking auroral images at a 3 second repetition rate and a magnetometer that records the 3 axis variation of the magnetic field at 2 Hz frequency. During the winter of 2007-08 the THEMIS satellites achieved their intended strategic locations to monitor substorms. For example in the time period between 06 and 09 UT on the 2nd of February 2008 several substorms occurred while the THEMIS satellites P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 were located in the tail of the magnetosphere at approximately 29.6, 18.5, 11, 11 and 8Re downtail distance (GSM) respectively. The weather was relatively clear permitting the recording of the auroral features while the particle and field measurements were taken. In this paper we will discuss the preliminary results drawn from the data taken during substorms that occur during THEMIS conjunctions.

Mende, Stephen; Frey, Harald; Donovan, Eric; Jackel, Brian; Angelopoulos, V.

108

Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry  

E-print Network

Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry Ro Parviainen Defocused PSF-fitting Photometry #12;Introduction Observations PSF fitting Photometry Results 1 Introduction The light curve Defocused PSF 2 Observations Observations 3 PSF fitting Photometry PSF model 1 PSF

Pinfield, David J.

109

Rapamycin and Chloroquine: The In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Autophagy-Modifying Drugs Show Promising Results in Valosin Containing Protein Multisystem Proteinopathy  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP) gene cause hereditary Inclusion body myopathy (hIBM) associated with Paget disease of bone (PDB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), more recently termed multisystem proteinopathy (MSP). Affected individuals exhibit scapular winging and die from progressive muscle weakness, and cardiac and respiratory failure, typically in their 40s to 50s. Histologically, patients show the presence of rimmed vacuoles and TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-positive large ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the muscles. We have generated a VCPR155H/+ mouse model which recapitulates the disease phenotype and impaired autophagy typically observed in patients with VCP disease. Autophagy-modifying agents, such as rapamycin and chloroquine, at pharmacological doses have previously shown to alter the autophagic flux. Herein, we report results of administration of rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, and chloroquine, a lysosomal inhibitor which reverses autophagy by accumulating in lysosomes, responsible for blocking autophagy in 20-month old VCPR155H/+ mice. Rapamycin-treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in muscle performance, quadriceps histological analysis, and rescue of ubiquitin, and TDP-43 pathology and defective autophagy as indicated by decreased protein expression levels of LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, optineurin and inhibiting the mTORC1 substrates. Conversely, chloroquine-treated VCPR155H/+ mice revealed progressive muscle weakness, cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43, ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies and increased LC3-I/II, p62/SQSTM1, and optineurin expression levels. Our in vitro patient myoblasts studies treated with rapamycin demonstrated an overall improvement in the autophagy markers. Targeting the mTOR pathway ameliorates an increasing list of disorders, and these findings suggest that VCP disease and related neurodegenerative multisystem proteinopathies can now be included as disorders that can potentially be ameliorated by rapalogs. PMID:25884947

Nalbandian, Angèle; Llewellyn, Katrina J.; Nguyen, Christopher; Yazdi, Puya G.; Kimonis, Virginia E.

2015-01-01

110

Observing Tropical Cyclones from the Global Hawk: HAMSR Results from GRIP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) recently acquired by NASA was flown for the first time in 2010 in a hurricane field campaign, the NASA Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment. One of the primary payloads was the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. HAMSR is a cloud penetrating microwave sounder that provides a picture of the state of the atmosphere, such as the thermodynamic environment around hurricanes and the convective structure in the inner core. We show results from GRIP, including analysis of observations of Hurricane Karl during 13 hours during a period of rapid intensification.

Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S.; Behrangi, A.

2011-12-01

111

Preliminary Results from an Assimilation of TOMS Aerosol Observations Into the GOCART Model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At NASA Goddard we are developing a global aerosol data assimilation system that combines advances in remote sensing and modeling of atmospheric aerosols. The goal is to provide high resolution, 3-D aerosol distributions to the research community. Our first step is to develop a simple assimilation system for Saharan mineral aerosol. The Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation model (GOCART) provides accurate 3-D mineral aerosol size distributions that compare well with TOMS satellite observations. Surface, mobilization, wet and dry deposition, convective and long-range transport are all driven by assimilated fields from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System, GEOS-DAS. Our version of GOCART transports sizes from.08-10 microns and only simulates Saharan dust. TOMS radiance observations in the ultra violet provide information on the mineral and carbonaceous aerosol fields. We use two main observables in this study: the TOMS aerosol index (AI) which is directly related to the ratio of the 340 and 380 radiances and the 380 radiance. These are sensitive to the aerosol optical thickness, the single scattering albedo and the height of the aerosol layer. The Goddard Aerosol Assimilation System (GAAS) uses the Data Assimilation Office's Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS) to combine TOMS observations and GOCART model first guess fields. At this initial phase we only assimilate observations into the the GOCART model over regions of Africa and the Atlantic where mineral aerosols dominant and carbonaceous aerosols are minimal, Our preliminary results during summer show that the assimilation with TOMS data modifies both the aerosol mass loading and the single scattering albedo. Assimilated aerosol fields will be compared with assimilated aerosol fields from GOCART and AERONET observations over Cape Verde.

daSilva, Arlindo; Weaver, Clark J.; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

112

[A liver tumor that progressed to hepatocellular carcinoma as observed on follow-up magnetic resonance images showing increased contrast medium uptake].  

PubMed

We present the case of a 59-year-old male with chronic hepatitis C. An ischemic low-signal intensity nodule was detected on hepatocyte-phase images at S8 obtained by gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA) -enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The nodule remained unchanged in size but showed a high-intensity signal on hepatocyte phase images. Subsequently, the nodule increased in size, and dynamic computed tomography revealed hyperemic changes, suggestive of hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatectomy was performed, and histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a bile-producing, moderately differentiated, hepatocellular carcinoma. Cell membrane expression of OATP1B3 was detected in the cancerous area, which was more densely stained than the noncancerous areas. We followed the clinical course of the patient, who gradually developed a green hepatoma, which presented as an ischemic low-signal intensity nodule that was detectable only on hepatocyte-phase images obtained by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. We observed a gradual increase in size, hyperemic changes, and a shift to a high-intensity signal on the hepatocyte-phase images. PMID:24189827

Hamada, Koichi; Saitoh, Satoshi; Nishino, Noriyuki; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Tobayashi, Kenji; Takano, Yoshinao; Sakuma, Hideo

2013-11-01

113

Who is eating seafood? On an annual basis, results from the survey screener showed that 65% of U.S. households purchased  

E-print Network

Who is eating seafood? On an annual basis, results from the survey screener showed that 65% of U.S. households purchased seafood for at-home consumption at least once in the previous year while 83% of households purchased seafood in a restaurant during the same period. As shown in Figures 1a-c, retail seafood

114

Triphenylsilyl perchlorate revisited: /sup 29/Si and /sup 35/Cl NMR spectroscopy and x-ray crystallography showing covalent nature in both solution and the solid state. Difficulties in observing long-lived silyl cations in the condensed state  

SciTech Connect

/sup 29/Si and /sup 35/Cl NMR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic study of triphenylsilyl perchlorate shows it to be a covalent perchloryl ester in both solution and the solid state. The results are in accord with earlier studies notably those of Wannagat but contrast the recent claim by Lambert etal. (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1986, 108, 2482) for NMR observation of long-lived ionic triphenylsilyl perchlorate.

Prakash, G.K.S.; Keyaniyan, S.; Aniszfeld, R.; Heiliger, L.; Olah, G.A.; Stevens, R.C.; Choi, H.K.; Bau, R.

1987-08-19

115

Upper Stratospheric Temperature Climatology Derived from SAGE II Observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-mn observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K occurs in the subtropics in both hemispheres. The derived long-term temperature changes from 1985 to 1997 reveal a statistically significant negative trend of -2 to -2.5 K/decade in the tropical upper stratosphere and about -2 K/decade in the subtropics near the stratopause. At latitudes poleward of 50, the results show a statistically significant positive trend of about 1 K/decade in the upper stratosphere. The preliminary results also show large annual temperature oscillations in the extratropics with a maximum amplitude of approx. 8 K located at about 44 km near 50 in both hemispheres during local summer. In addition, the semiannual oscillation is found to be a maximum in the tropics with a peak amplitude of approx. 3.3 K located at about 42 km during the equinox.

Wang, P.-H.; Cunnold, D. M.; Wang, H. J.; Chu, W. P.; Thomason, L. W.

2002-01-01

116

A Portrait of the Centaur 2060 Chiron: new results from groundbased and Herschel observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Herschel Open Time Key Program entitled "TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region" has been awarded 373 hours to investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of TNOs and Centaurs [1]. In this work we present the results of the combined SPIRE and PACS instruments observations over 6 bands of the Centaur 2060 Chiron, together with groundbased observations used to constrain its absolute magnitude, to investigate possible cometary activity and its surface composition. The estimated nuclear HV magnitude during the Herschel observations is 5.81±0.08, indicating a high flux from the Centaur comparable to that of its activity peak during 1989. Using this HV value, our Chiron's best size estimation, from NEATM and TPM modelling, is 218±20 km, with an albedo of 16±3 %, a value higher than previous Chiron's albedo estimation. Chiron shows the strongest decrease in the emissivity versus wavelength in the TNOs and Centaurs sample investigated with the PACS and SPIRE instruments. The results on the cometary activity analysis both in the visual and far infrared images will also be presented.

Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Müller, T.; Panuzzo, P.; Kiss, C.; Lim, T.; Mommert, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Vilenius, E.; Tozzi, G. P.; Mottola, S.; Duffard, R.; Barucci, M. A.

2013-09-01

117

Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE (McEwen et al.; JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright streamers (Thomas et al.; Icarus, 123, 536556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al.; JGR, 104, 90559068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N.T.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; McEwen, A.S.

2011-01-01

118

Ozone depletion in the late winter lower Arctic stratosphere: Observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozone loss rates in the lowermost part of the Arctic stratosphere (at potential temperature levels ?375 K) in the period January and February 1993 are calculated using a chemistry-trajectory model and 30-day back trajectories. The results were compared with observations carried out during the first Stratosphere Troposphere Experiment by Aircraft Measurements (STREAM) in February 1993 in the Arctic lower stratosphere. Relatively low N2O and low O3 concentrations were measured during STREAM, and O3 loss rates of 8.0 (±3.6) ppbv d-1 were calculated from O3-N2O STREAM data in the vortex area. The average O3 loss rate calculated by the model is 8.6 ppbv d-1 (1.3% d-1), in agreement with observations. However, the calculated O3 loss rate decreases to the lower value of the observed loss rates when taking into account N2O-Cly, interrelations from different studies. Heterogeneous reactions on liquid sulfuric acid aerosols, in particular those involving the chlorine reservoir species ClONO2 and HCl, must be considered to explain the observed O3 loss rates. Complete conversion of ClONO2 and HCl to active chlorine by heterogeneous reactions in the model occurs at temperatures ?205 K under conditions with enhanced aerosol loading, and at temperatures ?200 K with background aerosol levels. Since the trajectory temperatures were frequently below 205 K and occasionally below 200 K, the model results are (1) sensitive to the Cly level but relatively insensitive to the initial chlorine partitioning within Cly and (2) show significant O3 loss at background aerosol levels, being only 1-2 ppbv d-1 less compared to conditions with enhanced aerosol loading. We conclude that future O3 loss in the Arctic lower stratosphere is quite sensitive to temperature changes, while it appears to be less sensitive to enhanced aerosol loading (e.g., by volcanic sulfate particles).

Bregman, A.; van den Broek, M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Müller, R.; Peter, T.; Scheele, M. P.; Lelieveld, J.

1997-05-01

119

Anisotropy in the Hubble constant as observed in the HST Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project results  

E-print Network

Based on general relativity, it can be argued that deviations from a uniform Hubble flow should be thought of as variations in the Universe's expansion velocity field, rather than being thought of as peculiar velocities with respect to a uniformly expanding space. The aim of this paper is to use the observed motions of galaxies to map out variations in the Universe's expansion, and more importantly, to investigate whether real variations in the Hubble expansion are detectable given the observational uncertainties. All-sky maps of the observed variation in the expansion are produced using measurements obtained along specific lines-of-sight and smearing them across the sky using a Gaussian profile. A map is produced for the final results of the HST Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project for the Hubble constant, a comparison map is produced from a set of essentially independent data, and Monte Carlo techniques are used to analyse the statistical significance of the variation in the maps. A statistically significant difference in expansion rate of 9 km/s/Mpc is found to occur across the sky. Comparing maps of the sky at different distances appears to indicate two distinct sets of extrema with even stronger statistically significant variations. Within our supercluster, variations tend to occur near the supergalactic plane, and beyond our supercluster, variations tend to occur away from the supergalactic plane. Comparison with bulk flow studies shows some concordance, yet also suggests the bulk flow studies may suffer confusion, failing to discern the influence of multiple perturbations.

M. L. McClure; C. C. Dyer

2007-03-21

120

The Relevance of External Quality Assessment for Molecular Testing for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results from Two Pilot Rounds Show Room for Optimization  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK rearrangement status is a critical biomarker to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as crizotinib. To promote high quality testing in non-small cell lung cancer, the European Society of Pathology has introduced an external quality assessment scheme. This article summarizes the results of the first two pilot rounds organized in 2012–2013. Materials and Methods Tissue microarray slides consisting of cell-lines and resection specimens were distributed with the request for routine ALK testing using IHC or FISH. Participation in ALK FISH testing included the interpretation of four digital FISH images. Results Data from 173 different laboratories was obtained. Results demonstrate decreased error rates in the second round for both ALK FISH and ALK IHC, although the error rates were still high and the need for external quality assessment in laboratories performing ALK testing is evident. Error rates obtained by FISH were lower than by IHC. The lowest error rates were observed for the interpretation of digital FISH images. Conclusion There was a large variety in FISH enumeration practices. Based on the results from this study, recommendations for the methodology, analysis, interpretation and result reporting were issued. External quality assessment is a crucial element to improve the quality of molecular testing. PMID:25386659

Tembuyser, Lien; Tack, Véronique; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Pauwels, Patrick; Miller, Keith; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kerr, Keith; Schuuring, Ed; Thunnissen, Erik; Dequeker, Elisabeth M. C.

2014-01-01

121

Observational Results of a Multi-telescope Campaign in Search of Interstellar Urea [(NH2)2CO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH2)2CO] observed toward the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from ~100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: the Berkeley-Illinois-Maryland-Association (BIMA) Array, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA), the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST). The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best-fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of two between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity of both (NH2)2CO and of Sgr B2(N) makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laboratory data, and models, and discuss our results in the context of a possible molecular detection of urea.

Remijan, Anthony J.; Snyder, Lewis E.; McGuire, Brett A.; Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Looney, Leslie W.; Friedel, Douglas N.; Golubiatnikov, G. Yu; Lovas, Frank J.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hollis, Jan M.

2014-03-01

122

Results of MODIS Band-to-Band Registration Characterization Using On-Orbit Lunar Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since launch, lunar observations have been made regularly by both Terra and Aqua MODIS and used for a number of sensor calibration and characterization related applications, including radiometric stability monitoring, spatial characterization, optical leak and electronic cross-talk characterization, and calibration inter-comparison. MODIS has 36 spectral bands with a total of 490 individual detectors. They are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPA). This paper focuses on the use of MODIS lunar observations to characterize its band-to-band registration (BBR). In addition to BBR, the approach developed by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) can be used to characterize MODIS detector-to-detector registration (DDR). Long-term BBR results developed from this approach are presented and compared with that derived from a unique on-board calibrator (OBC). Results show that on-orbit changes of BBR have been very small for both Terra and Aqua MODIS and this approach can be applied to other remote sensing instruments.

Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Sun, Junqiang; Angal,Amit

2011-01-01

123

New Results from Space and Field Observations on the Aerosol Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New space observations from the MODIS instrument on board the Terra satellite and analysis of POLDER data flown on the ADEOS satellite, show in great details the spatial and seasonal variability of the global aerosol system. These spaceborne instruments distinguish fine aerosol from man-made regional pollution and biomass burning from mostly natural coarse dust and sea salt aerosol. E.g. fine regional pollution in and around the Indian sub-continent, Europe and North America; smoke from biomass burning in Southern Africa and Southern America; coarse dust from West Africa and mixed dust pollution and smoke from West and central Africa and East Asia. These regions were also studied extensively in focused field experiments and by the distributed AERONET network. The results generate the first climatologies of the aerosol system, are used to derive the aerosol radiative effects and to estimate the anthropogenic component. The measurements are also used to evaluate each other and constrain aerosol transport models.

Kaufman, Yoram J.; Remer, Lorraine; Tanre, Didier; Boucher, Olivier; Chin, Mian; Dubovik, Oleg; Holben, Brent

2002-01-01

124

The WEBT campaign to observe AO 0235+16 in the 2003-2004 observing season. Results from radio-to-optical monitoring and XMM-Newton observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multiwavelength campaign to observe the BL Lac object AO 0235+16 (z=0.94) was set up by the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) collaboration during the observing seasons 2003-2004 and 2004-2005, involving radio, near-IR and optical photometric monitoring, VLBA monitoring, optical spectral monitoring, and three pointings by the XMM-Newton satellite. Here we report on the results of the first season, which

C. M. Raiteri; M. Villata; M. A. Ibrahimov; V. M. Larionov; M. Kadler; H. D. Aller; M. F. Aller; Y. Y. Kovalev; L. Lanteri; K. Nilsson; I. E. Papadakis; T. Pursimo; G. E. Romero; H. Teräsranta; M. Tornikoski; A. A. Arkharov; D. Barnaby; A. Berdyugin; M. Böttcher; K. Byckling; M. T. Carini; D. Carosati; S. A. Cellone; S. Ciprini; J. A. Combi; S. Crapanzano; R. Crowe; A. di Paola; M. Dolci; L. Fuhrmann; M. Gu; V. A. Hagen-Thorn; P. Hakala; V. Impellizzeri; S. Jorstad; J. Kerp; G. N. Kimeridze; Yu. A. Kovalev; A. Kraus; T. P. Krichbaum; O. M. Kurtanidze; A. Lähteenmäki; E. Lindfors; M. G. Mingaliev; R. Nesci; M. G. Nikolashvili; J. Ohlert; M. Orio; L. Ostorero; M. Pasanen; A. Pati; C. Poteet; E. Ros; J. A. Ros; P. Shastri; L. A. Sigua; A. Sillanpää; N. Smith; L. O. Takalo; G. Tosti; A. Vasileva; S. J. Wagner; R. Walters; J. R. Webb; W. Wills; A. Witzel; E. Xilouris

2005-01-01

125

Database of the results of the Lunar occultation observations made in 1963--2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer database of the results of lunar occultation observations is compiled. The observations were collecte at the Astronomical Observatory of the Kyiv National University over the period when it was a regional coordination centre for the observations of this phenomenon. The base includes more than 24000 of observation results of 580 observers from 77 sites on the territory of Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Belorus', Moldova, Lithuania, Uzbekistan. The material is analyzed and compared to the similar data of the world bank. The access to the information can be realized on the site of the Astronomical Observatory http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/ or through the e-mail address likaz@observ.univ.kiev.ua.

Kazantseva, L. V.; Osipov, È. Ô.

2002-04-01

126

The ILAN sprite campaigns in Israel: results from 7 years of observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ILAN (Imaging of Lightning And Nocturnal flashes, http://ilanteam.com/) campaigns have been conducted since 2004 from Israel, observing winter thunderstorms in the eastern Mediterranean. We searched for transient luminous events using the standard commercial CCD cameras (Watec N100, 902H2 Ultimate) and the UFO-capture software for event detection, commonly used by other TLE- research groups in Europe and Japan. Winter thunderstorms mostly occur in conjunction with the passage of cold fronts in Cyprus lows, and thus TLEs are best observed when the storms are 200-300 km west of the Israeli coastline, above the Mediterranean Sea. We present statistical analysis of 505 sprites observed in 7 winter campaigns from 2006/7-2012/13. Results show a clear peak in the frequency of sprite detections, with maximum values (above 40% of events) between 00:30-02:50 LST (Local Standard Time, UT+2). This distribution is very different from that of lightning in the region, which peaks ~ 05:00 LST over the sea (Altaratz et al., 2001), hinting at the different temporal behavior of +CG flashes, known to be the major producers of sprites. The morphological distribution of 339 sprites is dominated by column sprites (49.3%) with angels (33.0%) and carrots (25.7%) being less frequent. This is similar to reports of winter sprites over the Sea of Japan (Matsudo et al., 2007). Other shapes (trees, wishbones, etc.; Bór, 2013) appear quite rarely. Single element events constitute 16.8% of observations, with 83.2% containing 2 elements or more. Clusters of homogenous types are slightly more frequent than mixed ones (55%). In some rare cases we observed 12-23 elements in a single sprite. The number of elements and the temporal distribution of different sprite types will be presented and compared with the properties of the parent thunderstorms. Altaratz, O., Levin Z. and Y. Yair, 2001: Winter thunderstorms in Israel - a study with lightning location systems and weather radar. Month. Weath. Rev., 129, 5, 1259-1266. Bór, J., 2013: Optically perceptible characteristics of sprites observed in Central Europe in 2007-2009. Jour. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 92, 151-177 doi.org/10.1016/j.jastp.2012.10.008. Matsudo Y., Suzuki T., Hayakawa M., Yamashita K., Ando Y., Michimoto K., Korepano V., 2007: Characteristics of Japanese winter sprites and their parent lightning as estimated by VHF lightning and ELF transients Jour. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 69, 12, 1431-1446.

Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Katzenelson, Dor; Rosenthal, Neta; Mezuman, Keren; Price, Colin

2014-05-01

127

Observational Results of a Multi-Telescope Campaign in Search of Interstellar Urea [(NH$_2$)$_2$CO  

E-print Network

In this paper, we present the results of an observational search for gas phase urea [(NH$_2$)$_2$CO] observed towards the Sgr B2(N-LMH) region. We show data covering urea transitions from $\\sim$100 GHz to 250 GHz from five different observational facilities: BIMA, CARMA, the NRAO 12 m telescope, the IRAM 30 m telescope, and SEST. The results show that the features ascribed to urea can be reproduced across the entire observed bandwidth and all facilities by best fit column density, temperature, and source size parameters which vary by less than a factor of 2 between observations merely by adjusting for telescope-specific parameters. Interferometric observations show that the emission arising from these transitions is cospatial and compact, consistent with the derived source sizes and emission from a single species. Despite this evidence, the spectral complexity, both of (NH$_2$)$_2$CO and of Sgr B2(N), makes the definitive identification of this molecule challenging. We present observational spectra, laborator...

Remijan, Anthony J; McGuire, Brett A; Kuo, Hsin-Lun; Looney, Leslie W; Friedel, Douglas N; Golubiatnikov, G Yu; Lovas, Frank J; Ilyushin, V V; Alekseev, E A; Dyubko, S F; McCall, Benjamin J; Hollis, Jan M

2014-01-01

128

Some 5-13 micrometer airborne observations of Comet Wilson 1986l: Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comet Wilson was observed from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory approximately 23.6 and 25.7 Apr. 1987, UT (approx. 3 to 5 days after perihelion) using the NASA-Ames Faint Object Grating Spectrometer. Spectrophotometric data were observed with a 21 inch aperture between 5 and 13 micrometer and with a spectral resolution of 50 to 100. Spectra of the inner coma and nucleus reveal a fairly smooth continuum with little evidence of silicate emission. The 5 to 8 micrometer color temperature of the comet was 300 + or - 15 K, approx. 15 percent higher than the equilibrium blackbody temperature. All three spectra of the nucleus show a new emission feature at approx. 12.25 micrometer approx. two channels (.22 micrometer) wide. Visual and photographic observations made during the time of these observations showed a broad faint, possible two component tail. No outburst activity was observed.

Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Witteborn, F. C.; Bregman, Jesse D.; Rank, D. M.; Cohen, M. C; Campins, Humberto C.

1988-01-01

129

Wavenumber spectra of horizontal wind and temperature measured with WINDII, Part I: observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The horizontal wind and temperature data inferred from the WINDII green line observations are used to derive global maps of vertical and horizontal wavenumber spectra, and to investigate the temporal//geographic variations of atmospheric wave motions. The planetary-scale disturbances between 90 and 120 km in September /1995 were found to be characterized by large r.m.s. velocities of /~30-45 m//s and fractional temperatures of /~5-9%, with maximum velocity variances in the region over the equatorial Indian - Central Pacific Oceans. In contrast, the small-scale gravity waves displayed mean fluctuation amplitudes of /~18-30 m//s and 3-6%, with the maxima at mid-latitudes. The velocity variances of both scales slowly increased with increasing altitude at the lower heights, with a faster growth for the large-scale waves, but remained virtually constant above ~105km due to the wave breaking and saturation. The results also revealed strong correlations between the longitudinal and temporal variations of the large- and small-scale waves. Vertical and horizontal wavenumber spectra observed at different locations and times showed great similarities, respectively, confirming the notion of ``universality''. However, significant temporal//geographic variations were found to exist, in respose to the changes in the wave source mechanisms and//or the interaction of gravity waves with, and their filtering by, the variable environment.

Wang, D. Y.; Ward, W. E.; Solheim, B. H.; Shepherd, G. G.

2000-07-01

130

Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results  

Microsoft Academic Search

F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run

B. G. Fejer; R. W. Spiro; R. A. Wolf; J. C. Foster

1990-01-01

131

Earth-based Radar Observations of Mercury: Imaging Results with the Upgraded Arecibo Radar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the completion of the Arecibo upgrade in 1998 came the opportunity to do Mercury radar imaging of unprecedented quality. Among the early results with the upgraded S-band radar was the delay-Doppler imaging of the north polar ice features at 1.5-km resolution (Harmon et al., 2001). These images provided accurate mapping of the putative ice deposits within shaded crater floors as well as a precise determination of the pole position. They also produced the surprising discovery of ice features in small craters and at relatively low latitudes, which places important constraints on thermal models. We are also planning imaging observations of the south pole as it returns to view in 2004 and subsequent years. Besides polar studies, an important component of the Arecibo program is full-disk radar imaging around the entire planet, with a special emphasis on the hemisphere left unimaged by Mariner 10. For this purpose we are conducting a program of delay-Doppler observations using the long-code method (Harmon, 2002), which produces cleaner images than conventional delay-Doppler. Most striking are the depolarized images, which are found to be dominated by bright features associated with fresh crater ejecta. These images show some spectacular rayed craters in the Tycho class, as well as numerous bright, rayless features from smaller impacts. Also visible are some diffuse albedo features with no obvious impact association. Some of these high-albedo patches are found in smooth plains regions such as Tolstoy basin and Tir Planitia, which is the reverse of the mare-highland contrast seen in radar images of the Moon. In addition to the imaging results, we will briefly review the major findings from the pre-upgrade radar altimetry measurements.

Harmon, J.

132

The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

133

Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere  

E-print Network

Motivation Observations and methods Results & Discussion Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere - 7 October 2009 Sandrine Guerlet Minor compounds in Saturn's stratosphere #12;Motivation Observations of hydrocarbons in Saturn's stratosphere Origin: by-products of CH4 photolysis by solar UV ; Production rates

Demoulin, Pascal

134

A longitudinal observational study of Salmonella shedding patterns by commercial turkeys during rearing and fattening, showing limitations of some control measures.  

PubMed

The onset and progression of Salmonella infections was investigated in commercial turkey flocks from placement at 1 d old until slaughter in "brood and move" systems using a longitudinal observational approach based on faeces and environmental sampling with subsequent culture of Salmonella. Persistent Salmonella Newport contamination was found within rearing houses and on their external concrete aprons after cleaning and disinfection between crops of heavily shedding young birds. Salmonella shedding was often detected by 5 d of age and the frequency of positive samples peaked at 14-35 d. Thereafter Salmonella isolations declined, especially in the later (fattening) stages. Samples were still Salmonella-positive at low prevalence in half of the intensively sampled houses at slaughter age. A number of management interventions to combat Salmonella infection of flocks, including sourcing policy, competitive exclusion cultures and cleaning and disinfection, were inadequate to prevent flock infection, although improved disinfection on one unit was associated with a delay in the onset of flock infection. PMID:25654335

Morris, V K; Carrique-Mas, J J; Mueller-Doblies, D; Davies, R H; Wales, A D; Allen, V M

2015-02-01

135

Comparison Of The Genesis Solar Wind Regime Algorithm Results With Solar Wind Composition Observed By ACE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launched on 8 August 2001, the NASA Genesis mission is now collecting samples of the solar wind in various materials, and will return those samples to Earth in 2004 for analysis. A primary science goal of Genesis is the determination of the isotopic and elemental composition of the solar atmosphere from the solar wind material returned. In particular, Genesis will provide measurements of those species that are not provided by solar and in situ observations. We know from in situ measurements that the solar wind exhibits compositional variations across different types of solar wind flows. Therefore, Genesis exposes different collectors to solar wind originating from three flow types: coronal hole (CH), coronal mass ejection (CME), and interstream (IS) flows. Flow types are identified using in situ measurements of solar wind protons, alphas, and electrons from electrostatic analyzers carried by Genesis. The flow regime selection algorithm and subsequent collector deployment on Genesis act autonomously. We present an assessment of composition variations of O, He, and Mg ions observed by ACE/SWICS concurrent with Genesis observations, and compare these to the Genesis algorithm decisions. Not only does this serve as a test of the algorithm, the compilation of composition vs. regime will be important for comparison to the abundances determined from sample analysis at the end of the mission. By applying the Genesis algorithm results to ACE/SWICS abundance and charge-state data, we show that the solar wind speed history can be used to further discriminate between the IS and CH flow types. By using a lower speed threshold for fast-to-slow than for slow-to-fast regime transitions, the Genesis algorithm effectively compensates for evolution effects that are due to transit to 1 AU. Furthermore, we show that for some signatures, CME composition is independent of speed, having a composition most typical of the slow wind < 400\\ km\\ s-1. However, differences between CMEs and the slow wind exist for He/H and O8+. Also, it is seen that larger helium enhancements are found in faster CMEs. The algorithm is successfully isolating the CME population, and thus protecting the CH and IS samples from contamination by CME material.

Reisenfeld, D. B.; Steinberg, J. T.; Barraclough, B. L.; Dors, E. E.; Wiens, R. C.; Neugebauer, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Reinard, A.

2002-12-01

136

First results from the Faint Object Camera - Observations of PKS 0521 - 36  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Faint Object Camera on the Hubble Space Telescope was used to observe the radio galaxy PKS 0521 - 36 which hosts a prominent radio jet. Images of the jet show spatial structure comparable to VLA data and significantly better than optical ground-based observations. The jet structure is resolved at FOC resolution. In addition to the radio knot, well resolved by the FOC, an extension of the jet toward the nucleus is apparent. The rest of the jet does not show much clumpiness, implying that the synchrotron electrons must be accelerated all along the jet to account for the extent in the optical region.

Macchetto, F.; Albrecht, R.; Barbieri, C.; Blades, J. C.; Boksenberg, A.

1991-01-01

137

Polarimetric Radar Observations of Arctic Clouds: Signal Processing and First Results from the may 2013 Iop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ARM Climate Research Facility site at the North Slope of Alaska in Barrow provides polarimetric radar observations of Arctic clouds at X, Ka and W bands. During the May 2013 Scanning radar Intensive Observation Period, raw I and Q data were acquired with the X-SAPR and the Ka-W SACR for the purpose of validating existing, and testing new signal processing procedures specifically tailored for Arctic observations. The raw I and Q datasets were collected on May 3rd 2013 for the case of low-level boundary layer mixed-phase arctic clouds and on May 6th 2013 for the case of a synoptic low moving in from the west. http://www.arm.gov/campaigns/nsa2013nsasr The present paper describes the impact of signal processing procedures on the data, and establishes dual-polarization radar as a valuable tool for the microphysical characterization of ice clouds. In particular, the X-SAPR operates at STSR mode, making available differential reflectivity ZDR, copolar correlation coefficient ?hv, specific differential phase KDP and Degree of Polarization at Simultaneous Transmit DOPS. Low-level boundary layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds are characterized by layers of supercooled liquid water aloft, which present a stark polarimetric contrast with respect to the associated ice precipitation fallout. The ice particles falling from boundary layer Arctic clouds on May 2nd, 3rd and 4th 2013 (winds were very weak or absent) showed the remarkable property of being composed exclusively by large dendrites - fern-like, stellars, twelve-branched - indicating deposition as the main accretion mechanism. http://www.flickr.com/photos/michele_galletti/sets/72157633422079814/ Boundary Layer mixed-phase Arctic clouds provide an exceptional natural laboratory for the exploration of polarimetric signatures in presence of dendritic ice particles. The first-ever X-band analysis of differential reflectivity ZDR of mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented in [1]. For the May 6th case, ice particle populations associated with frontal systems underwent more significant vertical mixing, and therefore more significant break-up and aggregation, with the overall result that ice particles possessed less geometrical symmetry, and consequently less prominent polarimetric contrast was detected by the radars. [1] Oue, Galletti, Verlinde "Observations of X-band differential reflectivity in Arctic mixed-phase clouds", submitted.

Galletti, M.; Oue, M.; Verlinde, J.

2013-12-01

138

Results from GMRT 150 MHz Radio Observations: Search for Steep Spectrum Radio Sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from deep 150 MHz low frequency radio observations with Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT), India. GMRT consists of 30 antennas, each of 45 meter diameter operating at frequencies from 150 MHz to 1400 MHz. At 150 MHz, GMRT can image the sky with high resolution (˜ 20 arcsec) of area of ˜ 10 square degrees with single pointing, which allows to detect a few hundred radio sources down to ˜ 10 mJy. We have carried out deep imaging at 150 MHz of two fields; one surrounding Upsilon Andromeda and another encompassing the cluster Abell 764. The rms noise achieved is ˜ 2 mJy/beam. The resolution in both images were ˜ 20 arcsec. The radio spectral index analysis of the sources in the field using the higher frequency NVSS (1400 MHz) flux densities with GMRT flux densities at 150 MHz helps us to detect sources with extreme spectral indices. Because the majority of high redshift radio sources tend to exhibit steeper radio spectra, deep imaging of the fields with GMRT at 150 MHz will help to detect/discover high redshift radio sources. Our analysis shows that ˜ 8% of the sources detected at 150 MHz have very steep spectra with the spectral index exceeding 1.25 (S_? ? ?-?).

Ishwara-Chandra, C. H.; Marathe, R.

2007-12-01

139

The NIKA 2013-2014 observation campaigns: control of systematic effects and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New IRAM KID Array (NIKA) is a dual-band camera operating with frequency multiplexed arrays of Lumped Element Kinetic Inductance Detectors (LEKIDs) cooled to 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the intensity and polarisation of the sky at 1.25 and 2.14 mm from the IRAM 30 m telescope. We present the improvements on the control of systematic effects and astrophysical results made during the last observation campaigns between 2012 and 2014.

Catalano, A.; Adam, R.; Adane, A.; Ade, P.; André, P.; Beelen, A.; Belier, B.; Benoît, A.; Bideaud, A.; Billot, N.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Calvo, M.; Coiffard, G.; Comis, B.; D'Addabbo, A.; Désert, F.-X.; Doyle, S.; Goupy, J.; Kramer, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macías-Pérez, J.-F.; Martino, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Mayet, F.; Monfardini, A.; Pajot, F.; Pascale, E.; Perotto, L.; Pointecouteau, E.; Ponthieu, N.; Revéret, V.; Ritacco, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Savini, G.; Schuster, K.; Sievers, A.; Tucker, C.; Zylka, R.

