Note: This page contains sample records for the topic observations results showed from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Btu accounting: Showing results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the preceding article in this series last month, the author showed how to calculate the energy consumed to make a pound of product. To realize a payoff, however, the results must be presented in graphs or tables that clearly display what has happened. They must call attention to plant performance and ultimately lead to more efficient use of energy.

1994-01-01

2

Simple instruments used in monitoring ionospheric perturbations and some observational results showing the ionospheric responses to the perturbations mainly from the lower atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric disturbances such as SID and acoustic gravity waves in different scales are well known and commonly discussed topics. Some simple ground equipment was designed and used for monitoring continuously the effects of these disturbances, especially, SWF, SFD. Besides SIDs, They also reflect clearly the acoustic gravity waves in different scale and Spread-F and these data are important supplementary to the traditional ionosonde records. It is of signifi-cance in understanding physical essentials of the ionospheric disturbances and applications in SID warning. In this paper, the designing of the instruments is given and results are discussed in detail. Some case studies were introduced as example which showed very clearly not only immediate effects of solar flare, but also the phenomena of ionospheric responses to large scale gravity waves from lower atmosphere such as typhoon, great earthquake and volcano erup-tion. Particularlyresults showed that acoustic gravity waves play significant role in seeding ionospheric Spread-F. These examples give evidence that lower atmospheric activities strongly influence the ionosphere.

Xiao, Zuo; Hao, Yongqiang; Zhang, Donghe; Xiao, Sai-Guan; Huang, Weiquan

3

Cassini UVIS Observations Show Active Saturn's Rings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) is part of the remote sensing payload of the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft. This spectrograph includes channels for extreme UV and far UV spectroscopic imaging, high speed photometry of stellar occultations, solar EUV occultation, and a hydrogen/deuterium absorption cell. We report our initial results from UVIS observations of Saturn's rings. Dynamic interactions between neutrals, ions, rings, moons and meteoroids produce a highly structured and time variable Saturn system Oxygen in the Saturn system dominates the magnetosphere. Observed fluctuations indicate close interactions with plasma sources. Stochastic events in the E ring may be the ultimate source. The spectral signature of water ice is seen on Phoebe and in Saturn's rings. Water ice is mixed non-uniformly with darker constituents. The high structure of the UV ring reflectance argues that collisional transport dominates ballistic transport in darkening the rings. Our preliminary results support the idea that rings are recycled fragments of moons: the current processes are more important than history and initial conditions. The spectra along the UVIS SOI radial scan indicate varying amounts of water ice. In the A ring, the ice fraction increases outward to a maximum at the outer edge. This large-scale variation is consistent with initially pure ice that has suffered meteoritic bombardment over the age of the Solar system (Cuzzi and Estrada 1998). We also see variations over scales of 1000 - 3000 km, which cannot be explained by this mechanism. Ballistic transport of spectrally neutral extrinsic pollutants from meteoroids striking the rings has a typical throw distance of 6000 km (Durisen et al 1989), too long to explain this finer structure. We propose a class of smaller renewal events, in which a small moon residing within the rings is shattered by an external impactor (Colwell and Esposito 1993, Barbara and Esposito 2002, Esposito and Colwell 2003). The interior of such a body has been shielded from external meteoritic bombardment, and thus contains purer ice. Since the amount of meteoroid pollution provides a rough clock to estimate the age of the rings (Cuzzi and Estrada), these random events reset that clock locally, making the material at that radial location younger and purer. As these purer ring particles collide with others, they exchange regolith, and the range of purer water ice spectrum spreads radially. The radial variation we interpret as due to differential pollution in our data set is consistent with the disruption of several small bodies in the A ring in the last 107 to 108 years. When the small moon Pan (Showalter 1991, R ~ 10 km, now residing in the nearby Encke Gap) is eventually shattered by an external impact (Colwell et al 2000), the gap will close up, and for some 10 to 100 million years thereafter a brighter radial swath of purer water ice at its former location will gradually spread and darken.

Esposito, L.; Colwell, J. E.; UVIS Team

2004-12-01

4

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Detail of southeast corner of physical plant showing observation lookout (view is looking northwest) - Skinner Meat Packing Plant, Main Plant, 6006 South Twenty-seventh Street, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

5

Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

WorkAmerica, 2001

2001-01-01

6

Cassini VIMS Observations Show Ethane is Present in Titan's Rainfall  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations obtained over two years by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem suggest that rain showers fall on the surface. Using measurements obtained by the Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer, we identify the main component of the rain to be ethane, with methane as an additional component. We observe five or six probable rainfall events, at least one of which follows a brief equatorial cloud appearance, suggesting that frequent rainstorms occur on Titan. The rainfall evaporates, sublimates, or infiltrates on timescales of months, and in some cases it is associated with fluvial features but not with their creation or alteration. Thus, Titan exhibits frequent "gentle rainfall" instead of, or in addition to, more catastrophic events that cut rivers and lay down large fluvial deposits. Freezing rain may also be present, and the standing liquid may exist as puddles interspersed with patches of frost. The extensive dune deposits found in the equatorial regions of Titan imply multi-season arid conditions there, which are consistent with small, but possibly frequent, amounts of rain, in analogy to terrestrial deserts.

Dalba, Paul A.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Brown, Robert H.; Barnes, Jason W.; Baines, Kevin H.; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger N.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Nicholson, Philip D.

2012-12-01

7

Observe an animation showing evidence of the carbon cycle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this visual resource about the carbon cycle, students are presented with an animation and accompanying text that focus on carbon and plants. The text addresses how plants fit into the larger carbon cycle, including how carbon enters and leaves the biosphere, and it explains what students are viewing in the animation. The animation shows false color images on a flat map of the world. When the viewer clicks on the image (or the play button), the animation plays, and color patterns reveal changes in plant growth on land and water over a 3-year period. Movie controls allow students to pause the animation, to replay the animation, or to move backward or forward through the images 1 month at a time. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Education, Terc. C.; Littell, Mcdougal

2003-01-01

8

Breast vibro-acoustography: initial results show promise.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Vibro-acoustography (VA) is a recently developed imaging modality that is sensitive to the dynamic characteristics of tissue. It detects low-frequency harmonic vibrations in tissue that are induced by the radiation force of ultrasound. Here, we have investigated applications of VA for in vivo breast imaging. METHODS: A recently developed combined mammography-VA system for in vivo breast imaging was tested on female volunteers, aged 25 years or older, with suspected breast lesions on their clinical examination. After mammography, a set of VA scans was acquired by the experimental device. In a masked assessment, VA images were evaluated independently by 3 reviewers who identified mass lesions and calcifications. The diagnostic accuracy of this imaging method was determined by comparing the reviewers' responses with clinical data. RESULTS: We collected images from 57 participants: 7 were used for training and 48 for evaluation of diagnostic accuracy (images from 2 participants were excluded because of unexpected imaging artifacts). In total, 16 malignant and 32 benign lesions were examined. Specificity for diagnostic accuracy was 94% or higher for all 3 reviewers, but sensitivity varied (69% to 100%). All reviewers were able to detect 97% of masses, but sensitivity for detection of calcification was lower (? 72% for all reviewers). CONCLUSIONS: VA can be used to detect various breast abnormalities, including calcifications and benign and malignant masses, with relatively high specificity. VA technology may lead to a new clinical tool for breast imaging applications. PMID:23021305

Alizad, Azra; Whaley, Dana H; Urban, Matthew W; Carter, Rickey E; Kinnick, Randall R; Greenleaf, James F; Fatemi, Mostafa

2012-09-29

9

Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Design Cross?sectional, observational. Subjects Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida—all leading sources of California's crime guns—where these restrictions do not exist. Main outcome measures Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate (“straw”) gun purchases. Results Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9–10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5–2.2%), p?=?0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p?=?0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p?=?0.06). Conclusions California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed.

Wintemute, Garen J

2007-01-01

10

New Results in Jovian Mode Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous works have been published developing theoretical models for the structure of the Jovian core. The most recent complete model in the literature is that of Gudkova and Zharkov (1999), which detailed several models varying in both their core molecular-metallic phase transition pressure levels and core mass. It was the hope of the authors that the models would be used, ``as soon as relevant observations are performed'' for identifying modes and improving the models. Thus far, this does not seem to have happened, although it is clear that work is ongoing with such instruments as SYMPA and the Juno orbiter. We attacked this problem in the vein of Thomson, Maclennan, and Lanzerotti (1995), analyzing measurements of magnetic field and high-energy particles from the Jovian close-approach time periods of both Voyager II and Ulysses. The comparison between the predicted mode frequencies and the signatures in the spectra of the measurements of the two spacecraft show a number of high-probability matches to model frequencies. Additionally, there are observed frequencies and splittings that are not explained by the model, and it is our hope that these findings will spur further work in the field, improving the model(s) to match the experimental findings.

Burr, W.; Thomson, D. J.

2010-12-01

11

Radio Observations of Asteroids: Results and Prospects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radio observations of the asteroids can provide information on the thermal and dielectric properties of the surface materials and because the radio emission arises somewhat below the surface, the data give some indication of layering. Observational diffic...

J. R. Dickel

1978-01-01

12

[A case of Menetrier's disease showing mucus bridge observed during endoscopy].  

PubMed

Menetrier's disease is a rare entity characterized by large, tortuous gastric mucosal folds. The mucosal folds in Menetrier's disease are often most prominent in the body and fundus. Histologically, massive foveolar hyperplasia (hyperplasia of surface and glandular mucous cells) is noted, which replaces most of the chief and parietal cells. Profuse mucus is usually observed during the endoscopy but there have been few cases that show interesting endoscopic findings such as mucus bridge or water pearl. Herein, we report a case of Menetrier's disease showing mucus bridge by excessive mucus observed during the endoscopy. PMID:21519167

Hwang, Jong Min; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Won Jin; Lee, Hee Sun; Lee, Hye Won; Ryu, Dong Yup; Song, Geun Am; Park, Do Yun

2011-03-01

13

Do patients with fibromyalgia show abnormal neural responses to the observation of pain in others?  

PubMed

Chronic widespread pain is a hallmark of fibromyalgia (FM). Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that the pain neuro-matrix in patients with FM showed augmented activation in response to actual pain. However, the effect of observing pain in others among patients with FM remains poorly understood. Both healthy female control subjects (n=24) and female patients with FM (n=23) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while observing a series of color pictures depicting others' hands and feet being injured, and a matched set of control pictures that did not show any painful events. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with FM showed a smaller neural response to pain-related versus neutral stimuli in several neural regions, including the thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyrus, and supplementary motor area. In contrast to augmented pain processing in response to actual experimental pain, patients with FM did not show an enhanced pain response but generally showed lesser activation in cortical regions known to play a role in processing of pain. These hemodynamic alterations observed in patients with FM suggest that patients with chronic pain may empathize less with others in pain, possibly in order to lessen arousal and aversive self-oriented emotions. PMID:23419861

Lee, Seung Jae; Song, Hui-Jin; Decety, Jean; Seo, Jeehye; Kim, Seong-Ho; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Nam, Eon Jeong; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Han, Seung Woo; Lee, Hui Joong; Do, Younghae; Chang, Yongmin

2013-02-15

14

SOAR remote observing: tactics and early results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Travel from North America to the 4.1m SOAR telescope atop Cerro Pachon exceeds $1000, and takes >16 hours door to door (20+ hours typically). SOAR aims to exploit best seeing, requiring dynamic scheduling that is impossible to accomplish when catering to peripatetic astronomers. According to technical arguments at www.peakoil.org, we are near the peak rate of depleting world petroleum, so can expect travel costs to climb sharply. With the telecom bubble's glut of optical fiber, we can transmit data more efficiently than astronomers and "observe remotely". With data compression, less than half of the 6 Mbps bandwidth shared currently by SOAR and CTIO is enough to enable a high-fidelity observing presence for SOAR partners in North America, Brazil, and Chile. We discuss access from home by cable modem/DSL link.

Cecil, Gerald N.; Crain, J. Adam

2004-09-01

15

Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results  

PubMed Central

A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

2010-01-01

16

High Resolution Spectropolarimeter, LIPS: its Performance and Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a high dispersion optical spectropolarimeter LIPS which has a spectral resolution R higher than 5000. The new half-wave plate effectively eliminates the harmful ripple pattern. By introducing this new half-wave plate, an accuracy of polarization degree P better than 0.1% is achieved. In this presentation, we show the performance of LIPS estimated from the results of engineering observations made at the UH88 telescope in March and October 2002. We observed several standard stars and estimated the polarimetric accuracy and stability of LIPS. The performance is found to be sufficient for most observations.

Matsuda, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Akitaya, H.; Kawabata, K. S.; Seki, M.; Okazaki, A.; Hirata, R.

2005-12-01

17

Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

Dekle, Dawn J.

1997-01-01

18

Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate -- a hypothesis generating observation  

PubMed Central

Background A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. Objective To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: VA endoscopy center. Patients: creening colonoscopy. Interventions: From 1/2000–6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006–11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. Results The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). Limitations: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. Conclusion Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation.

Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K

2011-01-01

19

Methionyl-tRNA synthetase shows the nucleotide binding fold observed in dehydrogenases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striking common structural feature has emerged from the comparison of the X-ray crystallographic studies of several dehydrogenases. In lactate dehydrogenase1, soluble malate dehydrogenase2, alcohol dehydrogenase3 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase4 similar foldings have been described in the region which binds the coenzyme NAD, whereas no significant similarities were observed in the chemical sequences. The occurrence of a characteristic `nucleotide binding fold'

J. L. Risler; C. Zelwer; S. Brunie

1981-01-01

20

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also planet-wide phenomena and are a key observation for enhancing our understanding of the global atmospheric flows and CO2 cycle of the Martian atmosphere. The surface pressure is rising at this time of the Martian season, and this is clearly seen by the MSL pressure observations. The current surface pressure is slightly over 8 hPa, which represents a rise of a few % since the beginning of the mission. Our Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) produces similar results to the observations with some deviations. They are currently under investigation. References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [3] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13.

Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri

2013-04-01

21

Solar System Observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the albedos of...

D. P. Cruikshank

2005-01-01

22

NIH trial shows promising results in treating a lymphoma in young people  

Cancer.gov

Patients with a type of cancer known as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma who received infusions of chemotherapy, but who did not have radiation therapy to an area of the thorax known as the mediastinum, had excellent outcomes, according to clinical trial results.

23

Solar system observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the geometric albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 ?m,

Dale P. Cruikshank

2005-01-01

24

Solar system observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the geometric albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 mum,

Dale P. Cruikshank

2005-01-01

25

Results of the observations with Doppler receiver DOG-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The operation of a Doppler receiver, DOG-2, produced in Poland, as well as the instrumental equipment and computing facilities, are described. Results of the determination of Borowiec geocentric coordinates, obtained from observations made by the receiver, are presented. Data processing is performed by means of the GEODOP program. The observational results for the receivers prove their usefulness in geodetic-astronomical investigations.

Fraczyk, P.; Jaks, W.

26

Severe Septic Patients with Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup JT Show Higher Survival Rates: A Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objective In a previous cohort study (n=96), we found an association between mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroup JT and increased survival of severe septic patients, after controlling for age and serum lactic acid levels. The aim of this research was to increase the predictive accuracy and to control for more confounder variables in a larger cohort (n=196) of severe septic patients, to confirm whether mtDNA haplogroup JT influences short and medium-term survival in these patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational study in six Spanish Intensive Care Units. We determined 30-day and 6-month survival and mtDNA haplogroup in this second cohort of 196 patients and in the global cohort (first and second cohorts combined) with 292 severe septic patients. Multiple logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were used to test for the association of mtDNA haplogroups JT with survival at 30-days and 6-months, controlling for age, sex, serum interleukin-6 levels and SOFA score. Results Logistic and Cox regression analyses showed no differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between patients with mtDNA haplogroup JT and other haplogroups in the first cohort (n=96). In the second cohort (n=196), these analyses showed a trend to higher 30-day and 6-month survival in those with haplogroup JT. In the global cohort (n=292), logistic and Cox regression analyses showed higher 30-day and 6-month survival for haplogroup JT. There were no significant differences between J and T sub-haplogroups in 30-day and 6-month survival. Conclusions The global cohort study (first and second cohorts combined), the largest to date reporting on mtDNA haplogroups in septic patients, confirmed that haplogroup JT patients showed increased 30-day and 6-month survival. This finding may be due to single nucleotide polymorphism defining the whole haplogroup JT and not separately for J or T sub-haplogroups.

Martin, Maria M.; Lopez-Gallardo, Esther; Sole-Violan, Jordi; Blanquer, Jose; Labarta, Lorenzo; Diaz, Cesar; Borreguero-Leon, Juan Maria; Jimenez, Alejandro; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

2013-01-01

27

Observational Learning: Effects of Bandwidth Knowledge of Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated whether bandwidth knowledge of results (KR) during observation of a model's performance enhances motor skill learning. Following a pretest, 2 groups of participants (N = 28) observed a model practicing a timing task. The bandwidth group received KR about the model's performance only when his performance fell outside the criteria for a correct response. The yoked group

Arnaud Badets; Yannick Blandin

2005-01-01

28

NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-20

29

Some preliminary results of ionospheric slab thickness observations at Lunping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic variations of the ionospheric slab thickness observed at Lunping Observatory were analyzed. The slab thickness data obtained from March 1977 to February 1982 were used to analyze the diurnal, seasonal, solar cycle and geomagnetic variations. The shape of the diurnal variation shows a remarkable seasonal change. In summer, there are one maximum appearing in prenoon hours and a

Y. N. Huang

1984-01-01

30

Herschel Space Observatory Observations Of Mars: First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Herschel has observed Mars with its three instruments, the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI), the Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) and the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) as part of the HssO Key programme. SPIRE provided for the first time a far infrared spectrum of Mars from 0.45 to 1.55 THz. From these observations during Ls = 5°, water vapor and carbon monoxide mixing ratios of 100 ppm and 900 ppm respectively were derived. PACS observed Mars twice during Ls = 340 ° and Ls = 108 ° in the frequency range from 1.43 to 5.26 THz. The spectra show high signal-to-noise- ratio (SNR) carbon monoxide and water lines including water isotopes. HIFI has observed Mars around Ls = 78° and Ls = 108° and performed line scans from band 1a to 6b (for technical reasons excluding band 5b). Furthermore dedicated observations on carbon- and oxygen isotopes in carbon monoxide and oxygen- and hydrogen isotopes in water vapor as well as hydrogen peroxide, hydrogen chloride and molecular oxygen were executed. The latter presents the first observation of molecular oxygen in the submm wave regime. From the very high SNR spectrum a (constant with altitude) volume mixing ratio of 1400 ppm has been derived, consistent with ground-based observations in the oxygen A band (around 763 nm) from the early 1970s. Finally from the analysis of 2 carbon monoxide isotopes a globally averaged volume mixing ratio of constant 980 ppm and a vertical temperature profile have been retrieved. Compared to general circulation model calculations the observations show up to 10 K lower temperatures in the middle atmosphere of Mars.

Hartogh, Paul; Jarchow, C.; Swinyard, B. M.; Lellouch, E.; Blecka, M.; de Val-Borro, M.; Rengel, M.; Moreno, R.; Sidher, S.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Sagawa, H.; Portyankina, G.; HssO Team

2010-10-01

31

Observational learning: effects of bandwidth knowledge of results.  

PubMed

The authors investigated whether bandwidth knowledge of results (KR) during observation of a model's performance enhances motor skill learning. Following a pretest, 2 groups of participants (N = 28) observed a model practicing a timing task. The bandwidth group received KR about the model's performance only when his performance fell outside the criteria for a correct response. The yoked group received KR on the same trials as the bandwidth group did but were not told that the KR was only about incorrect performances. In that way, the authors avoided a confound between bandwidth and relative frequency effects on performance and learning. Following the observation phase, both groups of participants performed 10-min and 24-hr retention tests. Bandwidth KR enabled that group to reduce its performance variability and, to a lesser extent, to enhance its performance accuracy. The authors discuss the results with respect to the powerful effect of qualitative KR through observation. PMID:15883118

Badets, A; Blandin, Y

2005-05-01

32

Results of pulsar timing observations at 102.5 MHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of timing observations of 16 pulsars at 102.5 MHz, carried out with the BSA radio telescope of the Lebedev Physical Institute from 1978 to 1986, are presented. Periods, period derivatives, and positions were determined along with the arrival time residuals and the rotation frequency behavior over the course of the spin-ups. In particular, a small jump in period for PSR 0823 + 26 was detected, and a discontinous change in the frequency behavior was observed.

Shabanova, T. V.

1990-06-01

33

Secular trends in ocean tides: Observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last century the response of the oceans to tidal forces has changed significantly. This study focuses on an analysis of long-term sea level records located in the Atlantic and Pacific, primarily in the Northern Hemisphere. It shows that changes of tidal amplitude and/or phase have taken place over large scales. The principal solar semidiurnal (S2) tide shows the largest trends. At some locations, the change in the mean tidal range due to tidal trends is significant compared with the trend in mean sea level. Thus, it might be advisable to consider these changes in studies of the impact of rising sea level. Numerical simulations of the principal lunar semidiurnal tide (M2) demonstrate a model sensitivity in the North Atlantic to changes in glacial isostatic adjustment and sea level rise, which captures 30-40% of the magnitude of the trends in observations. However, the spatial patterns do not agree well with those inferred from observations, suggesting that forward global models are currently useful for qualitative but not quantitative understanding of the observed trends. A global free oscillation synthesis indicates that sea level rise due to glacial isostatic adjustment leads to decreasing global resonant periods and increasing damping in the system and a coupled oscillator model shows that changes in sea level on the shelf are much more effective at perturbing shelf and ocean tides than sea level changes in the deep ocean.

Müller, M.; Arbic, B. K.; Mitrovica, J. X.

2011-05-01

34

WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJANS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than {approx}10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 {+-} 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 {+-} 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) {approx} 1.4 {+-} 0.2, lower than the 1.6 {+-} 0.1 value derived by Szabo et al.

Grav, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Marina, CA 93933 (United States); Cutri, R. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E., E-mail: tgrav@pha.jhu.edu [Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCLA, Los Angles, CA 90095 (United States)

2011-11-20

35

WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Jovian Trojans: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary analysis of over 1739 known and 349 candidate Jovian Trojans observed by the NEOWISE component of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). With this survey the available diameters, albedos, and beaming parameters for the Jovian Trojans have been increased by more than an order of magnitude compared to previous surveys. We find that the Jovian Trojan population is very homogenous for sizes larger than ~10 km (close to the detection limit of WISE for these objects). The observed sample consists almost exclusively of low albedo objects, having a mean albedo value of 0.07 ± 0.03. The beaming parameter was also derived for a large fraction of the observed sample, and it is also very homogenous with an observed mean value of 0.88 ± 0.13. Preliminary debiasing of the survey shows that our observed sample is consistent with the leading cloud containing more objects than the trailing cloud. We estimate the fraction to be N(leading)/N(trailing) ~ 1.4 ± 0.2, lower than the 1.6 ± 0.1 value derived by Szabó et al.

Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; Walker, R.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Blauvelt, E.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T., IV; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Wilkins, A.

2011-11-01

36

Results of the observations with Doppler receiver DOG-2.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a general description of the operation of the Doppler receiver DOG-2, produced in Poland, is presented as well as the actual results of determination of the Borowiec geocentric coordinates obtained from observations made by the use of that receiver. Processing of data was performed with the program GEODOP.

Fraczyk, P.; Jak?, W.

37

Cluster observations showing the indication of the formation of a modified-two-stream instability in the geomagnetic tail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents several observations of the Cluster spacecraft on September 24, 2003 around 15:10 UT, which show necessary prerequisites and consequences for the formation of the so-called modified-two-stream instability (MTSI). Theoretical studies suggest that the plasma is MTSI unstable if (1) a relative drift of electrons and ions is present, which exceeds the Alfvèn speed, and (2) this relative drift or current is in the cross-field direction. As consequences of the formation of a MTSI one expects to observe (1) a field-aligned electron beam, (2) heating of the plasma, and (3) an enhancement in the B-wave spectrum at frequencies in the range of the lower-hybrid-frequency (LHF). In this study we use prime parameter data of the CIS and PEACE instruments onboard the Cluster spacecraft to verify the drift velocities of ions and electrons, FGM data to calculate the expected LHF and Alfvèn velocity, and the direction of the current. The B-wave spectrum is recorded by the STAFF instrument of Cluster. Finally, a field aligned beam of electrons is observed by 3D measurements of the IES instrument of the RAPID unit. Observations are verified using a theoretical model showing the build-up of a MTSI under the given circumstances.

Mühlbachler, S.; Langmayr, D.; Lui, A. T. Y.; Erkaev, N. V.; Alexeev, I. V.; Daly, P. W.; Biernat, H. K.

2009-05-01

38

Oscillations in solar-type stars: recent observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The past few years have seen a breakthrough in observing oscillations in solar-type stars. We now have moved from ambiguous detections to firm measurements, and there are now several stars for which numerous oscillation frequencies have been measured. I will review the recent results from high-precision Doppler measurements on stars such as ? Centauri A and B, ? Ceti and the planet-hosting star ? Arae. Asteroseismology has moved from dream to reality and the prospects are very exciting.

Bedding, T. R.; Kjeldsen, H.

2006-08-01

39

Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 2.  

PubMed

Results of measurements of plasma electrons and poitive ions made during the Voyager 2 encounter with Saturn have been combined with measurements from Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 to define more clearly the configuration of plasma in the Saturnian magnetosphere. The general morphology is well represented by four regions: (i) the shocked solar wind plasma in the magnetosheath, observed between about 30 and 22 Saturn radii (RS) near the noon meridian; (ii) a variable density region between approximately 17 RS and the magnetopause; (iii) an extended thick plasma sheet between approximately 17 and approximately 7 RS symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis; and (iv) an inner plasma torus that probably originates from local sources and extends inward from L approximately 7 to less than L approximately 2.7 (L is the magnetic shell parameter). In general, the heavy ions, probably O(+), are more closely confined to the equatorial plane than H(+), so that the ratio of heavy to light ions varies along the trajectory according to the distance of the spacecraft from the equatorial plane. The general configuration of the plasma sheet at Saturn found by Voyager 1 is confirmed, with some notable differences and additions. The "extended plasma sheet," observed between L approximately 7 and L approximately 15 by Voyager 1 is considerably thicker as observed by Voyager 2. Inward of L approximately 4, the plasma sheet collapses to a thin region about the equatorial plane. At the ring plane crossing, L approximately 2.7, the observations are consistent with a density of O(+) of approximately 100 per cubic centimeter, with a temperature of approximately 10 electron volts. The location of the bow shock and magnetopause crossings were consistent with those previously observed. The entire magnetosphere was larger during the outbound passage of Voyager 2 than had been previously observed; however, a magnetosphere of this size or larger is expected approximately 3 percent of the time. PMID:17771279

Bridge, H S; Bagenal, F; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Sullivan, J D; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M

1982-01-29

40

Solar system observations with Spitzer Space Telescope: Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The programs of observations of Solar System bodies conducted in the first year of the operation of the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Guaranteed Observing Time allocations are described. Initial results include the determination of the geometric albedos of a number of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs from observations of their flux densities at 24 and 70 ?m, and the detection of emission bands in the spectra of several distant asteroids (Trojans) around 10 and 25 ?m. The 10 Kuiper Belt objects observed to date have geometric albedos in the range 0.08-0.15, significantly higher than the earlier estimated 0.04. An additional KBO [(55565) 2002 AW 197] has a geometric albedo of 0.17 ± 0.03. The emission bands in the asteroid spectra are indicative of silicates, but specific minerals have not yet been identified. The Centaur/comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has a nucleus surface geometric albedo of 0.025 ± 0.01 and its dust production rate was calculated from the properties of the coma. Several other investigations are in progress as the incoming data are processed and analyzed.

Cruikshank, Dale P.

41

Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS relative humidity observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS humidity device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The humidity device makes use of one transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom 2 providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The absolute accuracy of the humidity device is temperature dependent, and is of the order of 2% at the temperature range of -30 to -10 °C, and of the order of 10% at the temperature range of -80 to -60 °C. This enables the investigations of atmospheric humidity variations of both diurnal and seasonal scale. The humidity device measurements will have a lag, when a step-wise change in humidity is taking place. This lag effect is increasing with decreasing temperature, and it is of the order of a few hours at the temperature of -75 °C. To compensate for the lag effect we used an algorithm developed by Mäkinen [2]. The humidity observations were validated after tedious efforts. This was needed to compensate for the artifacts of the transducer electronics. The compensation process includes an assumption that the relative humidity at Mars in the temperature range of 0 to -30 °C is about zero. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water contents as well as with the modeling results. [3,4,5] References: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Mäkinen, T. (2012) Personal communication [3] Haberle, R.M. et al. (2013) Mars, submitted. [4] Smith, M. et al. (2006), J. Geophys. Res., 111, E12S13. [5] Savijarvi et al. (2010), Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 136:651, 1497-1505.

Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team

2013-04-01

42

Magnetic fields of low-mass stars & protostars. Observations & results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic field are ubiquitous to young and mature low-mass stars, and can potentially impact their formation, their evolution and their internal structure; yet the physical processes that succeed at amplifying and sustaining these fields (called dynamo processes), like those capable of changing the fate of the host stars (and in particular their rotation rates), are still somewhat enigmatic. Although theoretical modelling and numerical simulations (e.g., of stellar dynamo action and magnetospheric accretion processes) showed breathtaking progress in the last decade, they are not yet in the state of accurately predicting the various magnetic topologies that different low-mass stars can generate nor the impact such fields can have on stellar formation. Thanks to the advent of new-generation instruments, spectropolarimetric observations coupled to tomographic techniques can now reveal the large-scale magnetic topologies of both young and mature low-mass stars, and in particular their poloidal and toroidal components. More specifically, one can now investigate magnetic topologies of cool dwarfs, all the way from the brown dwarf threshold (spectral type M8) where stars are fully convective up to the limit beyond which outer convective zones get vanishingly small (spectral type F5); one can also explore the magnetic topologies of young low-mass stars that are still accreting mass from their circumstellar disc (i.e., the classical T Tauri stars) and study how such fields can impact mass accretion processes from the surrounding discs. We review herein the latest observational advances in this field, showing in particular that large-scale magnetic topologies of low-mass stars and protostars can drastically vary with mass and rotation rate, and discuss their implications for our understanding of dynamo processes, stellar formation and stellar evolution.

Donati, J.-F.

2013-09-01

43

The Very Small Array: Observations and Latest Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Very Small Array (VSA) is a unique interferometric telescope operating at 33 GHz at Tenerife. It has the ability to measure fluctuations in the CMB over a large range of angular scales by means of three main array configurations: compact, extended and super-extended. These angular scales correspond to the multipole range ? = 150 - 2500. Here we present new results from further observations of the extended array (February 2002 - June 2003). We cover ?-values up to ? ˜ 1600, thus doubling the ?-range of WMAP. The resulting power spectrum in the ?-range 800 - 1600 has very low noise coupled with good ?-resolution (? ? ˜ 80). Furthermore, the use of independently tracking aerials along with the dedicated source subtraction baseline allows unprecedented control of systematics. The latter is essential, since discrete sources are the dominant foreground at these angular scales. These measurements over larger ?-ranges are important in confirming the present cosmological paradigm and breaking degeneracies in the extraction of cosmological parameters.

Slosar, A.; Dickinson, C.

2005-01-01

44

Plasma observations near saturn: initial results from voyager 1.  

PubMed

Extensive measurements of low-energy plasma electrons and positive ions were made during the Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn and its satellites. The magnetospheric plasma contains light and heavy ions, probably hydrogen and nitrogen or oxygen; at radial distances between 15 and 7 Saturn-radii (Rs) on the inbound trajectory, the plasma appears to corotate with a velocity within 20 percent of that expected for rigid corotation. The general morphology of Saturn's magnetosphere is well represented by a plasma sheet that extends from at least 5 to 17 Rs, is symmetrical with respect to Saturn's equatorial plane and rotation axis, and appears to be well ordered by the magnetic shell parameter L (which represents the equatorial distance of a magnetic field line measured in units of Rs). Within this general configuration, two distinct structures can be identified: a central plasma sheet observed from L = 5 to L = 8 in which the density decreases rapidly away from the equatorial plane, and a more extended structure from L = 7 to beyond 18 Rs in which the density profile is nearly flat for a distance +/- 1.8 Rs off the plane and falls rapidly thereafter. The encounter with Titan took place inside the magnetosphere. The data show a clear signature characteristic of the interaction between a subsonic corotating magnetospheric plasma and the atmospheric or ionospheric exosphere of Titan. Titan appears to be a significant source of ions for the outer magnetosphere. The locations of bow shock crossings observed inbound and outbound indicate that the shape of the Saturnian magnetosphere is similar to that of Earth and that the position of the stagnation point scales approximately as the inverse one-sixth power of the ram pressure. PMID:17783833

Bridge, H S; Belcher, J W; Lazarus, A J; Olbert, S; Sullivan, J D; Bagenal, F; Gazis, P R; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Scudder, J D; Sittler, E C; Eviatar, A; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Vasyliunas, V M

1981-04-10

45

Galaxy occupation statistics of dark matter haloes: observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the occupation statistics of galaxies in dark matter haloes using galaxy groups identified from the Two-degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey with the halo-based group finder of Yang et al.. The occupation distribution is considered separately for early- and late-type galaxies, as well as in terms of central and satellite galaxies. The mean luminosity of the central galaxies scales with halo mass approximately as Lc~M2/3 for haloes with masses M < 1013h-1Msolar, and as Lc~M1/4 for more massive haloes. The characteristic mass of 1013h-1Msolar is consistent with the mass scale where galaxy formation models suggest a transition from efficient to inefficient cooling. Another characteristic halo mass scale, M~ 1011h-1Msolar, which cannot be probed directly by our groups, is inferred from the conditional luminosity function (CLF) that matches the observed galaxy luminosity function and clustering. For a halo of given mass, the distribution of Lc is rather narrow. A detailed comparison with mock galaxy redshift surveys indicates that this implies a fairly deterministic relation between Lc and the halo mass. The satellite galaxies, however, are found to follow a Poissonian number distribution, in excellent agreement with the occupation statistics of dark matter subhaloes. This provides strong support for the standard lore that satellite galaxies reside in subhaloes. The central galaxies in low-mass haloes are mostly late-type galaxies, while those in massive haloes are almost all early types. We also measure the CLF of galaxies in haloes of given mass. Over the mass range that can be reliably probed with the present data, 13.3 <~ log[M/(h-1Msolar)]<~ 14.7, the CLF is reasonably well fitted by a Schechter function. Contrary to recent claims based on semi-analytical models of galaxy formation, the presence of central galaxies does not show up as a strong peak at the bright end of the CLF. The CLFs obtained from the observational data are in good agreement with the CLF model obtained by matching the observed luminosity function and large-scale clustering properties of galaxies in the standard ? cold dark matter model.

Yang, Xiaohu; Mo, H. J.; Jing, Y. P.; van den Bosch, Frank C.

2005-03-01

46

First results of Herschel-SPIRE observations of Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the composition of Titan's stratosphere from high-resolution submillimetric observations performed with the SPIRE instrument on the Herschel satellite. From the flux density spectrum measured in the 20 - 52 cm-1 interval at an apodized resolution of 0.08 cm-1, we determine the stratospheric abundances of CH4, CO, HCN, as well as the isotopic ratios 12C/13C = 87 ± 6 in CO and 96 ± 13 in HCN, 14N/15N = 76 ± 6, and 16O/18O = 380 ± 60. The last of these results is the first documented measurement of Titan's 16O/18O ratio in CO, with a value 24% lower than the terrestrial ratio. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Courtin, R.; Swinyard, B. M.; Moreno, R.; Fulton, T.; Lellouch, E.; Rengel, M.; Hartogh, P.

2011-12-01

47

Recent results from CHAMP plasma parameter and magnetic field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The multi-year data base of magnetic field and ionospheric measurements from the CHAMP satellite contains an enormous potential to investigate the behaviour and the origin of currents in the F region. Very prominent phenomena are the post-sunset equatorial plasma irregularities (commonly known as "bubbles", or "Equatorial Spread-F" (ESF)) which cause also signatures in the total magnetic field due to diamagnetic currents. The continuous magnetic observations, available at a 1Hz rate, have allowed for the compilation of a comprehensive climatology of the magnetic signatures due to ESF. It reveals a distinct seasonal/longitudinal (S/L) distribution, and the occurrence rate reduces considerably with decreasing solar flux. The (S/L) distribution of bubbles has been found to correlate very well, up to 90 percent, with the pre-reversal enhancement vertical plasma drift peak. This provides strong evidence for the close relation between these phenomena. Since the amplitude of the diamagnetic effect depends on the ambient magnetic field strength and on the background electron density, the global distribution shows also slight differences to the ESF climatology based on plasma depletions. Although electron density readings are only available every 15s, CHAMP data suggest that the plasma irregularities are less structured at places where the ambient magnetic field is strong (e.g. East Asia, Indonesia). In these regions the bubble statistic based on magnetic signatures is systematically lower than that from plasma measurements.

Stolle, Claudia; Luehr, Hermann; Park, Jaeheung; Xiong, Chao; Fejer, B. G.

48

[Postoperative mental blocking in a continuous reaction task. With supplementary results showing the influence of age (author's transl)].  

PubMed

By means of a four colour device for measuring continuous reaction sequences the mental blockings of brain damaged patients in comparison with patients suffering from skin disease were determined. Differences due to age were also investigated. The analysis of frequency distribution of reaction times (dissection method according to Daeves and Beckel) yielded the following results: a) Brain damaged patients show a higher percentage of blockings (23%) than patients suffering from skin-disease (10%). "Normal" reaction times as well as "blockings" are not prolonged significantly. b) Older patients show prolonged normal reaction times and prolonged blockings without increase in the percentage of blockings. c) Patients with left hemisphere lesions show longer normal reaction times than those who undergo right hemisphere operations. The results are discussed with regard to their significance for theory and practice (road accidents). PMID:4959

Bäumler, G; Gerlach, J; Kaether, G

1975-01-01

49

First results of Herschel-PACS observations of Neptune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the initial analysis of a Herschel-PACS full range spectrum of Neptune, covering the 51-220 ?m range with a mean resolving power of ~3000, and complemented by a dedicated observation of CH4 at 120 ?m. Numerous spectral features due to HD (R(0) and R(1)), H2O, CH4, and CO are present, but so far no new species have been found. Our results indicate that (i) Neptune's mean thermal profile is warmer by ~3 K than inferred from the Voyager radio-occultation; (ii) the D/H mixing ratio is (4.5 ± 1) × 10-5, confirming the enrichment of Neptune in deuterium over the protosolar value (~2.1 × 10-5); (iii) the CH4 mixing ratio in the mid stratosphere is (1.5 ± 0.2) × 10-3, and CH4 appears to decrease in the lower stratosphere at a rate consistent with local saturation, in agreement with the scenario of CH4 stratospheric injection from Neptune's warm south polar region; (iv) the H2O stratospheric column is (2.1 ± 0.5) × 1014 cm-2 but its vertical distribution is still to be determined, so the H2O external flux remains uncertain by over an order of magnitude; and (v) the CO stratospheric abundance is about twice the tropospheric value, confirming the dual origin of CO suspected from ground-based millimeter/submillimeter observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

Lellouch, E.; Hartogh, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Vandenbussche, B.; de Graauw, T.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalié, T.; Orton, G.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Blecka, M. I.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, T.; Fulton, T.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lis, D. C.; Medvedev, A. S.; Rengel, M.; Sagawa, H.; Swinyard, B.; Szutowicz, S.; Bensch, F.; Bergin, E.; Billebaud, F.; Biver, N.; Blake, G. A.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Courtin, R.; Davis, G. R.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Jehin, E.; Kidger, M.; Naylor, D.; Portyankina, G.; Schieder, R.; Sidher, S.; Thomas, N.; de Val-Borro, M.; Verdugo, E.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, H.; Aarts, H.; Comito, C.; Kawamura, J. H.; Maestrini, A.; Peacocke, T.; Teipen, R.; Tils, T.; Wildeman, K.