2014-07-01

140

Observe an animation showing how geysers erupt  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation uses a cross section to explain geyser eruption. As groundwater enters fractured bedrock, it is heated by nearby magma but is prevented from boiling by the pressure of overlying water. Eventually, the water becomes superheated and is forced upward, pushing water to the surface. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points.

Dave McFarland

141

Preliminary results of an observational campaign aiming at the study of the binary system LSS3074  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present preliminary results of an observational campaign aiming at the study of the binary system LSS3074. A new lightcurve clearly indicates that the system is in contact. Recent spectroscopy broadly confirms the previous results and the rather low masses of both components (O4f+ and O6-7:(f):). We further analyse an XMM-Newton observation of the object that indicates a rather hard X-ray spectrum. This is partly due to the high interstellar extinction towards the object but also to the high plasma temperature (kT ˜ 1.2-1.3 keV).

Gosset, E.; Rauw, G.; Manfroid, J.; Antokhina, E.; Stevens, I. R.; Sana, H.

2005-11-01

142

Results of the new reduction of positional observations of the asteroid Ceres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of a new reduction of positional observations of the asteroid Ceres are presented. The observational material was obtained in the State Astronomical Institute using the wide-angle astrograph AFR-1. The interval of photographic observations is 30 years, from August 1956 to May 1986. Measurements of the relative coordinates of stars and the asteroid were submitted electronically. A new model of reduction and a modern catalogue of stellar positions, the reference catalogue Tycho, were used in the calculations. Right ascension and declination of the asteroid at the time of observations were obtained from the International Celestial Reference Frame. The estimate of the mean square error of one measurement is 0.25?.

Kuimov, K. V.; Romanova, G. V.; Solov'eva, O. D.; Chazov, V. V.

2014-07-01

143

A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally

1991-01-01

144

TV Observations of Meteors in INASAN: Equipment, Methods and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the analysis the risk from particles of meteor streams, we must have proved information about masses and densities of meteors. The prime task is to select minor streams from sporadic meteors. Very few astronomers tried to do it, when others only mark observed meteor “Sporadic” without registering its track. So very few previous observations cannot be used for streams detection, and we had to do it from special observations. As a width of meteoroid stream may be very narrow, the Earth will cross it in few hours and it is necessary to observe meteor events 24 hour a day. This is why we provide meteor monitoring and catch every ray of light in night skies and ask other observers to join our program. The current goal of our investigation is continuous monitoring of meteor events by two ways: from nearby sites (about 20-60 km distance) for triangle observations and simultaneously from some observation sites separated by approximately thousand kilometers for detection of minor streams. The last one will reveal spatial heterogeneity's of strong meteor showers also. Since July 2002 at the Arkhyz Space Tracking Station (North Caucasus) and near Moscow hybrid TV-cameras with CCD (“PatrolCa”) are used for meteor observations. Limiting magnitude of the first camera is about +5 magn in the 52-degrees field under frame rate 25 f/sec, the second camera has limiting magnitude 11,5m in field 18x22 degrees with rate 7,5 f/sec. Since June 2006 four extra PatrolCa begin stereo (basis) TV-observation near Moscow with the aims of determination of individual orbits of observed meteors and their physical densities. Observed by meteor monitoring data show that at least 40% of sporadic meteors may be referred to catalogued weak meteor streams. In this paper we present the method of definition of celestial coordinates of objects in the single frame of the wide-angle system. The method allows definition of celestial coordinates of a meteor at the restrictions of absents of enough stars in the frame during the observations, for example at partially cloudy weather, or when there are few stars in the frame, or at large distortions of a coordinate grid in the frame. These restrictions can forbid direct using of other methods. We objectively registered 38 meteors with wide-angle camera “PatrolCA” during 9 nights from 2002 to 2007 years and 2000 meteors with highly sensitive camera FAVOR during 1000 nights at the same period. The work is supplied by RFBI grants 06-02-08313 and 06-02-16365.

Kartashova, Anna P.; Bagrov, A. V.; Leonov, V. A.

2007-08-01

145

Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

Bertera, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

146

Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs.

Young, G.R.

1990-06-01

147

Early results on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by Rosetta/OSIRIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) is the target comet of the ESA Rosetta mission. Launched in 2004, the Rosetta spacecraft woke up on the 20th of January 2014. After 36 months of deep space hibernation, Rosetta is now traveling to rendezvous with the comet at 4.1 au from the Sun, and it will follow 67P along its orbit, investigating how the comet changes and evolves while approaching the Sun. The Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System OSIRIS (Keller et al., 2007) is the scientific imaging system onboard Rosetta. It comprises the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) with wavelength range 250--1000 nm and the Wide Angle Camera (WAC) with wavelength range 240--720 nm. The NAC (FOV = 2.20×2.22 deg) is a system with high spatial resolution that allows an initial detection of the nucleus, studies its structure and rotation from relatively great distances, investigates the mineralogy of the surface, and studies the dust ejection processes. The WAC has much lower spatial resolution but, accordingly, a much wider field of view (about 11.35×12.11 deg). This allows observations of the 3-dimensional flow field of dust and gas near the nucleus and, in addition, provides a synoptic view of the whole nucleus. In summary, the WAC would provide long-term monitoring of the entire nucleus from close distances, while the NAC studies the details. The two camera units have been designed as a complementary pair, which, on one hand, addresses the study of the nucleus surface, and on the other hand, investigates the dynamics of the sublimation process. After commissioning in March 2014, OSIRIS took first images of comet 67P and its dust environment. Ground-based observations performed in 2007/08 when 67P was in the same orbital arc as it will be in March/April 2014, show that the comet was already active at 4.3 au inbound and that its behavior was repetitive during the last three apparitions (Snodgrass et al. 2013). We therefore expect to detect early comet activity by OSIRIS in March/April 2014. At this time, Rosetta will be at about 4 million kilometers from the comet and 67P will still be unresolved. We present results about the early cometary activity based on OSIRIS images. Orange-filter images (central wavelength 649.2 nm) will be used to determine the dust environment of 67P, since this wavelength range is quite free from gas emission lines. Moreover, a series of lightcurves will be taken to compare with the existing ones and look for possible changes in the rotational period due to its last perihelion passage.

Sierks, H.; Tubiana, C.; Snodgrass, C.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.; Küppers, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P.; Rickman, H.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Hviid, S.; Mottola, S.; Osiris Team

2014-07-01

148

Molecular Oxygen Ions Within Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere as Observed by Cassini: Initial Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present initial results of our analysis of molecular oxygen ions within Saturn's inner magnetosphere as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) experiment. As reported in Young et al. (2005) the O2+ is a minor species in the magnetosphere, but is dominant over the main rings (Tokar et al., 2005). This analysis, confined outside Mimas' L shell, will

E. C. Sittler; R. E. Johnson; H. T. Smith; R. Baragiola; M. F. Francis; D. Chornay; M. D. Shappirio; D. G. Simpson; D. Reisenfeld; M. F. Thomsen; R. L. Tokar; F. Crary; D. J. McComas; D. T. Young

2005-01-01

149

Results of Instrument Observations and Adaptive Prediction of Thermoabrasion of Banks of the Vilyui Reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Quantitative data derived from observations of reformation of the thermoabrasive banks of the Viliyui Reservoir in Yakutia during the service period from 1972 through 2011, and results of analytical prediction of bank formations over the next 20 years for purposes of monitoring the ecological safety of this water body are presented.

Velikin, S. A. [Vilyuisk Permafrost Scientific-Research Station, Institute of Permafrost Science, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)] [Vilyuisk Permafrost Scientific-Research Station, Institute of Permafrost Science, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Sobol', I. S.; Sobol', S. V.; Khokhlov, D. N. [Nizhnii Novgorod State Architectural and Civil-Engineering University (Russian Federation)] [Nizhnii Novgorod State Architectural and Civil-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

2013-11-15

150

Mainbelt Asteroids: Results of Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Observations of 37 Objects During 1980-1995  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report detailed results of Arecibo and Goldstone radar observations of 30 mainbelt asteroids (MBAs) during 1980-1997. In addition to estimates of radar cross section, radar albedo, and circular polarization ratio, we obtain new pole constraints for several asteroids, with those for 21 Lutetia being particularly restrictive.

Magri, C.; Ostro, S. J.; Rosema, K. D.; Thomas, M. L.; Mitchell, D. L.; Campbell, D. B.; Chandler, J. F.; Shapiro, I. I.; Giorgini, J. D.; Yeomans, D. K.

1998-01-01

151

New Theoretical Results on Channelized Hotelling Observer Performance Estimation with Known Difference of Class Means  

PubMed Central

Task-based assessments of image quality constitute a rigorous, principled approach to the evaluation of imaging system performance. To conduct such assessments, it has been recognized that mathematical model observers are very useful, particularly for purposes of imaging system development and optimization. One type of model observer that has been widely applied in the medical imaging community is the channelized Hotelling observer (CHO). Since estimates of CHO performance typically include statistical variability, it is important to control and limit this variability to maximize the statistical power of image-quality studies. In a previous paper, we demonstrated that by including prior knowledge of the image class means, a large decrease in the bias and variance of CHO performance estimates can be realized. The purpose of the present work is to present refinements and extensions of the estimation theory given in our previous paper, which was limited to point estimation with equal numbers of images from each class. Specifically, we present and characterize minimum-variance unbiased point estimators for observer signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that allow for unequal numbers of lesion-absent and lesion-present images. Building on this SNR point estimation theory, we then show that confidence intervals with exactly-known coverage probabilities can be constructed for commonly-used CHO performance measures. Moreover, we propose simple, approximate confidence intervals for CHO performance, and we show that they are well-behaved in most scenarios of interest. PMID:24436497

Wunderlich, Adam; Noo, Frédéric

2012-01-01

152

First results from the BARREL 2013 campaign; Observations of precipitation on drift echo timescales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughout the BARREL 2013 campaign and during previous balloon missions, electron precipitation has been observed to occur on many different time scales, from millisecond microbursts to minute-long ULF time scales to tens of minutes. These longer period oscillations have not been previously examined in detail because satellite data were unavailable to identify the nature of the longer period oscillations. In this study we will present BARREL observations of precipitation along with observations of drift echoes in electron data from the MagEIS instrument on the Van Allen Probes. One example occurred on January 26, 2013 where precipitation showed an approximate 20 -minute modulation and drift echoes were observed at similar timescales in the approximately 230-350 keV electrons by MagEIS. The precipitation also shows temporal structure at faster timescales including approximately 90-second ULF modulation and millisecond microbursts. This suggest that the drift echoes may determine when there are particles available to be precipitated by some other mechanism such as scattering by VLF waves.

Halford, A.; Millan, R. M.; Fennell, J. F.; Claudepierre, S. G.

2013-12-01

153

Speckle interferometry of magnetic stars with the BTA. II. Results of 2010-2012 observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of speckle interferometric observations of 156 stars possessing global magnetic fields, carried out with the 6-m BTA telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory. Virtually all stars were observed between 2010 and 2012. Thirty-four stars were resolved into individual components (31 double and 3 triple), of which 14 binary systems (BD+41?43, HD2887, HD30466, HD36540, HD36955, HD37479, HD61045, HD89069, HD144334, HD164258, HD349321, HD343872, HD184471, HD196691) and 2 triple systems (HD37140, HD338226) were for the first time resolved by the astrometric method.

Rastegaev, D. A.; Balega, Yu. Yu.; Dyachenko, V. V.; Maksimov, A. F.; Malogolovets, E. V.

2014-07-01

154

Continued Volatile Transport on Pluto: First Results from the 2014 Observing Season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With its high eccentricity and obliquity, Pluto should exhibit seasonal volatile transport on its surface. This transport should be detectable through changes in its historical rotational light curve, once all variations due to viewing geometry have been modelled. Observations of Pluto’s light curve between 1950 and 1999 suggest a stable albedo pattern. Starting in the early part of this millennium, both new Hubble Space Telescope maps and light curve measurements obtained at JPL’s Table Mountain Observatory show evidence of small changes in Pluto’s distribution of surface albedo (Hicks et al. 2008, B.A.A.S. 40, 460.; Buie et al., 2010, Astron. J. 139, 1128). Supporting possible surface volatile transport is the doubling of Pluto’s atmospheric pressure over the past two decades (Young et al., 2013, Ap. J. 766, L22). With the New Horizons spacecraft due to encounter Pluto in July 2015, close scrutiny of this dwarf ice planet has begun in earnest. Ground-based observations are especially critical for context and for a larger temporal excursion. Rotational light curves of Pluto have been created in two recent epochs: 2007-2008, and 2012-2014. Both light curves show a smaller amplitude than that expected for a static frost model based on albedo maps from the earliest HST images (Stern et al. 1997, Astron. J. 113, 827). Observations of both Buie et al. (2010) and our own between 2007 and 2014 show that Pluto is becoming redder. This observation makes sense if nitrogen frost is being removed from the surface to uncover a red, photolyzed substrate of methane. Funded by NASA.

Buratti, Bonnie J.; Hicks, Michael D.; Dalba, Paul A.; Chu, Devin S.; O'Neill, Ariel; Hillier, John K.; Banholzer, Sophianna

2014-11-01

155

Map Showing Earthquake Shaking and Tsunami Hazard in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as a Result of an M8.0 Earthquake on the Lesser Antilles Megathrust  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Earthquake shaking (onland) and tsunami (ocean) hazard in Guadeloupe and Dominica, as a result of anM8.0 earthquake on the Lesser Antilles megathrust adjacent to Guadeloupe. Colors onland represent scenario earthquake shaking intensities calculated in USGS ShakeMap software (Wald et al. 20...

156

timid, or easily manipulated. This is not compassion. A marine drill ser-geant may be demanding and results-driven, but can show compassion  

E-print Network

this case, termination) while an employee is in a treatment facility or after discharge from treat- ment? I drug/alcohol-related crisis resulted or someone got killed? not rely upon the opinion of your employee enabling a friend or coworker with a severe personal problem requires making choices that may create

Kim, Duck O.

157

First results from ARTEMIS lunar wake crossing: observations and hybrid simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and its conductivity is not sufficient to facilitate the development of an induced magnetosphere. The interaction of the Moon with the unperturbed solar wind (SW) is, hence, dominated by the absorption of SW particles on its surface and the consequent generation of a lunar wake on the night side. The SW magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon; the pressure imbalance in lunar wake, however, accounts for a slight increase in magnetic pressure in the lunar wake center. The wake is slowly filled up with SW particles due to their thermal motion, which generates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction wave propagating away from the wake in the SW frame of reference. Over the last 3 years the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) mission provided excellent data helping the scientific community in drawing a detailed picture of the physical processes associated with the development of substorms in the terrestrial magnetotail. Two of the five THEMIS spacecraft are currently being sent into stationary orbits around the Moon in a follow-up mission called Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS). The ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft (formerly THEMIS-B) has recently passed through the lunar wake in a flyby maneuver on February 13, 2010. We show first results of two hybrid code simulations with static and, for the first time, dynamically changing SW input. Adapted SW monitor data of the NASA OMNI database is used as input for the simulations. During the wake crossing the spin stabilized spacecraft P1 was in lunar shadow and, hence, its spin period cannot be determined from sun sensor data. Therefore, an eclipse-spin model is applied to bridge the gap of missing spin period data in order to recover vector measurements. A comparison of the simulation results with correctly despun magnetic field and particle measurements of ARTEMIS P1 allows for a separation of static lunar wake and, due to SW variations, transient features in the observations.

Plaschke, F.; Wiehle, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Georgescu, E.; Glassmeier, K.; Motschmann, U. M.; Sibeck, D. G.

2010-12-01

158

PHOTOMETRY OF VARIABLE STARS FROM DOME A, ANTARCTICA: RESULTS FROM THE 2010 OBSERVING SEASON  

SciTech Connect

We present results from a season of observations with the Chinese Small Telescope ARray, obtained over 183 days of the 2010 Antarctic winter. We carried out high-cadence time-series aperture photometry of 9125 stars with i ?< 15.3 mag located in a 23 deg{sup 2} region centered on the south celestial pole. We identified 188 variable stars, including 67 new objects relative to our 2008 observations, thanks to broader synoptic coverage, a deeper magnitude limit, and a larger field of view. We used the photometric data set to derive site statistics from Dome A. Based on two years of observations, we find that extinction due to clouds at this site is less than 0.1 and 0.4 mag during 45% and 75% of the dark time, respectively.

Wang, Lingzhi; Zhu, Zonghong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Macri, Lucas M.; Wang, Lifan [Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Ashley, Michael C. B.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Luong-Van, Daniel; Storey, John W. V. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Cui, Xiangqun; Feng, Long-Long; Gong, Xuefei; Liu, Qiang; Shang, Zhaohui; Yang, Huigen; Yang, Ji; Yuan, Xiangyan; Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Zhenxi [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Nanjing 210008 (China); Pennypacker, Carl R. [Center for Astrophysics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: wanglingzhi@bao.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

2013-12-01

159

Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray blazars: results from millimeter-VLBI observations.  

PubMed

VLBI observations of the extremely gamma-bright blazar PKS 0528+134 at 8, 22, 43, and 86 GHz reveal a strongly bent one-sided-core jet structure with at least three moving and two apparently stationary jet components. At the highest observing frequencies the brightest and most compact jet component (the VLBI core) is unresolved with an upper limit to its size of approximately 50 microarcsec corresponding to approximately 0.2 parsec [H0 = 100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 (megaparsec-1), q0 = 0.5, where H0 is Hubble constant and q0 is the deceleration parameter]. Two 86-GHz VLBI observations performed in 1993.3 and 1994.0 reveal a new jet component emerging with superluminal speed from the core. Linear back-extrapolation of its motion yields strong evidence that the ejection of this component is related to an outburst in the millimeter regime and a preceding intense flare of the gamma-flux density observed in early 1993. This and the radio/optical "light curves" and VLBI data for two other sources (S5 0836+710 and 3C 454.3) suggest that the observed gamma-radiation might be Doppler-boosted and perhaps is closely related to the physical processes acting near the "base" of the highly relativistic jets observed in quasars. PMID:11607602

Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Standke, K J; Witzel, A; Schalinski, C J; Zensus, J A

1995-12-01

160

A Cluster Analysis Approach to Comparing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Observations with General Circulation Model (GCM) Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued validation of General Circulation Models (GCMs) is essential for their improvement, and pin-pointing their biases and systematic deviations might be of service to climate modelers. The availability of abundant multi-variate atmospheric data from the Dept. of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites allows for comparison of atmospheric column observations to GCM simulations at high temporal resolutions at those locations. This study focuses on using a multi-variate cluster analysis approach to compare ARM observations of tropospheric vertical temperature, humidity, wind speed profiles, and surface pressure at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site with corresponding output from an integration of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) for the same location, highlighting observed discrepancies in the GCM results. Cluster analysis is a technique for classifying multi-variate data into distinct regimes based on Euclidean distance in phase space. A parallel clustering algorithm, designed for analyzing very large datasets, was applied to developing various atmospheric column regimes at the SGP site from the observations and, separately, from the CCSM model results. A comparison of the atmospheric regimes derived from the observations against the CCSM output proves to be useful in distinguishing their individual nature and identifying singular behavior. Some atmospheric regimes are found to be poorly represented in the CCSM. For example, while ARM SGP observations show hot humid lower tropospheric conditions are usually associated with low shear conditions, such conditions in CCSM output are associated with stronger shear. Low shear conditions in CCSM usually occur in a hot, moderately humid lower troposphere. These distinct regimes in CCSM, as compared to ARM observations, suggest misrepresentation of atmospheric states in CCSM over the SGP site, which could have ramifications on the formation of clouds in CCSM simulations, affecting the local radiation budget. In addition, the multi-variance of CCSM is lower than that of ARM observations suggesting that estimates of extremes based on GCM simulations are probably conservative.

Mahajan, S.; Hoffman, F. M.; Hargrove, W. W.; Christensen, S. W.; Mills, R. T.

2007-12-01

161

The topical problems of identifying the results of the observations in recent geodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper addresses the problems of identifying the results of deformational observations on the Earth, which arise from the new measurement technologies and lead to the ambiguity relationships such as the "spatial size of the anomaly—density of the observation sites" and the "duration of the anomalies—degree of temporal detail of the measurements." It is found that many "paradoxical" conclusions concerning the rates and scales of the recent geodynamical processes are removed if the parameters of the measurement system match the properties of the studied object and if the relative character of the observational means is taken into account. It is shown that the time variation in the uniaxial deviatoric stress leads to the variation in the volumetric strain and, consequently, to the variation in gravity. The ambiguity in determining the ground displacement vectors by SAR interferometry is demonstrated. It is concluded that the autonomous use of the interferometry data leads to the significant distortions of the results, and these data should be necessarily used in combination with the ground-based geodetic observations.

Kuzmin, Yu. O.

2014-09-01

162

Comparisons of Observations with Results from 3D Simulations and Implications for Predictions of Ozone Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although chemistry and transport models (CTMs) include the same basic elements (photo- chemical mechanism and solver, photolysis scheme, meteorological fields, numerical transport scheme), they produce different results for the future recovery of stratospheric ozone as chlorofluorcarbons decrease. Three simulations will be contrasted: the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM driven by a single year\\'s winds from a general circulation model; the GMI CTM driven by a single year\\'s winds from a data assimilation system; the NASA GSFC CTM driven by a winds from a multi-year GCM simulation. CTM results for ozone and other constituents will be compared with each other and with observations from ground-based and satellite platforms to address the following: Does the simulated ozone tendency and its latitude, altitude and seasonal dependence match that derived from observations? Does the balance from analysis of observations? Does the balance among photochemical processes match that expected from observations? Can the differences in prediction for ozone recovery be anticipated from these comparisons?

Douglass, Anne R.; Stolarski, Richard S.; Strahan, Susan E.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Polarsky, Brian C.

2004-01-01

163

[Medical teaching and humanistic-communicative aspects: two step-children of quality evaluation. An example of a compact teaching experiment with integrated final examination shows better results].  

PubMed

Evaluation of teaching regarding the humanitarian communicative aspect can not take place without controls. However, isolated controls without other evaluative measures are irrational instruments. This specially holds true for final exams. It seems important to use methods of evaluation which at the same time improve the quality and do not in the negative sense (like a final exam) knock out and disqualify (Tab. 2). We can give some examples out of daily routine which--alas--are very wide reaching. The humanitarian communicative factor, which is an integrative part of medicine very badly is strongly disregarded in favour of educating towards a mechanistic apparatschikway, namely in medical education, carrier, supervision of hospitals. We need strong good will for reformation! We do not only raise postulates here but can show an example of a teaching experiment, where students were put in small groups for intensive teaching with an integrated final exam. This was possible without more costs, but with more human engagement on the side of the teachers. PMID:9487616

Barolin, G S

1997-01-01

164

MAX-DOAS observations of trace gases over Mainz: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we report on levels of trace gases in ambient atmosphere in Mainz, Germany. We measured the differential Slant Column Density (dSCD) of NO2, HCHO and O4 in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument. The MAX-DOAS observations were taken at Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, from January to March 2014, at different elevation angles. The main aim of the study is to compare the results of the Mini-MAX-DOAS instrument with those from a 'scientific' MAX-DOAS instrument operated simultaneously at the same location. We quantify systematic differences and random and errors of both data sets for different measurement conditions. The preliminary results of this MAX DOAS observations and the diurnal variation of the retrieved trace gas DSCDs will be discussed in this work.

Alberti, Carlos; Gu, Myojeong; Remmers, Julia; Wagner, Thomas

2014-05-01

165

Results of Observational Studies: Analysis of Findings from the Nurses’ Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background The role of observational studies in informing clinical practice is debated, and high profile examples of discrepancies between the results of observational studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have intensified that debate. We systematically reviewed findings from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), one of the longest and largest observational studies, to assess the number and strength of the associations reported and to determine if they have been confirmed in RCTs. Methods We reviewed NHS publication abstracts from 1978–2012, extracted information on associations tested, and graded the strength of the reported effect sizes. We searched PubMed for RCTs or systematic reviews for 3 health outcomes commonly reported in NHS publications: breast cancer, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and osteoporosis. NHS results were compared with RCT results and deemed concordant when the difference in effect sizes between studies was ?0.15. Findings 2007 associations between health outcomes and independent variables were reported in 1053 abstracts. 58.0% (1165/2007) were statistically significant, and 22.2% (445/2007) were neutral (no association). Among the statistically significant results that reported a numeric odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR), 70.5% (706/1002) reported a weak association (OR/RR 0.5–2.0), 24.5% (246/1002) a moderate association (OR/RR 0.25–0.5 or 2.0–4.0) and 5.0% (50/1002) a strong association (OR/RR ?0.25 or ?4.0). 19 associations reported in NHS publications for breast cancer, IHD and osteoporosis have been tested in RCTs, and the concordance between NHS and RCT results was low (?25%). Conclusions NHS publications contain a large number of analyses, the majority of which reported statistically significant but weak associations. Few of these associations have been tested in RCTs, and where they have, the agreement between NHS results and RCTs is poor. PMID:25330007

Tai, Vicky; Grey, Andrew; Bolland, Mark J.

2014-01-01

166

New results show that the long term stability of Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) on the CMB has lasted for at least 540 My  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have shown previously that ca. 15 active volcanic hot spots with parent ages as old as 134 Ma and ca. 25 Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) with ages as old as ca. 300 Ma the (the latter rotated using a hybrid method to their locations at the times of their eruptions) lie vertically above narrow Plume Generation Zones (PGZs) on the Core/Mantle Boundary (CMB) at the margins of the Earth’s two LLSVPS. We infer that those PGZs and therefore the LLSVPs themselves have remained in their present locations, antipodal on the equator, for at least 300 My. We have now found that 80% of the eruption sites of a rotated population of ca. 1400 kimberlitic volcanic rocks with ages of < 320 My were similarly erupted above the same PGZs. A bootstrap operation (i) assuming that PGZ stability extended back to ca. 500 Ma and (ii) rotating two LIPs of ages 360 Ma and 510 Ma so that their eruption sites overlay PGZs enabled us to describe the locations of ancient continents in longitude. The strength of the idea that LLSVP stability extended back to ca. 500 Ma was then tested by rotating ca. 200 kimberlitic volcanic rock localities of known ages between 344 and 542 Ma and known present locations within the continents. Because those older kimberlites also lay over PGZs we consider that the long term stability of the two LLSVPs has been confirmed for the entire Phanerozoic. Models of mantle structure with stable LLSVPs will surely help in showing how the deep Earth behaves.

Burke, K. C.; Torsvik, T. H.

2010-12-01

167

Preliminary results of the Pioneer Venus nephelometer experiment. [Venus clouds observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results of the nephelometer experiments conducted aboard the large sounder, day, north, and night probes of the Pioneer Venus mission are presented. The vertical structures of the Venus clouds observed simultaneously at each of the four locations from altitudes of from 63 kilometers to the surface are compared, and similarities and differences are noted. Tentative results from attempting to use the data from the nephelometer and cloud particle size spectrometer on the sounder probe to identify the indices of refraction of cloud particles in various regions of the Venus clouds are reported. Finally the nephelometer readings for the day probe during impact on the surface of Venus are presented.

Ragent, B.; Blamont, J.

1979-01-01

168

Validation of first chemistry mode retrieval results from new limb-imaging FTS GLORIA with correlative MIPAS-STR observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report first chemistry mode retrieval results from the new airborne limb-imaging infrared FTS (Fourier transform spectrometer) GLORIA and comparisons with observations by the conventional airborne limb-scanning infrared FTS MIPAS-STR. For GLORIA, the flights aboard the high-altitude research aircraft M55 Geophysica during the ESSenCe campaign (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) were the very first in field deployment after several years of development. The simultaneous observations of GLORIA and MIPAS-STR during the flight on 16 December 2011 inside the polar vortex and under the conditions of optically partially transparent polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) provided us the unique opportunity to compare the observations by two different infrared FTS generations directly. The retrieval results of temperature, HNO3, O3, H2O, CFC-11 and CFC-12 show reasonable agreement of GLORIA with MIPAS-STR and collocated in-situ observations. For the horizontally binned hyperspectral limb-images, the GLORIA sampling outnumbered the horizontal cross-track sampling of MIPAS-STR by up to one order of magnitude. Depending on the target parameter, typical vertical resolutions of 0.5 to 2.0 km were obtained for GLORIA and are typically by factors of 2 to 4 better compared to MIPAS-STR. While the improvement of the performance, characterisation and data processing of GLORIA are subject of ongoing work, the presented first results already demonstrate the considerable gain in sampling and vertical resolution achieved with GLORIA.

Woiwode, W.; Suminska-Ebersoldt, O.; Oelhaf, H.; Höpfner, M.; Belyaev, G. V.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Grooß, J.-U.; Gulde, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Kleinert, A.; Krämer, M.; Kretschmer, E.; Kulessa, T.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Piesch, C.; Preusse, P.; Riese, M.; Rongen, H.; Sartorius, C.; Schardt, G.; Schönfeld, A.; Schuettemeyer, D.; Sha, M. K.; Stroh, F.; Ungermann, J.; Volk, C. M.; Orphal, J.

2014-12-01

169

A second generation cervico-vaginal lavage device shows similar performance as its preceding version with respect to DNA yield and HPV DNA results  

PubMed Central

Background Attendance rates of cervical screening programs can be increased by offering HPV self-sampling to non-attendees. Acceptability, DNA yield, lavage volumes and choice of hrHPV test can influence effectiveness of the self-sampling procedures and could therefore play a role in recruiting non-attendees. To increase user-friendliness, a frequently used lavage sampler was modified. In this study, we compared this second generation lavage device with the first generation device within similar birth cohorts. Methods Within a large self-sampling cohort-study among non-responders of the Dutch cervical screening program, a subset of 2,644 women received a second generation self-sampling lavage device, while 11,977 women, matched for age and ZIP-code, received the first generation model. The second generation device was different in shape, color, lavage volume, and packaging, in comparison to its first generation model. The Cochran’s test was used to compare both devices for hrHPV positivity rate and response rate. To correct for possible heterogeneity between age and ZIP codes in both groups the Breslow-Day test of homogeneity was used. A T-test was utilized to compare DNA yields of the obtained material in both groups. Results Median DNA yields were 90.4 ?g/ml (95% CI 83.2-97.5) and 91.1 ?g/ml (95% CI 77.8-104.4, p= 0.726) and hrHPV positivity rates were 8.2% and 6.9% (p= 0.419) per sample self-collected by the second - and the first generation of the device (p= 0.726), respectively. In addition, response rates were comparable for the two models (35.4% versus 34.4%, p= 0.654). Conclusions Replacing the first generation self-sampling device by an ergonomically improved, second generation device resulted in equal DNA yields, comparable hrHPV positivity rates and similar response rates. Therefore, it can be concluded that the clinical performance of the first and second generation models are similar. Moreover, participation of non-attendees in cervical cancer screening is probably not predominantly determined by the type of self-collection device. PMID:23639287

2013-01-01

170

Barriers towards insulin therapy in type 2 diabetic patients: results of an observational longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background The course of barriers towards insulin therapy was analysed in three different groups of type 2 diabetic patients. This observational longitudinal study surveyed a three-month follow-up. Methods Participants in this study totalled 130 type 2 diabetic patients. The first subgroup was on insulin therapy at baseline (group 1: n = 57, age 55.6 ± 8.7 yrs, disease duration 12.7 ± 7.2 yrs, HbA1c 8.5 ± 1.6%) and remained on insulin at follow-up. Of an initial 73 insulin-naïve patients, 44 were switched to insulin therapy (group 2: age 58.1 ± 6.8 yrs, disease duration 7.7 ± 5.0 yrs, HbA1c 9.1 ± 1.7%) and 29 patients remained on an oral regimen (group 3: age 52.7 ± 10.7 yrs, disease duration 5.3 ± 4.6 yrs, HbA1c 8.3 ± 1.4%). Barriers towards insulin therapy were measured using the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS). As generic instruments of health related quality of life patients completed also the Problem Areas of Diabetes Questionnaire (PAID), the WHO-5 Well-Being Scale (WHO-5), the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Trait Version of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at baseline and at three-month follow-up. Results At the three-month follow-up, HbA1c had improved in all three groups (7.7 ± 1.2% vs. 7.1 ± 1.1% vs. 6.7 ± 0.8%). The course of negative appraisal of insulin therapy was significantly different in the three groups (p > .003): the ITAS score increased in patients remained on oral antidiabetic drugs (51.2 ± 12.2 to 53.6 ± 12.3), whereas it decreased in patients switched to insulin therapy (49.2 ± 9.8 to 46.2 ± 9.9) or remained on insulin treatment (45.8 ± 8.3 to 44.5 ± 8.0). Diabetes-related distress, trait anxiety, and well-being, showed a similar course in all three groups. The depression score improved significantly in patients switched to insulin treatment compared with patients remaining on insulin therapy. Conclusions In summary, this study suggests that a negative appraisal of insulin treatment is modifiable by the initiation of insulin therapy. This finding indicates that barriers to insulin are a rather temporary than a stable phenomenon. PMID:20920319

2010-01-01

171

Short period sea level oscillations at Strait of Gibraltar: Observations versus model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tide gauge records from different ports of the Strait of Gibraltar area show events of short period oscillations (minutes to tens of minutes) that persist for several days although its charactestic duration is of the order of a day. These events are observed throughout the year although, when characterized by variables that account for their amplitude and duration simultaneously, they are biased toward summer months. The frequencies of these oscillations, which accumulate energy within bands centered at 7.5, 12, 19, 25 min -1, are characteristic of each port, with Tarifa showing a more selective tuning than Ceuta or Algeciras. The numerical model developed to investigate these oscillations confirms that they correspond to harbor resonance excited at the mouth of the port by oscillations in the Strait.

Delgado, J.; García-Lafuente, J.; Bruque-Pozas, E.; Naranjo, C.

2011-12-01

172

The LXD-mode Main-Belt/NEO Observing Program (LMNOP): Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral region beyond 2.5 ? m is rich with spectral features due to OH, water, and organic materials. For many low-albedo objects, it hosts the only detectable absorption bands. For this reason, astronomical observations of asteroids at these wavelengths are critical to understanding their nature, even though such observations can be difficult due to the Earth's atmosphere [1]. Since 2002, we have been obtaining data in the 2--4 ? m region using the SpeX instrument on the IRTF in ''LXD mode'' [2]. While not originally designed as a survey, we call the collection of individual projects that we have completed over the years the ''LXD-mode Main- belt/NEO Observing Program'' (LMNOP). At the time of the upgrade of the SpeX instrument earlier in 2014, 390 observations of 210 different asteroids have been observed in the LMNOP. We have focused on C-complex asteroids (53 % of targets), but the survey also includes significant numbers of targets in the X complex (24 %) and S complex (11 %). The SpeX upgrade, with an associated break in observing and a need to change the reduction pipeline for future data, marks a convenient time to mark the end of this phase of the LMNOP. The data collected has already been used to determine the surface compositional variation on Ceres [3-4], Lutetia [5], and Vesta [6], and to discover water ice frost on the surface of Themis [7]. Analysis is now moving forward into studies of compositional variation on Pallas and Hygiea, among other objects. The data is also being analyzed to study the links between the Ch-class asteroids and the CM meteorites, and to calculate the amount of water/OH implied by the asteroid spectra. We will present results from the LMNOP dataset, including in-depth studies of individual objects, interpretations of taxonomic groups, and the beginnings of a taxonomic system in the 3-? m range itself.

Rivkin, A.; Howell, E.; Emery, J.