2010-07-01

50

LRO LAMP: Experiment Description, Observation Status, And Early Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAMP is an Extreme/Far ultraviolet (UV) imaging spectrograph operating in lunar orbit aboard the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LRO arrived in lunar orbit in July, 2009. LAMP's primary objective is to search for evidence of exposed polar frosts in permanently shadowed regions; its secondary objectives are to explore the UV reflectivity characteristics of the lunar surface and to study the lunar atmosphere. At the time of this abstract submission, LAMP has been turned on in lunar orbit but has not yet begun its data collections; those collections will begin in August. We will describe the LAMP instrument and investigation, show first light and other early datasets, and describe some initial results.

Stern, S. Alan; Gladstone, R. R.; Retherford, K. R.; Parker, J. W.; Slater, D. C.; Davis, M. W.; Black, R. K.; Greathouse, T. K.; Versteeg, M.; Persson, K. B.; Kaufman, D. E.; Egan, A. F.; Hurley, D.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.

2009-09-01

51

Results of Pulkovo plan star observations at West Spitsbergen Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Star observations at the Bamberg zenith telescope at West Spitzbergen during 1977-1980 are a part of the Pulkovo plan for determining absolute star declinations using the zenith-symmetry method. Observational characteristics are given for polar night conditions. A total of 5500 instant latitudes were obtained for 18 months (three observational seasons). Four mean latitudes of the site are found using four programs of Talcott pair observations in different zones of zenith distances. The standard deviation of the mean latitude determined from one program is +/- 0.010 arcsec.

Glebova, L. A.; Gorshkov, V. L.; Zhilinskii, E. G.; Zykov, I. A.; Kiiaev, V. I.; Loseva, N. V.; Naumov, V. A.; Pavlov, A. S.; Popov, A. A.; Smirnov, B. N.

52

[LINKOR: results of observational program in patients with myocardial infarction].  

PubMed

The results of Assessment Program effective treatment of patients with myocardiaL INfarction drug ProCORalan (ivabradine) in outpatient practice, conducted in 53 cities of the Russian Federation, 333 doctors. Included 1226 patients (822 men and 404 women, average age 60,1+/-9,3 years). Despite treatment, before inclusion in the patients maintained an average 8,17+/-8,60 (mediana 6) angina attacks per week, elevated blood pressure (141,8+/-20,3/86,2+/-11,6 mm Hg) and heart rate (84,5 +/-10,4 beats / min). Adding to ivabradine treatment for 16 weeks resulted in significant (p<0.00001) reduction in heart rate (up to 63,1+/-7,5 beats / min), the number of angina attacks per week (from 8.17 to 1.27) and need for nitroglycerin (from 7.69 to 0.89 tablets per week). Decreased the number of patients that called ambulance assistance (from 35.6 to 1.5%), and hospitalization (from 15.4 to 1.2%). There was a significant (p<0.00001) increase in evaluating the effectiveness of treatment (from 5,4+/-1,8 to 8,9 +/-1,3 points), reducing the risk stratification of patients (6,1+/-1,5 to 4 3+/-2,0 points), increased stability evaluation of state (from 5,6+/-1,9 to 3,7+/-2,2 points) and improved assessment of prognosis (from 5,7+/-2,0 to 3,6 +/-1,9 points). Expressed significantly positive effects observed after 1 month of therapy, after the effect became more pronounced. Significantly improved quality of life estimated by Seattle Angina Questionnaire and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure. The maximum recommended dose ivabradine of 15mg/day were given 50% of the patients, the dose of 10 mg/day - 28%. Adverse effects were reported in 3.3% of patients, of which, according to doctors associated with taking the drug - 0.82%. During follow up, 4 patients died. Thus, the addition of ivabradine to -blocker therapy, persons with a history of myocardial infarction and angina experiencing elevated heart rate, are the tactics of a rational and safe therapy. PMID:23952999

Glezer, M G

2013-01-01

53

Mercury: Mid-Infrared (7.3 - 13.5 Microns) Spectroscopic Observations Showing Features Characteristic of Plagioclase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the surface of Mercury are reported for the wavelength range 7.3 to 13.5 microns. The observed spectral radiance emanated from equatorial and low latitude regions between 110-130 deg Mercurian longitude. The area...

R. W. H. Kozlowski A. L. Sprague F. C. Witteborn D. P. Cruikshank D. Wooden

1994-01-01

54

Memantine (Ebixa®) in Clinical Practice – Results of an Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In a post-marketing observational study, the efficacy and tolerability of memantine were examined in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: The patients were treated with 20 mg\\/day of memantine for a 6-month period. The efficacy of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Nurses’ Observation Scale for Geriatric Patients (NOSGER) and the Explorationsmodul Demenz (EMD)

Pasquale Calabrese; Ute Essner; Hans Förstl

2007-01-01

55

Surface circulation of the Levantine Basin: Comparison of model results with observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eastern Mediterranean (Levantine Basin) hydrography and circulation are investigated by comparing the results of a high-resolution primitive equation model with observations. After a 10-year integration, the model is able to reproduce the major water masses and the circulation patterns of the eastern Mediterranean. Comparisons with the POEM hydrographical observations show good agreement. The vertical distribution of the water masses

B. Alhammoud; K. Béranger; L. Mortier; M. Crépon; I. Dekeyser

2005-01-01

56

Mechanical thinning pillar peach trees - second year results and observations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Columnar (pillar) form peach trees were mechanically thinned at 50 days after full bloom during the pit hardening stage of development. A spike-drum mechanical shaker, which showed promise for peach fruit thinning, during preliminary tests in 2005 was used to remove the young fruits. The shaker wa...

57

Stratospheric and tropospheric NO 2 observed by SCIAMACHY: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) onboard Envisat are used to quantifying the vertical distribution of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide (11-41 km) from limb scattering geometry and the tropospheric column from limb-nadir matching. SCIAMACHY is validated with spatially and temporally coincident observations from Optical Spectrograph and Infrared Imager System (OSIRIS) and from Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE). Comparison with the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model provides a further check of consistency. Errors in pointing are detected and corrected using the recently developed `spectral knee' technique. An instrumental artifact, presumably a tangent-height-dependent wavelength drift, is causing fine spectral structure but can be taken into account as a pseudo-absorber in the least squares fitting. Extending the fitting window to longer wavelengths than those currently employed by other optical satellite-borne NO 2 sensors allows for the retrieval to penetrate the lower stratosphere. This extended fitting window is used to retrieve lower stratospheric NO 2 in the denoxified Antarctic polar vortex. Finally, tropospheric NO 2 columns, retrieved from limb-nadir matching, are presented.

Sioris, C. E.; Kurosu, T. P.; Martin, R. V.; Chance, K.

2004-01-01

58

Accuracy and Availability of Egnos - Results of Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to SBAS concept the user should receive timely the correct information about the system integrity and corrections to the pseudoranges measurements, which leads to better accuracy of coordinates. In theory the whole system is permanently monitored by RIMS stations, so it is impossible to deliver the faulty information to the user. The quality of the system is guaranteed inside the border of the system coverage however in the east part of Poland lower accuracy and availability of the system is still observed. This was the impulse to start an observation and analysis of real accuracy and availability of EGNOS service in the context of support air-operations in local airports and as the supplementation in hydrographic operations on the Polish Exclusive Zone. A registration has been conducted on three PANSA stations situated on airports in Warsaw, Krakow and Rzeszow and on PNA station in Gdynia. Measurements on PANSA stations have been completed permanently during each whole month up to end of September 2011. These stations are established on Septentrio PolaRx2e receivers and have been engaged into EGNOS Data Collection Network performed by EUROCONTROL. The advantage of these registrations is the uniformity of receivers. Apart from these registrations additional measurements in Gdynia have been provided with different receivers, mainly dedicated sea-navigation: CSI Wireless 1, NOVATEL OEMV, Sperry Navistar, Crescent V-100 and R110 as well as Magellan FX420. The main object of analyses was the accuracy and availability of EGNOS service in each point and for different receivers. Accuracy has been analyzed separately for each coordinate. Finally the temporarily and spatial correlations of coordinates, its availability and accuracy has been investigated. The findings prove that present accuracy of EGNOS service is about 1,5m (95%), but availability of the service is controversial. The accuracy of present EGNOS service meets the parameters of APV I and even APV II requirements, as well as any maritime and hydrography needs. However introducing this service into the practice demands better availability, because the gaps in receiving the proper information from the system appear too often and are too long at the moment. Additionally it was noticed very random character of availability and no correlation of this parameter in the different point of observations. In spite the correct EGNOS work the accuracy of the coordinates is not predictable in the local conditions. So in authors' opinion Local Airport Monitoring should be deployed if EGNOS would have to serve to the local airport service.

Felski, Andrzej; Nowak, Aleksander; Wo?niak, Tomasz

2011-01-01

59

Recent SETI Results with Observations at the ATA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Allen Telescope Array is open for business and the SETI Institute is carrying out a variety of searches for exo-intelligence. Production-level searches for narrowband signals is underway. Results from these and searches using unconventional algorithms are presented.

Harp, G. R.; Backus, P. R.; Kilsdonk, T. N.; Jordan, J. C.; Tarter, J. C.

2010-04-01

60

Magnetic Field Observations near Venus: Preliminary Results from Mariner 10  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NASA-GSFC magnetic field experiment on Mariner 10 is the first flight of a dual magnetometer system conceived to permit accurate measurements of weak magnetic fields in space in the presence of a significant and variable spacecraft magnetic field. Results from a preliminary analysis of a limited data set are summarized in this report, which is restricted primarily to Venus

N. F. Ness; K. W. Behannon; R. P. Lepping; Y. C. Whang; K. H. Schatten

1974-01-01

61

Airborne microwave observations during SCIAMACHY validation campaigns: first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Airborne Submillimeter wave Radiometer ASUR is a passive microwave sensor designed to be operated on board an aircraft. By flying above the tropopause absorption by water vapor can be avoided. Stratospheric vertical profiles of many trace gases like O3, N2O, H2O, ClO, HNO3, NO and BrO can be derived from the pressure broadened molecular line spectra received between 604 and 662 GHz. ASUR takes part in the German validation campaigns SCIA VALUE on board the FALCON aircraft in September 2002 and February/March 2003. Both campaigns span from arctic latitudes to the equator in order to cover a wide range of different atmospheric conditions. Most of the flights are arranged to meet in time as many SCIAMACHY ground pixel as possible along the footprints of the ENVISAT satellite orbits. Synergies with other instruments on ground and on balloons are intended. The OLEX lidar and the AMAXDOAS UV/VIS sensor complete the FALCON payload. In the summer 2002 campaign during the underflights the measurements were focused on O3 and N2O. Results of the first profile retrievals will be shown. An attempt to compare with preliminary SCIAMACHY limb profiles will be made.

Kuellmann, H.; Bremer, H.; Kleinboehl, A.; Kuttippurath, J.; Rozanov, A.; Kuenzi, K.

2003-04-01

62

Results from comparing THEMIS satellite and ground based observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) project is intended to investigate the major controversy in substorm science, the uncertainty whether the instability leading to the substorm is initiated near the Earth or in the more distant >20 Re magnetic tail. THEMIS will use the timing of the occurrence of substorm signatures at five satellites and at ground based all-sky imagers and magnetometers to infer the propagation direction. The array of stations consists of 20 all-sky imagers and 30 plus magnetometers deployed in the North American continent from Alaska to Labrador. Each ground based observatory contains a white light imager taking auroral images at a 3 second repetition rate and a magnetometer that records the 3 axis variation of the magnetic field at 2 Hz frequency. During the winter of 2007-08 the THEMIS satellites achieved their intended strategic locations to monitor substorms. For example in the time period between 06 and 09 UT on the 2nd of February 2008 several substorms occurred while the THEMIS satellites P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5 were located in the tail of the magnetosphere at approximately 29.6, 18.5, 11, 11 and 8Re downtail distance (GSM) respectively. The weather was relatively clear permitting the recording of the auroral features while the particle and field measurements were taken. In this paper we will discuss the preliminary results drawn from the data taken during substorms that occur during THEMIS conjunctions.

Mende, Stephen; Frey, Harald; Donovan, Eric; Jackel, Brian; Angelopoulos, V.