2014-07-01

173

Value of Fused 18F-Choline-PET/MRI to Evaluate Prostate Cancer Relapse in Patients Showing Biochemical Recurrence after EBRT: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We compared the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI with that of multiparametric MRI (mMRI), 18F-Choline-PET/CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and contrast-enhanced CT (CeCT) in detecting relapse in patients with suspected relapse of prostate cancer (PC) after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). We assessed the association between standard uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Methods. We evaluated 21 patients with biochemical relapse after EBRT. Patients underwent 18F-Choline-PET/contrast-enhanced (Ce)CT, 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT, and mMRI. Imaging coregistration of PET and mMRI was performed. Results. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI was positive in 18/21 patients, with a detection rate (DR) of 86%. DRs of 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI were 76%, 43%, and 81%, respectively. In terms of DR the only significant difference was between 18F-Choline-PET/MRI and CeCT. On lesion-based analysis, the accuracy of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI, 18F-Choline-PET/CT, CeCT, and mMRI was 99%, 95%, 70%, and 85%, respectively. Accuracy, sensitivity, and NPV of 18F-Choline-PET/MRI were significantly higher than those of both mMRI and CeCT. On whole-body assessment of bone metastases, the sensitivity of 18F-Choline-PET/CT and 18F-Fluoride-PET/CT was significantly higher than that of CeCT. Regarding local and lymph node relapse, we found a significant inverse correlation between ADC and SUV-max. Conclusion. 18F-Choline-PET/MRI is a promising technique in detecting PC relapse. PMID:24877053

Piccardo, Arnoldo; Paparo, Francesco; Picazzo, Riccardo; Naseri, Mehrdad; Ricci, Paolo; Marziano, Andrea; Bacigalupo, Lorenzo; Biscaldi, Ennio; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Grillo-Ruggieri, Filippo; Farsad, Mohsen

2014-01-01

174

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use. Landsat multispectral images provide views of large areas of the Earth under uniform lighting conditions and can be obtained at a variety of scales and formats. Not only do the Landsat data provide highly useful images showing surficial materials and structures such as folds and faults, but also measurements and computer-derived ratios of the brightness of different rock types, alteration zones, and mineral associations. These data have led to the finding of a variety of new ore deposits. In addition, the combination of Landsat digital data and aeromagnetic data has extended the use of Landsat as an exploration tool which can be used to readily relate surface features to subsurface anomalies. Magsat data, now being collected, are helping refine information on major crustal anomalies that were first recognized during the analysis of POGO data. The more nearly circular orbit, lower altitude, and increased sophistication of its vector magnetometer enable Magsat to provide more precise information than POGO. Information of this type is required to develop crustal models. Although Magsat is designed to operate for only 4-8 months, the number of orbits that it should be able to make will be sufficient to accomplish its mission and to record a major magnetic storm expected in 1980. HCMM is a two-band visible to near-IR (0.55-1.1 ?m) and thermal infrared (10.2-12.5 ?m) system designed to measure reflected solar energy, determine the heat capacity of rocks and to monitor soil moisture, thermal effluents, plant canopy temperatures and snow cover. Launched in April 1978, it is in sun-synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 620 km. It is a relatively low-resolution system with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 500-600 m and a swath width of 716 km. However, the system is designed to detect objects in the range of 260°-340° K with a sensitivity (NE?T) of 0.4°K at 280°. Recording the thermal radiation of urban heat islands and high thermal inertia of quartzite strata in the Appalachian region are two examples of its land applications. Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, W. D.

175

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between the atomic density derived from WMAP and the density inferred from the deuterium abundance is an important test of the standard big bang model. Determination of the acoustic scale at redshift z = 1090. Similarly, the recent measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the galaxy power spectrum (Eisenstein et al. 2005) has determined the acoustic scale at redshift z approx. 0.35. When combined, these standard rulers accurately measure the geometry of the universe and the properties of the dark energy. These data require a nearly flat universe dominated by dark energy consistent with a cosmological constant. Precise determination of the Hubble Constant, in conjunction with BAO observations. Even when allowing curvature (Omega(sub 0) does not equal 1) and a free dark energy equation of state (w does not equal -1), the acoustic data determine the Hubble constant to within 3%. The measured value is in excellent agreement with independent results from the Hubble Key Project (Freedman et al. 2001), providing yet another important consistency test for the standard model. Significant constraint of the basic properties of the primordial fluctuations. The anti-correlation seen in the temperature/polarization (TE) correlation spectrum on 4deg scales implies that the fluctuations are primarily adiabatic and rule out defect models and isocurvature models as the primary source of fluctuations (Peiris et al. 2003).

Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

2008-01-01

176

First Gobal Observations of Groundstate CO2 in the MLT by ACE: Observations and Analysis Using CMAM Model Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first global set of observations of the ground state CO2 in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) obtained by the ACE-FTS instrument on a small Canadian satellite SCISAT-I is presented in this study. The observations use the solar occultation technique and document the fall off in the mixing ratio of CO2 in the MLT region. The beginning of the fall off of the CO2, or "knee" occurs about 78 km and lies higher than in the CRISTA measurements (˜72 km) but lower than in the SABER 1.06 (˜ 82 km) and much lower than in rocket measurements. We also present the measurements of CO obtained concurrently which provide important constraints for analysis. We have compared the ACE measurements with simulations of the CO2 and CO distributions in the vertically extended version of the Canadian Middle Atmosphere model (CMAM). Applying standard chemistry we find that we cannot get agreement between the model and ACE CO2 observations although the CO observations are adequately reproduced. There appears to be about a 10 km offset compared to the observed ACE CO2, with the model knee occurring too high. In analysing the disagreement, we have investigated the variation of several parameters of interest, photolysis rates, formation rate for CO2, and the impact of uncertainty in eddy diffusion, in order to explore parameter space for this problem. Our conclusions are that there must be a loss process for CO2, about 2-4 times faster than photolysis that will sequester the carbon in some form other than CO and we have speculated on the role of meteoritic dust as a possible candidate. In addition, from this study we have highlighted a possible important role for vertical eddy diffusion in 3D models in determining the distribution of candidate species in the mesosphere which requires further study.

Beagley, S. R.; Boone, C. D.; Fomichev, V. I.; Jin, J.; Semeniuk, K.; McConnell, J. C.; Bernath, P. F.

2009-05-01

177

Magnetic reconnection signatures in the solar atmosphere: results from multi-wavelength observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the solar atmosphere magnetic reconnection is invoked as the main mechanism causing very energetic events (1028 - 1032 erg), like flares and coronal mass ejections, as well as other less energetic phenomena, like microflares, X-ray jets and chromospheric surges. In the last decade, thanks to high spatial resolution, multi-wavelength observations carried out by both ground-based telescopes (THEMIS, SST, VTT, DST) and space-born satellites (SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, HINODE), it has been possible to study these phenomena and several signatures of the occurrence of magnetic reconnection have been singled out. In this paper, we describe some results obtained from the analysis of multi-wavelength observations carried out in the last years, with special emphasis on those events that were characterized by plasma outflows from the reconnection site. The events here discussed are relevant to some active regions observed on the Sun, characterized by the interaction of different bundles of magnetic flux tubes, as a consequence of phenomena of emergence of new magnetic flux from the subphotospheric layers and/or of cancellation of magnetic fragments. We report on these phenomena in order to give a contribution to the possibility to find a similarity with jets observed in AGNs.

Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Romano, P.

178

Second-Year Results from the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in April 2012, over 55 lakes in northern Alaska were instrumented as the initial phase of CALON, a project designed to document landscape-scale variability in physical and biogeochemical processes of Arctic lakes developed atop permafrost. The current network has nine observation nodes along two latitudinal transects that extend from the Arctic Ocean south 200 km to the foothills of the Brooks Range. At each node, six representative lakes of differing area and depth were instrumented at different intensity levels, and a suite of instruments were deployed to collect field measurements on lake physiochemistry, lake-surface and terrestrial climatology, and lake bed and permafrost temperature. Each April, sensors measuring water temperature and water depth are deployed through the ice and water samples are collected. Sensors are downloaded from lakes and meteorological stations in August, recording a timeline of lake regimes and events from ice decay to the summertime energy and water balance. In general, lake ice thickness increased with latitude. In 2012, ice on deeper (>2 m) lakes was about 1.4 m thick in the Arctic Foothills and 1.7 m thick near the Arctic Ocean coast. Lake ice thickness was about 20 cm thicker in winter 2013 although winter temperatures were several degrees warmer than the previous year; this is likely due to a thinner snow cover in 2013. Lake ice elevations agree with this general trend, showing higher absolute elevation in April 2013 compared to 2012 for most of the surveyed lakes. Regionally, ice-off occurs 2-4 weeks later on lakes near the coast, although there is significant inter-lake variability related to lake depth. Following ice-off, rapid lake warming occurs and water temperature varies synchronously in response to synoptic weather variations and associated changes in net radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Average mid-summer (July) lake temperatures spanned a relatively wide range in 2012 from 7°C to 18°C, with higher temperatures in small shallow lakes and more southern latitudes. Most lakes are well-mixed and largely isothermal, with short periods of thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods. Over the ice-free season, the majority of the available energy from net radiation goes into evaporation, followed by sensible heat flux and warming of bottom sediments. Thermal bands of MODIS and Landsat imagery were fused using a spatio-temporal cokriging method to generate daily surface temperature estimates at Landsat spatial resolution. The close correspondence between satellite-derived and in situ measured near-surface lake temperature suggests that this approach yields viable results. Biogeochemical and inorganic geochemical constituents measured include dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations (CO2, CH4, and N2O), inorganic N, DON and DOC, alkalinity, chlorophyll-a, major ions, and CDOM. The greatest difference in the dissolved CH4:CO2 ratio in summer was longitudinal, with several lakes in western Alaskan Arctic exhibiting CH4 concentrations hundreds of times more supersaturated than air. Stable isotope analyses of CH4 (?13C and ?2H) show that several of these lakes have natural gas methane sources. Methane concentrations under ice (April) were several thousand times higher than in open-water conditions (August). Data collected during this 4-year project are archived at A-CADIS.

Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Beck, R. A.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Gaglioti, B.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

2013-12-01

179

Latitudinal variation of perturbation electric fields during magnetically disturbed periods - 1986 Sundial observations and model results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

F-region incoherent scatter radar drift observations from Millstone Hill and Jicamarca, h-prime F observations from Huancayo, and high latitude ground-magnetometer measurements taken during the Sundial 1986 campaign are used to study the relationship between plasmaspheric electric field perturbations and high latitude currents during disturbed periods. The observations are in good agreement with numerical results from a Rice Covection Model run that involved a sharp increase in the polar cap potential drop followed by a subsequent decrease. The zonal disturbance electric field pattern is latitude independent, and the corresponding amplitudes change approximately as L exp n (where n is about 1.5). The meridional electric field patterns and amplitudes have larger latitudinal variations. The mid-, low, and equatorial electric fields from the Rice Convection Model are in good agreement with previous results from the semianalytic, Senior-Blanc (1987) model. Also discussed are three physical mechanisms (over-shielding, fossil winds, and magnetic reconfiguration) that contribute to the long lasting (1-2 h) equatorial zonal electric field perturbations associated with a sudden northward turning of the IMF. It is predicted that the penetration of high latitude electric fields to low latitudes should, in general, be closely related to the rate of motion of the shielding layer and the equatorward edge of the diffuse aurora.

Fejer, B. G.; Spiro, R. W.; Wolf, R. A.; Foster, J. C.

1990-01-01

180

Chromospheric heating and metal deficiency in cool giants: Theoretical results versus observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We compute acoustic shock wave-heated chromosphere models for moderately cool giant stars which differ greatly in metallicity. Subsequently, we simulate the emerging Mg II k lines assuming partial redistribution. The initial acoustic energy fluxes and the wave periods are taken from acoustic wave generation calculations based on traditional convection zone models. We find that the Mg II and Ca II core emissions are close to the observed basal flux limits which are common for giants and dwarfs. In addition, we find that the Mg II core emission is independent of the metallicity, in agreement with observations. We argue that these results should be considered as further evidence that the basal flux limits are indeed due to acoustic shock heating. The acoustic heating mechanism seems to be dominant in all nonmagnetic nonpulsating late-type stars.

Cuntz, M.; Rammacher, W.; Ulmschneider, P.

1994-01-01

181

Preliminary Observational Results of Tidal Synchronization in Detached Solar-Type Binary Stars  

E-print Network

We present preliminary observational results on tidal synchronization in detached solar-type binary stars in the open clusters M35 (NGC2168; ~ 150 Myr) and M34 (NGC1039; ~ 250 Myr). M35 and M34 provide populations of close late-type binaries with ages that make them attractive observational tests of models of tidal synchronization during the early main-sequence phase. A combined dataset of stellar rotation periods from time-series photometry and binary orbital periods and eccentricities from time-series spectroscopy enables us to determine the angular rotation velocity of the primary star and the orbital angular velocity at periastron. Comparison of the stellar and orbital angular velocities provides information about the level of synchronization in individual binary stars.

S. Meibom

2004-12-15

182

Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Special Observation Period (SOP1), part of the HyMeX campaign (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean Experiments, 5 September-6 November 2012), was dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in the western Mediterranean, and three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were identified: Liguria-Tuscany, northeastern Italy and central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models, including hydrological models and marine models, allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high-impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen strong collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper an overview of the Italian organization during SOP1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in northeastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems, including the hydrological impacts. The usefulness of having different weather forecast operational chains characterized by different numerical weather prediction models and/or different model set up or initial conditions is finally shown for one of the events (IOP19).

Ferretti, R.; Pichelli, E.; Gentile, S.; Maiello, I.; Cimini, D.; Davolio, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Panegrossi, G.; Baldini, L.; Pasi, F.; Marzano, F. S.; Zinzi, A.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bartolini, G.; Loglisci, N.; Montani, A.; Marsigli, C.; Manzato, A.; Pucillo, A.; Ferrario, M. E.; Colaiuda, V.; Rotunno, R.

2014-05-01

183

Determining Inclinations of Active Galactic Nuclei via their Narrow-line Region Kinematics. I. Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11243, 11611, and 12212.

Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.

2013-11-01

184

Preliminary results of digital zenith camera system in Istanbul for astro-geodetic observations in Turkey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Zenith Camera Systems have been developed since the 2000s. They are equipped with CCD technology, GPS, and electronic inclinometers. Automated control and processing procedures increase the accuracy of vertical deflection measurements up to ×0.2' (2mm/km). After the first studies on Digital Zenith Camera Systems in Aus-tria, Germany and Switzerland, recently some other studies in Poland, Serbia, and Latvia are performed, and all of which are aimed to make improvements in measurement accuracies. Hence, Astro-geodetic measurements remove the restrictions of gravity measurements in mountainous regions and coastlines. From this point of view, with its suitable topography Turkey is an ideal test area for measurements as such. This study introduces the preliminary results of astro-geodetic observations performed in Istanbul, Turkey. Furthermore, it also gives some details about data acquisition, instrumentation and processing technique that focuses on observation principle and new technologies used in modern Geodetic Astronomy. Hence, in the scope of this project Astro-geodetic observations are performed with a new CCD equipped telescope designed as Zenith Camera in Istanbul. The system contains a CCD camera, Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescope, two dual axis tilt sensors, and a geodetic GPS receiver for time measurements and ellipsoidal coordinates of station. The system is operated with a computer control unit for data capturing and system control. In this study the preliminary results of the Digital Zenith Camera System conducted at a test station in Istanbul will be presented. The design of the future observations that will take place along a test profile will also be discussed.

Halicioglu, K.; Deniz, R.; Ozener, H.

2013-12-01

185

More screen operation than calling: The results of observing cyclists' behaviour while using mobile phones.  

PubMed

Operating a mobile telephone while riding a bicycle is fairly common practice in the Netherlands, yet it is unknown if this use is stable or increasing. As such, whether the prevalence of mobile phone use while cycling has changed over the past five years was studied via on-road observation. In addition the impact of mobile phone use on lateral position, i.e. distance from the front wheel to the curb, was also examined to see if it compared to the results seen in previous experimental studies. Bicyclists were observed at six different locations and their behaviour was scored. It was found that compared to five years ago the use of mobile phones while cycling has changed, not in frequency, but in how cyclists were operating their phones. As found in 2008, three percent of the bicyclists were observed to be operating a phone, but a shift from calling (0.7% of cyclists observed) to operating (typing, texting, 2.3% of cyclists) was found. In 2008 nearly the complete opposite usage was observed: 2.2% of the cyclists were calling and 0.6% was texting. Another finding was that effects on lateral position were similar to those seen in experimental studies in that cyclists using a phone maintained a cycling position which was further away from the curb. It was also found that when at an intersection, cyclist's operating their phone made less head movements to the right than cyclists who were just cycling. This shift from calling to screen operation, when combined with the finding related to reduced head movements at intersections, is worrying and potentially dangerous. PMID:25590920

de Waard, Dick; Westerhuis, Frank; Lewis-Evans, Ben

2015-03-01

186

Hi-C Observations of Penumbral Bright Dots: Comparison with the IRIS Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We observed bright dots (BDs) in a sunspot penumbra by using data acquired by the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C). The sizes of these BDs are on the order of 1 arcsecond (1') and are therefore hard to identify using the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly's (AIA) 0.6' pixel -1 resolution. These BDs become readily apparent with Hi-C's 0.1' pixel -1 resolution. Tian et al. (2014) found penumbral BDs in the transition region (TR) by using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). However, only a few of their dots could be associated with any enhanced brightness in AIA channels. In this work, we examine the characteristics of the penumbral BDs observed by Hi-C in a sunspot penumbra, including their sizes, lifetimes, speeds, and intensity. We also attempt to relate these BDs to the IRIS BDs. There are fewer Hi-C BDs in the penumbra than seen by IRIS, though different sunspots were studied and Hi-C had a short observation time. We use 193 A Hi-C data from July 11, 2012 which observed from 18:52:00 UT{18:56:00 UT and supplement it with data from AIA's 193 A passband to see the complete lifetime of the dots that were born before and/or lasted longer than Hi-C's 5-minute observation period. We use additional AIA passbands and compare the light curves of the BDs at different temperatures to test whether the Hi-C BDs are TR BDs. We find that most Hi-C BDs show clear movement, and of those that do, they move in a radial direction, toward or away from the sunspot umbra, sometimes doing both. BDs interact with other BDs, combining to fade away or brighten. The BDs that do not interact with other BDs tend to move less and last longer. We examine the properties of the Hi-C BDs and compare them with the IRIS BDs. Our BDs are similar to the exceptional values of the IRIS BDs: they move slower on average and their sizes and lifetimes are on the higher end of the distributions of IRIS BDs. We infer that our penumbral BDs are some of the larger BDs observed by IRIS.

Alpert, S. E.; Tiwari, S. K.; Moore, R. L.; Savage, S. L.; Winebarger, A. R.

2014-01-01

187

"First Things First" Shows Promising Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses a school improvement model, First Things First, developed by James P. Connell, a former tenured professor of psychology at the University of Rochester in New York. The model has three pillars for the high school level: (1) small, themed learning communities that each keep a group of students together…

Hendrie, Caroline

2005-01-01

188

Revisiting Spitzer Transit Observations with Independent Component Analysis: New Results for the GJ 436 System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed four Spitzer/IRAC observations at 3.6 and 4.5 ?m of the primary transit of the exoplanet GJ 436b, by using blind source separation techniques. These observations are important for investigating the atmospheric composition of the planet GJ 436b. Previous analyses claimed strong inter-epoch variations of the transit parameters due to stellar variability, casting doubts on the possibility of conclusively extracting an atmospheric signal. Those analyses also reported discrepant results, hence the necessity of this reanalysis. The method we used has been proposed in Morello et al. to analyze 3.6 ?m transit light curves of the hot Jupiter HD 189733b. It performes an Independent Component Analysis on a set of pixel light curves, i.e., time series read by individual pixels, from the same photometric observation. Our method only assumes the independence of instrumental and astrophysical signals, and therefore guarantees a higher degree of objectivity compared to parametric detrending techniques published in the literature. The data sets we analyzed in this paper represent a more challenging test than the previous ones. Contrary to previous results reported in the literature, our results (1) do not support any detectable inter-epoch variations of orbital and stellar parameters, (2) are photometrically stable at the level ?10?4 in the IR, and (3) the transit depth measurements at the two wavelengths are consistent within 1?. We also (4) detect a possible transit duration variation of ?80 s (2? significance level) that has not been pointed out in the literature, and (5) confirm no transit timing variations ?30 s.

Morello, G.; Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Howarth, I. D.; Micela, G.; Allard, F.

2015-04-01

189

First Results from Coordinated Observing with IRIS, Hinode, and Ground-Based Observatories (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Small Explorer Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) was launched in June, 2013, and underwent successful commissioning in July and August. IRIS obtains UV spectra and images with high spatial resolution (0.33 arcsec) and high time cadence (1 sec) of the chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. It does not measure magnetic fields, and so the mission plans from the beginning have included coordination with other observatories to provide these, as well as additional coverage of chromospheric and coronal images and spectra. Coordinated observing with Hinode and with ground-based observatories, including Big Bear, the National Solar Observatory, and the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma, began in August. An extended campaign with SST from late August through early October (HOP 236) has been scheduled, performed by LMSAL and Oslo Co-I's. In these campaigns, Hinode SOT provides photospheric magnetic fields with high resolution and sensitivity, and the ground-based observatories provide chromospheric magnetic field measurements (and other images) in Ca II 8542 and/or He I 10830. IRIS performs observations from its initial observing plan on a variety of solar targets, and the other observatories follow its lead. This talk will describe some of these coordinated campaigns and first scientific results from them.

Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; De Pontieu, B.; Lemen, J. R.; Wuelser, J.; Wolfson, C. J.; Hurlburt, N. E.; Schrijver, C. J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Hansteen, V. H.; Carlsson, M.; Bush, R. I.; Sainz Dalda, A.; Kleint, L.

2013-12-01

190

First Results of Coordinated Observations from IRIS and New Solar Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the chromospheric structuring and dynamics is controlled by the underlying photospheric processes, associated with turbulent magnetoconvection, ubiquitous magnetic flux emergence, small-scale eruptions and acoustic events. The 1.6 m New Solar Telescope (NST) of Big Bear Solar Observatory offers a substantial improvement in ground-based high-resolution capabilities, and provides important support for the IRIS mission. The primary goal of the coordinated IRIS-NST observations is to obtain complementary data for investigations of photosphere-chromosphere links and drivers of the chromospheric dynamics. The coordinated NST observations are performed using the second-generation adaptive optics system AO-308, and three instruments: Broadband Filter Imagers (G-band and TiO), Visible Imaging Spectrometer (H-alpha), and Near InfraRed Imaging Spectropolarimeter (NIRIS). NIRIS provides high-cadence data in Fe I 1565 nm doublet which is the most Zeeman sensitive probe of magnetic fields in the deep photosphere, and in the He I 1083 nm multiplet for diagnostics of the upper chromosphere. We present initial results of the coordinated observations, and discuss properties of small-scale ejections in fibril magnetic structures, obtained from analysis of IRIS and NST data.

Kosovichev, A. G.; Cao, W.; Goode, P. R.; Gorceix, N.; Kleint, L.; Plymate, C.; Varsik, J. R.; Shumko, S.; Yurchyshyn, V.

2013-12-01

191

Planet-Induced Emission Enhancements in HD 179949: Results from McDonald Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We monitored the Ca II H and K lines of HD 179949, a notable star in the southern hemisphere, to observe and confirm previously identified planet induced emission (PIE) as an effect of star-planet interaction. We obtained high resolution spectra (R~53000) with a signal-to-noise ratio S/N >~50 in the Ca II H and K cores during 10 nights of observation at the McDonald Observatory. Wide-band echelle spectra were taken using the 2.7-m telescope. Detailed statistical analysis of Ca II K revealed fluctuations in the Ca II K core attributable to planet induced chromospheric emission. This result is consistent with previous studies by Shkolnik et al. (2003). Additionally, we were able to confirm the reality and temporal evolution of the phase shift of the maximum of star-planet interaction previously found. However, no identifiable fluctuations were detected in the Ca II H core. The Al I ?3944Å line was also monitored to gauge if the expected activity enhancements are confined to the chromospheric layer. Our observations revealed some variability, which is apparently unassociated with planet-induced activity.

Gurdemir, L.; Redfield, S.; Cuntz, M.

2012-04-01

192

Results of IPS Observations in the Period Near Solar Activity Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IPS observations with the Big Scanning Array of Lebedev Physical Institute (BSA LPI) radio telescope at the frequency 111 MHz have been monitored since 2006. All the sources, about several hundred daily, with a scintillating flux greater than 0.2 Jy are recorded for 24 hours in the 16 beams of the radio telescope covering a sky strip of 8? declination width. We present some results of IPS observations for the recent period of low solar activity considering a statistical ensemble of scintillating radio sources. The dependences of the averaged over ensemble scintillation index on heliocentric distance are considerably weaker than the dependence expected for a spherically symmetric geometry. The difference is especially pronounced in the year 2008 during the very deep solar activity minimum period. These features are explained by the influence of the heliospheric current sheet that is seen as a strong concentration of turbulent solar wind plasma aligned with the solar equatorial plane. A local maximum of the scintillation index is found in the anti-solar direction. Future prospects of IPS observations using BSA LPI are briefly discussed.

Chashei, I. V.; Shishov, V. I.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Subaev, I. A.; Oreshko, V. V.

2013-07-01

193

Polarization observations and results of the 1998 February 26th solar corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the long-term study program of the solar corona, we have organized an expedition in Curacao (Dutch Antillas) to observe the total solar eclipse of February 26th, 1998. As the totality duration was quite short, we had to improve again the CCD experiment layout in order to record a sample of images as wide as possible in both polarization and brightness ranges. This was made possible by the acquisition of a new PC with fast hard disc and data transfer port. We managed then to record 7 series of different exposures, each containing polarization measurements of 24 images (thus 8 times oversampled). The data processing led to accurate brightness and polarization maps as well as electron density models. The shape of the corona is highly flattened with large polar holes filled by numerous wide plumes. Large streamers are also observed and are essentially aligned along the solar equatorial plane. Moreover, the polarization indicates that these structures are located in the vicinity of the plane of the sky. Unfortunately, the unusually high sky brightness hid the faintest coronal structures and limited the visibility up to 3 solar radii implying a similar limitation in our modelling. We present here these results and give a brief comparison with our previous eclipse observation.

Gabryl, J.-R.; Cugnon, P.; Clette, F.

1999-03-01

194

The ALFA Zone of Avoidance Survey: Results from the Precursor Observations  

E-print Network

The Arecibo L-band Feed Array Zone of Avoidance Survey (ALFA ZOA) will map 1350-1800 square degrees at low Galactic latitude, providing HI spectra for galaxies in regions of the sky where our knowledge of local large scale structure remains incomplete, owing to obscuration from dust and high stellar confusion near the Galactic plane. Because of these effects, a substantial fraction of the galaxies detected in the survey will have no optical or infrared counterparts. However, near infrared follow up observations of ALFA ZOA sources found in regions of lowest obscuration could reveal whether some of these sources could be objects in which little or no star formation has taken place ("dark galaxies"). We present here the results of ALFA ZOA precursor observations on two patches of sky totaling 140 square degrees (near l=40 degrees, and l=192 degrees). We have measured HI parameters for detections from these observations, and cross-correlated with the NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database (NED). A significant fraction of the objects have never been detected at any wavelength. For those galaxies that have been previously detected, a significant fraction have no previously known redshift, and no previous HI detection.

C. M. Springob; P. A. Henning; B. Catinella; F. Day; R. Minchin; E. Momjian; B. Koribalski; K. L. Masters; E. Muller; C. Pantoja; M. Putman; J. L. Rosenberg; S. Schneider; L. Staveley-Smith

2007-08-13

195

Incidence of cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50: prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the incidence of cervical cancer after several negative cervical smear tests at different ages. Design Prospective observational study of incidence of cervical cancer after the third consecutive negative result based on individual level data in a national registry of histopathology and cytopathology (PALGA). Setting Netherlands, national data. Population 218?847 women aged 45-54 and 445?382 aged 30-44 at the time of the third negative smear test. Main outcome measures 10 year cumulative incidence of interval cervical cancer. Results 105 women developed cervical cancer within 2?595?964 woman years at risk after the third negative result at age 30-44 and 42 within 1?278?532 woman years at risk after age 45-54. During follow-up, both age groups had similar levels of screening. After 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidence rate of cervical cancer was similar: 41/100?000 (95% confidence interval 33 to 51) in the younger group and 36/100?000 (24 to 52) in the older group (P=0.48). The cumulative incidence rate of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I+ was twice as high in the younger than in the older group (P<0.001). Conclusions The risk for cervical cancer after several negative smear results by age 50 is similar to the risk at younger ages. Even after several negative smear results, age is not a good discriminative factor for early cessation of cervical cancer screening. PMID:19395420

2009-01-01

196

Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon, its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

197

Results Of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called Enhanced Formation Flying. To enable this technology, a team at the Goddard Space Flight Center implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm, the onboard flight design and the validation results of this unique system. Results from fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(trademark), its ground-based predecessor used in operations, and the original standalone algorithm. Maneuvers discussed encompass reactionary, routine formation maintenance, and inclination control. Orbital data is also examined to verify that all formation flying requirements were met.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

2002-01-01

198

Preliminary Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission is completing a primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center has implemented an autonomous universal three-axis formation flying algorithm in executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard design and presents the preliminary validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment and autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a stand-alone algorithm.

Folta, David; Hawkins, Albin

2001-01-01

199

Results of NASA's First Autonomous Formation Flying Experiment: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's first autonomous formation flying mission completed its primary goal of demonstrating an advanced technology called enhanced formation flying. To enable this technology, the Guidance, Navigation, and Control center at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) implemented a universal 3-axis formation flying algorithm in an autonomous executive flight code onboard the New Millennium Program's (NMP) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This paper describes the mathematical background of the autonomous formation flying algorithm and the onboard flight design and presents the validation results of this unique system. Results from functionality assessment through fully autonomous maneuver control are presented as comparisons between the onboard EO-1 operational autonomous control system called AutoCon(tm), its ground-based predecessor, and a standalone algorithm.

Folta, David C.; Hawkins, Albin; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

200

Direct Observation of Differences of Carotenoid Polyene Chain cis/trans Isomers Resulting from Structural Topology  

PubMed Central

In the present paper, trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) and theoretical calculations have been used to study carotenoid geometrical motifs generated by photoisomerization from the all-trans geometry. Multiple geometric isomers of the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin were separated using TIMS (R > 110) for [M]+, [M + H]+, and [M – 18]+ molecular species. Comparison of observed cross sections with those obtained from molecular dynamics calculations showed that the number of cis double bonds and s-cis single bonds in the polyene chain determine the topology space of the carotenoid. The intensities of IMS signals are correlated with the relative stability of these geometric isomers.1,2 The most stable isomer is the all-trans geometry regardless of the ionization state ([M – 18]+, [M]+, and [M + H]+), and structural stability decreases with the increasing number of cis and/or s-cis bonds in the polyene chain. PMID:24428664

2015-01-01

201

Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children  

PubMed Central

Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

2013-01-01

202

X-ray observations of characteristic structures and time variations from the solar corona - Preliminary results from Skylab.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples taken from the S-054 X-ray telescope observations made during the first Skylab mission show the hot coronal plasma tracing the configuration of the magnetic fields. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of the instrument has enabled the following two facts to be more firmly established: (1) that the 'quiet homogeneous corona' is in fact highly structured and that the structures observed appear to be the results of dispersed active region magnetic fields; and (2) that numerous bright points are distributed randomly on the disk. Their presence at high latitudes may play a role in solar cycle models. In addition, the capability of Skylab for studying time evolution has enabled the restructuring of coronal features to be seen at times of high activity, indicating a restructuring of the coronal magnetic fields.

Vaiana, G. S.; Davis, J. M.; Giacconi, R.; Krieger, A. S.; Silk, J. K.; Timothy, A. F.; Zombeck, M.

1973-01-01

203

FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument: Results of the Lick observing campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

FIRST is a prototype instrument aimed at achieving high dynamic range and angular resolution in ground-based images at visible wavelengths near the diffraction limit. FIRST utilizes an aperture masking-like technique that makes use of single-mode fibers and pupil remapping to maximize the area of the telescope mirror in use. While located at Lick observatory in 2011 and 2012, FIRST observed 25 binary systems with the Shane 3m telescope, with separations ranging from 20 to 200 mas, comparable to the 50 mas diffraction limit for our central wavelength. Huby et al. (2013) has reported results for the Capella system that established the utility of FIRST for characterizing stellar binaries using the directly measured spectral flux ratio. Using an improved data analysis pipeline, we obtained closure phase measurements for a majority of the targets observed at Lick, and derived angular separations and spectral flux ratios. From the spectral flux ratios we obtained spectra for the companions over at least 600-850 nm with R~300. Finally, by obtaining results for many binary systems we have better constrained the current performance of FIRST, which has an exciting future ahead at its current location behind SCExAO at the Subaru 8.2 m telescope, where it will eventually become available for general use by the astronomical community.

Bordwell, Baylee; Duchene, Gaspard; Huby, Elsa; Goebel, Sean; Marchis, Franck; Perrin, Guy; Lacour, Sylvestre; Kotani, Takayuki; Gates, Elinor L.; Choquet, Elodie

2015-01-01

204

Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project: Unraveling Tarantula's Web. I. Observational Overview and First Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 Stellar Mass). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H(alpha) images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Lennon, D. J.; van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; Boyer, Martha L.; Cignoni, M.; De Marchi, G.; De Mink, S. E.; Evans, C. J.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Gordon, K.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Panagia, N.; Ryon, J. E.; Smith, L. J.; Tosi, M.; Zaritsky, D.

2013-01-01

205

HUBBLE TARANTULA TREASURY PROJECT: UNRAVELING TARANTULA'S WEB. I. OBSERVATIONAL OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

The Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP) is an ongoing panchromatic imaging survey of stellar populations in the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud that reaches into the sub-solar mass regime (<0.5 M{sub Sun }). HTTP utilizes the capability of the Hubble Space Telescope to operate the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 in parallel to study this remarkable region in the near-ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared spectral regions, including narrow-band H{alpha} images. The combination of all these bands provides a unique multi-band view. The resulting maps of the stellar content of the Tarantula Nebula within its main body provide the basis for investigations of star formation in an environment resembling the extreme conditions found in starburst galaxies and in the early universe. Access to detailed properties of individual stars allows us to begin to reconstruct the temporal and spatial evolution of the stellar skeleton of the Tarantula Nebula over space and time on a sub-parsec scale. In this first paper we describe the observing strategy, the photometric techniques, and the upcoming data products from this survey and present preliminary results obtained from the analysis of the initial set of near-infrared observations.

Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Van der Marel, R. P.; Aloisi, A.; De Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Panagia, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lennon, D. J. [ESA-European Space Astronomy Center, Apdo. de Correo 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Boyer, M. L. [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cignoni, M. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, via Ranzani, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); De Marchi, G. [Space Science Department, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Evans, C. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Center, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Gallagher, J. S. III; Ryon, J. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Gouliermis, D. A. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Grebel, E. K. [Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Larsen, S. S. [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500-GL Nijmegen (Netherlands); Smith, L. J. [ESA/STScI, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tosi, M., E-mail: sabbi@stsci.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

2013-09-15

206

DETERMINING INCLINATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VIA THEIR NARROW-LINE REGION KINEMATICS. I. OBSERVATIONAL RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk.

Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Kraemer, S. B. [Institute for Astrophysics and Computational Sciences, Department of Physics, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Schmitt, H. R., E-mail: fischer@chara.gsu.edu [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

2013-11-01

207

Results of solar observations on-board the CORONAS-F satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CORONAS-F mission experiments and results have been reviewed. The observations with the DIFOS multi-channel photometer in a broad spectral range from 350 to 1500 nm have revealed that the relative amplitudes of p-modes of the global solar oscillations depend on the wavelength (This result agrees perfectly well with the earlier data obtained in a narrower spectral range. The SPIRIT EUV observations have enabled the study of various manifestations of solar activity and high-temperature events on the Sun. The data from the gamma spectrometer HELICON, flare spectrometer IRIS, amplitude-time spectrometer AVS-F, and X-ray spectrometer RPS-1 have been used to analyze the X- and gamma-ray emission from solar flares and to simulate the parameters of solar plasma and supra-thermal electron beams in the generation region. The absolute and relative content of various elements (such as potassium, argon, and sulfur) in the flare-generated solar plasma has been determined for the first time with the X-ray spectrometer RESIK. The Solar Cosmic Ray Complex has been used to study the solar flare effects in the Earth's environment. The UV emission variations recorded during solar flares in the vicinity of the 120-nm wavelengh been analyzed and the relative variation amplitude has been determined.

Kuznetsov, V. D.; Sobelman, I. I.; Zitnik, I. A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Kocharov, G. E.; Kuznetsov, S. N.; Mazets, E. P.; Nusinov, A. A.; Pankov, A. M.; Sylwester, J.

208

Surface electromagnetic impedance and geomagnetic activity: results of long term observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetotelluric (MT) method is one of the most useful geophysical tool to discover even the deep subsurface structures. The target function of the MT data processing is the surface electromagnetic (EM) impedance. In case of practical MT exploration the surface EM impedance is computed based on a simplification related to the nature of the ionospheric source of the surface EM signals. Assuming that the ionospheric current systems result in homogeneous surface electromagnetic variations, the uncertainty of the computed surface electromagnetic impedance tensor depends only the duration of the EM observation. However the surface EM field can only be approached by plane waves in certain time periods and besides given uncertainty. The EM impedance may be sensitive to magnetospheric and -indirectly- interplanetary circumstances and solar activity. Four years continuous observation of telluric and surface geomagnetic components allowed to perform a representative survey to discover if geomagnetic activity has any effect on observed EM impedance tensor. Geomagnetic indices (Dst, ULF-index, ASY-H, SYM-H) have been used to classify dates according to geomagnetic activity. Processing to estimate the mean surface EM impedance tensor has been performed in each dataset, each class separately. The sensitivity and the characteristics of the answer of the EM impedance tensor to the geomagnetic disturbances seems to be definite. This presentation aims to briefly summarize the preliminary results of our study based on the unique dataset of the Széchenyi István Geophysical Obsevatory (Intermagnet code:NCK). In addition, pointing out the limitations of the routine way of practical MT data processing and interpretation is an important duty of this study. This study was supported by the TAMOP-4.2.2.C-11/1/KONV-2012-0015 (Earth-system) project sponsored by the EU and European Social Foundation.

Lemperger, István; Menvielle, Menvielle; Wesztergom, Viktor; Bencze, Pál; Szendr?i, Judit; Novák, Attila; Kis, Árpád; Szalai, Sándor

2014-05-01

209

The Evolution of Stellar Coronae: Initial Results from a ROSAT PSPC Observation of IC 2391  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 23 ks ROSAT PSPC image of the young star cluster, IC 2391, reveals 76 soft x-ray sources with L(sub x)(0.2-2.0 keV) greater than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 28) ergs/s in the direction of the cluster center. Nineteen of these sources are associated with known cluster members. We find that x-ray emission from the IC 2391 B stars deviates widely from the L(sub x)/L(sub bol) = 10(exp -7) relation based on Einstein observations of O and early B stars. Instead, we observe a wide range in L(sub x) with an order of magnitude spread at any given mass and no apparent dependence on spectral type. A comparison of the spread of L(sub x) as a function of B-V for low-mass stars between IC 2391 and the much older Hyades cluster shows that despite the factor of approx. 10 difference in their ages, these two clusters exhibit very similar dispersions in levels of stellar activity. We conclude that the low-mass stars in IC 2391 have arrived on the ZAMS with a wide range of coronal activity levels, from very strong to very weak, and that existing empirical activity-age scaling laws therefore cannot be valid.

Patten, Brian M.; Simon, Theodore

1993-01-01

210

Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented.

S. Schanne

2006-06-22

211

Long-term follow-up results of the observation program for neuroblastoma detected at 6-month mass screening.  

PubMed

We conducted an observation program of neuroblastoma in infants, detected by mass screening at 6 months of age; we followed up with them for 15 years. No recurrence was observed after disappearance of tumors, and persistent tumors showed no malignant transformation or metastasis. Histology of the resected tumors showed age-related differentiation. PMID:25091258

Arakawa, Ayumu; Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Akira; Hanada, Ryoji; Koh, Katsuyoshi

2014-10-01

212

Review on optical constants of Titan aerosols: Experimental results and modeling/observational data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last years many studies have been performed to improve the experimental database of optical constants of Titan aerosols. Indeed, the determination of the optical constants of these particles is essential to quantify their capacity to absorb and to scatter solar radiation, and thus to evaluate their role on Titan's radiative balance and climate. The study of optical properties is also crucial to analyze and to better interpret many of Titan's observational data, in particular those acquired during the Cassini-Huygens mission. One way to determine Titan aerosols optical constant is to measure the optical constants of analogues of Titan complex organic material synthesized in the laboratory, usually named Titan's tholins (Sagan and Khare, 1979). But the optical constants depend on the chemical composition, the size and the shape of particles (Raulin et al., 2012). Those three parameters result from the experimental conditions such as energy source, gas mixing ratio, gas pressure, flow rate and irradiation time (Cable et al., 2012). Besides the determination of the refractive index in the laboratory, there are others methods using theoretical models or observational data. Nevertheless, theoretical models are based on laboratory data or/and observational data. The visible - near infrared spectral region of optical constants has been widely studied with laboratory analogues. Comparison of the obtained results suggest that tholins synthesized by Tran et al. (2003) and Majhoub et al. (2012) are the best representative of Titan aerosols with regards to their refractive indexes in this spectral region. The mid-infrared spectral range has been studied only by Imanaka et al. (2012) and slightly by Tran et al. (2003). In that spectral range, Titan tholins do not exhibit the features displayed by Kim and Courtin (2013) from Titan's observations. For spectral region of wavelengths smaller than 0.20µm or higher than 25µm, only the data from Khare et al. (1984) are available. Therefore it would be very useful to get more laboratory data and especially from Tran et al (2013), Mahjoub et al. (2012) and Imanaka et al. (2012) samples in these spectral regions since their refractive indexes match observational and theoretical data in other spectral ranges. This presentation will critically summarize these recent results and present detailled constraints on the optical constants Titan's aerosols. In addition, specific lacks of data will be highlighted as well as some possible investigations to be carried out to fill these gaps. References: Cable, M. L., et al., 2012. Titan Tholins: Simulating Titan Organic Chemistry in the Cassini-Huygens Era. Chemical Reviews. 112, 1882-1909. Imanaka, H., et al., 2012. Optical constants of Titan tholins at mid-infrared wavelengths (2.5-25 µm) and the possible chemical nature of Titan's haze particles. Icarus. 218, 247-261. Khare, B. N., et al., 1984. Optical-Constants of Organic Tholins Produced in a Simulated Titanian Atmosphere - from Soft-X-Ray to Microwave-Frequencies. Icarus. 60, 127-137. Kim, S. J., Courtin, R., 2013. Spectral characteristics of the Titanian haze at 1-5 micron from Cassini/VIMS solar occultation data. Astronomy & Astrophysics. 557, L6. Mahjoub, A., et al., 2012. Influence of methane concentration on the optical indices of Titan's aerosols analogues. Icarus. 221, 670-677. Raulin, F., et al., 2012. Prebiotic-like chemistry on Titan. Chemical Society Reviews. 41, 5380-5393. Sagan, C., Khare, B. N., 1979. Tholins - Organic-Chemistry of Inter-Stellar Grains and Gas. Nature. 277, 102-107. Tran, B. N., et al., 2003. Simulation of Titan haze formation using a photochemical flow reactor - The optical constants of the polymer. Icarus. 165, 379-390. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from the French Space Agency (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

Brassé, Coralie; Muñoz, Olga; Coll, Patrice; Raulin, François

2014-05-01

213

Four-year COBE DMR cosmic microwave background observations: Mapsand basic results  

SciTech Connect

In this Letter we present a summary of the spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation based on the full 4 yr of COBE Differential Microwave Radiometer (DMR) observations, with additional details in a set of companion Letters. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale-invariant power-law model and Gaussian statistics. With full use of the multifrequency 4 yr DMR data, including our estimate of the effects of Galactic emission, we find a power-law spectral index of n = 1.2 +/- 0.3 and a quadrupole normalization Q(rms-PS) = 15.31(-2.8)(+3.8) mu K. For n = 1 the best-fit normalization is Q(rms-PS/n=1) = 18 +/- 1.6 mu K. These values are consistent with both our previous 1 yr and 2 yr results. The results include use of the l = 2 quadrupole term; exclusion of this term gives consistent results, but with larger uncertainties. The final DMR 4 yr sky maps, presented in this Letter, portray an accurate overall visual impression of the anisotropy since the signal-to-noise ratio is similar to 2 per 10 degrees sky map patch. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the 4 yr maps also allows for improvements in Galactic modeling and limits on non-Gaussian statistics.

Bennett, C.L.; Banday, A.J.; Gorski, K.M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jackson,P.; Keegstra, P.; Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Wilkinson, D.T.; Wright, E.L.

1996-01-10

214

4-Year COBE DMR Cosmic Microwave Background Observations: Maps and Basic Results  

E-print Network

The cosmic microwave background radiation provides unique constraints on cosmological models. In this Letter we present a summary of the spatial properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation based on the full 4 years of COBE DMR observations, as detailed in a set of companion Letters. The anisotropy is consistent with a scale-invariant power law model and Gaussian statistics. With full use of the multi-frequency 4-year DMR data, including our estimate of the effects of Galactic emission, we find a power-law spectral index of $n=1.2\\pm 0.3$ and a quadrupole normalization $Q_{rms-PS}=15.3^{+3.8}_{-2.8}$ $\\mu$K. For $n=1$ the best-fit normalization is $Q_{rms-PS}\\vert_{n=1}=18\\pm 1.6$ $\\mu$K. These values are consistent with both our previous 1-year and 2-year results. The results include use of the $\\ell=2$ quadrupole term; exclusion of this term gives consistent results, but with larger uncertainties. The 4-year sky maps, presented in this Letter, portray an accurate overall visual impression of the anisotropy since the signal-to-noise ratio is ~2 per 10 degree sky map patch. The improved signal-to-noise ratio of the 4-year maps also allows for improvements in Galactic modeling and limits on non-Gaussian statistics.

C. L. Bennett; A. Banday; K. M. Gorski; G. Hinshaw; P. Jackson; P. Keegstra; A. Kogut; G. F. Smoot; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1996-01-12

215

Efficacy and safety of natalizumab in multiple sclerosis: interim observational programme results  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical trials established the efficacy and safety of natalizumab. Data are needed over longer periods of time and in the clinical practice setting. Objective To evaluate long-term safety of natalizumab and its impact on annualised relapse rate and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods The Tysabri (natalizumab) Observational Program (TOP) is an open-label, multinational, 10-year prospective study in clinical practice settings. Results In this 5-year interim analysis, 4821 patients were enrolled. Follow-up for at least 4?years from natalizumab commencement in 468 patients and at least 2?years in 2496 patients revealed no new safety signals. There were 18 cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy reported, following 11–44 natalizumab infusions. Mean annualised relapse rate decreased from 1.99 in the 12?months prior to baseline to 0.31 on natalizumab therapy (p<0.0001), remaining low at 5?years. Lower annualised relapse rates were observed in patients who used natalizumab as first MS therapy, in patients with lower baseline EDSS scores, and in patients with lower prenatalizumab relapse rates. Mean EDSS scores remained unchanged up to 5?years. Conclusions Interim TOP data confirm natalizumab's overall safety profile and the low relapse rate and stabilised disability levels in natalizumab-treated patients with RRMS in clinical practice. Trial registration number NCT00493298. PMID:24532785

Butzkueven, Helmut; Kappos, Ludwig; Pellegrini, Fabio; Trojano, Maria; Wiendl, Heinz; Patel, Radhika N; Zhang, Annie; Hotermans, Christophe; Belachew, Shibeshih

2014-01-01

216

Planet-Induced Emission Enhancements in HD 179949: Results from McDonald Observations  

E-print Network

We monitored the Ca II H and K lines of HD 179949, a notable star in the southern hemisphere, to observe and confirm previously identified planet induced emission (PIE) as an effect of star-planet interaction. We obtained high resolution spectra (R ~ 53,000) with a signal-to-noise ratio S/N >~ 50 in the Ca II H and K cores during 10 nights of observation at the McDonald Observatory. Wide band echelle spectra were taken using the 2.7 m telescope. Detailed statistical analysis of Ca II K revealed fluctuations in the Ca II K core attributable to planet induced chromospheric emission. This result is consistent with previous studies by Shkolnik et al. (2003). Additionally, we were able to confirm the reality and temporal evolution of the phase shift of the maximum of star-planet interaction previously found. However, no identifiable fluctuations were detected in the Ca II H core. The Al I lambda 3944 A line was also monitored to gauge if the expected activity enhancements are confined to the chromospheric layer. O...

Gurdemir, L; Cuntz, M

2012-01-01

217

The GASS/EUCLIPSE model intercomparison of the stratocumulus transition as observed during ASTEX: LES results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-eddy simulations of a Lagrangian transition from a vertically well-mixed stratocumulus-topped boundary layer to a situation in which shallow cumuli penetrate an overlying layer of thin and broken stratocumulus are compared with aircraft observations collected during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment. Despite the complexity of the case and the long simulation period of 40 h, the six participating state-of-the-art models skillfully and consistently represent the observed gradual deepening of the boundary layer, a negative buoyancy flux at the top of the subcloud layer and the development of a double-peaked vertical velocity variance profile. The moisture flux from the subcloud to the stratocumulus cloud layer by cumulus convection exhibits a distinct diurnal cycle. During the night the moisture flux at the stratocumulus cloud base exceeds the surface evaporation flux, causing a net drying of the subcloud layer, and vice versa during daytime. The spread in the liquid water path (LWP) among the models is rather large during the first 12 h. From additional sensitivity experiments it is demonstrated that this spread is mainly attributable to differences in the parameterized precipitation rate. The LWP differences are limited through a feedback mechanism in which enhanced drizzle fluxes result in lower entrainment rates and subsequently a reduced drying at cloud top. The spread is furthermore reduced during the day as cloud layers with a greater LWP absorb more solar radiation and hence evaporate more.

Dussen, J. J.; Roode, S. R.; Ackerman, A. S.; Blossey, P. N.; Bretherton, C. S.; Kurowski, M. J.; Lock, A. P.; Neggers, R. A. J.; Sandu, I.; Siebesma, A. P.

2013-07-01

218

Polarization observations and results of the 1998 February 26th solar eclipse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following our long-term solar corona study program, we organized an expedition to the Curacao island (Dutch Antillas) to observe the total solar eclipse of February 26th, 1998. As the duration of this totality was quite short, our polarized white-light CCD imaging experiment was redesigned in order to increase the number of recorded images, thereby increasing the number of sampled polarization angles and exposures. This was made possible by upgrading to a new PC system, with fast hard disc and data transfer port. This allowed us to finally record 7 series of different exposures, each containing 24 images taken at 12 polarization angles, i.e. with 8-time oversampling. The data were processed to derive global maps of brightness and polarization, and from these, to build electron density models. In those maps, the shape of the corona is highly flattened, with extended polar holes filled with numerous wide plumes. All large streamers are essentially aligned along the solar equatorial plane. Moreover, the measured degree of polarization indicates that these structures are located in the vicinity of the plane of the sky. Unfortunately, the unusually high sky brightness hid the faint extensions of coronal structures. This limited their visibility to less than 3 solar radii, implying a corresponding limitation in the radial extent of our global model. The results presented here are also briefly compared with our earlier eclipse observations.

Gabryl, J.-R.; Cugnon, P.; Clette, F.

1999-06-01

219

Three-year antipsychotic effectiveness in the outpatient care of schizophrenia: observational versus randomized studies results.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic discontinuation rates are a powerful indicator of medication effectiveness in schizophrenia. We examined antipsychotic discontinuation in the Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes (SOHO) study, a 3-year prospective, observational study in outpatients with schizophrenia in 10 European countries. Patients (n=7728) who started antipsychotic monotherapy were analyzed. Medication discontinuation for any cause ranged from 34% and 36% for clozapine and olanzapine, respectively, to 66% for quetiapine. Compared to olanzapine, the risk of treatment discontinuation before 36 months was significantly higher for quetiapine, risperidone, amisulpride, and typical antipsychotics (oral and depot), but similar for clozapine. Longer medication maintenance was associated with being socially active and having a longer time since first treatment contact for schizophrenia, whereas higher symptom severity, treatment with mood stabilizers, substance abuse, having hostile behaviour were associated with lower medication maintenance. Antipsychotic maintenance in SOHO was higher than the results of previous randomized studies. PMID:17137759

Haro, Josep Maria; Suarez, David; Novick, Diego; Brown, Jacqueline; Usall, Judith; Naber, Dieter

2007-03-01

220

Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30 deg S to 30 deg N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. The most striking ozone changes have occurred at northern midlatitudes, with the October 1992 to July 1993 column values significantly lower than during the prior year. The zonal-mean changes manifest themselves as a slower rate of increase during the 1992/93 winter, and there is some evidence for a lower fall minimum. A recovery occurs during late summer of 1993; early 1994 values are significantly larger than during the two previous winters. The timing and latitudinal extent of the northern midlatitude decreases appear to rule out observed ClO enhancements in the Arctic vortex, with related chemical processing and ozone dilution effects, as a unique cause. Local depletion from ClO-related chemical mechanisms alone is also not sufficient, based on MLS ClO data. The puzzling asymmetric nature of the changes probably requires a dynamical component as an explanation. A combination of effects (including chemical destruction via heterogeneous processes and QBO phasing) apparently needs to be invoked. This dataset will place constraints on future modeling studies, which are required to better understand the source of the observed changes.

Froidevaux, Lucien; Waters, Joe W.; Read, William G.; Elson, Lee S.; Flower, Dennis A.; Jarnot, Robert F.

1994-01-01

221

Results from observations of the 15 June 1983 occultation by the Neptune system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of eight Neptune occultations from six sites in the southwestern Pacific on June 15, 1983. The data were used to search for evidence of rings around Neptune down to a distance of 0.03 Neptune radii from the planetary surface, but the results were negative. An astrometric analysis of the timings yielded solution for the equatorial radius a(0) of Neptune at 1 microbar pressure and the oblatness e at this level. The results are: a(0) = 25,295 + or - 50 km; e = 0.022 + or - 0.004, from which a value for a(1) (equatorial radius at 1 bar pressure) of 24,830 + or - 100 km; and a rotation period of P = 15 h (+3, -2 h) is derived. These results are based on a recent determination of Neptune's pole position and mass quadruple moment, and are consistent with the hypothesis that Neptune and Uranus have homologous mass distributions, although the constraint on interior structure is a weak one. If the probable uncertainty of the pole position is taken into account, error bars on e and derived quantities should be increased by about 50 percent. The present determinations of Neptune atmospheric temperatures at 1 microbar are consistent with earlier results and when combined with all previous data give an average value of 156 + or - 10 K. There is only slight evidence for any latitude dependence in the temperatures. Profiles with a high signal-to-noise ratio suggest the possible presence of an absorbing layer at altitudes higher than the 1-microbar level.

Hubbard, W. B.; Frecker, J. E.; Gehrels, J.-A.; Gehrels, T.; Hunten, D. M.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Smith, B. A.; Tholen, D. J.; Vilas, F.; Zellner, B.; Avey, H. P.; Mottram, K.; Murphy, T.; Varnes, B.; Carter, B.; Nielsen, A.; Page, A. A.; Fu, H. H.; Wu, H. H.; Kennedy, H. D.; Waterworth, M. D.; Reitsema, H. J.

1985-04-01

222

Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL  

E-print Network

The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In partic...

Schanne, S

2006-01-01

223

Surface Tension and Viscosity Measurements in Microgravity: Some Results and Fluid Flow Observations during MSL-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The viscosity of a liquid metal was successfully measured for the first time by a containerless method, the oscillating drop technique. This method also provides a means to obtain a precise, non-contact measurement of the surface tension of the droplet. This technique involves exciting the surface of the molten sample and then measuring the resulting oscillations; the natural frequency of the oscillating sample is determined by its surface tension, and the damping of the oscillations by the viscosity. These measurements were performed in TEMPUS, a microgravity electromagnetic levitator (EML), on the Space Shuttle as a part of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1), which flew in April and July 1997 (STS-83 and STS-94). Some results of the surface tension and viscosity measurements are presented for Pd82Si18. Some observations of the fluid dynamic characteristics (dominant flow patterns, turbulent transition, cavitation, etc.) of levitated droplets are presented and discussed together with magnetohydrodynamic calculations, which were performed to justify these findings.

Hyer, Robert W.; Trapaga, G.; Flemings, M. C.

1999-01-01

224

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels ... changes may work best. Result Ranges for Common Blood Tests This section presents the result ranges for ...

225

Deuterium abundances along three extended sightlines from FUSE observations: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the deuterium abundance, D/H, in the interstellar medium provide important constraints on Galactic chemical evolution models as well as on the Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory. Recent results from FUSE have shown that for sightlines with log N(H) > 20.7, D/H is approximately half of that in the Local Bubble (D/HLB 1.6E-5), with large variations for sightlines with N(H) larger than the Local Bubble but smaller than 20.7. These results, in conjunction with results obtained with other observatories such as Copernicus and IMAPS, have questioned the previously held assumption that D/HLB is representative of the present-epoch abundance of deuterium. The causes of the low D/H at high N(H) as well as of the variations in the intermediate N(H) range are currently unknown. Depletion onto dust grains, infall of metal-poor gas and variable astration are mechanisms being considered to explain the D/H variations. However, the small number of sightlines with log N(H)> 20.7 for which D/H has been measured limits progress in this area. In this work we use new FUSE data to derive column densities of DI, NI, OI, FeII and other species along three sightlines with log N(H) > 20.9, probing gas over distances larger than 1 Kpc. In conjunction with N(HI) derived from IUE data we compute D/H, N/H, O/H, and Fe/H ratios which are then compared to values in the literature. This work is based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by The Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to U. S. participants has been provided in part by NASA contract NAS5-32985 to Johns Hopkins University.

Oliveira, C. M.; Moos, H. W.; Hebrard, G.; Knauth, D. C.

2005-12-01

226

On the origin of 150-km echoes: Recent observational results and current understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovered nearly 45 years ago, the so-called 150-km echoing phenomenon continues to be a puzzle. These are the coherent radar echoes coming from the height region of 140-180 km during daytime and are of special interest to the ionospheric scientists since they are very useful means for estimating the daytime electric fields, a crucial parameter for studying daytime electrodynamics and plasma physics, and can be observed by radar with moderate sensitivity. Although the 150-km echoes are being regularly used for studying low latitude electrodynamics, it is a bit awkward using them in the scientific work without knowing their origin. This paper is meant to present and discuss new results obtained from Gadanki (13.5o N, 79.2o E, mag. lat. 6.5o N), India to elucidate the underlying physical processes, not considered before. Two new findings, one obtained during the passage of a solar eclipse and another linked with the intermediate layer type descending properties of 150-km echoes, clearly indicate the role of electron density gradient in generating the irregularities responsible for the 150-km radar echoes, not envisioned before. Given the fact that Gadanki is located at magnetically low latitude, it is proposed that the descending echoing layers are produced by interchange instability on the gradient of daytime descending ion layer formed by meridional wind shear associated with tidal/gravity waves quite similar to that observed during nighttime. Comparative anatomy of daytime 150-km echoes and nighttime intermediate layer echoes will also be presented and discussed in an effort to have a deeper understanding on the underlying instability processes.

Patra, Amit

2012-07-01

227

Responses of Tundra Ecosystems to Environmental Change: Observational and Experimental Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of environmental changes due to human-enhanced climate warming continues to accumulate from polar regions. Responses in tundra and taiga ecosystems to climate changes have been variable because of the wide range in process response rates, from metabolic processes to adjustments in ecosystem carbon balance, and the variability in environmental settings across local to regional scales. For example, strong increases in rates of plant growth and changes in species composition and abundance have been observed in parts of the Low Arctic, but very little change has been measured in high arctic tundra. A dramatic increase in the cover of deciduous shrubs in areas of the western North American Arctic is predicted to result in positive feedbacks to soil temperature, through increased surface roughness and snow depth, and to atmospheric heating by reducing albedo. Increased shrub cover has also been found in long-term experimental warming studies conducted throughout the tundra biome as part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Warming is also affecting the carbon balance of tundra and taiga, which hold 25% of the soil carbon of global terrestrial ecosystems. However, trajectories of these changes are largely unknown for most northern systems, and differ because of initial conditions of the carbon and nutrient economy. Over the longer-term, the positive increases in plant growth may be constrained by negative feedbacks to nutrient cycling, as increases in C:N ratios of plant litter slow the release of nitrogen to soils. However, nitrogen availability has been shown to increase in response to short-term warming. In this presentation, I will review the responses of tundra ecosystems to climate variability and change, both through observational and experimental studies.

Henry, G. H.

2004-05-01

228

Program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar: Results from Continuous Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PANSY radar has been installed at Syowa Station (69°00’S, 39°35’E) as the first Mesosphere-Stratosphere-Troposphere/Incoherent Scatter (MST/IS) radar in the Antarctic. It is a monostatic coherent pulse Doppler radar operating at 47 MHz VHF, consisting of an active phased array of 1,045 Yagi antennas and the same number of transmitter/receiver (TR) modules obtaining a total peak output power of 500 kW. The first stage of the radar install was carried out in early 2011, and since April 2012 the radar has been continuously operated with 228 antennas and modules. The full radar system operation will start in 2015. The primary objectives of the radar to clarify the role of atmospheric gravity waves at high latitudes in the momentum budget of the global circulation in the troposphere and middle atmosphere, and to explore the dynamical aspects of unique polar phenomena such as polar mesospheric/stratospheric clouds. The katabatic winds as a branch of Antarctic tropospheric circulation and as an important source of gravity waves are also of special interest. Furthermore, strong and sporadic energy inputs from the magnetosphere by energetic particles and field-aligned currents can be quantitatively assessed by the broad height coverage of the radar from the lower troposphere to the upper ionosphere. In this paper we will report the scientific objectives of the project, technical descriptions, and the results of observations in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere to date, including observations regarding severe snow storms, gravity waves, multiple tropopauses, and polar mesosphere summer/winter echoes.

Nakamura, Takuji; Tsutsumi, Masaki; Saito, Akinori; Sato, Toru; Tomikawa, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Koji; Yamagishi, Hisao; Yamanouchi, Takashi; Sato, Kaoru; Kohma, Masaki

229

First results from the Very Small Array - II. Observations of the cosmic microwave background  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations in eight fields covering three separated areas of sky with the Very Small Array at 34 GHz. A total area of 101 square degrees has been imaged, with sensitivity on angular scales of (equivalent to angular multipoles l= 150-900). We describe the field selection and observing strategy for these observations.

Angela C. Taylor; Pedro Carreira; Kieran Cleary; Rod D. Davies; Richard J. Davis; Clive Dickinson; Keith Grainge; Carlos M. Gutiérrez; Michael P. Hobson; Michael E. Jones; Rüdiger Kneissl; Anthony Lasenby; J. P. Leahy; Klaus Maisinger; Guy G. Pooley; Rafael Rebolo; José Alberto Rubiño-Martin; Ben Rusholme; Richard D. E. Saunders; Richard Savage; Paul F. Scott; Anze Slosar; Pedro J. Sosa Molina; David Titterington; Elizabeth Waldram; Robert A. Watson; Althea Wilkinson

2003-01-01

230

MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results of the Australian bush fires of February 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on February 7, 2009, Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume remained north-eastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On February 17 the eastern part had reached southern South America and on February 20 the central Southern Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific. Between February 20 and the first week of March the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of February 11, followed by larger amounts on February 17 and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-17 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

Glatthor, Norbert; Höpfner, Michael; Semeniuk, Kirill; Lupu, Alexandru; Palmer, Paul; McConnell, Jack; Kaminski, Jacek; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Funke, Bernd; Kellmann, Sylvia; Linden, Andrea; Wiegele, Andreas

2013-04-01

231

The Australian bushfires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on 7 February 2009, southeast Australia was devastated by large bushfires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products were transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the Envisat satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast southeastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days, the plume remained northeastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On 17 February the eastern part had reached southern South America and on 20 February the central South Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the South Pacific. Between 20 February and the first week of March, the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-20 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.; Palmer, P. I.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Wiegele, A.

2013-02-01

232

Solar Light Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

de Nie, Michael Willem.

233

Show-Me Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Show-Me Center, located at the University of Missouri, is a math education project of the National Science Foundation. The center's Web site "provides information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematic curricula." There are some sample lesson plans offered, but most of the material is solely for use by teachers. Five different middle grade math curriculums were started in 1992, and now, the implementation and results of each curriculum are presented on this site. Teachers can examine each one, view video clips, and read case studies and other reports to choose which parts of the curriculums would fit best into their own classes.

234

SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: SKY MAPS, SYSTEMATIC ERRORS, AND BASIC RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat {Lambda}CDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H{sub 0} from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are {Omega}{sub b} h {sup 2} = 0.02260 {+-} 0.00053, {Omega}{sub c} h {sup 2} = 0.1123 {+-} 0.0035, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.728{sup +0.015}{sub -0.016}, n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, {tau} = 0.087 {+-} 0.014, and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.809 {+-} 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles l {approx}< 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, {Omega}{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1334{sup +0.0056}{sub -0.0055}, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z{sub eq} = 3196{sup +134}{sub -133}, using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3{sigma} detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y{sub He} = 0.326 {+-} 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, {Sigma}M{sub {nu}} {<=} 0.58 eV(95%CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N{sub eff} = 4.34{sup +0.86}{sub -0.88}. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3{sigma}. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.

Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Tucker, G. S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States)

2011-02-01

235

Titan: Preliminary results on surface properties and photometry from VIMS observations of the early flybys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cassini observations of the surface of Titan offer unprecedented views of its surface through atmospheric windows in the 1-5 ??m region. Images obtained in windows for which the haze opacity is low can be used to derive quantitative photometric parameters such as albedo and albedo distribution, and physical properties such as roughness and particle characteristics. Images from the early Titan flybys, particularly T0, Ta, and T5 have been analyzed to create albedo maps in the 2.01 and 2.73 ??m windows. We find the average normal reflectance at these two wavelengths to be 0.15??0.02 and 0.035??0.003, respectively. Titan's surface is bifurcated into two albedo regimes, particularly at 2.01 ??m. Analysis of these two regimes to understand the physical character of the surface was accomplished with a macroscopic roughness model. We find that the two types of surface have substantially different roughness, with the low-albedo surface exhibiting mean slope angles of ???18??, and the high-albedo terrain having a much more substantial roughness with a mean slope angle of ???34??. A single-scattering phase function approximated by a one-term Henyey-Greenstein equation was also fit to each unit. Titan's surface is back-scattering (g???0.3-0.4), and does not exhibit substantially different backscattering behavior between the two terrains. Our results suggest that two distinct geophysical domains exist on Titan: a bright region cut by deep drainage channels and a relatively smooth surface. The two terrains are covered by a film or a coating of particles perhaps precipitated from the satellite's haze layer and transported by eolian processes. Our results are preliminary: more accurate values for the surface albedo and physical parameters will be derived as more data is gathered by the Cassini spacecraft and as a more complete radiative transfer model is developed from both Cassini orbiter and Huygens Lander measurements. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Buratti, B.J.; Sotin, C.; Brown, R.H.; Hicks, M.D.; Clark, R.N.; Mosher, J.A.; McCord, T.B.; Jaumann, R.; Baines, K.H.; Nicholson, P.D.; Momary, T.; Simonelli, D.P.; Sicardy, B.

2006-01-01

236

Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results  

SciTech Connect

In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy); Palazzo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Silk, J. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Slosar, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-03-01

237

Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in tide gauge data north of 40N, in the subpolar SST and in the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index and in subpolar winter heat flux values. The decadal cycle is a well separated mode in a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) for a time series of SST EOF mode 1 with a center over the Gulf Stream extension. Tide gauge and SST data are consistent in that both show a significant subdecadal periodicity exclusively in the subpolar gyre, but in subtropics the 12-14 year period is the prominent, but nonstationary, decadal signal. The main finding of this study is that this 12-14 year cycle can be constructed based on the leading mode of the surface heat flux. This connection to the surface heat flux implicates the participation of the thermohaline circulation in the decadal cycle. During the cycle starting from the positive index phase of NAO, SST and oceanic heat content anomalies are created in subtropics due to local heat flux and intensification of the thermohaline circulation. The anomalies advect to the subpolar gyre where they are amplified by local heat flux and are part of the negative feedback of thermohaline circulation on itself. Consequently the oceanic thermohaline circulation slows down and the opposite cycle starts. The oscillatory nature would not be possible without the active atmospheric participation in the cycle, because it provides the unstable interaction through heat flux, without it, the oceanic mode would be damped. This analysis suggests that the two principal modes of heat flux variability, corresponding to patterns similar to North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Western Atlantic (WA), are part of the same decadal cycle and an indirect measure of the north-south movement of the storm tracks.

Hakkinen, Sirpa

1998-01-01

238

Probing the Ionizing Continuum of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. I. Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectra and emission-line ratios of 12 narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies that we observed to study the ionizing EUV continuum. A common feature in the EUV continuum of active galactic nuclei is the big blue bump (BBB), generally associated with thermal accretion disk emission. While Galactic absorption prevents direct access to the EUV range, it can be mapped by measuring the strength of a variety of forbidden optical emission lines that respond to different EUV continuum regions. We find that narrow emission line ratios involving [O II] ?3727, H?, [O III] ?5007, [O I] ?6300, H?, [N II] ?6583, and [S II] ??6716, 6731 indicate no significant difference between NLS1 galaxies and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, which suggests that the spectral energy distributions of their ionizing EUV-soft X-ray continua are similar. The relative strength of important forbidden high-ionization lines like [Ne V] ?3426 compared to He II ?4686 and the relative strength of [Fe X] ?6374 appear to show the same range as in BLS1 galaxies. However, a trend of weaker F([O I] ?6300)/F(H?) emission-line ratios is indicated for NLS1 galaxies compared to BLS1 galaxies. To recover the broad emission line profiles, we used Gaussian components. This approach indicates that the broad H? profile can be well described with a broad component (FWHM~=3275+/-800 km s-1) and an intermediate broad component (FWHM~=1200+/-300 km s-1). The width of the broad component is in the typical range of normal BLS1 galaxies. The emission-line flux that is associated with the broad component in these NLS1 galaxies amounts to at least 60% of the total flux. Thus, it dominates the total line flux, similar to BLS1 galaxies.

Dietrich, M.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.

2005-04-01

239

Comparison of Observed Spatio-temporal Aftershock Patterns with Earthquake Simulator Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the complex nature of faulting in southern California, knowledge of rupture behavior near fault step-overs is of critical importance to properly quantify and mitigate seismic hazards. Estimates of earthquake probability are complicated by the uncertainty that a rupture will stop at or jump a fault step-over, which affects both the magnitude and frequency of occurrence of earthquakes. In recent years, earthquake simulators and dynamic rupture models have begun to address the effects of complex fault geometries on earthquake ground motions and rupture propagation. Early models incorporated vertical faults with highly simplified geometries. Many current studies examine the effects of varied fault geometry, fault step-overs, and fault bends on rupture patterns; however, these works are limited by the small numbers of integrated fault segments and simplified orientations. The previous work of Kroll et al., 2013 on the northern extent of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah rupture in the Yuha Desert region uses precise aftershock relocations to show an area of complex conjugate faulting within the step-over region between the Elsinore and Laguna Salada faults. Here, we employ an innovative approach of incorporating this fine-scale fault structure defined through seismological, geologic and geodetic means in the physics-based earthquake simulator, RSQSim, to explore the effects of fine-scale structures on stress transfer and rupture propagation and examine the mechanisms that control aftershock activity and local triggering of other large events. We run simulations with primary fault structures in state of California and northern Baja California and incorporate complex secondary faults in the Yuha Desert region. These models produce aftershock activity that enables comparison between the observed and predicted distribution and allow for examination of the mechanisms that control them. We investigate how the spatial and temporal distribution of aftershocks are affected by changes to model parameters such as shear and normal stress, rate-and-state frictional properties, fault geometry, and slip rate.

Kroll, K.; Richards-Dinger, K. B.; Dieterich, J. H.

2013-12-01

240

Results From VLA Observations of Five Spiral Galaxies In The Virgo Cluster Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New HI synthesis data have been obtained for the five spiral galaxies NGC 4307, NGC 4356, NGC 4411a/b and NGC 4492, located in the Virgo cluster region, with the Very Large Array in its CS configuration. All these objects, but NGC 4411a, appear to belong to a background group well behind M87 according to their sky positions and most probable Tully-Fisher distances inferred from the literature, while their HI fluxes listed in the Arecibo General Catalog indicate that they may have gaseous deficiencies comparable in strength to those measured in the center of the cluster. Here we present some results of the exhaustive study we have conducted on the HI properties of these galaxies. We will use these observations, together with future analyses of the deviations from axisymmetry in gas morphology and dynamics and the reassessment of the galaxy distances, to learn about the physical process(es) controlling the HI content of spirals located in cluster regions and to gain further insight into the connection between the properties of galaxies and their environment.

Toribio, M. C.; Solanes, J. M.

2007-05-01

241

Clinical course and prognosis in ulcerative colitis: results from population-based and observational studies  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC) may range from a quiescent course with prolonged periods of remission to fulminant disease requiring intensive medical treatment or surgery. Disease outcome is often determined by relapse rates, the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and mortality rates. Early patient classification, identifying those with a high risk of developing complicated disease, is essential for choosing appropriate treatment. This paper reviews the clinical outcomes of UC patients as reported in population-based and observational studies representative of the whole patient population. Extensive colitis, a high level of systemic symptoms and young age at diagnosis are factors associated with a high risk of colectomy. Patients with distal disease who progress to extensive colitis seem to be a subgroup with an especially high risk of colectomy. Some prognostic factors of severe disease have been identified which could be used to optimize treatment and possibly reduce future complications. The overall risk of CRC and mortality was not significantly different from that of the background population. These results may have implications for follow-up strategies, especially regarding endoscopic surveillance of UC patients. PMID:24733679

Monstad, Iril; Hovde, Øistein; Solberg, Inger Camilla; A. Moum, Bjørn

2014-01-01

242

Public medical shows.  

PubMed

In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

Walusinski, Olivier

2014-01-01

243

Global adjustement of analytical theories of planetary motion to observations: the first results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we have begun the first adjustement of the analytical theories of the planets built at the IMC-BDL, VSOP.We had gather together several types of observations, reduce and homogenize them. There are very different types of data: old and recent transit observations spread on a period of more than 2 centuries (1750-1997), photographic and CCD observations, radar ranging

A. Fienga

1999-01-01

244

NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: FINAL MAPS AND RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C {sup –1} weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ?CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t {sub 0} = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H {sub 0} = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s{sup –1} Mpc{sup –1}. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n{sub s} = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further. With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat ?CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Drive, Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Gold, B. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: cbennett@jhu.edu [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

2013-10-01

245

Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?Lambda-CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further.With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat Lambda-CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2013-01-01

246

Evaluating 4 years of atmospheric ammonia (NH3) over Europe using IASI satellite observations and LOTOS-EUROS model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring ammonia (NH3) concentrations on a global to regional scale is a challenge. Due to the limited availability of reliable ground-based measurements, the determination of NH3 distributions generally relies on model calculations. Novel remotely sensed NH3burdens provide valuable insights to complement traditional assessments for clear-sky conditions. This paper presents a first quantitative comparison between Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite observations and LOTOS-EUROS model results over Europe and Western Russia. A methodology to account for the variable retrieval sensitivity of the measurements is described. Four years of data (2008-2011) highlight three main agricultural hot spot areas in Europe: the Po Valley, the continental part of Northwestern Europe, and the Ebro Valley. The spatial comparison reveals a good overall agreement of the NH3 distributions not only in these source regions but also over remote areas and over sea when transport is observed. On average, the measured columns exceed the modeled ones, except for a few cases. Large discrepancies over several industrial areas in Eastern Europe and Russia point to underestimated emissions in the underlying inventories. The temporal analysis over the three hot spot areas reveals that the seasonality is well captured by the model when the lower sensitivity of the satellite measurements in the colder months is taken into account. Comparison of the daily time series indicates possible misrepresentations of the timing and magnitude of the emissions. Finally, specific attention to biomass burning events shows that modeled plumes are less spread out than the observed ones. This is confirmed for the 2010 Russian fires with a comparison using in situ observations.

Van Damme, M.; Wichink Kruit, R. J.; Schaap, M.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F.; Dammers, E.; Dolman, A. J.; Erisman, J. W.

2014-08-01

247

First accuracy assessment of the HY-2A altimeter sea surface height observations: Cross-calibration results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the launch of China's first altimetry and scatterometry satellite, Haiyang-2A (HY-2A), various validation studies of HY-2A radar altimetry using preliminary data products have been conducted. Here, we present the first comprehensive result assessing HY-2A's altimeter data quality and the altimetry system performance using an improved HY-2A Geophysical Data Record (GDR) product (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics reprocessed GDR product version A, GDR_IGGA). The main improvements include altimeter timing and waveform retracking, and tropospheric, ionospheric, and sea-state bias (SSB) corrections, which resulted in more accurate HY-2A sea surface height observations. Jason-2 altimeter observations are used for the cross calibration of the HY-2A altimeter over the oceans between ±60° latitude bounds, primarily due to the limitation of Jason-2 coverage. The statistical results from single- and dual-satellite altimeter crossover analysis demonstrated that HY-2A fulfills its mission requirements. We uncovered a mean relative bias of -0.21 cm (with respect to Jason-2), and a standard deviation of 6.98 cm from dual-satellite crossover analysis. In addition, we present the results of a detailed analysis on variance reduction studies for the various geophysical corrections from HY-2A and compared them with Jason-2. The wave-number spectra of HY-2A and Jason-2 sea-level anomalies show similar spectral content, verifying the performance of HY-2A altimetry to be similar to Jason-2. Open issues and the remaining HY-2A data problems have been identified, allowing prospective future studies for further improvement of its accuracy.

Bao, Lifeng; Gao, Peng; Peng, Hailong; Jia, Yongjun; Shum, C. K.; Lin, Minseng; Guo, Qi

2015-01-01

248

Initial Results from NuSTAR Observations of the Norma Arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-Ray Telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 deg2 of sky area in the 3-79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw depth of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time: CXOU J163329.5-473332, CXOU J163350.9-474638, and CXOU J163355.1-473804. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3-79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a distant X-ray binary or possibly a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. Additional surveys are planned for the Norma Arm and Galactic Center, and those NuSTAR observations will benefit from the lessons learned during this pilot study.

Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William W.

2014-08-01

249

Initial results from NuSTAR observations of the Norma Arm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented for an initial survey of the Norma Arm gathered with the focusing hard X-ray telescope NuSTAR. The survey covers 0.2 degrees-squared of sky area in the 3--79 keV range with a minimum and maximum raw exposure time of 15 ks and 135 ks, respectively. Besides a bright black-hole X-ray binary in outburst (4U 1630-47) and a new X-ray transient (NuSTAR J163433-473841), NuSTAR locates three sources from the Chandra survey of this region whose spectra are extended above 10 keV for the first time. Imaging, timing, and spectral data from a broad X-ray range (0.3--79 keV) are analyzed and interpreted with the aim of classifying these objects. CXOU J163329.5-473332 is either a cataclysmic variable or a faint low-mass X-ray binary. CXOU J163350.9-474638 varies in intensity on year-long timescales, and with no multi-wavelength counterpart, it could be a magnetar. CXOU J163355.1-473804 features a helium-like iron line at 6.7 keV and is classified as a nearby cataclysmic variable. We close by discussing some challenges inherent in imaging crowded regions with NuSTAR, and how the lessons learned in this pilot study can help scientists who wish to use NuSTAR to observe their favorite targets.

Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John; Krivonos, Roman; Stern, Daniel; Bauer, Franz E.; Fornasini, Francesca; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William W.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles James; Harrison, Fiona; Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Zhang, William

2014-08-01

250

Physical characteristics of the meteoroids by the results of combined radar and optical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a method determining of the light and ionization curves by the results of combined radio - TV observations meteors in 1978-1980 in Hissar Astronomical Observatory of the Institute of Astrophysics of Sciences of Tajikistan, the calculation results of photographic and radar meteoroid mass and analysis of the shape of light curves of meteors within the theory of evaporation and the theory of the quasi-continuous fragmentation. The photographic meteoroid mass from the light curve were defined: a) by the value of maximum luminescence intensity at the height hm and b) by the integration light curve. It is based on analysis of the data of the mass were obtained correction factor that takes into account the effect of fragmentation and other factors to determine the mass of meteoroids first method. Average value of the mass of meteoroids calculated by the light curve for meteors with magnitude M?1 is 19.10-3 g, and the average value of the mass found on magnitude of the luminescence intensity at the height the maximum brightness consist 18.2.10-3 that is in satisfactory agreement. The meteoroid’s masses was calculated also radio method by value of maximum linear electron density at the height of maximum ionization (n). The framework of the classical theory and the theory quasi-continuous fragmentation, the shape of the light curves of simultaneous radio - optical meteors were analyzed. It is shown that the main mechanism of ablation 60% of simultaneous radio - optical meteors is a quasi-continuous fragmentation. The bulk density and porosity of showers and sporadic meteoroids were determined. Found that the Geminids meteoroids and ?-Aquariids have the largest bulk densities (?o = 3.6 g/cm3). A meteoroids of the showers Orionids and Leonids have the lowest bulk density (?o ? 0.6 g/cm3), and the highest value of the porosity (60 ? K ? 80%). The mass fragments of flow and sporadic meteoroids lie in the range of 5.10-8÷10-5g.

Mirhusen, Narziev

251

Preliminary observation result of urban boundary layer at Taipei 101 Skyscraper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taipei 101 Skyscraper (508 m), the secondary tallest commercial building around the world, is the metropolis landmark of Taipei, Taiwan. The minute-resolution of wind field, air temperature and humidity sampled at the northeastern corner of 34th (151 m) and 82th (353 m) balconies are collected from January of 2011 until now for studying urban meteorological boundary layer. 31 sets of balloon-borne radiosondes near Taipei 101 Skyscraper were launched for comparison. Meanwhile, a CFD model (STREAM) was used to simulate the wind flow surrounding 101 Skyscraper. As expected, the measured wind field could be distorted strongly by the building. Comparing with radiosonde data, the wind direction measured at Taipei 101 skyscraper has 70~90 degrees clockwise turn (SN) under the prevailing northeastern (NE) wind flow. The measured wind speed at 101 Skyscraper also has ~50% reduction compared to radiosonde measurement, and the ratio of speed reduction from different wind directions was simulated by STREAM model well. In addition, the wind speed at 151m is larger than the measurement at 353m significantly. This near-surface wind jet phenomenon was diagnosed through STREAM model. We found the hill topographic effect 1.2 km Southeastern away 101 Skyscraper and the surrounding high buildings are the major factors to form this wind jet. Temperature measurement at 101 Skyscraper has highly linear regression (R > 0.98) with radiosonde temperature data. The minimum difference of air temperature between two-layer of 101 Skyscraper happens in the early morning, 04:00 LST (hot season) to 08:00 LST (cold season). Significant temperature inversion phenomena (below 353 m) were always observed at cloudless breeze days, no matter what the seasons. The Particulate Matter (PM) measured by Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Taipei Basin (15 sites) and our temporary measurements at 101 Skyscraper balconies near noon were collected, too. It showed that PM10 density at 353m height might reduce to ~70% of the ground level. But PM2.5 was seemed well-mixed in the near-surface urban boundary layer.

Lin, P. H.; Mei, K. C.; Chen, Y. C.

2012-04-01

252

Temporal and spatial variations of pulsating auroras obtained from ground-based observations at Poker Flat Research Range: Initial result  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsating Aurora(PA) is characterized by the periodically changing emission amplitudes with the rectangular pulses of a few seconds to a few tens of seconds [e.g., Oguti et al., 1981; Yamamoto, 1988]. PAs tend to appear in the recovery phase of substorm between postmidnight and dawn sector. The horizontal size of PAs are known to be 10-200 km, based on the optical observations. Recently, some ground-satellite coordinated observations suggested the generation mechanisms of PAs as a result of pitch angle scatterings due to whistler mode chorus waves and/or the electron cyclotron harmonics[Nishimura et al., 2010; Liang et al., 2010]. Time-varying field aligned potential was also suggested by Sato et al. [2004]. The dominant mechanisms and the origin of the periodicity remain unclear. Ground-based all-sky observations have been made for a long time, although they were not enough for a quantitative discussion about small-scale characteristics of PAs such as the shapes and dynamics due to their limited spatial resolutions. The fast temporal variations of intensity known as quasi-3Hz modulations, which was reported by a number of rocket/satellite observations about precipitating electrons[e.g., Sandahl et al., 1980], has been hardly discussed in detail using the ground instruments because of the limited temporal resolutions and sensitivities. We have carried out ground-based observations using a suit of instruments, consisting of an EMCCD camera, an all-sky video camera, a photometer, and a search coil magnetometer covering the frequency range of ELF-VLF. We installed the instruments at Poker Flat Research Range between November 2010 and March 2011. Our EMCCD camera has narrow field of view corresponding to 100km × 100km at altitude of 110 km and high sampling rate up to 100 frames per second. An initial analysis result of event on March 4th 2011 around 1100UT revealed two important features of PAs in small scale. One is PAs in the FOV can be categorized into three regions which showed different periods. There were 1-3Hz modulations inside each patches, while there was no higher frequency modulations. In addition, simultaneous observations with the search coil demonstrated that modulations of PA ranged 1 to 3Hz correlated to ELF amplitudes integrated over frequency range of 1-10Hz. On the other hand, VLF emissions corresponding to whistler mode waves were not seen during this period. Isolated PA seen around UT14:30 on the same day showed continuous modulations with peak at 3Hz and no correlations to ELF amplitudes. These results demonstrate that the temporal and spatial characteristics of PA, such as periodicity, modulation and micro-shapes, varies considerably with MLT in a narrow region corresponding to about 2000km × 2000km in the magnetosphere. It means that the generation processes depend greatly on local plasma conditions and the conditions are nonuniform in the source regions.

Nishiyama, T.; Sakanoi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Katoh, Y.; Asamura, K.; Sato, M.; Okano, S.

2011-12-01

253

Measurements of formaldehyde total content in troposphere using DOAS technique in Moscow Region: preliminary results of three year observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the formaldehyde (HCHO) atmospheric column are performed at Zvenigorod Scientific Station, Moscow Region, Russia since 2008 by the MAX-DOAS instrument. A previously developed algorithm for the formaldehyde retrieval was updated by adding an availability to use information on the surface albedo and the height of the atmospheric boundary layer provided by other measurements and/or modeling. We present preliminary results of the analysis of observations performed in 2010-2012. The obtained data allow quantifying the Moscow megapolis influence on air quality at Zvenigorod. The average HCHO vertical column density observed at the east winds is larger than one at the west winds. The Moscow influence causes the difference of about 0.85×1016 mol cm-2 between these values. This difference slightly depends on the air temperature and the season. A temperature effect is noticeable in the formaldehyde atmospheric column. Our data show statistically significant positive temperature effect in formaldehyde for the background and polluted conditions for temperatures from -5°C to +35°C. The temperature trend in formaldehyde data at Zvenigorod varies between 7.5×1014 and 9.3×1014 mol cm-2 °C-1 for all wind directions. The increase of the formaldehyde atmospheric column with the increase of the air temperature can be caused by the HCHO formation from non-methane biogenic volatile organic compounds (mainly - isoprene) for which more emission is expected at higher temperatures, and by growth of areas of forest and turf fires.

Postylyakov, Oleg; Borovski, Alexander; Elokhov, Alexander; Dzhola, Anatoly; Grechko, Evgeny; Kanaya, Yugo

2014-10-01

254

Neogene transtensive faulting in the Rawil axial depression (SW Switzerland): preliminary results from field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helvetic nappe stack in the Rawil depression between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs is affected by dominantly dextral transtensional faults developed or reactivated during the Neogene. This area shows the evolution of a fault system from partially ductile to brittle conditions and is currently one of the most seimogenically active zones in Switzerland. This field study aims to establish which fault sets have been activated during the Neogene and possibly Quaternary to Recent, to better constrain their relative age and kinematics, and to study the transition from ductile to brittle behaviour. The observed faults can be assigned to three general sets on the basis of their strike orientation. The first set (1) strikes NE-SW. Faults with distinctly different ages of initial activity are part of this set: Cretaceous normal faults with syn-sedimentary features; thrusts due to nappe-stacking; and later normal to oblique faults. All of these faults dip mainly to the SE. Paleo-tectonic features exposed in Plaine des Roses, les Audannes and Plaine Morte suggest that faults with this general orientation were already active during Cretaceous sedimentation. The post Aptian Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence is influenced by paleo-escarpments directly related to syn-sedimentary faults. These surfaces are marked in many places by karstification and silicification, sedimentary dykes and onlap of basinal younger formations. Some of these faults have been subsequently reactivated during Neogene syn- and post-collisional extension with normal to oblique kinematics. Transtensive reactivation of Cretaceous faults initially developed a ductile mylonitic fabric (expecially in limestones) that is overprinted by cataclasites and more discrete faults surfaces. Similarly oriented NE-striking veins were also developed under transitional brittle-ductile conditions in the limestones and, from relative age relationships, are the oldest veins developed in the area. The transtensive fault sets striking (2) E-W and (3) NW-SE generally dip at a low to moderate angle to the S or SW. The two sets are broadly coeval, as indicated in the Rawil-Plaine Morte area by many examples of branching and bending of one set into the other and by similar displacement directions and deformation fabrics. Transtensional movements must largely post-date folding, because faults of sets (2) and (3) obliquely crosscut the fold system and the fold geometry can be matched to either side. Folding and the initial stage of normal to oblique faulting developed under very low grade metamorphic conditions, with exhumation during the Neogene related to extension that was parallel or slightly oblique to the main Alpine fold axis-trend. Also for these fault sets there is locally a transition from an initial more ductile mylonitic fabric to cataclasite. Calcite slickenlines and fibres on these Neogene fault planes indicate two main stretching directions. The older one is WSW-directed and generally plunges around 25°, whereas the younger one plunges S, with a steeper, mainly dip-slip movement. Crosscutting vein relationships and bending of vein tails planes indicate a counter-clockwise rotation of the stretching direction, from WSW toward S. The WSW-directed orogen-parallel stretching is similar in orientation to that associated with the Simplon-Rhône Fault and is probably coeval, implying possible activity throughout much of the Neogene. The orientation of the transtensive faults outcropping in the Rawil depression is consistent with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the Rhone Valley. Establishing the kinematics and mechanics of these faults developed at depth in this seismically active region can therefore help in understanding earthquake processes.

Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Mancktelow, Neil

2010-05-01

255

Observing atmospheric rivers from the Global Hawk: HAMSR results from WISPAR11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the Global Hawk unmanned aerial vehicles recently acquired by NASA was flown in a NOAA-sponsored field campaign to study atmospheric rivers and winter storms approaching the US west coast from the Pacific. The focus of the field campaign, the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR), was to test out a new dropsonde system and the Global Hawk long-duration observing platform and their ability to provide observations with better coverage over a longer duration. NASA contributed the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) microwave sounder developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We will present an overview of the instrument and the campaign as well as observations of the vertical structure across two atmospheric river events deduced from HAMSR retrieved profiles of atmospheric temperature and water vapor. We also present a quantitative comparison to the co-incident dropsonde profiles.

Brown, S.; Lambrigtsen, B.

2011-12-01

256

Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment. PMID:9167558

Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

1997-01-01

257

A Comparison of TWP-ICE Observational Data with Cloud-Resolving Model Results  

SciTech Connect

Observations made during the TWP-ICE campaign are used to drive and evaluate thirteen cloud-resolving model simulations with periodic lateral boundary conditions. The simulations employ 2D and 3D dynamics, one- and two-moment microphysics, several variations on large-scale forcing, and the use of observationally derived aerosol properties to prognose droplet numbers. When domain means are averaged over a 6-day active monsoon period, all simulations reproduce observed surface precipitation rate but not its structural distribution. Simulated fractional areas covered by convective and stratiform rain are uncorrelated with one another, and are both variably overpredicted by up to a factor of {approx}2. Stratiform area fractions are strongly anticorrelated with outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) but are negligibly correlated with ice water path (IWP), indicating that ice spatial distribution controls OLR more than mean IWP. Overpredictions of OLR tend to be accompanied by underpredictions of reflected shortwave radiation (RSR). When there are two simulations differing only in microphysics scheme or large-scale forcing, the one with smaller stratiform area tends to exhibit greater OLR and lesser RSR by similar amounts. After {approx}10 days, simulations reach a suppressed monsoon period with a wide range of mean precipitable water vapor, attributable in part to varying overprediction of cloud-modulated radiative flux divergence compared with observationally derived values. Differences across the simulation ensemble arise from multiple sources, including dynamics, microphysics, and radiation treatments. Close agreement of spatial and temporal averages with observations may not be expected, but the wide spreads of predicted stratiform fraction and anticorrelated OLR indicate a need for more rigorous observation-based evaluation of the underlying micro- and macrophysical properties of convective and stratiform structures.

Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, Andrew; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Fan, Jiwen; Grabowski, Wojciech W.; Hill, A.; Jones, T. R.; Khaiyer, M. M.; Liu, G.; Minnis, Patrick; Morrison, H.; Nguyen, L.; Park, S.; Petch, Jon C.; Pinty, Jean-Pierre; Schumacher, Courtney; Shipway, Ben; Varble, A. C.; Wu, Xiaoqing; Xie, Shaocheng; Zhang, Minghua

2012-03-13

258

Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs  

SciTech Connect

The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs.

Starrfield, S.

1986-07-07

259

Traces on sky: the classification and the results of regular observations of twilight fireballs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to organize a small basic Observatory aerospace monitoring of dangerous fireballs for a detailed study of the Earth interaction with space environment. During the observation from March 2013 to July 2014 we recorded fall at least a dozen of comet nuclei fragments, at least five large and dozens of smaller fragments of meteoroids. So, like most countries in Europe and America, Ukraine needs to create a network of small basic aerospace monitoring observatories equipped with wide-angle lenses with a simple compact camera to measure these phenomena on a personal computer. These simple inexpensive hardware complexes should be equipped a professional observatory and university, school and amateur observation points.

Churyumov, Klim I.; Steklov, Alexei F.; Vidmachenko, Anatoliy P.; Steklov, E.

2014-12-01

260

Homemade Laser Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

Children's Museum of Houston

2011-01-01

261

Titan below Saturn's magnetodisc: Results from 3D hybrid simulations and Cassini MAG observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the idealized picture of Titan's plasma interaction deduced from Voyager 1 data, the ambient magnetic field is assumed to be perpendicular to the moon's orbital plane. However, Cassini observations suggest that the situation is significantly more complex: Titan is typically located below (above) its parent planet's warped and highly dynamic magnetodisc in southern (northern) summer. The magnetic field near

S. Simon; U. M. Motschmann; F. M. Neubauer; A. Wennmacher; J. S. Saur; M. K. Dougherty

2009-01-01

262

Photometry of a prominence using results of observations of the totalsolar eclipse on 31 July 1981.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data are given on the brightness distribution in a prominence on the east limb of the sun, derived from observations of the 31 July 1981 solar eclipse in the K Ca II line. The altitude and brightness of the prominence has been determined in absolute units.

Kononovich, Eh. V.; Kupryakov, Yu. A.; Smirnov, O. B.

263

Results of the Workshop on Impact Cratering: Bridging the Gap Between Modeling and Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On February 7-9,2003, approximately 60 scientists gathered at the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas, for a workshop devoted to improving knowledge of the impact cratering process. We (co-conveners Elisabetta Pierazzo and Robert Herrick) both focus research efforts on studying the impact cratering process, but the former specializes in numerical modeling while the latter draws inferences from observations of planetary craters. Significant work has been done in several key areas of impact studies over the past several years, but in many respects there seem to be a disconnect between the groups employing different approaches, in particular modeling versus observations. The goal in convening this workshop was to bring together these disparate groups to have an open dialogue for the purposes of answering outstanding questions about the impact process and setting future research directions. We were successful in getting participation from most of the major research groups studying the impact process. Participants gathered from five continents with research specialties ranging from numerical modeling to field geology, and from small-scale experimentation and geochemical sample analysis to seismology and remote sensing.With the assistance of the scientific advisory committee (Bevan French, Kevin Housen, Bill McKinnon, Jay Melosh, and Mike Zolensky), the workshop was divided into a series of sessions devoted to different aspects of the cratering process. Each session was opened by two invited t a b , one given by a specialist in numerical or experimental modeling approaches, and the other by a specialist in geological, geophysical, or geochemical observations. Shorter invited and contributed talks filled out the sessions, which were then concluded with an open discussion time. All modelers were requested to address the question of what observations would better constrain their models, and all observationists were requested to discuss how their observations can constrain modeling efforts.

Herrick, Robert (Editor); Pierazzo, Elisabetta (Editor)

2003-01-01

264

Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled in bright green. Finally, the light purple lines and arrow highlight a small crater.

2006-01-01

265

The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

266

Producing Turkeys for Show  

E-print Network

. Use top-quality feeds. 4. Follow recommended management practices during the entire brooding and growing period. 5. Cull birds closely and select the show entry properly. Purchasing Poults Most youth livestock shows have rules and regulations governing... with an approved worm- ing compound. a73 Check turkeys monthly for parasites. Pay particular attention to skin around the vent area. Control external para- sites (lice, mites, etc.) with applications of Sevin ? dust. a73 Fire ants can cause skin blisters and must...

Thornberry, Fredrick D.

2005-12-14

267

NSTA-NASA Shuttle Student Involvement Project. Experiment Results: Insect Flight Observation at Zero Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flight responses of common houseflies, velvetbean caterpillar moths, and worker honeybees were observed and filmed for a period of about 25 minutes in a zero-g environment during the third flight of the Space Shuttle Vehicle (flight number STS-3; March 22-30, 1982). Twelve fly puparia, 24 adult moths, 24 moth pupae, and 14 adult bees were loaded into an insect flight box, which was then stowed aboard the Shuttle Orbiter, the night before the STS-3 launch at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The main purpose of the experiment was to observe and compare the flight responses of the three species of insects, which have somewhat different flight control mechanisms, under zero-g conditions.

Nelson, T. E.; Peterson, J. R.

1982-01-01

268

Results from CoMStOC - The Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign (CoMStOC) was designed to measure the magnetic field strength and determine its structure in the solar corona. Simultaneous soft X-ray and microwave observations were taken by the Solar Maximum Mission's X-ray Polychromator (XRP) and the Very Large Array (VLA) on four days in the campaign period (Nov 25 to Dec 21, 1987). XRP maps in soft X-ray resonance lines formed at different coronal temperatures provide accurate temperature and emission measure diagnostics. VLA maps at several frequencies in the 20 cm and 6 cm bands yield information on microwave structure, spectrum and polarization. The combined data set separates contributions from the two dominant microwave emission mechanisms, thermal bremsstrahlung and gyroresonance. Where gyroresonance dominates, the coronal magnetic field strength has been determined with the aid of theoretical modeling.

Schmelz, J. T.; Holman, G. D.

1991-01-01

269

4Year COBE DMR Cosmic Microwave Background Observations: Maps and Basic Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cosmic microwave background radiation provides unique constraints on\\u000acosmological models. In this Letter we present a summary of the spatial\\u000aproperties of the cosmic microwave background radiation based on the full 4\\u000ayears of COBE DMR observations, as detailed in a set of companion Letters. The\\u000aanisotropy is consistent with a scale-invariant power law model and Gaussian\\u000astatistics. With

C. L. Bennett; A. Banday; K. M. Gorski; G. Hinshaw; P. Jackson; P. Keegstra; A. Kogut; G. F. Smoot; D. T. Wilkinson; E. L. Wright

1996-01-01

270

Storm time observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at geosynchronous orbit: GOES results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves may contribute to ring current ion and radiation belt electron losses, and theoretical studies suggest these processes may be most effective during the main phase of geomagnetic storms. However, ground-based signatures of EMIC waves, Pc1–Pc2 geomagnetic pulsations, are observed more frequently during the recovery phase. We investigate the association of EMIC waves with various storm

B. J. Fraser; R. S. Grew; S. K. Morley; J. C. Green; H. J. Singer; T. M. Loto'aniu; M. F. Thomsen

2010-01-01

271

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is

D. D. Turner; David D

2005-01-01

272

Satellite observations of thermospheric tides: Results from the Wind Imaging Interferometer on UARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermospheric winds measured by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite are analyzed for migrating solar tides. The data cover a 2-year period commencing February 1992 and are obtained from the atomic oxygen O(1S) 557.7-nm emission, which provides observations of the 90- to 200-km altitude range during daytime and the 90- to 110-km range at night.

Charles McLandress; Gordon G. Shepherd; Brian H. Solheim

1996-01-01

273

The Vela Pulsar: Results from the First Year of Fermi LAT Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on analysis of timing and spectroscopy of the Vela pulsar using 11 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The intrinsic brightness of Vela at GeV energies combined with the angular resolution and sensitivity of the LAT allows us to make the most detailed study to date of the energy-dependent

A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; A. Allafort; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; M. G. Baring; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; A. Bouvier; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; S. Carrigan; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; Ö. Çelik; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; C. D. Dermer; A. de Luca; F. de Palma; M. Dormody; E. do Couto e. Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; G. Giavitto; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; D. Hadasch; A. K. Harding; E. Hays; G. Hobbs; D. Horan; R. E. Hughes; M. S. Jackson; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; S.-H. Lee; M. Lemoine-Goumard; M. Llena Garde; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; A. Makeev; R. N. Manchester; M. Marelli; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; S. McGlynn; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; A. Noutsos; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; M. Ozaki; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; M. Pierbattista; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; P. S. Ray; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; L. S. Rochester; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; C. Sgrò; E. J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; T. L. Usher; A. Van Etten; V. Vasileiou; C. Venter; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; K. Watters; P. Weltevrede; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

2010-01-01

274

Using auroral hiss to search for electron beams at Enceladus: Results from RPWS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Enceladus' southern plume ejects water vapor and dust that fill the Saturnian system, a small percentage of which are ionized near the moon. These ionized particles slow the local plasma and perturb the magnetic field near the moon. This kind of interaction is well understood from studies at comets and Jupiter's moon Io, but Enceladus differs from these examples due to the importance of the dust and the physical separation between the center of the perturbation and the solid moon. It is not possible to make in situ observations at all points around Enceladus, however Cassini's Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) can remotely sense aspects of the interaction. If the thermal plasma cannot provide the currents required by the magnetic perturbations, electrons can be accelerated along the field to carry them. If this acceleration creates an electron beam, a plasma wave called "auroral hiss" may be generated and then propagate away from the source region. RPWS has observed this emission on flybys where Cassini crossed through the Enceladus flux tube. Using ray tracing techniques, we combine all of the RPWS auroral hiss observations to map out locations of electron beams near Enceladus. We find that electron beams, both parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, are generated near the flanks of the solid body. These generation regions appear to be restricted to the leading and trailing half of the Saturnward and anti-Saturnward flanks, respectively, of the solid body.

Leisner, J. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Gurnett, D. A.

2012-12-01

275

Comparison of the Genesis solar wind regime algorithm results with solar wind composition observed by ACE  

SciTech Connect

Launched on 8 August 2001, the NASA Genesis mission is now collecting samples of the solar wind in various materials, and will return those samples to Earth in 2004 for analysis. A primary science goal of Genesis is the determination of the isotopic and elemental composition of the solar atmosphere from the solar wind material returned. In particular, Genesis will provide measurements of those species that are not provided by solar and in situ observations. We know from in situ measurements that the solar wind exhibits compositional variations across different types of solar wind flows. Therefore, Genesis exposes different collectors to solar wind originating from three flow types: coronal hole, coronal mass ejection (CME), and interstream flows. Flow types are identified using in situ measurements of solar wind protons, alphas, and electrons from electrostatic analyzers carried by Genesis. The flow regime selection algorithm and subsequent collector deployment on Genesis act autonomously. We present an assessment of composition variations of O, He, and Mg ions observed by ACE/SWICS concurrent with Genesis observations, and compare these to the Genesis algorithm decisions. Not only does this serve as a test of the algorithm, the compilation of composition vs. regime will be important for comparison to the abundances determined from sample analysis at the end of the mission.

Reisenfeld, D. B. (Daniel B.); Steinberg, J. T (John T.); Barraclough, B. L. (Bruce L.); Dors, E. E. (Eric E.); Weins, R. C. (Roger C.); Neugebauer, Marcia; Reinard, A. (Alysha)

2002-01-01

276

Preliminary results from the retrieval and assimilation of GPS radio occultation refractivity observations during tropical storm development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne GPS radio occultation (RO) data have been collected by the GNSS Instrument System for Multi-static and Occultation Sensing (GISMOS) during the 2010 PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment to study developing Atlantic tropical storms. This airborne system is designed to receive and record radio signals from setting and rising GPS satellites. The additional phase delay of the GPS radio signals due to refraction in the atmosphere is used to retrieve vertical profiles of refractivity, which depend strongly on moisture. A large airborne RO dataset was acquired from twenty-six research flights and refractivity profiles have been derived from the GISMOS geodetic GPS receivers. The airborne RO profiles consistently agree within ~2% with refractivity profiles calculated from ECMWF model analyses above 5 km altitude and with nearby dropsonde profiles. Accurate refractivity results are an important first step in investigating the impact of assimilating moisture profiles within the mesoscale environment of developing storms. A case study is conducted for pre-Hurricane Karl. The evolution of refractivity derived from RO data over the five days leading to the genesis of tropical storm Karl are consistent with mid-tropospheric moistening in the vicinity of the storm center. The algorithm to assimilate airborne GPS observations has been implemented in the Three-Dimensional Variational (3DVAR) Data Assimilation (DA) system of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. We use a non-local operator for the integrated excess phase, defined as the integrated value of refractivity along the GPS radio ray path. One observation per horizontal and vertical model grid point is assimilated instead of only one per vertical model level, so that the horizontal drift of the occultation points within each model level is considered. Three data assimilation experiments were conducted: 1) NONE: No data are assimilated during data cycling. 2) DRPS: Dropsonde observations are assimilated every three hours during data cycling. 3) DRPS+GPS: Refractivity retrieved from the airborne GPS system above 5 km is included in the data assimilation process used for the DRPS experiment. Preliminary numerical experiments show a positive impact from the assimilation of both dropsondes and airborne GPS observations on Karl simulations, with improvements in refractivity and moisture fields above ~2.5 km. GPS signals from the GISMOS radio frequency (RF) recording system are being analyzed with a more robust open loop tracking method than the real-time phase-locked loop tracking used in the conventional receivers, which is expected to provide many more profiles. A test case using open loop mode tracked ~2 km deeper into the troposphere than the conventional geodetic receiver.