63

Children of Low Socioeconomic Status Show Accelerated Linear Growth in Early Childhood; Results from the Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives People of low socioeconomic status are shorter than those of high socioeconomic status. The first two years of life being critical for height development, we hypothesized that a low socioeconomic status is associated with a slower linear growth in early childhood. We studied maternal educational level (high, mid-high, mid-low, and low) as a measure of socioeconomic status and its association with repeatedly measured height in children aged 0–2 years, and also examined to what extent known determinants of postnatal growth contribute to this association. Methods This study was based on data from 2972 mothers with a Dutch ethnicity, and their children participating in The Generation R Study, a population-based cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (participation rate 61%). All children were born between April 2002 and January 2006. Height was measured at 2 months (mid-90% range 1.0–3.9), 6 months (mid-90% range 5.6–11.4), 14 months (mid-90% range 13.7–17.9) and 25 months of age (mid-90% range 23.6–29.6). Results At 2 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were shorter than those in the highest (difference: ?0.87 cm; 95% CI: ?1.16, ?0.58). Between 1 and 18 months, they grew faster than their counterparts. By 14 months, children in the lowest educational subgroup were taller than those in the highest (difference at 14 months: 0.40 cm; 95% CI: 0.08,0.72). Adjustment for other determinants of postnatal growth did not explain the taller height. On the contrary, the differences became even larger (difference at 14 months: 0.61 cm; 95% CI: 0.26,0.95; and at 25 months: 1.00 cm; 95% CI: 0.57,1.43) Conclusions Compared with children of high socioeconomic status, those of low socioeconomic status show an accelerated linear growth until the18th month of life, leading to an overcompensation of their initial height deficit. The long-term consequences of these findings remain unclear and require further study.

Silva, Lindsay M.; van Rossem, Lenie; Jansen, Pauline W.; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C. S.; Moll, Henriette A.; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Raat, Hein

2012-01-01

64

First observational results with the newly developed cloud profiling FM-CW radar at 95 GHz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a cloud profiling radar transmitting frequency-modulated continuous wave (FM-CW) at 95 GHz for ground-based observations. Millimeter wave at 95 GHz is used to realize high sensitivity to small cloud particles. An FM-CW type radar would realize similar sensitivity with much smaller output to a pulse type radar. Two 1m-diameter parabolic antennas separated by 1.4m each other are used for transmitting and receiving the wave. The direction of the antennas is fixed at the zenith. The radar is designed to observe clouds between 0.3 and 15 km in height with a resolution of 15 m. Using the facility, test observations and long term campaign observations have been done. Results of observations show that the system is sensitive and stable enough to observe various clouds.

Takano, Toshiaki; Suga, Yumiro; Akita, Kenichi; Kawamura, Youhei; Kumagai, Hiroshi; Takamura, Tamio; Nakanishi, Yuji; Nakajima, Teruyuki

2004-02-01

65

Upper stratospheric temperature climatology derived from SAGE II observations: preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study shows that the temperature information in the upper stratosphere can be derived from the SAGE II 385-nm observations. The preliminary results indicate that the zonal mean temperature increases with altitude below 50 km and decreases above 50 km. At 50 km, a regional maximum of 263 K is located in the tropics, and a minimum of 261 K

Pi-Huan Wang; Derek M. Cunnold; H. J. Wang; William P. Chu; Larry W. Thomason

1999-01-01

66

Results of geomagnetic observations in Central Africa by Portuguese explorers during 1877 1885  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this short contribution, geomagnetic measurements in Central Africa made by Capelo and Ivens - two Portuguese explorers - during the years 1877 and 1885 are provided. We show the scarce number of geomagnetic observation in Africa compiled until now. These Portuguese explorers performed a considerable amount of measurements of geomagnetic declination (44 measurements), inclination (50) and horizontal component (50) of the geomagnetic field. We compared the results attained by these keen observers with those derived from the global geomagnetic model by Jackson et al. [Jackson, A., Jonkers, A.,Walker, M., 2000. Four centuries of geomagnetic secular variation from historical records. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 358, 957-990].

Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

2006-08-01

67

Pit formation observed in a multilayer dielectric coating as a result of simulated space environmental exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain spaceborne telescope designs require that dielectric-coated lenses be exposed to the energetic electrons and protons associated with the space environment. Test coupons that were exposed to a simulated space environment showed extensive pitting as a result of dielectric breakdown. A typical pit was 50-100 mum at the surface and extended to the substrate material, in which a 10-mum-diameter melt region was found. Pitting was not observed on similar samples that had also been overcoated with a transparent conductive thin film. Measurement of the bidirectional reflectance distribution transfer function showed that pitting caused a fivefold to tenfold increase in the scattering of visible light.

Fuqua, Peter D.; Presser, Nathan; Barrie, James D.; Meshishnek, Michael J.; Coleman, Dianne J.

2002-06-01

68

Recent Results from IBEX ENA and Direct Interstellar Neutral Observations and Implications for the Outer Heliosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) is the first mission to directly observe the global interaction of our heliosphere with the local interstellar medium. IBEX measures Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) from ~0.1-6 keV, produced through charge exchange in the outer heliosphere. These observations led to the discovery of the IBEX ribbon of enhanced emissions, ordered by the external, interstellar magnetic field, which is superposed on a more smoothly varying globally distributed ENA flux. The first three years of IBEX observations have been recently culled and corrected for various backgrounds to produce a quantitative data set with significantly reduced statistical uncertainties. These observations show that from 2009-2011, both the ribbon and globally distributed ENA fluxes have been decreasing for all regions except the heliotail. The energy and spatial distributions of the ENAs indicate a quite direct recycling of solar wind ions into returned ribbon ENAs. In addition to ENAs from the outer heliosphere, IBEX also directly measures the interstellar neutral atoms entering from the interstellar medium; these observations include the first direct measurements of interstellar neutral H, O, and Ne. IBEX observations of interstellar He show that the heliosphere is moving more slowly with respect to the LISM than thought from previous Ulysses observations. The combination of this slower speed, IBEX and Voyager observations indicating a relatively strong interstellar magnetic field, and several independent models indicate that there is currently no Bow Shock ahead of the heliosphere. This paper summarizes these and other recent IBEX results and discusses the implications for our understanding of the outer heliosphere.

McComas, David

2013-04-01

69

The sodium exosphere of Mercury: Comparison between observations during Mercury's transit and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we compare the sodium exosphere observations made by Schleicher et al. [Schleicher, H., and 4 colleagues, 2004. Astron. Astrophys. 425, 1119-1124] with the result of a detailed numerical simulation. The observations, made during the transit of Mercury across the solar disk on 7 May 2003, show a maximum of sodium emission near the polar regions, with north prevalence, and the presence of a dawn-dusk asymmetry. We interpret this distribution as the resulting effect of two combined processes: the solar wind proton precipitation causing chemical alteration of the surface, freeing the sodium atoms from their bounds in the crystalline structure on the surface, and the subsequent photon-stimulated and thermal desorption of the sodium atoms. While we find that the velocity distribution of photon desorbed sodium can explain the observed exosphere population, thermal desorption seems to play a minor role only causing a smearing at the locations where Na atoms are released on the dayside. The observed and simulated distributions agree very well with this hypothesis and indicate that the combination of the proposed processes is able to explain the observed features.

Mura, Alessandro; Wurz, Peter; Lichtenegger, Herbert I. M.; Schleicher, Helmold; Lammer, Helmut; Delcourt, Dominique; Milillo, Anna; Orsini, Stefano; Massetti, Stefano; Khodachenko, Maxim L.

2009-03-01

70

Data Report of Hydrographic Observations. Series of Geomagnetism, No. 7 the Results of Magnetic Observations for the Year 1967 - 1969.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report is made of magnetic observations made at the Simosato Magnetic Observatory from 1967 to 1969. The results, which appear in tabular and graphic form, include special magnetic data compiled during post-IQSY and IASY.

1973-01-01

71

Marine Stratocumulus during VOCALS: Comparing Microphysical Observations to Large-Eddy Simulation Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a tool capable of resolving cloud-scale processes and has been used extensively for study of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. Understanding the strengths and deficiencies of LES is crucial if we are to use it effectively. The ability of LES to accurately represent detailed microphysics has been sparsely investigated (Khairoutdinov and Kogan, 1999), and we seek to advance knowledge in this area. Here we study how well LES coupled with an explicit binned resolving model can simulate daytime observations of stratocumulus dynamics and microphysics during VOCALS. Our observations were acquired from the CIRPAS Twin Otter on October 19th, 2008 centered around 20 S, 72 W. During this day a well-mixed, non-drizzling stratus-topped boundary layer of ~300m thickness was observed. The cloud top height, thermodynamic profile, and wind profile all remained relatively stationary throughout the observation period. Potential temperature and moisture content jumps were 15.2 K and -6.55 g/kg, respectively. The Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) showed aerosol concentrations elevated (~600 cm^-3) from what is expected for clean maritime conditions. The Twin Otter was outfitted an airborne phase Doppler Interferometer (PDI) providing detailed microphysical information about the cloud layer. The PDI data show a monomodal drop size distribution that exhibits little change in shape with change in liquid water content (LWC), consistent with extreme inhomogeneous mixing of air parcels. For our numerical model we employ the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, Cotton et al., 2001) in LES mode. So that the results of our LES best matched the detailed microphysical data from the PDI, we coupled a binned microphysical model to our LES (Feingold et al., 1996; Tzivion et al., 1987). Our LES cloud top height after model spin-up then matches the observations while model cloud base is 25 m than observations. Comparisons between probability distribution functions of LWC at matched heights in the observations and the LES results show reasonable agreement. The strength of simulated boundary-layer circulations is substantially weaker than what the observations suggest. These weak circulations are associated with a somewhat decoupled cloud layer in the LES which was not evident in our daytime observations. We suggest that this decoupling could be related to modeled overentrainment of free tropospheric air. Our model cloud top increases by 10 m over one hour of simulation, while no cloud top height increase was observed. For large LWCs (0.3 g/kg or greater) LES predicts drop size distribution remarkably well. For lower LWCs, the LES shows a substantial tail to smaller drop sizes not present in the observations. We attribute this discrepancy to the assumption of purely homogeneous mixing in the LES model. The LES also predicts a substantial number of small cloud droplets (~ 2 micron diameter) that are not observed by the PDI.

Petters, J.; Rossiter, D. L.; Feingold, G.; Jiang, H.; Chuang, P. Y.

2010-12-01

72

Comparison of LFM Simulation Results with Observation for Strongly Northward IMF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics involved in solar wind magnetosphere coupling when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is northward is still poorly understood. When IMF is northward the coupling occurs at high latitude poleward of the cusp region. One of the methods of measuring this coupling is to calculate the polar cap potential (PCP). PCP is the difference between the maximum and minimum potential in the polar cap region. In this paper we show results obtained from Lyon Feeder Mobbary (LFM) simulation as well as satellite observation showing saturation of polar cap potential for strongly northward IMF. Furthermore, we compare the overall magnetosphere geometry obtained from ideal LFM simulation result with various satellite data during similar conditions of strongly northward IMF.

Bhattarai, S. K.; Lopez, R. E.; Bruntz, R. J.

2011-12-01

73

Yes, There is a Northern Lesser Antilles Forearc Sliver: Results From a Decade of GPS Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the discrepancy between thrust fault earthquake slip vectors and the direction of North American plate convergence and arc-normal trending normal fault systems have led previous workers to suggest that the northern Lesser Antilles arc/forearc (NLAAF) region is subject to strain partitioning and sliver motion with some component of internal deformation. Results from a decade of GPS observations in the northern Lesser Antilles and the British Virgin Islands (BVI) are used to directly constrain estimates of microplate motion. We use the observed GPS velocity field to quantitatively test between three kinematic models for the region: 1) the NLAAF moves with the Caribbean plate and does not show a significant amount of sliver motion, 2) the NLAAF shows rigid sliver motion that differs statistically from Caribbean plate motion, or 3) the NLAAF shows motion consistent with an internally deforming forearc sliver. Our analysis of the GPS data indicates that statistically significant northwest directed motion of a forearc sliver is occurring in the region. The observed velocity field also supports internal deformation in the southern part of the sliver where the majority of the extensional fault systems occur. Boundary parallel motion within the NLAAF ranges from ~1-2 mm/yr in the southern region to ~5 mm/yr in the northern region. These rates are in agreement with past studies of plate convergence and earthquake slip vectors for the central part of the NLAAF, but are slower than past estimates of possible sliver motion in the northern region (BVI) indicating that oblique convergence in this area is only partially partitioned. Our velocity field shows predominantly boundary parallel motion along the arc, while islands in the southern forearc region show predominantly arc- normal strain accumulation of ~3 mm/yr.

Turner, H. L.; Jansma, P. E.; Mattioli, G. S.; Matson, S.; Rodríguez Cesaní, H. M.

2008-12-01

74

Field measurements along the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake rupture shows strike-slip and dip-slip activities, resulting in mountains uplift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yushu Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Qinghai Province, China, on April 14th, 2010. Understanding its mechanism is critical to studying the local stress field and the mechanism of earthquake, therefore we conducted careful field investigation immediately after the main shock. Morphological field research shows that the earthquake was triggered by the Ganzi-Yushu fault, trending NW-SE and dipping NE. It spreads at the base of the range-front, along which huge triangular facets (up to 600 m) are distributed, attesting the important vertical component of this fault. Geomorphic features (such as troughs, rivers, fences, and alluvial fans) exhibit sinistral offsets that vary from tens of meters to hundreds of meters. Due to both strike-slip and dip-slip displacements, this fault seems to be a transtensional fault. Thorough observation and measurements were made along the rupture zone, which is about 49 km-long, and consists of 3 discontinuous left-stepping rupture segments (19 km, 22 km, and about 8 km, respectively, from west to east). We observed a maximum sinistral offset of 2.3 m along the central segment and a maximum vertical offset of 0.6 m along the western segment. These offsets, as well as push-up, co-seismic pull-apart and left stepping en-echelon tension fissures, show strike-slip and dip-slip components. The angle (?) between the Principal Displacement Zone (PDZ) and en-echelon tension fissures can reflect the surface rupture kinematics: ? larger than 45 degrees in transpression, ? less than 45 degrees in transtension, and ? equals to 45 degrees in simple shear. For instance, along the Changu Temple segment, we measured 125 rupture directions and found that the mean PDZ strike is ca.295 degrees NW while the fissures’ strike ranges from 278-300 degrees NW. The value of ? is less than 45 degrees, revealing the transtensional regime. In the Guoyangyansongduo segment, we measured 287 rupture directions and found that the PDZ strikes ca.300 degrees NW while fissures strike 265-290 degrees NW, also indicating ? is less than 45 degrees and a transtensional regime. Lastly, in the Longbao Lake segment, 30 rupture direction measurements show that the PDZ strikes 290 degrees NW and fissures strike 270 degrees NW, also showing a transtensional regime. The uplift of the mountain range therefore results from the transtensional regime of the fault and the long term activity resembles Yushu earthquake of this fault.