Haase, J. S.; Murphy, B.; Chen, X.; Chen, S.; Muradyan, P.; Nievinski, F. G.; Larson, K. M.; Garrison, J. L.; Wang, E. K.; Chen, S.

2012-12-01

277

Active layer thickness and thaw subsidence in permafrost terrain: results from long-term observations near Barrow, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Patterns of active-layer thickness (ALT) on the North Slope of Alaska are highly variable, both spatially and temporally. Although geographic patterns of ALT repeat themselves from year to year, ALT is an integrated response to a large number of parameters. Thaw penetration into an ice-rich layer at the base of the active layer is accompanied by loss of volume (thaw consolidation) and results in subsidence at the ground surface. Differential thaw settlement occurs annually in permafrost environments as the layer of annual thaw (the active layer) develops. Significant ice segregation can occur at the bottom of the active layer during "cold" periods, due predominantly to freezing from below in the autumn and winter. This study examines trends in seasonal thawing of soils and vertical movements of the ground surface associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table in the Barrow region. The core thaw depth data set consists of ALT measurements conducted under the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program. The Barrow CALM site, represented by a regular 1 km2 grid, was established in the early 1990s. The reported ALT observations were initiated in 1992 and are measured annually in late August. Additional ALT measurements are available from a series of 10 x 10 meter plots established in 1962 as part of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) research program at Barrow. Annual observations were made between 1962 and 1970. Measurements were reestablished in 1991 under the CALM program, following the original methodology. Field investigations to track interannual vertical movements associated with formation and ablation of ice near the permafrost table were initiated in 2003. Measurements continue annually at several CRREL plots representative of different elements of the tundra landscape. Observations were made at the end of the thawing season using Differential Global Positioning Systems (DGPS) technology. Results from data analysis indicate that long-term changes in ALT are accompanied by pronounced interannual variability. No significant trends are observed in the active-layer record over the last 20 years. The values from the 1960s are generally higher than in the 1990s and are very similar to those of the 2000s. Following below-average thaw in 1991-1993, there was a general increase in ALT, followed by stabilization in the thawing regime during 1999-2011. The sampled areas showed net subsidence of the ground surface over the period of observation (2003-2011), reducing average surface elevation by 0.13 m. To evaluate the integrated thermal response of this permafrost landscape to climatic forcing, site-average annual thaw depth values were correlated with the square root of DDT, estimated from site-specific air temperature records and accumulated by the date of thaw depth and surface elevation measurements. The linear best-fit regression equation was used, in conjunction with the DDT record, to estimate the vertical position of the ground surface years prior to 2003, when DGPS surveys were initiated. Results indicate that over the 18 year period the elevation of the permafrost table has decreased by 0.33 m. Only 36% (0.12 m) of this change is attributable to increased active-layer thickness, while 64% (0.21m) is attributable to subsidence of the ground surface.

Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Nelson, F. E.

2012-12-01

278

The main results show that 500 p.p.m. of acetyl salicylic acid improve growth, food intake and food efficiency as well as the health of the animals.  

E-print Network

compared the nutritional value of S04CU used as food additive at relatively high doses (125 and 250 pThe main results show that 500 p.p.m. of acetyl salicylic acid improve growth, food intake and food to an increase of the food intake and to an increase of the food efficiency. The effect of the antibiotic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

Artemisinin combination therapy can result in clinical failure if oral therapy is not directly observed  

PubMed Central

Intravenous artesunate therapy is the first-line therapy for severe malaria, and is highly efficacious when used in combination with an oral partner drug such as doxycycline or atovaquone-proguanil. However, treatment failure occurs routinely with artesunate monotherapy due to the very short half-life of this drug. In North America, experience with artesunate is limited. With the pressure to discharge patients early, administration of the essential oral partner drug is often left to the discretion of the patient. Thus, treatment failure may be commonplace if nonadherence is a factor, as was observed in the case described in the present report. PMID:24489564

Chan, Wilson W; Virmani, Divya; Pillai, Dylan R

2013-01-01

280

New Variable Stars Discovered by the APACHE Survey. II. Results After the Second Observing Season  

E-print Network

Routinely operating since July 2012, the APACHE survey has celebrated its second birthday. While the main goal of the Project is the detection of transiting planets around a large sample of bright, nearby M dwarfs in the northern hemisphere, the APACHE large photometric database for hundreds of different fields represents a relevant resource to search for and provide a first characterization of new variable stars. We celebrate here the conclusion of the second year of observations by reporting the discovery of 14 new variables.

Damasso, M; Bernagozzi, A; Bertolini, E; Calcidese, P; Carbognani, A; Cenadelli, D; Christille, J M; Giacobbe, P; Lanteri, L; Smart, M G Lattanzi R; Sozzetti, A

2015-01-01

281

Observation of anomalous Hanle spin precession line shapes resulting from interaction with localized states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown recently that in spin precession experiments, the interaction of spins with localized states can change the response to a magnetic field, leading to a modified, effective spin relaxation time and precession frequency. Here, we show that also the shape of the Hanle curve can change, so that it cannot be fitted with the solutions of the conventional Bloch equation. We present experimental data that show such an effect arising at low temperatures in epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide with localized states in the carbon buffer layer. We compare the effect between materials made with different growth methods, epitaxial growth by sublimation and by chemical vapor deposition. The presented analysis gives information about the density of localized states and their coupling to the graphene states, which is inaccessible by charge transport measurements and can be applied to any spin transport channel that is coupled to localized states.

van den Berg, J. J.; Strupinski, W.; van Wees, B. J.

2015-02-01

282

First Results from High Angular Resolution ALMA Observations Toward the HL Tau Region  

E-print Network

We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations from the 2014 Long Baseline Campaign in dust continuum and spectral line emission from the HL Tau region. The continuum images at wavelengths of 2.9, 1.3, and 0.87 mm have unprecedented angular resolutions of 0.075 arcseconds (10 AU) to 0.025 arcseconds (3.5 AU), revealing an astonishing level of detail in the circumstellar disk surrounding the young solar analogue HL Tau, with a pattern of bright and dark rings observed at all wavelengths. By fitting ellipses to the most distinct rings, we measure precise values for the disk inclination (46.72pm0.05 degrees) and position angle (+138.02pm0.07 degrees). We obtain a high-fidelity image of the 1.0 mm spectral index ($\\alpha$), which ranges from $\\alpha\\sim2.0$ in the optically-thick central peak and two brightest rings, increasing to 2.3-3.0 in the dark rings. The dark rings are not devoid of emission, we estimate a grain emissivity index of 0.8 for the innermost dark ring and lower for ...

Partnership, ALMA; Perez, L M; Hunter, T R; Dent, W R F; Hales, A S; Hills, R; Corder, S; Fomalont, E B; Vlahakis, C; Asaki, Y; Barkats, D; Hirota, A; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Kneissl, R; Liuzzo, E; Lucas, R; Marcelino, N; Matsushita, S; Nakanishi, K; Phillips, N; Richards, A M S; Toledo, I; Aladro, R; Broguiere, D; Cortes, J R; Cortes, P C; Dhawan, V; Espada, D; Galarza, F; Garcia-Appadoo, D; Guzman-Ramirez, L; Humphreys, E M; Jung, T; Kameno, S; Laing, R A; Leon, S; Marconi, G; Nikolic, B; Nyman, L -A; Radiszcz, M; Remijan, A; Rodon, J A; Sawada, T; Takahashi, S; Tilanus, R P J; Vilaro, B Vila; Watson, L C; Wiklind, T; Akiyama, E; Chapillon, E; de Gregorio, I; Di Francesco, J; Gueth, F; Kawamura, A; Lee, C -F; Luong, Q Nguyen; Mangum, J; Pietu, V; Sanhueza, P; Saigo, K; Takakuwa, S; Ubach, C; van Kempen, T; Wootten, A; Castro-Carrizo, A; Francke, H; Gallardo, J; Garcia, J; Gonzalez, S; Hill, T; Kaminski, T; Kurono, Y; Liu, H -Y; Lopez, C; Morales, F; Plarre, K; Schieven, G; Testi, L; Videla, L; Villard, E; Andreani, P; Hibbard, J E; Tatematsu, K

2015-01-01

283

Mars Pathfinder meteorological observations on the basis of results of an atmospheric global circulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Pathfinder Meteorological Package (ASI/MET) will measure the local pressure, temperature, and winds at its future landing site, somewhere between the latitudes 0 deg N and 30 deg N. Comparable measurements have already been obtained at the surface of Mars by the Viking Landers at 22 deg N (VL1) and 48 deg N (VL2), providing much useful information on the martian atmosphere. In particular the pressure measurements contain very instructive information on the global atmospheric circulation. At the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (LMD), we have analyzed and simulated these measurements with a martian atmospheric global circulation model (GCM), which was the first to simulate the martian atmospheric circulation over more than 1 year. The model is able to reproduce rather accurately many observed features of the martian atmosphere, including the long- and short-period oscillations of the surface pressure observed by the Viking landers. From a meteorological point of view, we think that a landing site located near or at the equator would be an interesting choice.

Forget, Francois; Hourdin, F.; Talagrand, O.

1994-01-01

284

Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observations and results from the OSIRIS instrument on-board Odin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Odin satellite, which is in a sun-synchronous orbit with the ascending node at 1800 LT, includes a sub-mm/mm radiometer and a combined optical spectrograph and infrared imager (OSIRIS). Both instruments obtain atmospheric images when Odin is set to scan the terrestrial limb. For OSIRIS these limb images include both the Rayleigh scattered sunlight and the airglow, even at low tangent altitudes the mesospheric airglow emission is detectable. Although Odin was only launched in late February, 2001, the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere ozone profile has been retrieved on a regular basis throughout the month of August, 2001. These derived pro- files are in excellent agreement with those from sondes as well as other satellites. At the end of October observations of the Antarctic region can be made and it is possi- ble to retrieve ozone profiles within the ozone hole. In this paper some of these high spatial resolution data are presented and it is shown that if the limb observations are combined with nadir mappers it is possible to obtain significant new information about the troposphere.

Llewellyn, E.

285

Preliminary Hard X-Ray Results of AE Aquarii Observed with NuSTAR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P = 33.08 s). It was observed with the NuSTAR imaging hard X-ray observatory to search for possible thermal emission above 10 keV and to identify a reported narrow feature in its pulse profile. The 3-30 keV phase-averaged spectrum is found to be well-fit by either an optically-thin thermal plasma model with a temperature of 3.9 keV plus power-law component with photon index of 2.2, or an optically-thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 2.3 keV and 8.7 keV, with the latter model being slightly preferred statistically. In the 3-30 keV hard energy band, we confirm a sinusoidal pulse profile with a pulsed fraction of 16.4 ± 2.4%. However, we were not able to reproduce the sharp pulse feature in the light curve in this band reported to be seen in a previous observation.

Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Rana, Vikram R.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

2015-01-01

286

Showing What They Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

Cech, Scott J.

2008-01-01

287

Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

Shropshire, Steven

2009-04-06

288

Hide / Show Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

the Ethics Secretariat for information on Animal Ethics Courses available at UNSW. All new added personnelHide / Show Animal Ethics Modification for Approved Application New personnel or updated role since last approval New person nominated since last approval You are here: Animal Ethics Application

New South Wales, University of

289

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

290

What Do Maps Show?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

291

The Ozone Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

Mathieu, Aaron

2000-01-01

292

Show Me the Way  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

Dicks, Matthew J.

2005-01-01

293

Using Graphs to Show Connections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

294

MARIE: Current Status and Results from 20 Months of Observations at Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MARIE instrument aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft detects energetic charged particles in the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and during solar particle events (SPE) [1]. As of this writing (January 2004), MARIE has been turned off, after losing communication with the spacecraft during the large SPE of October 28, 2003. However, during the prior 20 months, MARIE collected data almost continuously, observing several solar events and the nearly-constant GCR. There is still a possibility the instrument can be recovered, and troubleshooting efforts are scheduled to begin in May 2004, following the completion of the primary missions of MER-A (Spirit) and MER-B (Opportunity). At present, Odyssey is acting as a telecommunications relay for the rovers and only routine science operations are permitted in this mode.

Zeitlin, C.; Andersen, V.; Atwell, W.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L.; Saganti, P.

2004-01-01

295

New results on the microstructure of amorphous silicon as observed by internal friction  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the low temperature internal friction (Q{sup {minus}1}) of amorphous silicon (a-Si) films. Electron-beam evaporation leads to the well-known temperature-independent Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} plateau common to all amorphous solids. For hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) with about 1 at.% H produced by hot wire chemical vapor deposition, however, the value of Q{sub 0}{sup {minus}1} is over two hundred times smaller than for e-beam a-Si. This is the first observation of an amorphous solid without any significant low energy excitations. This finding offers the opportunity to study amorphous solids containing controlled densities of tunneling defects, and thus to explore their nature.

Crandall, R.S.; Mahan, A.H.; Iwaniczko, E.; Jones, K.M.; Liu, X.; White, B.E. Jr.; Pohl, R.O.

1997-07-01

296

Observations of ionospheric electron content near the geomagnetic equator in Nha Trang (SRV) - Early results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Faraday-rotation observations have been started in Nha Trang in September 1986 using the ETS-II geostationary satellite. The subionospheric point at 11.4 deg N, 110.8 deg E is located close to the geomagnetic equator. The daytime variation occurs as a broad noon-afternoon maximum, sometimes modified by the well known noontime biteout effect. The ionospheric electron content is closely related to changes in the low-level solar activity during the day as well as during night. A seasonal variation could not be derived from the data. During the declining phase, a period of reduced loss has been found around 19-21 LT, indicated by a shoulder in the Faraday records. This phenomenon is assumed to be caused by an eastward-directed electric field.

Jakowski, N.; Jungstand, A.; Binh, T. T.; Khuang, T. X.; Tan, N. D.

297

Show-Me Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

298

Keeping Show Pigs Healthy  

E-print Network

within a well-managed farm ? Vaccinating to prevent serious diseases ? Deworming the pigs routinely ? Having sick pigs promptly diagnosed and treated ? Using prescribed drugs properly Starting with healthy PigS To prevent disease outbreaks in show... of disease problems. Antibiotics are totally ineffective in preventing common viral diseases such as transmissible gas- troenteritis and swine influenza. Also, vaccines are not available for all swine diseases and must be giv- en long before the pigs...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2006-10-13

299

Viewing television talk shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how motivation, audience activity, and attitudes influenced the likelihood of watching societal?issue and relational topics on television talk programs. Path analysis supported differences in ritualized and instrumental motives for watching talk shows. Information and exciting?entertainment motivation predicted greater’ realism of, affinity with, involvement with, and intent to watch talk television. Pass?time motivation predicted reduced affinity with and intent

Alan M. Rubin; Mary M. Step

1997-01-01

300

Mars Slide Show  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

15 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a landslide that occurred off of a steep slope in Tithonium Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system.

Location near: 4.8oS, 84.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

2006-01-01

301

THE EFFECT OF BLANKING OF TDMA INTERFERENCE ON RADIO-ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS  

E-print Network

communication systems such as the Iridium system and the GSM system. In this paper we present the results communication systems such as the Iridium system and the GSM system. Several methods have been proposed multiple ac- cess (TDMA) communication systems such as GSM and Iridium. These systems divide each frequency

van der Veen, Alle-Jan

302

Some Results of the U CrB Observations in 1856 - 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical results over of photometry of eclipsing variable star U CrB (type of EA / SD) are brought after 1856 - 2007. Authors suppose that in the system U CrB there is a trade-out by a substance between components.

Grigorenko, V. D.; Gadon, S. A.; Shurpakov, S. E.; Bryukhanov, I. S.

303

A mammographic mass CAD system incorporating features from shape, fractal, and channelized Hotelling observer measurements: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present preliminary results from a highly sensitive and specific CAD system for mammographic masses. For false positive reduction, the system incorporated features derived from shape, fractal, and channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) measurements. The database for this study consisted of 80 craniocaudal mammograms randomly extracted from USF's digital database for screening mammography. The database contained 49 mass findings (24 malignant, 25 benign). To detect initial mass candidates, a difference of Gaussians (DOG) filter was applied through normalized cross correlation. Suspicious regions were localized in the filtered images via multi-level thresholding. Features extracted from the regions included shape, fractal dimension, and the output from a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) CHO. Influential features were identified via feature selection techniques. The regions were classified with a linear classifier using leave-one-out training/testing. The DOG filter achieved a sensitivity of 88% (23/24 malignant, 20/25 benign). Using the selected features, the false positives per image dropped from ~20 to ~5 with no loss in sensitivity. This preliminary investigation of combining multi-level thresholded DOG-filtered images with shape, fractal, and LG-CHO features shows great promise as a mass detector. Future work will include the addition of more texture and mass-boundary descriptive features as well as further exploration of the LG-CHO.

Catarious, David M., Jr.; Baydush, Alan H.; Abbey, Craig K.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.

2003-05-01

304

Secular Acceleration of the Magnetic Field - Results From Dynamo Models Compared With Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characteristic time scale of geomagnetic secular variation ? SV is a decreasing function of spherical harmonic degree n and is of the order 100 yr for n=4-8. Dynamo simulations had been shown to reproduce the spectral shape and, provided their magnetic Reynolds number Rm has an Earth-like value of order 1000, also the absolute values of ? SV. Magnetic satellite data from the last decade allow to estimate geomagnetic secular acceleration. Its characteristic time scale ? SA is of order ten years and fairly independent of n. Possibly the secular acceleration time scale is related to the short-term dynamics of the core, whereas ? SV reflects convective overturn. The question arises if dynamo simulations can capture the observed time scales of geomagnetic secular acceleration. We determined ? SA(n) for a set of dynamo models, covering different values of the Ekman number and the magnetic Reynolds number. We find that ? SA depends only weakly on n up to degree 10, but for larger n it asymptotically approaches the n-1-dependence that is also found for ? SV(n). The acceleration time scale at moderately low n varies with magnetic Reynolds number approximately as Rm-5/4. For an Earth-like Rm ? 1000, ? SA is of order 10 yr for n ? 2-10, as found in the field models from satellite data. A simple scaling analysis based on the frozen flux assumption for magnetic variations suggests two contributions to the secular acceleration, an advective part that scales with velocity U and has a length scale dependence corresponding to n-1, and a part that depends on the acceleration of the flow ? {U} without (explicit) dependence on the length scale. Their combination could explain the spectral shape of ? SA(n) in the models, with the latter term dominating at n < 10. The characteristic time scale of acceleration of the near surface flow U/? {U} correlates with ? SA in the different models and is of the same order as ? SA. This suggests that the observed 10 yr time scale of geomagnetic secular acceleration reflects the characteristic time of core flow acceleration.

Christensen, U. R.

2011-12-01

305

Transfer Paths of Research Results to the Practice: Observations From the Receiving End  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A non-scientific poll of fellow practicing professionals suggests that there is a range of opinions regarding the effectiveness of different ways of becoming acquainted with and using the results of academic research in their practice. Journal articles remain the dominant path for transferring research results to the profession, even though accessing them is becoming more difficult with time. Driven primarily by cost considerations personal and corporate subscriptions seem to be on the decline. Libraries are one of the first victims of cost cutting measures in the industry. Even though the availability of journal articles in electronic form facilitates their availability, their prices are prohibitive. This is especially true during when a professional is searching for a solution to a problem and may have to review several papers on the subject. One colleague suggested that the professional organizations and other publishers of research articles could learn from the experience of the music industry, by lowering the cost of downloading individual papers to something like a dollar per article, recovering thus their production costs through the increase in the volume of purchased articles. The posting on the internet of special reports and dissertations by research institutions is viewed as very useful by those working in practice. The distribution through the internet of reports by federal organizations conducting or sponsoring research, such as the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is greatly appreciated by the practicing professionals. The use of leading researchers as consultants provides a direct path for bringing research results to the practice, but it is limited to a small number of cases where bringing in a consultant can be justified. Short courses are viewed as an effective way of familiarizing professionals with the latest research findings on specific subjects. The notes distributed in such courses are considered especially useful. Conferences and special symposia offer the opportunity to practicing professionals to find out what is the latest in different subject areas, but many view such meetings as having either a practical or a research character, and expressed the desire for more meetings that would bring together the practitioners and the researchers. Commercialization is another path for bringing research results to the practice, but is limited to areas where the size of the market for the commercial application of research findings makes it economically viable. The extent of the adoption of research findings in the practice varies across subjects. The results of research in subjects driven by pressing practical needs, such as remediation of contaminated groundwater or hydraulic testing have been passed quickly to the practice. Using the results of research in subjects such as fracture flow and stochastic hydrogeology seems more elusive.

Findikakis, A. N.

2005-12-01

306

Evidencing the transition from Mode I cracking to dilation banding: Results from physical experiments with fractographic observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of quasi-brittle fracture/rupture remains one of the central problems in different domains of material science/mechanics including geomechanics. There are basically two approaches to this problem. One is the fracture mechanics dealing with stability conditions of cracks characterized by a strong stress concentration at the tips causing crack propagation. The other approach is the formation of deformation localization bands as constitutive instabilities, whose onset in quasi-brittle rocks can be considered as corresponding to the inception of rupture. We investigate the conditions of applicability of these end-member approaches and show a continuous transition from one to another with an increase in the confining pressure P in the experimental extension tests on a synthetic physical rock analogue (granular, frictional, cohesive and dilatant) material GRAM1. Discontinuities/fractures perpendicular to the least (axial) stress ?3 were generated in GRAM1 samples. These fractures form dynamically and are of two types defined by the mean stress ? or P. When ? is very small, the fractures form through mode I cracking with ?3 equal to the material tensile strength. The fracture walls have smooth surfaces in this case. Increase in ? causes increase in ?3 at fracturing, which becomes less negative and reaches small positive (compression) values, while the failure still occurs along a discontinuity perpendicular to ?3. Thus, the discontinuities generated starting from a certain ? value cannot be mode I fractures. Increase in ? also results in changes in the relief of the surfaces of discontinuities after their postmortem opening (separation of the walls): the surfaces become rougher, with the topography features forming faint/delicate plumose patterns very similar to those on the geological joint walls. SEM observations of the unopened discontinuities show that they represent several grain sizes-thick bands of a material which underwent a heterogeneous decohesion and volume/porosity increase. This suggests a dilatancy within bands. After opening they become fractures with plumose fractography. As indicated, these fractures could not be formed through the mode I mechanism. The true formation mechanism is not completely clear, but it is suggested that it represents a running constitutive instability in the form of dilation banding (with further ? increase the bands become inclined to ?1, i.e., shear; inclination angle grows with ?). The morphological similarity between the experimentally generated plumose-surface fractures and natural joints surfaces is shown. On the other hand, MEB observations evidence a textural similarity between the experimental bands and some natural unopened incipient joints found in fine grained rocks. It is proposed that propagating dilation bands could be an important mechanism for the generation of natural joints.

Nguyen, S.; Chemenda, A.; Petit, J.; Ambre, J.; Geo-Fracnet-Géoazur

2010-12-01

307

Satellite observation of lake ice as a climate indicator - Initial results from statewide monitoring in Wisconsin  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research reported herein focused on the general hypothesis that satellite remote sensing of large-area, long-term trends in lake ice phenology (formation and breakup) is a robust, integrated measure of regional and global climate change. To validate this hypothesis, we explored the use of data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to discriminate the presence and extent of lake ice during the winter of 1990-1991 on the 45 lakes and reservoirs in Wisconsin with a surface area greater than 1,000 hectares. Our results suggest both the feasibility of using the AVHRR to determine the date of lake ice breakup as well as the strong correlation (R= -0.87) of the date so derived with local surface-based temperature measurements. These results suggest the potential of using current and archival satellite data to monitor changes in the date of lake ice breakup as a means of detecting regional 'signals' of greenhouse warming.

Wynne, Randolph H.; Lillesand, Thomas M.

1993-01-01

308

M dwarfs binaries: Results from accurate radial velocities and high angular resolution observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results and perspectives of a large program on the stellar physics and the formation of very low mass stars. Using adaptive optics images (from ADONIS and NAOS at ESO and PUE'O at CFHT), infrared interferometric data (from VINCI at ESO) and accurate radial velocity (from ELODIE at OHP, FEROS and HARPS at ESO) for the M dwarfs of the solar neigbhourhood, we have obtained very accurate mass-luminosity and mass-radius relation, and compare them to the prediction of recent stellar structure models. We also present multiplicity statistics of M dwarfs (binary fraction, period and mass ration distribution), which are crucial constraints for stellar formation scenarii. Finally we discuss our results and perspectives on extrasolar planets around M dwarfs.

Delfosse, X.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Marchal, L.; Bonfils, X.; Perrier, C.; Ségransan, D.; Udry, S.; Mayor, M.; Forveille, T.

2004-12-01

309

Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Gamma Ray Bursts: Implications of the Recent Observational Results by Milagro  

E-print Network

It has been speculated earlier that Gamma Ray Bursts are sources of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. Recently, the search for high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts by Milagro group has put limits on the isotropic luminosity of these transient sources in very high energy photons. The implications of the results obtained by Milagro to our understanding of the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum from these sources have been discussed in the present work.

Nayantara Gupta

2004-10-07

310

VIRTIS/VEX observations of Venus: overview of selected scientific results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After six years in a polar Venus orbit, the visible and infrared thermal imaging spectrometer (VIRTIS) on ESA's Venus Express mission provided an enormous amount of new data, including a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere and information on global surface properties of the planet. An overview is given of selected scientific results achieved by use of VIRTIS data comprising atmospheric thermal structure, molecular and particulate composition, chemistry and dynamics, and surface features.

Arnold, Gabriele E.; Haus, Rainer; Kappel, David; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre

2012-01-01

311

Geographical statistical assessments of carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of China: Results from upscaling network observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate quantifying the magnitudes and distributions of carbon budgets is helpful for strategies in mitigating global climate change. Based on spatial patterns of carbon fluxes (gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), ecosystem respiration (ER) and net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and their drivers, we constructed geographical statistical assessment schemes and quantified the magnitudes of carbon fluxes in China. The optimal assessment scheme was then validated with observed eddy covariance data to analyze the spatial distributions of carbon fluxes. Using climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes, our estimates of GEP, ER and NEP in China during 2000s were 7.51 ± 0.51, 5.82 ± 0.16 and 1.91 ± 0.15 PgC yr- 1, corresponding to 4.29%-6.80%, 5.65%-6.06% and 9.10%-12.73% of global annual carbon fluxes, respectively. The spatial distributions of GEP, ER and NEP, generated from the optimal scheme, were similar, following a southeast-northwest decreasing gradient. The maximum values for GEP, ER and NEP were 1790, 1300 and 490 gC m- 2 yr- 1, respectively, which occurred in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics. Climate-based geographical statistical assessment schemes provided an independent dataset for the regional carbon budget assessment, which can be deemed as the potential carbon fluxes. Meanwhile, most areas in China were potential carbon sink especially Eastern China and the largest potential carbon sink appeared in Central subtropics and Southern subtropics.

Zhu, Xian-Jin; Yu, Gui-Rui; He, Hong-Lin; Wang, Qiu-Feng; Chen, Zhi; Gao, Yan-Ni; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Yan, Jun-Hua; Wang, Hui-Min; Zhou, Guang-Sheng; Jia, Bing-Rui; Xiang, Wen-Hua; Li, Ying-Nian; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Yan-Fen; Shi, Pei-Li; Chen, Shi-Ping; Xin, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Feng-Hua; Wang, Yu-Ying; Tong, Cheng-Li; Fu, Yu-Ling; Wen, Xue-Fa; Liu, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Lei-Ming; Zhang, Li; Su, Wen; Li, Sheng-Gong; Sun, Xiao-Min

2014-07-01

312

Long-acting paliperidone palmitate – interim results of an observational study of its effect on hospitalization  

PubMed Central

Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently introduced long-acting atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotic. Published data on PP are currently limited to controlled trials and case reports. In this observational study, we followed up 200 consecutive patients prescribed PP in normal practice. After 1 year, 65% of patients were still receiving PP. The number of admissions to hospital in the year following PP initiation was 0.49/patient compared with 0.69/patient/year, 3 years before initiation (P=0.0001). The mean number of bed days fell from 38.78 to 23.09/patient/year over the corresponding period (P=0.0001). The median number of bed days 3 years before PP initiation was 21.50/year and in the year following PP initiation, it was 0. Outcomes were numerically but not statistically better in those continuing PP than in those who ceased PP within a year of initiation. PP was effective and well-tolerated and, given its positive effect on hospital bed days, broadly cost-effective. PMID:24419004

Olofinjana, Olubanke

2014-01-01

313

Long-acting paliperidone palmitate - interim results of an observational study of its effect on hospitalization.  

PubMed

Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently introduced long-acting atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotic. Published data on PP are currently limited to controlled trials and case reports. In this observational study, we followed up 200 consecutive patients prescribed PP in normal practice. After 1 year, 65% of patients were still receiving PP. The number of admissions to hospital in the year following PP initiation was 0.49/patient compared with 0.69/patient/year, 3 years before initiation (P=0.0001). The mean number of bed days fell from 38.78 to 23.09/patient/year over the corresponding period (P=0.0001). The median number of bed days 3 years before PP initiation was 21.50/year and in the year following PP initiation, it was 0. Outcomes were numerically but not statistically better in those continuing PP than in those who ceased PP within a year of initiation. PP was effective and well-tolerated and, given its positive effect on hospital bed days, broadly cost-effective. PMID:24419004

Taylor, David; Olofinjana, Olubanke

2014-07-01

314

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

SciTech Connect

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is greater than that of liquid water from 10 to 13 ?m, whereas liquid water is more absorbing than ice from 16 to 25 ?m. MIXCRA retrievals are only valid for optically thin (?visible < 6) single-layer clouds when the precipitable water vapor is less than 1 cm. MIXCRA was applied to the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) data that were collected during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) experiment from November 1997 to May 1998, where 63% of all of the cloudy scenes above the SHEBA site met this specification. The retrieval determined that approximately 48% of these clouds were mixed phase and that a significant number of clouds (during all 7 months) contained liquid water, even for cloud temperatures as low as 240 K. The retrieved distributions of effective radii for water and ice particles in single-phase clouds are shown to be different than the effective radii in mixed-phase clouds.

Turner, David D.

2005-04-01

315

The European Fireball Network 2011 - Status of Cameras and Observation Results in Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Fireball Network (EN) has been continuously operating since 1966 (Figure 1). Beginning in 1995, observing stations in Germany have been managed and operated by the DLR Institute of Planetary Research, Berlin. The stations in Germany are of the classical type, consisting of cameras on a tripod, looking down and taking images of a paraboloidal mirror. Rotating shutters mounted in front of the camera lens provide velocity information for the fast-moving meteors. Cameras are equipped with film. Typically, one longexposure image is taken every night, covering the whole sky (Figure 1). In 2011, 14 cameras were in regular operation. 59 fireballs on 81 photographs could be recorded, representing an extraordinary "fireball yield". The number of 78 fireball co-registrations with other central-European camera systems was extraordinary as well. Data reduction and orbit reconstruction (carried out at Ond?ejov Observatory, P. Spurný and team) was possible for 6 meteors. The brightest meteor, registered on May 4, had a magnitude of -10. In the area monitored by the cameras, one fireball was recorded (Figure 1), following which, with high probability, a meteorite fall occurred. Unfortunately, due to terrain conditions within the urban area of Berlin no meteorites could be recovered.

Flohrer, J.; Oberst, J.; Heinlein, D.; Grau, T.

2012-09-01

316

"Cosmic Collisions" Planetarium Show  

E-print Network

of the Moon · Collisions between hydrogen atoms in solar interior, resulting in nuclear fusion · Charged in the Exploring the Planets Gallery (and there is one you can touch at SI's National Museum of Natural History of hydrogen atoms to fuse and form helium to provide the Sun's power, is an explicit subset of this particular

Mathis, Wayne N.

317

Preliminary Results of Observations of Comets De Vico and Hyakutake by the Ulysses Comet Watch Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cometary interactions with the solar wind allow us to use comets as probes of the inner regions of the heliosphere. During their close passage to the Sun, comets are exposed to different environments depending on their latitude. Until recently, characterizing these environments has been difficult because most spacecraft studying the sun have been confined to studying its mid-latitudes. A valuable source of information about the differing regimes of the solar wind is the joint ESA/NASA ULYSSES mission, which is the first spacecraft to explore the polar regions of the heliosphere. In 1995, ULYSSES' orbit covered a range of solar latitudes from -80 degrees to +80 degrees - an interval referred to as the 'fast latitude scan.' The Ulysses Comet Watch incorporates in-situ measurements during these periods by the ULYSSES spacecraft with images contributed by a world-wide network of observers (both amateur and professional). Bright comets whose paths come within 20 degrees solar latitude of the spacecraft are considered especially good targets for correlation between spacecraft data and plasma tail activity. Ulysses findings of interest to cometary plasma research are: Verification of global differences in solar wind properties (speed and density) at different solar latitudes. At polar latitudes - ranging from roughly +/-30 degrees to +/-80 degrees - the solar wind speed is about 750 kilometers/sec, and has a proton density (1 AU) around 3 cm(exp -3). Changes in properties are small and the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is not seen. In the equatorial latitudes (roughly +30 to -30 degrees), the average solar wind speed is about 450 kilometers/sec, with an average proton density (at 1 AU) around 9 cm(exp -3). The HCS is seen and changes in properties can be large. An object, spacecraft or comet, at a given latitude, can be entirely in the polar, entirely in the equatorial, or can experience both - sort of a transition region.

Petersen, C. C.; Brandt, J. C.; Yi, Y.

1996-01-01

318

In situ observations of BrO over Antarctica: ER-2 aircraft results from 54 S to 72 S latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bromine monoxide was observed in situ at approximately 18 km altitude during nine flights of the NASA ER-2 aircraft from Punta Arenas, Chile (54 altitude) to 72 S latitude over the Palmer Peninsula, Antarctica. The first flight for the BrO detection system was on 28 August. Here, the results from the flights over Antarctica and from the ferry flights from Punta Arenas to Moffett Field, CA (37 N latitude are reported. A key question concerning BrO, then, is how it is distributed with respect to the chemical containment vessel defined by elevated ClO mixing ratios. This question is answered with greatest statistical significance if the data are averaged into five regions: outside the vessel, aircraft heading south; inside the vessel on the same potential temperature surface; in the dive region; inside the vessel on a given potential temperature surface, aircraft heading north; and outside the vessel on the same surface. The result is that the BrO distribution inside the chemical containment vessel was different from that found outside. Inside, the BrO mixing ratio was (5.0 plus or minus 1.1) pptv between the 400 K and 460 K potential temperature surfaces, decreasing only slightly with potential temperature, and was less than 3.6 pptv below the 4 00 K surface. The abundance of BrO inside the chemical containment vessel showed no discernible temporal trend during the course of the nine flights. Outside the vessel, the BrO mixing ratio was (4.7 plus or minus 1.3) pptv near the 450 K surface, but decreased to (2.8 plus or minus 1.0) pptv near the 420 K surface.

Brune, W. H.; Anderson, J. G.

1988-01-01

319

Observation of an Excess Current Noise Resulting from Oxygen Absorption onto Iron Films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on measurements that demonstrate that oxygen absorbed on clean polycrystalline Fe films can produce an excess current noise. The noise is indicative of dynamic processes occurring in the surface region of the film. We propose that the noise results from the dynamics of a reversible reaction between absorbed states. The measurements are accurately modeled with a single correlation time implying that surface heterogeneity is not important to the reaction. In addition to offering promise for future states of solid-state surface reactions, these measurements also have implications for the origin of 1/f current noise in conductors.

Shanabarger, M. R.; Wilcox, J.; Nelson, H. G.

1982-01-01

320

Beryllium dispersion near explosive firing tables: A comparison of computed and observed results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It was demonstrated that evaluation of vertical atmospheric Be profiles, extensive deposition samples, a few strategically located air concentration measuring devices, and ambient meteorological conditions can be used to characterize the high-explosives tests at Site 300. The application of modeling simulation using the detailed description of Be particle size and air concentrations in the stem and cap cloud formed during a detonation has resulted in a high level of physical realism and objectivity in the assessment of downwind Be deposition and short term elevated air concentrations.

Shinn, Joseph H.; Cederwall, R. T.; Lamson, K. C.; Mitchell, C. S.

1989-07-01

321

NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? {sub b} h {sup 2}, ? {sub c} h {sup 2}, and ?{sub ?}, are each determined to a precision of ?1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to ?{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m {sub ?} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Spergel, D. N. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Dunkley, J. [Oxford Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Page, L.; Jarosik, N. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Smith, K. M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Gold, B. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street S.E., Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Kogut, A.; Wollack, E. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S., E-mail: hinshaw@physics.ubc.ca [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States); and others

2013-10-01

322

American History Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

Ms. Bennion

2009-11-23

323

Artificial cochlea and acoustic black hole travelling waves observation: Model and experimental results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inhomogeneous fluid structure waveguide reproducing passive behaviour of the inner ear is modelled with the help of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method. A physical setup is designed and built. Experimental results are compared with a good correlation to theoretical ones. The experimental setup is a varying width plate immersed in fluid and terminated with an acoustic black hole. The varying width plate provides a spatial repartition of the vibration depending on the excitation frequency. The acoustic black hole is made by decreasing the plate's thickness with a quadratic profile and by covering this region with a thin film of viscoelastic material. Such a termination attenuates the flexural wave reflection at the end of the waveguide, turning standing waves into travelling waves.

Foucaud, Simon; Michon, Guilhem; Gourinat, Yves; Pelat, Adrien; Gautier, François

2014-07-01

324

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, William D.

1981-01-01

325

?-? Interaction among violanthrone molecules: observation, enhancement, and resulting charge transport properties.  

PubMed

To investigate the relationship between ?-? stacking and charge transport property of organic semiconductors, a highly soluble violanthrone derivative, 16,17-bis(2-ethylhexyloxy)anthra[9,1,2-cde-]benzo[rst]pentaphene-5,10-dione (3), is designed and synthesized. The ?-? stacking behavior and the aggregation of compound 3 in both solution and thin film were studied in detail by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). When (1)H NMR spectroscopy and theoretical modeling results were combined, the arrangements of compound 3 molecules in the aggregates are demonstrated, where the dipole moments of the two adjacent molecules are nearly reversed to achieve efficient intermolecular ?-? overlapping. Furthermore, it is interesting to find that the ?-? stacking of compound 3, in both solution and thin films, can be enhanced by introducing a poor solvent n-hexane into the dilute chloroform solution. The resulting film exhibits more red-shifted absorption and higher crystallinity than the film made from pure chloroform solvent, suggesting that ?-? interactions in the solid state are intensified by the poor solvent. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with compound 3 film as the transportation layer were fabricated. It is disclosed that the compound 3 film obtained from the chloroform/n-hexane mixed solvents exhibits 1 order of magnitude higher hole mobility than that from the pure chloroform solvent because of the enhanced ?-? interactions and the higher crystallinity in the former film. This work provided us valuable information in the improvement of electronic and optoelectronic performances of organic semiconductors by tuning their aggregate structures. PMID:21142198

Shi, Min-Min; Chen, Yi; Nan, Ya-Xiong; Ling, Jun; Zuo, Li-Jian; Qiu, Wei-Ming; Wang, Mang; Chen, Hong-Zheng

2011-02-01

326

Geomorphic expression of strike-slip faults: field observations vs. analog experiments: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this project is to study the surface expression of strike-slip faults with main aim to find rules how these structures can be extrapolated to depth. In the first step, several basic properties of the fault architecture are in focus: (1) Is it possible to define the fault architecture by studying surface structures of the damage zone vs. the fault core, particularly the width of the damage zone? (2) Which second order structures define the damage zone of strike-slip faults, and how relate these to such reported in basement fault strike-slip analog experiments? (3) Beside classical fault bend structures, is there a systematic along-strike variation of the damage zone width and to which properties relates the variation of the damage zone width. We study the above mentioned properties on the dextral Altyn fault, which is one of the largest strike-slip on Earth with the advantage to have developed in a fully arid climate. The Altyn fault includes a ca. 250 to 600 m wide fault valley, usually with the trace of actual fault in its center. The fault valley is confined by basement highs, from which alluvial fans develop towards the center of the fault valley. The active fault trace is marked by small scale pressure ridges and offset of alluvial fans. The fault valley confining basement highs are several kilometer long and ca. 0.5 to 1 km wide and confined by rotated dextral anti-Riedel faults and internally structured by a regular fracture pattern. Dextral anti-Riedel faults are often cut by Riedel faults. Consequently, the Altyn fault comprises a several km wide damage zone. The fault core zone is a barrier to fluid flow, and the few springs of the region are located on the margin of the fault valley implying the fractured basement highs as the reservoir. Consequently, the southern Silk Road was using the Altyn fault valley. The preliminary data show that two or more orders of structures exist. Small-scale develop during a single earthquake. These finally accumulate to a several 100 m wide fault core, which is in part exposed at surface to arid climate and a km wide damage zone. The basic structures of analog experiments can be well transferred to nature, although along strike changes are common due to fault bending and fracture failure of country rocks.

Hsieh, S. Y.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2012-04-01

327

Solar Wind Effects on Plasma Density Depletions: C/NOFS Results with Related Observations from DMSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before C/NOFS, the prevailing wisdom was that equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were primarily a post-sunset phenomenon. Changes in the ionosphere after sunset create conditions favorable for instability formation as polarization electric fields increase near the terminator. Plasma irregularities that develop in the bottomside of the F-layer grow into large depletions that rise rapidly into the topside ionosphere. By two hours in local time after sunset the initial upward drift of the ionosphere reverses suppressing further development of instabilities. Tsunoda’s [1985] seasonal-longitudinal model predicted that EPB rates should peak near times when the equatorial declination and the dusk terminator are closely aligned. Under these conditions E-layer conductance vanishes at both ends of flux tubes simultaneously, allowing EPBs to grow most rapidly. We validated this model during the recent solar maximum. In this unusual solar minimum, however, C/NOFS has encountered very few post-sunset depletions. They commonly appear between local midnight and dawn. We trace the energy flow from the Sun to the Earth to demonstrate that C/NOFS measurements are providing key insights into the dynamics of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system. Results suggest that systematic effects of solar wind / IMF on dynamics of equatorial plasmas and electric fields may allow long-term alerts about impending ionospheric disturbances that lead to scintillation activity. Reference: Tsunoda, R. T. (1985), J. Geophys. Res., 90, 447.

Burke, W. J.; Gentile, L. C.; Roddy, P. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Wilson, G. R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Su, Y.

2010-12-01

328

MAARSY -The Middle Atmosphere ALOMAR Radar System: Motivation, system description, observation strategies and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics is building a new MST-Radar (MAARSY) at the Andoya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. The scientific objective of MAARSY is the investigation of horizontal and vertical structures in the Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere and in the Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere with a high vertical and horizontal resolution. The VHF radar operates at 53.5 MHz and reaches a peak power of 866 kW for the complete aperture. The complete aperture can be used to form a narrow (3.4° ) and freely steerable (<30° from zenith) radar beam or to create several independent steerable beams. This is achieved by connecting each of the 433 Yagi antennas to its own transceiver. Each transceiver provides a maximum power of 2kW and can be separately controlled in both phase and transmitted power. This flexibility allows us to perform a variety of experiments comprising classical Doppler-Beam-Swinging and Full Correlation Analysis, and more advanced methods such as interferometric techniques and different vertical and horizontal scanning modes with up to 50 beam positions. The installation of MAARSY started in 2009 and the full extension is scheduled for spring 2011. We present first results obtained with an initial expansion stage of MAARSY during spring and early summer 2010.

Latteck, Ralph; Singer, Werner; Stober, Gunter; Renkwitz, Toralf; Zecha, Marius; Rapp, Markus

329

Spatiotemporal ecohydrological patterns and processes in temperate uplands: linking field observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are obvious surface expressions - in terms of vegetation patterning - of ecohydrological feedbacks on dryland and peatland hillslopes. Much less is known about subsurface ecohydrological patterns, and whether or not they 'map onto' surface patterns. Likewise, few attempts have been made to investigate how such ecohydrological patterns affect whole-hillslope hydrological behaviour or how widespread they are in non-dryland and non-peatland hillslopes. In this study we investigate surface and near- surface patterning in temperate hillslopes, which to date have been the focus of much hydrological work but little ecohydrological work. In particular, we consider the extent to which the direct and the indirect effects of past and present plant assemblages on local and whole-hillslope soil moisture conditions may contribute to patterning. We have conducted a field study of two temperate upland hillslopes in Northern Scotland, UK, on one of which human intervention plays a major part in shaping the landscape. Repeat measurements have been made of near- surface soil-moisture content, taken at lag distances of 0.25 m to 20 m, under different antecedent hydrological conditions together with characterisation of plant assemblages at the same points through both ground-based vegetation surveys of 1 m × 1 m plots and kite aerial photography (KAP) of > 20 m2 plots. Results from this have indicated that changes in ecohydrological patterns can occur over small spatial scales (< 1 m2) and short time scales (< 1 day). Comparison of values of near-surface soil moisture content with topographic wetness indices, calculated using 1 -m resolution topographic data collected in the field, has highlighted that topography does not explain all of the spatial variation in soil moisture content at this scale. KAP images allowed detection of vegetation patterns not obvious from the ground. Comparison of KAP images and historic aerial photographs has highlighted the persistence of vegetation patterns over time at both sites, and that the current structure of the landscape is clearly related to current and past vegetation management practices. Evidence of sustained patterning under relatively steady environmental conditions has prompted us to consider how internal system dynamics such as competition and facilitation between different plant assemblages, and persistence of ecological memory at a range of timescales may lead to a range of ecohydrological behaviours at the scale of whole hillslopes. To help conceptualize ways in which patterning may arise, we have built a two-dimensional cellular automata-type model in which local interactions between biotic and abiotic components have the potential to lead to emergence of larger-scale patterns within the model landscape. Results from the field study have been used to gauge how well temperate hillslope ecohydrological dynamics are represented in our model, and to check that local neighbourhood patterns in the model outputs resemble real-world patterning. Key words: temperate upland ecohydrology, plant assemblage dynamics, ecological memory, kite aerial photography, cellular automata.

Dodd, N. H.; Baird, A. J.; Wainwright, J.; Dunn, S. M.

2011-12-01

330

Personality Traits Affect Teaching Performance of Attending Physicians: Results of a Multi-Center Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background Worldwide, attending physicians train residents to become competent providers of patient care. To assess adequate training, attending physicians are increasingly evaluated on their teaching performance. Research suggests that personality traits affect teaching performance, consistent with studied effects of personality traits on job performance and academic performance in medicine. However, up till date, research in clinical teaching practice did not use quantitative methods and did not account for specialty differences. We empirically studied the relationship of attending physicians' personality traits with their teaching performance across surgical and non-surgical specialties. Method We conducted a survey across surgical and non-surgical specialties in eighteen medical centers in the Netherlands. Residents evaluated attending physicians' overall teaching performance, as well as the specific domains learning climate, professional attitude, communication, evaluation, and feedback, using the validated 21-item System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ). Attending physicians self-evaluated their personality traits on a 5-point scale using the validated 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI), yielding the Five Factor model: extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, agreeableness and openness. Results Overall, 622 (77%) attending physicians and 549 (68%) residents participated. Extraversion positively related to overall teaching performance (regression coefficient, B: 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.10, P?=?0.02). Openness was negatively associated with scores on feedback for surgical specialties only (B: ?0.10, 95% CI: ?0.15 to ?0.05, P<0.001) and conscientiousness was positively related to evaluation of residents for non-surgical specialties only (B: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.22, p?=?0.01). Conclusions Extraverted attending physicians were consistently evaluated as better supervisors. Surgical attending physicians who display high levels of openness were evaluated as less adequate feedback-givers. Non-surgical attending physicians who were conscientious seem to be good at evaluating residents. These insights could contribute to future work on development paths of attending physicians in medical education. PMID:24844725

Scheepers, Renée A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Arah, Onyebuchi A.

2014-01-01

331

Around the Clock Observations of the Q0957+561 A,B Gravitationally Lensed Quasar II: Results for the second observing season  

E-print Network

We report on an observing campaign in March 2001 to monitor the brightness of the later arriving Q0957+561 B image in order to compare with the previously published brightness observations of the (first arriving) A image. The 12 participating observatories provided 3543 image frames which we have analyzed for brightness fluctuations. From our classical methods for time delay determination, we find a 417.09 +/- 0.07 day time delay which should be free of effects due to incomplete sampling. During the campaign period, the quasar brightness was relatively constant and only small fluctuations were found; we compare the structure function for the new data with structure function estimates for the 1995--6 epoch, and show that the structure function is statistically non-stationary. We also examine the data for any evidence of correlated fluctuations at zero lag. We discuss the limits to our ability to measure the cosmological time delay if the quasar's emitting surface is time resolved, as seems likely.

Wesley N. Colley; Rudolph E. Schild; Cristina Abajas; David Alcalde; Zeki Aslan; Ilfan Bikmaev; Vahram Chavushyan; Luis Chinarro; Jean-Philippe Cournoyer; Richard Crowe; Vladimir Dudinov; Anna Kathinka; Dalland Evans; Young-Beom Jeon; Luis J. Goicoechea; Orhan Golbasi; Irek Khamitov; Kjetil Kjernsmo; Hyun Ju Lee; Jonghwan Lee; Ki Won Lee; Myung Gyoon Lee; Omar Lopez-Cruz; Evencio Mediavilla; Anthony F. J. Moffatt; Raul Mujica; Aurora M. Ullan; Alexander Oscoz; Myeong-Gu Park; Norman Purves; Nail Sakhibullin; Igor Sinelnikov; Rolf Stabell; Alan Stockton; Jan Teuber; Roy Thompson; Hwa-Sung Woo; Alexander Zheleznyak

2002-10-17

332

Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus 0.013, OMEGA(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.1358(sup +0.0037)(sub -0.0036), z reion = 10.9 plus or minus 1.4, and t(sub 0) = 13.72 plus or minus 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ration is r less than 0.22 (95% CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dn(sub s)/d ln k = -0.028 plus or minus 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 less than 1 + w less than 0.12 (95% CL) and -0.0179 less than OMEGA(sub k) less than 0.0081 (95% CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N(sub eff) = 4.4 plus or minus 1.5 (69% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N(sub eff) = 0 are disfavored at greater than 99% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 less than f(sup local)(sub NL) less than 111 (95% CL) and -151 less than f(sup equal)(sub NL) less than 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respectively.

Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2010-01-01

333

Further results on the observability in magneto-inertial navigation Pedro Batista, Nicolas Petit, Carlos Silvestre, and Paulo Oliveira  

E-print Network

Further results on the observability in magneto-inertial navigation Pedro Batista, Nicolas Petit assumption usually formulated to employ the magneto-inertial navigation (MINAV) technique. This technique "magneto-inertial navigation" (MINAV) [1], [2], [3]. As its name calls to mind, it relies on the combined

334

Results of interferometric observations of the F-corona radial velocity field at the distances (3 - 7) R_sun;.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of observations of the F-corona radial velocity field during July 31, 1981 are briefly given. The prograde and retrograde Keplerian motion of the circumsolar dust, the radial motion directed to the Sun and some ejections were obtained.

Shcheglov, P. V.; Shestakova, L. I.; Ajmanov, A. K.

335

[Results from the X-ray and Optical Follow-up Observations of the Swift BAT AGN Survey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I will present results from the x-ray and optical follow-up observations of the Swift BAT ACN survey. I will discuss the nature of obscuration in these objects, the relationship to optical properties and the change of properties with luminosity and galaxy type and how they will influence the design of XO.

Mushotzky, R.

2008-01-01

336

Stratospheric Assimilation of Chemical Tracer Observations Using a Kalman Filter. Pt. 2; Chi-Square Validated Results and Analysis of Variance and Correlation Dynamics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Kalman filter system designed for the assimilation of limb-sounding observations of stratospheric chemical tracers, which has four tunable covariance parameters, was developed in Part I (Menard et al. 1998) The assimilation results of CH4 observations from the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Sounder instrument (CLAES) and the Halogen Observation Experiment instrument (HALOE) on board of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite are described in this paper. A robust (chi)(sup 2) criterion, which provides a statistical validation of the forecast and observational error covariances, was used to estimate the tunable variance parameters of the system. In particular, an estimate of the model error variance was obtained. The effect of model error on the forecast error variance became critical after only three days of assimilation of CLAES observations, although it took 14 days of forecast to double the initial error variance. We further found that the model error due to numerical discretization as arising in the standard Kalman filter algorithm, is comparable in size to the physical model error due to wind and transport modeling errors together. Separate assimilations of CLAES and HALOE observations were compared to validate the state estimate away from the observed locations. A wave-breaking event that took place several thousands of kilometers away from the HALOE observation locations was well captured by the Kalman filter due to highly anisotropic forecast error correlations. The forecast error correlation in the assimilation of the CLAES observations was found to have a structure similar to that in pure forecast mode except for smaller length scales. Finally, we have conducted an analysis of the variance and correlation dynamics to determine their relative importance in chemical tracer assimilation problems. Results show that the optimality of a tracer assimilation system depends, for the most part, on having flow-dependent error correlation rather than on evolving the error variance.

Menard, Richard; Chang, Lang-Ping

1998-01-01

337

Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

2011-12-01

338

Observational Results using BTFI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here an overview of a new tunable filter instrument for the SOAR telescope. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) is a highly versatile new technology to be used both in seeing-limited mode and at higher spatial fidelity using SAM Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics facility (SOAR Adaptive Module) which is being deployed at the SOAR telescope. It presents important new science capabilities for the SOAR astronomical community, from studies of the centers of nearby galaxies and the insterstellar medium to statistical cosmological investigations.

Quint, B.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

2014-10-01

339

Optical spectroscopic observations of gamma-ray blazar candidates IV. Results of the 2014 follow-up campaign  

E-print Network

The extragalactic gamma-ray sky is dominated by the emission arising from blazars, one of the most peculiar classes of radio-loud active galaxies. Since the launch of Fermi several methods were developed to search for blazars as potential counterparts of unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). To confirm the nature of the selected candidates, optical spectroscopic observations are necessary. In 2013 we started a spectroscopic campaign to investigate gamma-ray blazar candidates selected according to different procedures. The main goals of our campaign are: 1) to confirm the nature of these candidates, and 2) whenever possible determine their redshifts. Optical spectroscopic observations will also permit us to verify the robustness of the proposed associations and check for the presence of possible source class contaminants to our counterpart selection. This paper reports the results of observations carried out in 2014 in the Northern hemisphere with Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and in the Southern hemi...

Ricci, F; Landoni, M; D'Abrusco, R; Milisavljevic, D; Stern, D; Masetti, N; Paggi, A; Smith, Howard A; Tosti, G

2015-01-01

340

Preliminary results of observations in January, 2014 of a meteor shower of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Special research on the detection of possible meteoric activity in January 2014 connected with the remains of the comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) are conducted. This work is based on the observational material received in various points on the Earth, by means of CCD cameras (10 CCD cameras), equipped with lenses like ''Fish eye'' (All-sky camera) and radio observations in the FM range. 43 meteor phenomena were revealed during viewing of 54,000 images on January 17, 2014. As a result of position measurements of images and calculations coordinates of a meteor radiant were received: ?_{R}=156 deg, ?_{R}= +38 deg (Fig. 1). During this period (January 08-24, 2014) increase of meteor activity over the level of a sporadic meteor background is confirmed by FM-radio observations in Molodechno (Belarus) and Jaen (Spain) (Fig. 2a,b).

Golubaev, A.; Brukhanov, I.; Tabolich, A.; Tabolich, T.; Kulakovskaya, A.; Sergey, I.

2014-07-01

341

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. Preliminary results from the SNSPOL project provide support for the increasingly popular hypothesis that many supernovae are aspherical explosion events. Thus far, we have observed 27 different SNe, many over multiple epochs, over the course of the last three years. While the history and evolution of these events is often studied with photometric and spectroscopic information, most supernovae are not studied with the combined advantage that spectropolarimetric data provides. The use of polarimetry allows us to probe the extent of the asphericity of the explosions while the use of spectroscopy allows us to characterize this asphericity across a variety of chemical species individually and as a function of velocity. Modern 3-D model simulations favor an explosion mechanism that is often inherently asymmetric in nature. Here, we showcase some of our initial results for the nearby type-IIb SN 2011dh that demonstrate the unique information that spectropolarimetric observations provide.

Bilinski, Christopher; Williams, G. G.; Smith, P. S.; Smith, N.; Milne, P.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Dessart, L.

2014-01-01

342

Palomar and Table Mountain Observations of 9P/Tempel 1 during the Deep Impact Encounter: First Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present the first results of the Palomar Adaptive Optics observations taken during the Deep Impact encounter with 9P/Tempel 1 in July 2005. We have combined the Palomar near-IR imaging data with our visual wavelength images obtained simultaneously at JPL's Table Mountain Observatory to cover the total wavelength range from 0.4 to 2.3 micrometers in the B, V, R, I, J, H, and K filter bands, spanning the dates from 2005 July 03-07.We also include in our overall analysis images taken on the pre-encounter dates of June 1 and June 15, 2005. The broad wavelength range of our observations, along with high temporal resolution, near-IR sensitivity, and spatial resolution of our imaging, have enabled us to place constraints on the temperature of the impact flash and incandescent plume of greater than 700 K, and to provide mean dust velocities of order 197 +/- 16 m/s approximately 1.25 h after impact derived from our 1.64 micro observations. Our ejected dust mass estimates, as derived from our near-IR observations, are an order of magnitude less than those previously reported for visual wavelength observations.

Bauer, James M.; Weissman, Paul R.; Choi, Young-Jun; Troy, Mitchell; Young, James W.; Lisse, Carey M.; Dekany, Richard; Hanner, Martha S.; Buratti, Bonnie J.

2007-01-01

343

Annual water-level measurements in observation wells, 1951-1955, and atlas of maps showing changes in water levels for various periods from beginning of record through 1954, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report tabulates the annual measurements of water level in the observation wells in the various irrigated areas, primarily from 1951 through 1955. It summarizes changes in water level by discussion and with an atlas of nearly all the maps of change of water level for the period of record to 1955 for each area in which observations are being made. Included also are hydrographs for the period of record through 1954 of several selected wells in the various areas irrigated from ground-water sources. The annual measurements of water level before 1951, seasonal measurements, and daily records of water levels in wells equipped with recording gages have been published in an annual series of U. S. Geological Survey water-supply papers.

Reeder, Harold O.

1959-01-01

344

Observed spectral properties of near-Earth objects: results for population distribution, source regions, and space weathering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements for 252 near-Earth (NEO) and Mars-crossing (MC) objects observed from 1994 through 2002 as a complement to the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS, http:\\/\\/smass.mit.edu\\/). Combined with previously published SMASS results, we have an internally consistent data set of more than 400 of these objects for investigating trends related to size, orbits,

Richard P. Binzel; Andrew S. Rivkin; J. Scott Stuart; Alan W. Harris; Schelte J. Bus; Thomas H. Burbine

2004-01-01

345

Results of Long-Term Follow-Up Observations of Blepharoptosis Correction Using the Palmaris Longus Tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The frontalis sling procedure is a useful approach for correcting severe blepharoptosis. However, blepharoptosis often recurs\\u000a after corrective surgery using the tensor fascia lata. Good results without recurrence after a modified Fox method were obtained\\u000a using the palmaris longus tendon. This study examined the safety and validity of the surgical method using the palmaris longus\\u000a tendon through long-term follow-up observations.

YongHo Shin

2008-01-01

346

Observations and Parameterizations of Particle Size Distributions in Deep Tropical Cirrus and Stratiform Precipitation Clouds: Results from In-Situ Observations in TRMM Field Campaigns  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, we report on the evolution of particle size distributions (PSDs) and habits as measured during slow, Lagrangian-type spiral descents through deep subtropical and tropical cloud layers in Florida, Brazil, and Kwajalein, Marshall Islands, most of which were precipitating. The objective of the flight patterns was to learn more about how the PSDs evolved in the vertical and to obtain information of the vertical structure of microphysical properties. New instrumentation yielding better information on the concentrations of particles in the size (D) range between 0.2 and 2 cm, as well as improved particle imagery, produced more comprehensive observations for tropical stratiform precipitation regions and anvils than have been available previously. Collocated radar observations provided additional information on the vertical structure of the cloud layers sampled. Most of the spirals began at cloud top, with temperatures (T) as low as -50 C, and ended at cloud base or below the melting layer (ML). The PSDs broadened from cloud top towards cloud base, with the largest particles increasing in size from several millimeters at cloud top to one centimeter or larger towards cloud base. Some continued growth was noted in the upper part of the ML. Concentrations of particles less than 1 mm in size decreased with decreasing height. The result was a consistent change in the PSDs in the vertical. Similarly, systematic changes in the size dependence of the particle cross-sectional area was noted with decreasing height. Aggregation-as ascertained from both the changes in the PSDs and evolution of particle habits as observed in high detail with the cloud particle imager (CPI) probe-was responsible for these trends. The PSDs were generally well-represented by gamma distributions of the form N = N0 gamma D microns e- lambda gamma D that were fitted to the PSDs over 1-km horizontal intervals throughout the spirals. The intercept (N0 gamma), slope (lambda gamma), and dispersion (microns) values were derived for each PSD. Exponential curves (N = N0e- lambdaD; micron = 0) were also fitted to the distributions. The lambda gamma values for given spirals varied systematically with temperature as did the values of lambda (exponential), and the data generally conformed to values found in previous studies involving exponential fits to size distributions in mid-latitude frontal and cirrus layers. Considerable variability often noted in the PSD properties during the loops of individual spirals was manifested primarily in large changes in N0 gamma and N0, but micron, lambda gamma and lambda remained fairly stable. Temperature is not found to be the sole factor controlling lambda gamma or lambda but is a primary one. Direct relationships were found between lambda gamma and N0 gamma or lambda gamma and micron for the gamma distributions and lambda and N0 for the exponential. The latter relationship was not found as distinctly in earlier studies; observed PSDs in this study had better fidelity with less scatter. The micron values changed monotonically with T over the range of temperatures and were directly related to N0 gamma or lambda gamma, thereby reducing the number of variables in the PSD functional equation to two. In the upper part of the ML, N0 and lambda continued to decrease, and in the lower part these values began to increase as the largest particles melted. We developed general expressions relating various bulk microphysical, radar, and radiative transfer-related variables to N0 gamma and lambda gamma, useful for both tropical and mid-latitude clouds. These relationships facilitate the specification of a number of bulk properties in cloud and climate models. The results presented in this paper apply best to temperatures between 0 and -40 C, for which the measured radar reflectivities fall in the range of 0 to 25 dBZe.

Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Bansemer, Aaron; Field, Paul R.; Durden, Stephen L.; Stith, Jeffrey L.; Dye, James E.; Hall, William; Grainger, Cedric A.

2002-01-01

347

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project: Results from Multi-Epoch Observations of the Type IIn SN 2010jl  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Supernova Spectropolarimetry Project is a recently formed collaboration between observers and theorists that focuses on decoding the complex, time-dependent spectropolarimetric behavior of supernovae (SNe) of all types. Using the CCD Imaging/Spectropolarimeter (SPOL) at the 61" Kuiper, the 90" Bok, and the 6.5-m MMT telescopes, we obtain multi-epoch observations of each target, aiming to construct the most comprehensive survey to date of supernovae in polarized light. We present results from the multi-epoch spectropolarimetric observations of the SN 2010jl. This type IIn supernova in UGC 5189A remained bright for an unusually long time allowing us to obtain 11 epochs of data over the course of 15 months. We find significant polarization in the continuum and variations in polarization across the Balmer and HeI lines. The measured polarized continuum decreased steadily over the 15 months of observations. This evolution allowed us to make a solid estimate of the interstellar polarization component thereby revealing the intrinsic supernova polarization. The polarization provides us with detailed information about the aspherical morphology of the explosion and the properties of the progenitor’s pre-explosion mass loss.

Williams, George G.; Dessart, L.; Hoffman, J. L.; Huk, L. N.; Leonard, D. C.; Milne, P.; Smith, N.; Smith, P. S.

2014-01-01

348

Using self organising maps to explore ozone profile validation results - SCIAMACHY limb compared to ground-based lidar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional validation of atmospheric profiles is based on the intercomparison of two or more datasets in predefined ranges or classes of a given observational characteristic such as latitude or solar zenith angle. In this study we train a self organizing map (SOM) with a full time series of relative difference profiles of SCIAMACHY limb v5.02 and lidar ozone profiles from seven observation sites. Each individual observation characteristic is then mapped to the obtained SOM to investigate to which degree variation in this characteristic is explanatory for the variation seen in the SOM map. For the studied datasets, altitude-dependent relations for the global dataset were found between the difference profiles and studied variables. From the lowest altitude studied (18 km) ascending, the most influencing factors were found to be longitude, followed by solar zenith angle and latitude, sensor age and again solar zenith angle together with the day of the year at the highest altitudes studied here (up to 45 km). Clustering into three classes showed that there are also some local dependencies, with for instance one cluster having a much stronger correlation with the sensor age (days since launch) between 36 and 42 km. It was shown that the proposed approach provides a powerful tool for the exploring of differences between datasets without being limited to a-priori defined data subsets.

van Gijsel, J. A. E.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Stammes, P.; Godin-Beekmann, S.; Leblanc, T.; Marchand, M.; McDermid, I. S.; Stebel, K.; Steinbrecht, W.; Swart, D. P. J.

2014-04-01

349

Testing of Lunar Permanently Shadowed Regions for Water Ice: LEND Results for about Three Years of Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: More than 50 years ago, it was sug-gested that some areas near the lunar poles are suffi-ciently cold to trap and preserve for a very long time (~Gy) hydrogen bearing volatiles, either primordial or produced at the Moon via solar wind interactions or brought to the Moon as water ice by comets and mete-oroids [1,2]. The results of observations made by radar onboard the Clementine spacecraft and by neutron (LPNS) and gamma-ray (LPGRS) spectrometers onboard the Lunar Prospector mission have been inter-preted as an enhancement of hydrogen abundance in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) [3]. Unfortu-nately, the spatial resolution of these instruments were much broader than the size of any largest PSRs [4] requiring model dependent data deconvolution to res-lve signal from PSRs itself. Data Analysis: We would like to present updated results of analysis of Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) data for about three years of lunar mapping. Data measured by collimated LEND detectors allows one to look at neutron flux distribution at Moon poles with much better spatial resolution then was achieved at previous space missions. Using the LEND data we had tested the hypothesis that all PSRs are contain a large amount of water ice permafrost and test for hydrogen presents in regolith of regions outside of PSRs. Discussion: Both analyses of individual PSRs and studies of groups of PSRs have shown that these spots of extreme cold at lunar poles are not associated with a strong effect of epithermal neutron flux suppression [5]. We found only three large PSRs, Shoemaker and Cabeus in the South and Rozhdestvensky U in the North, which manifest significant neutron suppression, from -5.5% to -14.9%. All other PSRs have much smaller suppression, no more than few percentages, if at all. Some PSRs even display excess of neutron emis-sion in respect to sunlit vicinity around them. Testing PSRs collectively, we have not found any average suppression for them. Only group of 18 large PSRs, with area >200 km2, show a marginal effect of small average suppression, ~2%, with low statistical confidence. A ~2% suppression corresponds to ~125 ppm of hydrogen taking into account the global neutron suppression near the lunar poles and assuming a homogeneous Hydrogen distribution in depth in the regolith [6]. References: [1] Arnold, J. R. (1979) JGR, 84, 5659-5668. [2] Watson, K., Murray B. C. and Brown H. (1961) JGR, 66, 3033-3045. [3] Feldman W. C. et al. (2001) JGR, 106, 23231-23252. [4] Maurice S. et al. (2004) JGR, 109, E07S04, 40 PP. [5] Mitrofanov I. G. et al. (2010) Science, 330, 483. [6] Sanin A.B. et al. (2012) JGR, 117, E00H26

Sanin, A.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Garvin, J.; Golovin, D.; Harshman, K.; McClanahan, T. R.; Malakhov, A.; Milikh, G. M.; Sagdeev, R.; Starr, R. D.

2012-12-01

350

Description and primary results of Total Solar Irradiance Monitor, a solar-pointing instrument on an Earth observing satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar driving mechanism for Earth climate has been a controversial problem for centuries. Long-time data of solar activity is required by the investigations of the solar driving mechanism, such as Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) record. Three Total Solar Irradiance Monitors (TSIM) have been developed by Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics for China Meteorological Administration to maintain continuities of TSI data series which lasted for nearly 4 decades.The newest TSIM has recorded TSI daily with accurate solar pointing on the FY-3C meteorological satellite since Oct 2013. TSIM/FY-3C has a pointing system for automatic solar tracking, onboard the satellite designed mainly for Earth observing. Most payloads of FY-3C are developed for observation of land, ocean and atmosphere. Consequently, the FY-3C satellite is a nadir-pointing spacecraft with its z axis to be pointed at the center of the Earth. Previous TSIMs onboard the FY-3A and FY-3B satellites had no pointing system, solar observations were only performed when the sun swept through field-of-view of the instruments. And TSI measurements are influenced inevitably by the solar pointing errors. Corrections of the solar pointing errors were complex. The problem is now removed by TSIM/FY-3C.TSIM/FY-3C follows the sun accurately by itself using its pointing system based on scheme of visual servo control. The pointing system is consisted of a radiometer package, two motors for solar tracking, a sun sensor and etc. TSIM/FY-3C has made daily observations of TSI for more than one year, with nearly zero solar pointing errors. Short time-scale variations in TSI detected by TSIM/FY-3C are nearly the same with VIRGO/SOHO and TIM/SORCE.Instrument details, primary results of solar pointing control, solar observations and etc will be given in the presentation.