Fuyao, W.; Li, H.; Pan, J.; Xu, Z.; Li, N.; Guo, R.; Zhang, W.

2010-12-01

75

AIRWATCH from SPACE: preliminary results from lab. measurements and from balloon background observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the AIRWATCH from SPACE mission, measurements of efficiency of UV yield, in air and in Nitrogen, have been performed using X-ray photons of 22 keV at the LAX X-Ray Beam Facility in Palermo. Results are reported and discussed. The nightglow has been observed with the instrument dubbed BABY (BAckground BYpass) from an altitude of 26 Km during a balloon flight from the Trapani-Milo Base in Sicily. Data profile are presented, showing the difference between over-land and over-sea detector exposition in the range of 300-400 nanometers.

Giarrusso, S.; Catalano, O.; La Rosa, G.; Linsley, J.; Maccarone, M. C.; Sacco, B.; Scarsi, L.; AIRWATCH Collaboration

1998-12-01

76

Researching of sea waves influence on a coastal line transformation (based on field observation results)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The long duration registrations of bottom pressure, temperature and meteorological data took place in June - October 2007 on the shelf near 104th - 110th kilometer of interstate road Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk - Okha. Sediment transport and abrasion processes are observed in this place, it is a dangerous factor for road and railroad constructions, it can also be threat for some buildings of Vzmorie town. Distributed network of autonomous pressure gauges was installed for wave structure studying. Gauges were installed in tree lines with 100, 150 and 200 meters far from each other. Gathered data contains information about different wave's regimes under different weather conditions, it's allowed us to make analysis. Different data rows for different wave regimes were taken for analysis. Transformation of wave field along shoreline and opposite was observed. The results of observation are showed that disposition of waves was determined by swell waves with period 8-9 second. Wind waves were weaker than swell waves, conceivably because of big depths in the studied area. Much more interesting results were found in the infragravity waves range (0.5 - 5 min). For example, peaks with period above 150 and 75 seconds are presented in the spectral estimation of record from gauge 23. The same peaks were not observed in other gauges to the North and to the South from 23. However, low frequency peak was much stronger at the storm weather, but 75 seconds peak was stayed non-changed under the different weather conditions. For understanding mechanism of infra-gravitation waves generation group structure of waves were studied. Spectrum characteristics of different data rows for different wave regimes and also for their envelopes were provided. Results of this research allow us to consider that wave packets with common period 7 - 8 seconds make infra-gravitation waves with period above 5 minutes which forcing sediment transport processes. Satellite images of studied place were used in this research. Beach cusps were found cusps (periodically forms of shore line) on these images, the cusps length place in diapason from 500 to 615 meters. Calculation and results of modeling showed that this cusps was generated by standing edge waves. Calculating of edge waves parameters for obtained bathymetry showed that period of edge waves which generated cusps must be about 4-5 minute. This period agree closely with spectrum estimation of data rows. This work is partly supported by RFBR grant 09-05-00447_? and The President of Russian Federation grant for young scientists MD-3024.2008.5.

Chernov, A.; Kouznetsov, K.; Kurkin, A.; Shevchenko, G.

2009-04-01

77

He+ dominance in the plasmasphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods: 1. Observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations made by the DMSP F10 satellite during the recovery phase from geomagnetic disturbances in June 1991 show regions of He+ dominance around 830 km altitude at 09:00 MLT. These regions are co-located with a trough in ionisation observed around 55° in the winter hemisphere. Plasma temperature and concentration observations made during the severe geomagnetic storm of 24 March 1991 are used as a case study to determine the effects of geomagnetic disturbances along the orbit of the F10 satellite. Previous explanations for He+ dominance in this trough region relate to the part of the respective flux tubes that is in darkness. Such conditions are not relevant for this study, since the whole of the respective flux tubes are sunlit. A new mechanism is proposed to explain the He+ dominance in the trough region. This mechanism is based on plasma transport and chemical reaction effects in the F-region and topside ionosphere, and on the time scales for such chemical reactions. Flux tubes previously depleted by geomagnetic storm effects refill during the recovery phase from the ionosphere as a result of pressure differences along the flux tubes. Following a geomagnetic disturbance, the He+ ion recovers quickly via the rapid photoionisation of neutral helium, in the F-region and the topside. The recovery of the O+ and H+ ions is less rapid. This is proposed as a result of the respective charge exchange reactions with neutral atomic hydrogen and oxygen. Preliminary model calculations support the proposed mechanism.

Denton, M. H.; Bailey, G. J.; Wilford, C. R.; Rodger, A. S.; Venkatraman, S.

2002-04-01

78

Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE ( McEwen et al., JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright "streamers" ( Thomas et al., Icarus, 123, 536-556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al., JGR, 104, 9055-9068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP.

Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; McEwen, A. S.

2011-10-01

79

Atmospheric Data Assimilation with an Ensemble Kalman Filter: Results with Real Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) has been implemented for atmospheric data assimilation. It assimi- lates observations from a fairly complete observational network with a forecast model that includes a standard operational set of physical parameterizations. To obtain reasonable results with a limited number of ensemble members, severe horizontal and vertical covariance localizations have been used. It is observed that the

P. L. Houtekamer; Herschel L. Mitchell; Gérard Pellerin; Mark Buehner; Martin Charron; Lubos Spacek; Bjarne Hansen

2005-01-01

80

Results from EDDAatCOSY: Spin Observables in Proton-Proton Elastic Scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic proton-proton scattering as one of the fundamental hadronic reactions has been studied with the internal target experiment EDDA at the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY/Jülich. A precise measurement of differential cross section, analyzing power and three spin-correlation parameters over a large angular (?c.m. ~ 35° - 90°) and energy (Tp ~ 0.5 - 2.5 GeV) range has been carried out in the past years. By taking scattering data during the acceleration of the COSY beam, excitation functions were measured in small energy steps and consistent normalization with respect to luminosity and polarization. The experiment uses internal fiber targets and a polarized hydrogen atomic-beam target in conjunction with a double-layered, cylindrical scintillator hodoscope for particle detection. The results on differential cross sections and analyzing powers have been published and helped to improve phase shift solutions. Recently data taking with polarized beam and target has been completed. Preliminary results for the spin-correlation parameters A NN, ASS, and ASL are presented. The observable ASS has been measured the first time above 800 MeV and our results are in sharp contrast to phase-shift predictions at higher energies. Our analysis shows that some of the ambiguities in the direct reconstruction of scattering amplitudes which also show up as differences between available phase-shift solutions, will be reduced by these new measurements.

Rohdjeß, Heiko

2003-07-01

81

"The Show"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

Gehring, John

2004-01-01

82

Genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia shows protection in Malay boys: Results from the Malaysia-Singapore ALL Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study genetic epidemiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the Chinese and Malays, we investigated 10 polymorphisms encoding carcinogen- or folate-metabolism and transport. Sex-adjusted analysis showed NQO1 609CT significantly protects against ALL, whilst MTHFR 677CT confers marginal protection. Interestingly, we observed that NQO1 609CT and MTHFR 1298 C-allele have greater genetic impact in boys than in girls. The

Allen Eng-Juh Yeoh; Yi Lu; Jason Yong-Sheng Chan; Yiong Huak Chan; Hany Ariffin; Shirley Kow-Yin Kham; Thuan Chong Quah

2010-01-01

83

Choosing observers for evaluation of aesthetic results in breast cancer conservative treatment  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The subjective evaluation of aesthetic results in conservative breast cancer treatment has largely been used without questioning the observer's skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate interobserver agreement of the aesthetic results of breast cancer conservative treatment in three groups of observers with different levels of experience. Methods and materials: Photographs were taken of 55 women who had undergone conservative unilateral breast cancer treatment and 5 control women with no breast disease. The images were then distributed to 13 observers who were divided into three groups according to their experience in breast cancer treatment: experienced, medium experienced, and inexperienced. They were first asked to distinguish the patients from the controls and for the patients to identify the operated side. Subsequently, they were asked to classify the aesthetic result as excellent, good, fair, or poor. The accuracy in identifying controls, patients, and side of treatment was calculated individually for all observers. The interobserver agreement for the aesthetic result was calculated using observed agreement and multiple {kappa} statistic ({kappa}) in each of the three groups. Results: Inexperienced observers performed significantly worse than experienced observers in identifying controls, patients, and the side of treatment. Agreement of the aesthetic result was significantly greater in the group of experienced observers ({kappa} = 0.59) than in the medium experienced ({kappa} = 0.35) and inexperienced ({kappa} = 0.33) observers. Conclusion: Previous experience in breast cancer conservative treatment should be considered a prerequisite for the evaluation of the aesthetic results.

Cardoso, Maria Joao [Surgery B Department, S. Joao Hospital, Porto Medical School, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: mjcard@mail.med.up.pt; Santos, Ana Cristina [Hygiene and Epidemiology Department, Porto Medical School, Porto (Portugal); Cardoso, Jaime [Telecommunications and Multimedia Unit, INESC, Porto (Portugal); Barros, Henrique [Hygiene and Epidemiology Department, Porto Medical School, Porto (Portugal); Cardoso de Oliveira, Manuel [Surgery B Department, S. Joao Hospital, Porto Medical School, Porto (Portugal)

2005-03-01

84

Martian Phyllosilicates: Characteristics, Enigmas, and New Results from Orbital, Surface, and Laboratory Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decades, evidence of phyllosilicate minerals on Mars was absent or inconclusive. With the advent of two visible/near infrared (VNIR) imaging spectrometers, the Mars Express OMEGA and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM, spectral evidence has emerged that indicates hundreds to thousands of isolated occurrences of phyllosilicates around the planet. These locations appear to be limited to the oldest (Noachian) parts of the Martian crust. Dioctahedral and trioctahedral clay minerals, mica, and chlorite have been identified. In contrast to these discoveries made from orbit, no definitive identification of phyllosilicates has been made on the ground. The two Mars Exploration Rovers carry two instruments capable of such identifications: a Mössbauer spectrometer (MB) for the identification of Fe-bearing minerals and a thermal infrared spectrometer (Mini-TES) for the identification of a wide range of primary and secondary minerals. The bedrock at the Meridiani Planum landing site shows some evidence for nontronite (an Fe-smectite) based on Mini-TES results, but this was not corroborated by MB data. At the Gusev Crater landing site, highly altered rocks were encountered in the Columbia Hills, some of which show strong indications of phyllosilicates based upon chemical data from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). However, neither Mini-TES nor MB could confirm their presence even though data from these instruments show clear evidence for other hydrated secondary phases in several locations. Laboratory thermal infrared (TIR) spectroscopy clearly shows sensitivity to even thin (<10 microns) coatings of phyllosilicates. Two features in the low wavenumber range covered by TES and Mini-TES (near 530 and 465 cm-1) are especially diagnostic of the presence of phyllosilicates and primary and secondary amorphous silicates. A feature near 465 cm-1 has been identified in Mini-TES spectra of rocks in the Columbia Hills that MB and APXS spectra indicate are highly altered. A similar feature has been mapped globally using TES spectra and may serve as a proxy for some of the rocks encountered in the Columbia Hills. I have now discovered that many of the locations identified by OMEGA and CRISM as phyllosilicate- bearing display this feature, including parts of Mawrth Vallis, Nili Fossae, and NE Tyrrhena Terra. Full TES spectra from one location adjacent to Nili Fossae look remarkably similar to the Assemblee-type rocks in the Columbia Hills that have the chemical signature of montmorillonite. Additionally, I have found that one of the locations in the Nili Fossae region identified as phyllosilicate-bearing by CRISM shows the TES 530 cm-1 feature along with the 465 cm-1 feature. Together, these are indicative of a dioctahedral smectite. The full spectra strongly resemble that of weathered Columbia River Basalt. Despite these examples of apparent agreement between TIR and VNIR observations, there are other examples in which phyllosilicates mapped by OMEGA and/or CRISM display no diagnostic features in TES spectra or conversely, the TES 465 cm-1 feature has no OMEGA/CRISM counterpart. The latter case may represent locations where unaltered volcanic glass or impact melt is present. The former case may indicate something about the mineralogy, abundance, or physical character of the identified phyllosilicates. In either case, the combination of TIR and VNIR observations provides a potential link between ground observations from the rovers and orbital observations around the globe. A more complete picture of Martian phyllosilicates is likely to emerge with these combined observations, which will become increasingly important in the landing site selection process for the upcoming Mars Science Laboratory rover.

Ruff, S. W.

2008-12-01

85

Database of the results of the Lunar occultation observations made in 1963--2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer database of the results of lunar occultation observations is compiled. The observations were collecte at the Astronomical Observatory of the Kyiv National University over the period when it was a regional coordination centre for the observations of this phenomenon. The base includes more than 24000 of observation results of 580 observers from 77 sites on the territory of Ukraine, Russia, Georgia, Belorus', Moldova, Lithuania, Uzbekistan. The material is analyzed and compared to the similar data of the world bank. The access to the information can be realized on the site of the Astronomical Observatory http://www.observ.univ.kiev.ua/ or through the e-mail address likaz@observ.univ.kiev.ua.

Kazantseva, L. V.; Osipov, È. Ô.

2002-04-01

86

Detection of global runoff changes: results from observations and CMIP5 experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper assesses the detectability of changes in global streamflow. First, a statistical detection method is applied to observed (no missing data which represent 42% of global discharge) and reconstructed (gaps are filled in order to cover a larger area and about 60% of global discharge) streamflow. Observations show no change over the 1958-1992 period. Further, an extension to 2004 over the same catchment areas using reconstructed data does not provide evidence of a significant change. Conversely, a significant change is found in reconstructed streamflow when a larger area is considered. These results suggest that changes in global streamflow are still unclear. Moreover, changes in streamflow as simulated by models from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the historic and future RCP 8.5 scenarios are investigated. Most CMIP5 models are found to simulate the climatological streamflow reasonably well, except for over South America and Africa. Change becomes significant between 2016 and 2040 for all but three models.

Alkama, R.; Marchand, L.; Ribes, A.; Decharme, B.

2013-07-01

87

Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) basin on the overriding plate after initial collision. This "collisional mantle dynamic basin" (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing, material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also, during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate cause the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. Our modelled topography changes fit well with this observed uplift and subsidence.

Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

2012-11-01

88

Astronomical Observatory at Kolonicke Sedlo and its Results in Variable Stars Observing  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is presented a brief report of the actual equipments in the Astronomical Observa tory at the Kolonicke Sedlo. Description of Vihorlat National Telescope of 1 meter diameter equipped with the two-star high-speed photoelectric photometer and autoguiding system as well as various small telescopes capabilities are included. The results of CCD and PMT observations are presented. The future observational programs

I. Kudzej; V. G. Karetnikov; P. A. Dubovsky; L. S. Paulin; N. N. Fashchevskyi; A. V. Ryabov; T. N. Dorokhova; N. I. Dorokhov; N. I. Koshkin; M. Vadila; S. Parimucha

2007-01-01

89

The Vela Pulsar: Results from the First Year of Fermi LAT Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on analysis of timing and spectroscopy of the Vela pulsar using 11 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The intrinsic brightness of Vela at GeV energies combined with the angular resolution and sensitivity of the LAT allows us to make the most detailed study to date of the energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectra, using a LAT-derived timing model. The light curve consists of two peaks (P1 and P2) connected by bridge emission containing a third peak (P3). We have confirmed the strong decrease of the P1/P2 ratio with increasing energy seen with EGRET and previous Fermi LAT data, and observe that P1 disappears above 20 GeV. The increase with energy of the mean phase of the P3 component can be followed with much greater detail, showing that P3 and P2 are present up to the highest energies of pulsation. We find significant pulsed emission at phases outside the main profile, indicating that magnetospheric emission exists over 80% of the pulsar period. With increased high-energy counts the phase-averaged spectrum is seen to depart from a power law with simple exponential cutoff, and is better fit with a more gradual cutoff. The spectra in fixed-count phase bins are well fit with power laws with exponential cutoffs, revealing a strong and complex phase dependence of the cutoff energy, especially in the peaks. By combining these results with predictions of the outer magnetosphere models that map emission characteristics to phase, it will be possible to probe the particle acceleration and the structure of the pulsar magnetosphere with unprecedented detail.

Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Dormody, M.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Hobbs, G.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McConville, W.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Starck, J.-L.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

2010-04-01

90

Genetic susceptibility to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia shows protection in Malay boys: results from the Malaysia-Singapore ALL Study Group.  

PubMed

To study genetic epidemiology of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the Chinese and Malays, we investigated 10 polymorphisms encoding carcinogen- or folate-metabolism and transport. Sex-adjusted analysis showed NQO1 609CT significantly protects against ALL, whilst MTHFR 677CT confers marginal protection. Interestingly, we observed that NQO1 609CT and MTHFR 1298 C-allele have greater genetic impact in boys than in girls. The combination of SLC19A1 80GA heterozygosity and 3'-TYMS -6bp/-6bp homozygous deletion is associated with reduced ALL risk in Malay boys. Our study has suggested the importance of gender and race in modulating ALL susceptibility via the folate metabolic pathway. PMID:19651439

Yeoh, Allen Eng-Juh; Lu, Yi; Chan, Jason Yong-Sheng; Chan, Yiong Huak; Ariffin, Hany; Kham, Shirley Kow-Yin; Quah, Thuan Chong

2009-08-03

91

Early Results from TNTCAM2, a Mid-IR Imaging Polarimeter, and Remote Internet Observing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new science results from TNTCAM2 obtained at the WIRO 2.3 meter telescope. These include: (1) polarization maps of the BN object and a section of M42 around the Trapezium that shows bow shocks; (2) imaging and polarimetry of selected circumstellar shells of evolved stars and planetary nebulae; (3) new mid-IR photometry of ISO selected Vega-type stars showing a mid-infrared spectral energy excess, and (4) attempts to detect proplyds in Orion. The photometry and polarimetry of bright sources allows us to characterize the system performance in terms of throughput of the optics and net system sensitivity, which we compare to the sensitivity of TNTCAM1 at WIRO (S/N = 5 on an 8.0 magnitude 11.5? m source (20 mJy) over a 30 minutes of coadded .03s integrations). We also present the efficiency of the polarization analyzer and a comparison of our polarization measurments of selected bright objects with previous measurements in the mid-IR. We discuss and demonstrate the remote use of TNTCAM2 on the Wyoming Infra-Red Observatory (WIRO) telescope. The remote observer can connect to the observatory computers from a variety of operating systems using AT&T's Virtual Network Computing software. Remote real-time control of the telescope and TNTCAM2 have already been achieved from the University of Denver over a standard ethernet connection through WIRO's 10.5 Mbps microwave link. We thank Craig Smith for invaluable suggestions and guidance in collecting and reducing polarimetry data in the mid-IR. We acknowledge support under NSF grant AST-9724506 to the University of Denver and NASA EPSCoR grant #NCC5-414 to the University of Wyoming.

Theil, D. S.; Edwards, M. E.; Jurgenson, C. A.; Klebe, D. I.; Stencel, R. E.; Cash, J. L.; Martin, R. T.; Johnson, P. E.; Weger, J. S.

2001-05-01

92

Observational evidences of Walker circulation change over the last 30 years contrasting with GCM results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to examine the changes in Walker circulation over the recent decades, we analyzed the sea surface temperature (SST), deep convective activities, upper tropospheric moistening, sea level pressure (SLP), and effective wind in the boundary layer over the 30-year period of 1979-2008. The analysis showed that the eastern tropical Pacific has undergone cooling while the western Pacific has undergone warming over the past three decades, causing an increase in the east-west SST gradient. It is indicated that the tropical atmosphere should have responded to these SST changes; increased deep convective activities and associated upper tropospheric moistening over the western Pacific ascending region, increased SLP over the eastern Pacific descending region in contrast to decreased SLP over the western Pacific ascending region, and enhanced easterly wind in the boundary layer in response to the SLP change. These variations, recognized from different data sets, occur in tandem with each other, strongly supporting the intensified Walker circulation over the tropical Pacific Ocean. Since the SST trend was attributed to more frequent occurrences of central Pacific-type El Niño in recent decades, it is suggested that the decadal variation of El Niño caused the intensified Walker circulation over the past 30 years. An analysis of current climate models shows that model results deviate greatly from the observed intensified Walker circulation. The uncertainties in the current climate models may be due to the natural variability dominating the forced signal over the tropical Pacific during the last three decades in the twentieth century climate scenario runs by CMIP3 CGCMs.

Sohn, B. J.; Yeh, Sang-Wook; Schmetz, Johannes; Song, Hwan-Jin

2013-04-01

93

Astronomical Observatory at Kolonicke Sedlo and its Results in Variable Stars Observing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is presented a brief report of the actual equipments in the Astronomical Observa tory at the Kolonicke Sedlo. Description of Vihorlat National Telescope of 1 meter diameter equipped with the two-star high-speed photoelectric photometer and autoguiding system as well as various small telescopes capabilities are included. The results of CCD and PMT observations are presented. The future observational programs are presented as well.

Kudzej, I.; Karetnikov, V. G.; Dubovsky, P. A.; Paulin, L. S.; Fashchevskyi, N. N.; Ryabov, A. V.; Dorokhova, T. N.; Dorokhov, N. I.; Koshkin, N. I.; Vadila, M.; Parimucha, S.

94

Optical observations of Northern Hemisphere Blazars: Results from a long campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, results from an optical flux monitoring campaign (V and R filters) of northern hemisphere blazars are presented. The observations were made using the 1.52m telescope at the Calar Alto Observatory, Spain, during 2006 and 2007. A total of 10 objects were followed in different observing runs. Significant intranight (hour-based scale) variability was not detected in any object of this sample. However, internight (day-based scale) variability was indeed detected in some of the sources.

Marchesini, E. J.; Zibecchi, L.; Andruchow, I.; Cellone, S. A.; Combi, J. A.; Romero, G. E.; Martí, J.; Luque-Escamilla, P.; Muñoz-Arjonilla, A. J.; Sánchez-Sutil, J. R.

95

Assimilation of wind speed and direction observations: A new formulation and results from idealized experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new methodology for assimilating wind observations in their observed form of speed and direction, while taking into account both speed and direction error. It ensures the analyzed speed and direction will be consistent with their background and observed values. The new formulation is implemented in WRFDA, and idealized experiments are used to demonstrate the potential benefit. The results suggest that analyses from the new formulation are more reasonable when compared to the conventional methodology. The forecasts generated in these idealized experiments also demonstrate the value of this new formulation.

Huang, Xiang-Yu; Gao, Feng; Jacobs, Neil; Wang, Hongli

2013-04-01

96

TV Observations of Meteors in INASAN: Equipment, Methods and First Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the analysis the risk from particles of meteor streams, we must have proved information about masses and densities of meteors. The prime task is to select minor streams from sporadic meteors. Very few astronomers tried to do it, when others only mark observed meteor “Sporadic” without registering its track. So very few previous observations cannot be used for streams detection, and we had to do it from special observations. As a width of meteoroid stream may be very narrow, the Earth will cross it in few hours and it is necessary to observe meteor events 24 hour a day. This is why we provide meteor monitoring and catch every ray of light in night skies and ask other observers to join our program. The current goal of our investigation is continuous monitoring of meteor events by two ways: from nearby sites (about 20-60 km distance) for triangle observations and simultaneously from some observation sites separated by approximately thousand kilometers for detection of minor streams. The last one will reveal spatial heterogeneity's of strong meteor showers also. Since July 2002 at the Arkhyz Space Tracking Station (North Caucasus) and near Moscow hybrid TV-cameras with CCD (“PatrolCa”) are used for meteor observations. Limiting magnitude of the first camera is about +5 magn in the 52-degrees field under frame rate 25 f/sec, the second camera has limiting magnitude 11,5m in field 18x22 degrees with rate 7,5 f/sec. Since June 2006 four extra PatrolCa begin stereo (basis) TV-observation near Moscow with the aims of determination of individual orbits of observed meteors and their physical densities. Observed by meteor monitoring data show that at least 40% of sporadic meteors may be referred to catalogued weak meteor streams. In this paper we present the method of definition of celestial coordinates of objects in the single frame of the wide-angle system. The method allows definition of celestial coordinates of a meteor at the restrictions of absents of enough stars in the frame during the observations, for example at partially cloudy weather, or when there are few stars in the frame, or at large distortions of a coordinate grid in the frame. These restrictions can forbid direct using of other methods. We objectively registered 38 meteors with wide-angle camera “PatrolCA” during 9 nights from 2002 to 2007 years and 2000 meteors with highly sensitive camera FAVOR during 1000 nights at the same period. The work is supplied by RFBI grants 06-02-08313 and 06-02-16365.

Kartashova, Anna P.; Bagrov, A. V.; Leonov, V. A.