Wang, Hongrui; Fang, Wei; Li, Huiduan

2015-04-01

351

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: results of European intergroup randomized trial comparing autografting versus observation.  

PubMed

We present results of a phase 3 randomized trial of autografting in chronic lymphocytic leukemia versus observation for responding patients after first- or second-line treatment. The primary objective was to demonstrate that autografting improves the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) from 30% to 50%. There were 223 enrolled patients, 72% men and 28% women, 83% after first and 17% after second-line treatment. Binet stages were progressive A 13%, B 67%, C 20%; at randomization, 59% were in complete remission, and 41% in less than complete remission. Patients were randomized between autografting (n = 112) and observation (n = 111). Median EFS was 24.4 months (range, 16.7-32 months) in the observation group and 51.2 months (39.8-62.5 months) in the autografting group; the 5-year EFS was 24% and 42%, respectively (P < .001). Accordingly, the 5-year relapse incidence was 76% versus 54% (P < .001). Median time to relapse requiring therapy or death was 40 months (25-56 months) in the observation arm and 65 months (59-71 months) after autografting (P = .002). Cox modeling confirmed that autografting significantly improved EFS (hazard ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.30-0.65; P < .001). At 5 years, the probability of OS was 85.5% and 84.3% for autografting and observation, respectively (P = .77). In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, consolidating autografting reduces the risk of progression by more than 50% but has no effect on overall survival. PMID:21106985

Michallet, Mauricette; Dreger, Peter; Sutton, Laurent; Brand, Ronald; Richards, Sue; van Os, Marleen; Sobh, Mohamad; Choquet, Sylvain; Corront, Bernadette; Dearden, Claire; Gratwohl, Alois; Herr, Wolfgang; Catovsky, Daniel; Hallek, Michael; de Witte, Theo; Niederwieser, Dietger; Leporrier, Michel; Milligan, Donald

2011-02-01

352

Global Investigation of the Mg Atom and ion Layers using SCIAMACHY/Envisat Observations between 70 km and 150 km Altitude and WACCM-MG Model Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mg and Mg+ concentration fields in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere (UMLT) region are retrieved from SCIAMACHY/Envisat limb measurements of Mg and Mg+ dayglow emissions using a 2-D tomographic retrieval approach. The time series of monthly means of Mg and Mg+ for number density as well as vertical column density in different latitudinal regions are shown. Data from the limb mesosphere-thermosphere mode of SCIAMACHY/Envisat are used, which covers the 50 km to 150 km altitude region with a vertical sampling of 3.3 km and a highest latitude of 82 deg. The high latitudes are not covered in the winter months, because there is no dayglow emission during polar night. The measurements were performed every 14 days from mid-2008 until April 2012. Mg profiles show a peak at around 90 km altitude with a density between 750 cm(exp-3) and 2000 cm(exp-3). Mg does not show strong seasonal variation at mid-latitudes. The Mg+ peak occurs 5-15 km above the neutral Mg peak at 95-105 km. Furthermore, the ions show a significant seasonal cycle with a summer maximum in both hemispheres at mid- and high-latitudes. The strongest seasonal variations of the ions are observed at mid-latitudes between 20-40 deg and densities at the peak altitude range from 500 cm(exp-3) to 6000 cm(exp-3). The peak altitude of the ions shows a latitudinal dependence with a maximum at mid-latitudes that is up to 10 km higher than the peak altitude at the equator. The SCIAMACHY measurements are compared to other measurements and WACCM model results. In contrast to the SCIAMACHY results, the WACCM results show a strong seasonal variability for Mg with a winter maximum, which is not observable by SCIAMACHY, and globally higher peak densities. Although the peak densities do not agree the vertical column densities agree, since SCIAMACHY results show a wider vertical profile. The agreement of SCIAMACHY and WACCM results is much better for Mg+, showing the same seasonality and similar peak densities. However, there are the following minor differences: there is no latitudinal dependence of the peak altitude for WACCM and the density maximum, passing the equatorial region during equinox conditions, is not reduced as for SCIAMACHY.

Langowski, M.; vonSavigny, C.; Burrows, J. P.; Feng, W.; Plane, J. M. C.; Marsh, D. R.; Janches, Diego; Sinnhuber, M.; Aikin, A. C.

2014-01-01

353

A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2-D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine tropospheric and stratospheric air masses. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify the mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The CLaMS simulation shows, that the lowermost stratospheric air masses in the intrusion where transported along the the subtropical jet. The tropospheric air masses around the intrusion originate from the vicinity of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the CRISTA-NF observations and the CLaMS simulation.

Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2012-09-01

354

Observations and preliminary science results from the first 100 sols of MSL Rover Environmental Monitoring Station ground temperature sensor measurements at Gale Crater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe preliminary results from the first 100 sols of ground temperature measurements along the Mars Science Laboratory's traverse from Bradbury Landing to Rocknest in Gale. The ground temperature data show long-term increases in mean temperature that are consistent with seasonal evolution. Deviations from expected temperature trends within the diurnal cycle are observed and may be attributed to rover and environmental effects. Fits to measured diurnal temperature amplitudes using a thermal model suggest that the observed surfaces have thermal inertias in the range of 265-375 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, which are within the range of values determined from orbital measurements and are consistent with the inertias predicted from the observed particle sizes on the uppermost surface near the rover. Ground temperatures at Gale Crater appear to warm earlier and cool later than predicted by the model, suggesting that there are multiple unaccounted for physical conditions or processes in our models. Where the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) descent engines removed a mobile layer of dust and fine sediments from over rockier material, the diurnal temperature profile is closer to that expected for a homogeneous surface, suggesting that the mobile materials on the uppermost surface may be partially responsible for the mismatch between observed temperatures and those predicted for materials having a single thermal inertia. Models of local stratigraphy also implicate thermophysical heterogeneity at the uppermost surface as a potential contributor to the observed diurnal temperature cycle.

Hamilton, Victoria E.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Sebastián, Eduardo; Torre Juárez, Manuel; Ramos, Miguel; Armiens, Carlos; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Carrasco, Isaías; Christensen, Philip R.; De Pablo, Miguel A.; Goetz, Walter; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Lemmon, Mark T.; Madsen, Morten B.; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Molina, Antonio; Palucis, Marisa C.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Richardson, Mark I.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Zorzano, María-Paz

2014-04-01

355

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

Dan Jimenez (NOS)Sheri Raborn, CPA (National Orange Show); Tom Baker (California Construction Authority)

2008-03-31

356

Project VeSElkA : Preliminary results for CP stars recently observed with ESPaDOnS†  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results for the estimation of gravity and effective temperature of poorly studied chemically peculiar stars recently observed with the spectropolarimeter ESPaDOnS at CFHT in the frame of the VeSElkA (Vertical Stratification of Elements Abundance) project. A grid of theoretical stellar atmosphere models with the corresponding fluxes has been calculated using the PHOENIX code. We have used these fluxes to fit Balmer line profiles employing the code FITSB2 that produces estimates of the effective temperature, surface gravity and radial velocity for each star.

Khalack, Viktor; LeBlanc, Francis

2015-01-01

357

Observing the result of external magnetic field with nonextensivity on DA waves for two temperature electrons in a dusty plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This theoretical investigation has been made on dust-acoustic (DA) waves containing nonextensivity of electrons being two different temperatures, negatively charged dust grains, and Maxwellian ions. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (Z-K) equation has been derived and numerically solved to analysis the basis features. It is observed that the characteristics of the DA solitary waves (DASWs) are significantly modified by the external magnetic field with the different temperatures for electrons followed by the nonextensive distribution. The results obtained from this analysis can be employed in understanding the nature of plasma waves both in laboratory and space plasma system.

Zobaer, M. S.; Roy, N.; Mamun, A. A.

2014-03-01

358

Results of ionospheric observations in Alma-Ata on March 16-20 and December 5-10, 1988  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented of an analysis of ionospheric conditions observed at the Alma-Ata station suring the SUNDIAL periods March 16-20 and December 5-10, 1988. Data collected for the March 16-20, 1988 period indicate a quiet period of the ionosphere, with changes of critical frequencies in the F2 layer (f0F2) falling within the 20 percent limit, except of a short-time increase in f0F2 values on March 19. During the December 5-10 period, the lower-latitude ionosphere was disturbed more than in March, with weak negative disturbances followed by positive ones.

Burlakova, I. A.; Gordienko, G. I.; Zelenkova, I. A.

1993-02-01

359

Parameters of the human 3D gaze while observing portable autostereoscopic display: a model and measurement results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach to measure and model the parameters of human point-of-gaze (PoG) in 3D space. Our model considers the following three parameters: position of the gaze in 3D space, volume encompassed by the gaze and time for the gaze to arrive on the desired target. Extracting the 3D gaze position from binocular gaze data is hindered by three problems. The first problem is the lack of convergence - due to micro saccadic movements the optical lines of both eyes rarely intersect at a point in space. The second problem is resolution - the combination of short observation distance and limited comfort disparity zone typical for a mobile 3D display does not allow the depth of the gaze position to be reliably extracted. The third problem is measurement noise - due to the limited display size, the noise range is close to the range of properly measured data. We have developed a methodology which allows us to suppress most of the measurement noise. This allows us to estimate the typical time which is needed for the point-of-gaze to travel in x, y or z direction. We identify three temporal properties of the binocular PoG. The first is reaction time, which is the minimum time that the vision reacts to a stimulus position change, and is measured as the time between the event and the time the PoG leaves the proximity of the old stimulus position. The second is the travel time of the PoG between the old and new stimulus position. The third is the time-to-arrive, which is the time combining the reaction time, travel time, and the time required for the PoG to settle in the new position. We present the method for filtering the PoG outliers, for deriving the PoG center from binocular eye-tracking data and for calculating the gaze volume as a function of the distance between PoG and the observer. As an outcome from our experiments we present binocular heat maps aggregated over all observers who participated in a viewing test. We also show the mean values for all temporal properties separately for x, y and z direction averaged over all observers. We show the typical size of a binocular area of interest for a portable autostereoscopic display, as well as typical time the 3D vision can react to sudden changes in a 3D scene.

Boev, Atanas; Hanhela, Marianne; Gotchev, Atanas; Utirainen, Timo; Jumisko-Pyykkö, Satu; Hannuksela, Miska

2012-02-01

360

Short-Term Chromospheric Variability in alpha Tauri (K5 III): Results from IUE Time Series Observations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We evaluate time series observations of chromospheric lines (Mg II, Mg I, and C II) for the K giant alpha Tau obtained using the IUE LWP camera at high dispersion. These observations cover a time span of about 2 weeks in 1994 February-March and were designed to resolve variations occurring within hours, days, and weeks. We consider the observational results in relation to theoretical acoustic heating models, motivated by the fact that alpha Tau may exhibit a basal (i.e., minimum) level of chromospheric activity. The data reveal flux variations between the extremes of 8% in Mg II h+k and 15% in each emission component. These variations occur on timescales as short as 8 hr but not on timescales longer than approx.3 days. For the h and k components, flux variations occurring on a timescale as short as 1.5 hr are also found. These changes are often not correlated (and are sometimes even anticorrelated), leading to remarkable differences in the h/k ratios. We argue that these results are consistent with the presence of strong acoustic shocks, which can lead to variable Mg II line emission when only a small number of strong shocks are propagating through the atmosphere. We deduce the electron density in the C II lambda 2325 line formation region to be log(base e) of N. approx. equals 9.0, in agreement with previous studies. Our data provide evidence that the Mg II basal flux limit for K giants might be a factor of 4 higher than suggested by Rutten et al.

Cuntz, Manfred; Deeney, Bryan D.; Brown, Alexander; Stencel, Robert E.

1996-01-01

361

Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

2001-01-01

362

Observations of the galactic center with the GSFC low-energy gamma-ray spectrometer - Preliminary results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of measurements made of the gamma ray emission originating from the galactic center are reviewed. The data were gathered with balloon borne gamma ray spectrometers, with the scans centering on 511 keV. Minimum Chi-sq fits were calculated for the recorded emissions, assuming a constant source modulated by the detector response and superimposed on a constant background. A time history of the 511 keV line intensity demonstrated variability in the feature, whereas the continuum spectrum showed a high correlation with previous measurements. An excess in the continuum just below the 511 keV line was taken as an indication of positronium formation.

Paciesas, W. S.; Tueller, J.; Cline, T. L.; Teegarden, B. J.; Durouchoux, P.; Hameury, J. M.

1982-01-01

363

Temporal and Vertical Distribution of Acidity and Ionic Composition in Clouds: Comparison between Modeling Results and Observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyclic temporal variations of pH and ionic concentration in sampled clouds which traversed the Mt. Mitchell State Park site (35°4405N, 82°1715W, 2006 m MSL) during the summers of 1986, 1987 and 1988 are reported. These clouds typically had a measured pH minimum during their initial and final stages. The cause of this basic cyclic pattern is attributed to sampling at different vertical levels of the cloud. This is substantiated by visual observations made while sampling. Our results also suggest that the measured pH patterns do not always exhibit minima during the formative and dissipative stages of the cloud, apparently in response to the underlying dynamical processes. The relationship between temporal pH measurements made at a stationary site to vertical cloud levels provides insights into the physical processes (e.g., nucleation scavenging near cloudbase, dry air entrainment near cloudtop) influencing the observed cloudwater chemistry on a real-time basis and would improve cloud chemistry models. The determination of the vertical profiles of acidity and of the position within a cloud is feasible but sometimes impractical. Hence, due to its relatively more cost effectiveness and versatility, a simple cloud chemistry model which explicitly estimated the vertical acidity profile of a cloud was sought to simulate the temporal acidity measurements at our site. A few of our event-averaged cloudwater pH values are compared with the results of such a cloud chemistry model and the two are found in excellent agreement. For the cloud event of 19 August 1987, the model predicted an average pH value of 3.03 compared with the average measured value of 3.09. The results of such comparisons between the observed and computed pH are discussed, and it is pointed out that the model could be used on an operational basis to predict the pH of cloudwater that would impact upon the montane forest. Such estimates could be strategically used to improve the long-term forest health either by protecting the new plant growth from such acidic deposition, or by cloud deacidification through cloud seeding.

Defelice, T. P.; Saxena, V. K.

1990-05-01

364

Observational Bias during Nutrition Surveillance: Results of a Mixed Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Data Collection System in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Sahel is subject to seasonal hungry periods with increasing rates of malnutrition. In Northern Nigeria, there is no surveillance system and surveys are rare. The objectives were to analyse possible observational bias in a sentinel surveillance system using repeated mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional data and estimate the extent of seasonal variation. Methods Thirty clusters were randomly selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling from Kazaure Local Government Area, Jigawa State. In each cluster, all the children aged 6–59 months within 20 randomly selected households had their mid-upper arm circumference measured and were tested for oedema. The surveys were repeated every 2 or 4 weeks. At each survey round, three of the clusters were randomly selected to be replaced by three new clusters chosen at random by PPS. The seasonal variation of acute malnutrition was assessed using cyclical regression. The effect of repeated visits to the same cluster was examined using general linear mixed effects models adjusted for the seasonal change. Results There was a significant seasonal fluctuation of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) with a peak in October. With each repeat survey of a cluster, the prevalence of GAM decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 2.7; p?=?0.012) relative to the prevalence observed during the previous visit after adjusting for seasonal change. Conclusions Northern Nigeria has a seasonal variation in the prevalence of acute malnutrition. Repeated surveys in the same cluster-village, even if different children are selected, lead to a progressive improvement of the nutritional status of that village. Sentinel site surveillance of nutritional status is prone to observational bias, with the sentinel site progressively deviating from that of the community it is presumed to represent. PMID:23671632

Grellety, Emmanuel; Luquero, Francisco J.; Mambula, Christopher; Adamu, Hassana H.; Elder, Greg; Porten, Klaudia

2013-01-01

365

The Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results (1874 - 1976): Summary of the Observations, Applications, Datasets, Definitions and Errors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurements of sunspot positions and areas that were published initially by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and subsequently by the Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO), as the Greenwich Photo-heliographic Results ( GPR), 1874 - 1976, exist in both printed and digital forms. These printed and digital sunspot datasets have been archived in various libraries and data centres. Unfortunately, however, typographic, systematic and isolated errors can be found in the various datasets. The purpose of the present paper is to begin the task of identifying and correcting these errors. In particular, the intention is to provide in one foundational paper all the necessary background information on the original solar observations, their various applications in scientific research, the format of the different digital datasets, the necessary definitions of the quantities measured, and the initial identification of errors in both the printed publications and the digital datasets. Two companion papers address the question of specific identifiable errors; namely, typographic errors in the printed publications, and both isolated and systematic errors in the digital datasets. The existence of two independently prepared digital datasets, which both contain information on sunspot positions and areas, makes it possible to outline a preliminary strategy for the development of an even more accurate digital dataset. Further work is in progress to generate an extremely reliable sunspot digital dataset, based on the programme of solar observations supported for more than a century by the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and the Royal Greenwich Observatory. This improved dataset should be of value in many future scientific investigations.

Willis, D. M.; Coffey, H. E.; Henwood, R.; Erwin, E. H.; Hoyt, D. V.; Wild, M. N.; Denig, W. F.

2013-11-01

366

Contradiction between the results of observations of resistance and critical current quantum oscillations in asymmetric superconducting rings  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field dependences of critical current, resistance, and rectified voltage of asymmetric (half circles of different widths) and symmetrical (half circles of equal widths) aluminum rings close to the super-conducting transition were measured. All these dependences are periodic magnetic field functions with periods corresponding to the flux quantum in the ring. The periodic dependences of critical current measured in opposite directions were found to be close to each other for symmetrical rings and shifted with respect to each other by half the flux quantum in asymmetric rings with ratios between half circle widths of from 1.25 to 2. This shift of the dependences by a quarter of the flux quantum as the ring becomes asymmetric makes critical current anisotropic, which explains the effect of alternating current rectification observed for asymmetric rings. Shifts of the extrema of the periodic dependences of critical current by a quarter of the flux quantum directly contradict the results obtained by measuring asymmetric ring resistance oscillations, whose extrema are, as for symmetrical rings, observed at magnetic fluxes equal to an integer and a half of flux quanta.

Gurtovoi, V. L.; Dubonos, S. V.; Karpii, S. V.; Nikulov, A. V., E-mail: nikulov@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Tulin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronic Technology and Ultra-High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

2007-07-15

367

PKS 2155-304 in July 2006: H.E.S.S. results and simultaneous multi-wavelength observations  

SciTech Connect

The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac PKS 2155-304 is one of the brightest and best-studied VHE {gamma}-ray sources in the southern hemisphere. The High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) has monitored PKS 2155-304 in 2006 and a multi-wavelength campaign involving X-ray, optical and radio observatories was triggered by the detection of an active state in July 2006, followed by the detection of two extraordinary flares on July, 28th and 30th, with peak fluxes {approx}100 times the usual values. We present results from the spectral and flux variability analysis of the VHE and simultaneous X-ray observations with Chandra during the second flare, as well as the detailed evolution of the VHE flux of PKS 2155-304 observed by H.E.S.S. in 2006. A study of flux correlations in the different frequency ranges during the second flare and the adjacent nights is discussed. We also present an interpretation of the active state of PKS 2155-304 in the framework of synchrotron self-Compton emission.

Lenain, Jean-Philippe; Boisson, Catherine; Sol, Helne; Zech, Andreas [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, Meudon (France); Benbow, Wystan; Buehler, Rolf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Costamante, Luigi; Raue, Martin [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Giebels, Berrie; Superina, Giulia [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France); Katarzynski, Krzysztof; Pita, Santiago [Torun Centre for Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Torun (Poland); Punch, Michael [APC, CNRS, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Paris (France); Volpe, Francesca [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, Palaiseau (France)

2008-12-24

368

Ionospheric Calibration of Low Frequency Radio Interferometric Observations using the Peeling Scheme: I. Method Description and First Results  

E-print Network

Calibration of radio interferometric observations becomes increasingly difficult towards lower frequencies. Below ~300 MHz, spatially variant refractions and propagation delays of radio waves traveling through the ionosphere cause phase rotations that can vary significantly with time, viewing direction and antenna location. In this article we present a description and first results of SPAM (Source Peeling and Atmospheric Modeling), a new calibration method that attempts to iteratively solve and correct for ionospheric phase errors. To model the ionosphere, we construct a time-variant, 2-dimensional phase screen at fixed height above the Earth's surface. Spatial variations are described by a truncated set of discrete Karhunen-Loeve base functions, optimized for an assumed power-law spectral density of free electrons density fluctuations, and a given configuration of calibrator sources and antenna locations. The model is constrained using antenna-based gain phases from individual self-calibrations on the availa...

Intema, H T; Cotton, W D; Cohen, A S; Van Bemmel, I M; Röttgering, H J A

2009-01-01

369

Observational study in ten beauty salons: results informing development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project.  

PubMed

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion interventions. Results revealed that the social environment of a salon is a place where cosmetologists and customers talk openly about many subjects, including health. Information, advice, appraisal, humor, and empathy are typically shared in these health conversations. Several features of the physical environment of the salon may be mobilized to support health--access to healthy foods, snacks, and beverages; smoking restrictions; and availability of print or video materials, signs, or displays that include healthy messages. Implications for planning salon-based health promotion interventions--including the training of licensed cosmetologists to deliver health messages--are discussed in light of these findings. PMID:15539548

Solomon, Felicia M; Linnan, Laura A; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-12-01

370

Video Observations Encompassing the 2002 Leonid Storm: First Results and a Revised Photometric Procedure for Video Meteor Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the 2001 Leonid storm, Marshall Space Flight Center, with the cooperation of the University of Western Ontario and the United States Air Force, deployed 6 teams of observers equipped with intensified video systems to sites located in North America, the Pacific, and Mongolia. The campaign was extremely successful, with the entire period of enhanced Leonid activity (over 16 hours) captured on video tape in a consistent manner. We present the first results from the analysis of this unique, 2 terabyte data set and discuss the problems involved in reducing large amounts of video meteor data. In particular, the question of how to determine meteor masses though photometric analysis will be re-examined, and new techniques will be proposed that eliminate some of the deficiencies suffered by the techniques currently employed in video meteor analysis.

Cooke, William J.; Suggs, Robert M.; Swift, Wesley; Gural, Peter S.; Brown, Peter; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

371

Cluster observations of the high-latitude magnetopause and cusp: initial results from the CIS ion instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Launched on an elliptical high inclination orbit (apogee: 19.6 RE) since January 2001 the Cluster satellites have been conducting the first detailed three-dimensional studies of the high-latitude dayside magnetosphere, including the exterior cusp, neighbouring boundary layers and magnetopause regions. Cluster satellites carry the CIS ion spectrometers that provide high-precision, 3D distributions of low-energy (<35 keV/e) ions every 4 s. This paper presents the first two observations of the cusp and/or magnetopause behaviour made under different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Flow directions, 3D distribution functions, density profiles and ion composition profiles are analyzed to demonstrate the high variability of high-latitude regions. In the first crossing analyzed (26 January 2001, dusk side, IMF-BZ < 0), multiple, isolated boundary layer, magnetopause and magnetosheath encounters clearly occurred on a quasi-steady basis for ~ 2 hours. CIS ion instruments show systematic accelerated flows in the current layer and adjacent boundary layers on the Earthward side of the magnetopause. Multi-point analysis of the magnetopause, combining magnetic and plasma data from the four Cluster spacecraft, demonstrates that oscillatory outward-inward motions occur with a normal speed of the order of +/- 40 km/s; the thickness of the high-latitude current layer is evaluated to be of the order of 900-1000 km. Alfvénic accelerated flows and D-shaped distributions are convincing signatures of a magnetic reconnection occurring equatorward of the Cluster satellites. Moreover, the internal magnetic and plasma structure of a flux transfer event (FTE) is analyzed in detail; its size along the magnetopause surface is ~ 12 000 km and it convects with a velocity of ~ 200 km/s. The second event analyzed (2 February 2001) corresponds to the first Cluster pass within the cusp when the IMF-BZ component was northward directed. The analysis of relevant CIS plasma data shows temporal cusp structures displaying a reverse energy-latitude saw tooth dispersion, typical for a bursty reconnection between the IMF and the lobe field lines. The observation of D-shaped distributions indicates that the Cluster satellites were located just a few RE from the reconnection site.

Bosqued, J. M.; Phan, T. D.; Dandouras, I.; Escoubet, C. P.; Rème, H.; Balogh, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Alcaydé, D.; Amata, E.; Bavassano-Cattaneo, M.-B.; Bruno, R.; Carlson, C.; Dilellis, A. M.; Eliasson, L.; Formisano, V.; Kistler, L. M.; Klecker, B.; Korth, A.; Kucharek, H.; Lundin, R.; McCarthy, M.; McFadden, J. P.; Möbius, E.; Parks, G. K.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

2001-10-01

372

Clinical features of patients showing Candida hypersensitivity: an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The significance of Candida albicans as an allergen is still unclear. This study aimed at investigating the clinical features of patients monosensitized to Candida. Methods: Thirty-four adult patients monosensitized to the yeast Candida albicans selected from a population of >7000 subjects and referred for suspect respiratory allergy were studied. Ninety subjects monosensitized to different airborne allergens served as controls.

R Asero; G Bottazzi

373

The Distant Tail at 200 R(sub E): Comparison Between Geotail Observations and the Results from a Global Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports a comparison between Geotail observations of plasmas and magnetic fields at 200 R(sub E) in the Earth's magnetotail with results from a time-dependent, global magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere. The study focuses on observations from July 7, 1993, during which the Geotail spacecraft crossed the distant tail magnetospheric boundary several times while the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and was marked by slow rotations of its clock angle. Simultaneous IMP 8 observations of solar wind ions and the IMF were used as driving input for the MHD simulation, and the resulting time series were compared directly with those from the Geotail spacecraft. The very good agreement found provided the basis for an investigation of the response of the distant tail associated with the clock angle of the IMF. Results from the simulation show that the stresses imposed by the draping of magnetosheath field lines and the asymmetric removal of magnetic flux tailward of the cusps altered considerably the shape of the distant tail as the solar wind discontinuities convected downstream of Earth. As a result, the cross section of the distant tail was considerably flattened along the direction perpendicular to the IMF clock angle, the direction of the neutral sheet following that of the IMF. The simulation also revealed that the combined action of magnetic reconnection and the slow rotation of the IMF clock angle led to a braiding of the distant tail's magnetic field lines along the axis of the tail, with the plane of the braid lying in the direction of the IMF.

Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.

1998-01-01

374

Spectral observations for near-Earth objects including potential target 4660 Nereus : Results from Meudon remote observations at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present visible and near-infrared spectral measurements for the highly accessible spacecraft target 4660 Nereus and three additional near-Earth objects displaying diverse color characteristics. All near-infrared measurements were carried out during the first remote observing operations between the Observatoire de Paris at Meudon and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. From Meudon, we had fine pointing and guiding control of the NASA Infrared

Richard P. Binzel; Mirel Birlan; Schelte J. Bus; Alan W. Harris; Andrew S. Rivkin; Sonia Fornasier

2004-01-01

375

Science Results from a Mars Drilling Simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and Ground Truth for Remote Science Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. Science results. Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (˜1:1, ˜1:2, and ˜1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (Corg <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (Corg ˜3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (Corg ˜0.23 wt %). Ground truth vs. remote science analysis. Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions.

Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R.

2008-10-01

376

Science results from a Mars drilling simulation (Río Tinto, Spain) and ground truth for remote science observations.  

PubMed

Science results from a field-simulated lander payload and post-mission laboratory investigations provided "ground truth" to interpret remote science observations made as part of the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling mission simulation. The experiment was successful in detecting evidence for life, habitability, and preservation potential of organics in a relevant astrobiological analogue of Mars. SCIENCE RESULTS: Borehole 7 was drilled near the Río Tinto headwaters at Peña de Hierro (Spain) in the upper oxidized remnant of an acid rock drainage system. Analysis of 29 cores (215 cm of core was recovered from 606 cm penetrated depth) revealed a matrix of goethite- (42-94%) and hematite-rich (47-87%) rocks with pockets of phyllosilicates (47-74%) and fine- to coarse-grained loose material. Post-mission X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the range of hematite:goethite mixtures that were visually recognizable (approximately 1:1, approximately 1:2, and approximately 1:3 mixtures displayed a yellowish-red color whereas 3:1 mixtures displayed a dark reddish-brown color). Organic carbon was poorly preserved in hematite/goethite-rich materials (C(org) <0.05 wt %) beneath the biologically active organic-rich soil horizon (C(org) approximately 3-11 wt %) in contrast to the phyllosilicate-rich zones (C(org) approximately 0.23 wt %). GROUND TRUTH VS. REMOTE SCIENCE ANALYSIS: Laboratory-based analytical results were compared to the analyses obtained by a Remote Science Team (RST) using a blind protocol. Ferric iron phases, lithostratigraphy, and inferred geologic history were correctly identified by the RST with the exception of phyllosilicate-rich materials that were misinterpreted as weathered igneous rock. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) luminometry, a tool available to the RST, revealed ATP amounts above background noise, i.e., 278-876 Relative Luminosity Units (RLUs) in only 6 cores, whereas organic carbon was detected in all cores. Our manned vs. remote observations based on automated acquisitions during the project provide insights for the preparation of future astrobiology-driven Mars missions. PMID:19105754

Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Stoker, Carol R

2008-10-01

377

Fumarate treatment in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis: first results of a single-center observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Therapeutic options in progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are still limited. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immunomodulatory properties but may also exert antioxidative cytoprotective effects. Hence, it may be a therapeutic option for progressive MS. The aim of this observational study was to evaluate safety, adherence and efficacy of fumarates in patients with primary progressive MS (PPMS) or secondary progressive MS. Methods: Patients with progressive MS whose condition had failed to respond to standard therapies and had worsened received the fumarate mixture Fumaderm, licensed for psoriasis therapy in Germany, or DMF by pharmaceutical preparation (Bochum ethics approval no. 4797-13). At regular follow-up visits, tolerability and disease course were assessed. Results: Twenty-six patients [age 54 ± 7.8 years; female = 13 (50%); PPMS = 12 (46.2%); Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) = 6.0 ± 0.4 (range 3.5–8.0); disease duration = 14.1 ± 8.7 years] were initiated on treatment with Fumaderm (n = 18) or pharmacy-prepared DMF (n=8). During a mean follow-up period of 13.2 ± 7.5 months (range 6–30) only five patients (19.2%) reported minor complaints. In 15 patients (57.7%) EDSS remained stable. In five cases (19.2%) there was even a decrease in EDSS while in six patients (23.1%) there was an increase in EDSS of more than 0.5 points, reflecting deterioration. Laboratory values were controlled for lymphopenia, renal and hepatic values, without any safety problems. We observed no significant differences between the two pharmaceutical forms. Conclusion: Our pilot data indicate that fumarate therapy appears to be safe and well tolerated by patients with progressive MS. In more than 75% of cases no further disease progression was evident. However, controlled studies are warranted to evaluate the detailed therapeutic potential of fumarates and their long-term effects in progressive MS. PMID:25342977

Strassburger-Krogias, Katrin; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Krogias, Christos; Altmeyer, Peter; Chan, Andrew

2014-01-01

378

Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: Results of a longitudinal observational study  

PubMed Central

Objective Doctors of chiropractic (DCs) use manual cervical distraction to treat patients with neck pain. Previous research demonstrates variability in traction forces generated by different DCs. This article reports on a training protocol and monthly certification process using bioengineering technology to standardize cervical traction force delivery among clinicians. Methods This longitudinal observational study evaluated a training and certification process for DCs who provided force-based manual cervical distraction during a randomized clinical trial. The DCs completed a 7-week initial training that included instructional lectures, observation, and guided practice by a clinical expert, followed by 3 hours of weekly practice sessions delivering the technique to asymptomatic volunteers who served as simulated patients. An instrument-modified table and computer software provided the DCs with real-time audible and visual feedback on the traction forces they generated and graphical displays of the magnitude of traction forces as a function of time immediately after the delivery of the treatment. The DCs completed monthly certifications on traction force delivery throughout the trial. Descriptive accounts of certification attempts are provided. Results Two DCs achieved certification in traction force delivery over 10 consecutive months. No certification required more than 3 attempts at C5 and occiput contacts for 3 force ranges (0–20 N, 21–50 N, and 51–100 N). Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of a training protocol and certification process using bioengineering technology for training DCs to deliver manual cervical distraction within specified traction force ranges over a 10-month period. PMID:25237767

Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.

2014-01-01

379

Training and certification of doctors of chiropractic in delivering manual cervical traction forces: Results of a longitudinal observational study.  

PubMed

Objective : Doctors of chiropractic (DCs) use manual cervical distraction to treat patients with neck pain. Previous research demonstrates variability in traction forces generated by different DCs. This article reports on a training protocol and monthly certification process using bioengineering technology to standardize cervical traction force delivery among clinicians. Methods : This longitudinal observational study evaluated a training and certification process for DCs who provided force-based manual cervical distraction during a randomized clinical trial. The DCs completed a 7-week initial training that included instructional lectures, observation, and guided practice by a clinical expert, followed by 3 hours of weekly practice sessions delivering the technique to asymptomatic volunteers who served as simulated patients. An instrument-modified table and computer software provided the DCs with real-time audible and visual feedback on the traction forces they generated and graphical displays of the magnitude of traction forces as a function of time immediately after the delivery of the treatment. The DCs completed monthly certifications on traction force delivery throughout the trial. Descriptive accounts of certification attempts are provided. Results : Two DCs achieved certification in traction force delivery over 10 consecutive months. No certification required more than 3 attempts at C5 and occiput contacts for 3 force ranges (0-20 N, 21-50 N, and 51-100 N). Conclusions : This study demonstrates the feasibility of a training protocol and certification process using bioengineering technology for training DCs to deliver manual cervical distraction within specified traction force ranges over a 10-month period. PMID:25237767

Gudavalli, Maruti Ram; Vining, Robert D; Salsbury, Stacie A; Goertz, Christine M

2014-10-01

380

Initial results of LF sensor network for lightning observation and characteristics of lightning emission in LF band  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been developing an LF sensor network called Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm (BOLT), to image the structure of lightning discharges in 3D using time of arrival (TOA) technique. This paper documents initial results and characteristics of BOLT source locations for further understanding of LF radiation associated with lightning. Theoretical reduced Chi-square distribution fitted to BOLT observation data indicates a root mean square (rms) timing error of about 200 ns for each sensor. Monte Carlo simulations of BOLT indicate that at an altitude of 5000 m the standard deviations for horizontal differences between a known source and a location that the BOLT algorithm produces are less than 200 m, and vertical differences are less than 400 m in most of the network. Furthermore, comparison of BOLT and VHF source locations arriving at the same site within 5 µs indicates that the average difference for elevation direction is 0.73° with a standard deviation of 3.64°, and that for the azimuth direction is 0.58° with a standard deviation of 1.98°. Lightning flash processes of intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes, including preliminary breakdown pulses, negative leaders, breakdown in the negative charge region (NCR), and an attempted leader, are well imaged by BOLT. Normalized amplitudes in E-field change waveform of BOLT sources associated with negative leaders and breakdown occurred in the NCR do not have significant difference, implying that most BOLT sources in the NCR might be associated with negative recoil leaders.

Yoshida, Satoru; Wu, Ting; Ushio, Tomoo; Kusunoki, Kenichi; Nakamura, Yoshitaka

2014-11-01