2007-08-01

97

Non-stereoscopic cues in the Random-Dot E stereotest: results for adult observers.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate performance on the Random-Dot E (RDE) stereotest under binocular and monocular non-stereoscopic viewing conditions. Sixteen adult observers with normal vision were tested with the RDE stereotest. Four new RDE tests were shown to each observer in varying combinations of monocular viewing, binocular but non-stereoscopic viewing, and normal binocular viewing conditions. The test conditions were masked (where possible) and were presented in pseudo-random order. Control experiments were also conducted using the Frisby stereotest. Fifteen of the sixteen observers could discern some differences between the plates monocularly and therefore satisfied the passing criterion of the RDE test. Under these conditions, no observers could discern the stereoscopic E figure nor did any observer report a sensation of depth. No observer satisfied the passing criterion of the Frisby test monocularly. We conclude that caution should be used when interpreting results from the RDE stereotest, since adult observers could discern some differences between the test plates monocularly. PMID:9196674

Fricke, T; Siderov, J

1997-03-01

98

Experimental determination of subjective similarity for pairs of clustered microcalcifications on mammograms: Observer study results  

SciTech Connect

Presentation of images of lesions similar to that of an unknown lesion might be useful to radiologists in distinguishing between benign and malignant clustered microcalcifications on mammograms. Investigators have been developing computerized schemes to select similar images from large databases. However, whether selected images are really similar in appearance is not examined for most of the schemes. In order to retrieve images that are useful to radiologists, the selected images must be similar from radiologists' diagnostic points of view. Therefore, in this study, the data of radiologists' subjective similarity for pairs of clustered microcalcification images were obtained from a number of observers, and the intra- and inter-observer variations and the intergroup correlations were determined to investigate whether reliable similarity ratings by human observers can be determined. Nineteen images of clustered microcalcifications, each of which was paired with six other images, were selected for the observer study. Thus, subjective similarity ratings for 114 pairs of clustered microcalcifications were determined by each observer. Thirteen breast, ten general, and ten nonradiologists participated in the observer study; some of them completed the study multiple times. Although the intraobserver variations for the individual readings and the interobserver variations for pairs of observers were not small, the interobserver agreements were improved by taking the average of readings by the same observers. When the similarity ratings by a number of observers were averaged among the groups of breast, general, and nonradiologists, the mean differences of the ratings between the groups decreased, and good concordance correlations (0.846, 0.817, and 0.785) between the groups were obtained. The result indicates that reliable similarity ratings can be determined by use of this method, and the average similarity ratings by breast radiologists can be considered meaningful and useful for the development and evaluation of a computerized scheme for selection of similar images.

Muramatsu, Chisako; Li, Qiang; Schmidt, Robert; Suzuki, Kenji; Shiraishi, Junji; Newstead, Gillian; Doi, Kunio [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2006-09-15

99

Preliminary Results of Atmospheric Extinction Coefficient Measurements at Gaomeigu Observational Station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the atmospheric extinction coefficients is one of the important and fundamental works for astronomical observatories. By using the newly-built 2.4 m telescope at Gaomeigu Observational Station of Yunnan Observatory, the calibration works, such as the measurement of the atmospheric extinction coefficient, are carried out and their preliminary results are presented. By observing the Landolt standard stellar fields during April and May 2009, the atmospheric extinction coefficients of five bands UBVRI at two nights are given. In addition, the components which contribute to the atmospheric extinction coefficients of this site are discussed. The measured extinction coefficients are found to be basically consistent with the previous results obtained in the site selection some years ago. And they are also compared with the values of some other well-known observational stations worldwide.

Hu, Bo

2011-04-01

100

Results of Radar Observations of Mars at 39CM in 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tables of measured echo delays from Mars are presented. The elevation profile and effective radar cross-section of the Martian surface as a function of longitude are measured. The observational results at 39-cm wavelength are compared with those at 3.8, 12.5, 70 cm wavelengths for the same latitude.

V. A. Kotelnikov; Y. N. Alexandrov; R. A. Andreev; A. S. Vyshlov; V. M. Dubrovin; A. L. Zajtsev; S. P. Ignatov; V. I. Kaevitser; A. N. Kozlov; A. A. Krymov; E. P. Molotov; G. M. Petrov; O. N. Rzhiga; A. T. Tagaevskij; A. F. Khasyanov; A. M. Shakhovskoj; S. A. Shchetinnikov

1983-01-01

101

Experimental results concerning global observables from the CERN SPS heavy ion program  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview is given of experimental results obtained during the initial operation of the heavy-ion program at the CERN SPS during the period 1986--1988. This paper confines itself to a presentation of results on so-called global observables, such as energy flow and multiplicity distributions, and on information extracted from them. Of particular interest among the latter are an estimate of the magnitude and spatial distribution of the energy density attained. 3 refs., 27 figs.

Young, G.R.

1990-06-01

102

Integration of Observations and Modeling Results in the North American Carbon Program (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North American Carbon Program (NACP) is designed to quantify the magnitudes and distributions of carbon sources and sinks, explain the processes controlling them, and produce a consistent analysis of North America’s carbon budget. To accomplish this goal, the NACP Science Plan calls for an unprecedented level of coordination among observational and modeling efforts for the terrestrial, atmospheric, and human components of the carbon cycle. Because available observations are localized and widely separated in both space and time, we depend heavily on models as a key integrating component within NACP. One modeling approach involves process-based ecosystem models that estimate carbon sources and sinks. The other modeling approach —atmospheric inverse models— estimates land-atmospheric fluxes that are optimally consistent with measurements of the wind fields and atmospheric carbon dioxide content. These two modeling approaches combine to provide improved understanding of carbon fluxes from land surfaces. This overview talk will describe and present summary results from model-data intercomparisons at two scales: individual sites, in which observations and ecosystems models are compared, and continental scale, in which observations, ecosystem models and inverse models are compared. The results from this work will provide feedback to the terrestrial ecosystem and inverse modeling communities that will help improve the diagnosis of carbon sources and sinks across North America. Ultimately, the synthesis will improve the predictive capacity of terrestrial ecosystem models through a rigorous evaluation framework designed to assess model performance against observations, inversions, and other forward models.

Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Thornton, P. E.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Jacobson, A. R.; Schaefer, K. M.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Davis, K. J.

2009-12-01

103

Very-long-baseline radio interferometry (VLBI) observations of gamma-ray blazars: results from millimeter-VLBI observations.  

PubMed Central

VLBI observations of the extremely gamma-bright blazar PKS 0528+134 at 8, 22, 43, and 86 GHz reveal a strongly bent one-sided-core jet structure with at least three moving and two apparently stationary jet components. At the highest observing frequencies the brightest and most compact jet component (the VLBI core) is unresolved with an upper limit to its size of approximately 50 microarcsec corresponding to approximately 0.2 parsec [H0 = 100 km.s-1.Mpc-1 (megaparsec-1), q0 = 0.5, where H0 is Hubble constant and q0 is the deceleration parameter]. Two 86-GHz VLBI observations performed in 1993.3 and 1994.0 reveal a new jet component emerging with superluminal speed from the core. Linear back-extrapolation of its motion yields strong evidence that the ejection of this component is related to an outburst in the millimeter regime and a preceding intense flare of the gamma-flux density observed in early 1993. This and the radio/optical "light curves" and VLBI data for two other sources (S5 0836+710 and 3C 454.3) suggest that the observed gamma-radiation might be Doppler-boosted and perhaps is closely related to the physical processes acting near the "base" of the highly relativistic jets observed in quasars.

Krichbaum, T P; Britzen, S; Standke, K J; Witzel, A; Schalinski, C J; Zensus, J A

1995-01-01

104

Photographic zenith tube of the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory - Processing method and observation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the reduction of PZT plates which has been used at the Zvenigorod INASAN Observatory since 1986 is described. The formulas used for computing the coordinates of the stellar image in the focal plane at the midpoint of the exposure are correct to 0.0024 arcsec. Observations from February 1986 to October 1988 are compared with data of BIH and IERS, and the results of the comparison are used to compute the amplitudes of the annual terms of nonpolar variations in the observed latitudes and Delta(UTI).

Yurov, E. A.

1992-10-01

105

Observation VLBI Session RAPL02. the Results of the Data Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the data processing of the VLBI experiment, titled RAPL02, are presented. Those observations were made in February, 2011, with 5 antennas. All 3 antennas of Saint-Petersburg Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences were used in that session. Those were antennae in Svetloe, in Zelenchuck, and in Badary. Additionally, a 22-m antenna in Puschino, as well as a 32-m antenna in Medicina (Italy) were also included into observations. The raw data correlation was made at the software correlator of the Astro Space Center. The secondary data processing was made for 3 quasars: 3C273, 3C279, and 3C286.

Chuprikov, A. A.

106

First results from ARTEMIS lunar wake crossing: observations and hybrid simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon does not have an intrinsic magnetic field and its conductivity is not sufficient to facilitate the development of an induced magnetosphere. The interaction of the Moon with the unperturbed solar wind (SW) is, hence, dominated by the absorption of SW particles on its surface and the consequent generation of a lunar wake on the night side. The SW magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon; the pressure imbalance in lunar wake, however, accounts for a slight increase in magnetic pressure in the lunar wake center. The wake is slowly filled up with SW particles due to their thermal motion, which generates a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) rarefaction wave propagating away from the wake in the SW frame of reference. Over the last 3 years the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) mission provided excellent data helping the scientific community in drawing a detailed picture of the physical processes associated with the development of substorms in the terrestrial magnetotail. Two of the five THEMIS spacecraft are currently being sent into stationary orbits around the Moon in a follow-up mission called Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS). The ARTEMIS P1 spacecraft (formerly THEMIS-B) has recently passed through the lunar wake in a flyby maneuver on February 13, 2010. We show first results of two hybrid code simulations with static and, for the first time, dynamically changing SW input. Adapted SW monitor data of the NASA OMNI database is used as input for the simulations. During the wake crossing the spin stabilized spacecraft P1 was in lunar shadow and, hence, its spin period cannot be determined from sun sensor data. Therefore, an eclipse-spin model is applied to bridge the gap of missing spin period data in order to recover vector measurements. A comparison of the simulation results with correctly despun magnetic field and particle measurements of ARTEMIS P1 allows for a separation of static lunar wake and, due to SW variations, transient features in the observations.

Plaschke, F.; Wiehle, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Georgescu, E.; Glassmeier, K.; Motschmann, U. M.; Sibeck, D. G.

2010-12-01

107

Spinning particles in Saturn's C ring from mid-infrared observations: Pre-Cassini mission results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saturn's C ring thermal emission has been observed in mid-infrared wavelengths, at three different epochs and solar phase angles, using ground based instruments (CFHT in 1999 and VLT/ESO in 2005) and the Infrared Radiometer Instrument Spectrometer (IRIS) onboard the Voyager 1 spacecraft in 1980. Azimuthal variations of temperature in the C ring's inner region, observed at several phase angles, have been analyzed using our new standard thermal model [Ferrari, C., Leyrat, C., 2006. Astron. Astrophys. 447, 745-760]. This model provides predicted ring temperatures for a monolayer ring composed of spinning icy spherical particles. We confirm the very low thermal inertia (on the order of 10 JmKs) found previously by Ferrari et al. [Ferrari, C., Galdemard, P., Lagage, P.O., Pantin E., Quoirin, C., 2005. Astron. Astrophys. 441, 379-389] that reveals the very porous regolith at the surface of ring particles. We are able to explain both azimuthal variations of temperature and the strong asymmetry of the emission function between low and high phase angles. We show that large particles spinning almost synchronously might be present in the C ring to explain differences of temperature observed between low and high phase angle. Their cross section might represent about 45% of the total cross section. However, their numerical fraction is estimated to only ˜0.1% of all particles. Thermal behavior of other particles can be modeled as isothermal behavior. This work provides an indirect estimation of the particle's rotation rate in Saturn's rings from observations.

Leyrat, Cédric; Ferrari, Cécile; Charnoz, Sébastien; Decriem, Judicael; Spilker, Linda J.; Pilorz, Stuart

2008-08-01

108

Results of Processing of Leonids-2002 Meteor Storm TV Observations in Kyiv  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of double-station TV observations of Leonids-2002 meteor storm in Kyiv (Ukraine) have been presented. The observations were carried out from two observational stations of Astronomical Observatory of Taras Shevchenko National University, placed near Kyiv on distance between them 54 km, during five hours: from 23h 30m till 4h 30m UT on 18/19 November, 2002. In spite of the bad weather conditions (we were not able to rich the storm maximum due to sunrise; very bright moon during the night) we registered 54 meteors in the first point of observations (48 of them were Leonids) and 60 meteors from another point (57 were Leonids). Total number of common meteors was 38. The number of meteors with images enabled for precise processing was 29. Analysis of complete statistical, kinematic and photometrical processing of observational results were carried out. Trajectory of meteors in Earth's atmosphere, radiant coordinates, heliocentric orbital elements etc. were obtained. The initial masses of meteoroids were calculated from photometrical processing. Distributions of meteors on begin heights, maximal brightness heights and masses are shown. Due to weather conditions we estimated the limit star magnitude of still registered meteors approximately as 4m. The calculated minimal mass of a meteoroid, which can produce the meteor with 4m is approximately equal to 1.54\\cdot 10-4 grams. We determined that ZHR for the meteors brighter than 4m were changed during observations from 350 to 1400. It is also estimated the spatial density of Leonid stream particles as 4.3\\cdot 10-8-1.7\\cdot 10-7 km-3.

Kozak, P.; Rozhilo, O.; Kruchynenko, V.; Kazantsev, A.; Taranukha, Y.

109

Astrometric results of observations of mutual occultations and eclipses of the Saturnian satellites in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The photometry of mutual occultations and eclipses of natural planetary satellites can be used to infer very accurate astrometric data. This can be achieved by processing the light curves of the satellites observed during international campaigns of photometric observations of these mutual events. Aims: This work focuses on processing the complete database of photometric observations of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Saturnian satellites made during the international campaign in 2009. The final goal is to derive new accurate astrometric data. Methods: We develop an accurate photometric model of mutual event observations of sufficiently high accuracy. Our original method is applied to derive astrometric data from photometric observations of the mutual occultations and eclipses of the Saturnian satellites. Results: We process the 26 light curves obtained during the international campaign of photometric observations of the Saturnian satellites in 2009. Compared with the theory TASS 1.7 by Vienne and Duriez, we find that the root mean square of the "O-C" residuals for the 23 highest quality observations are equal to 48.5 and 21.7 mas in right ascension and declination, respectively, we obtain 16.4 and 20.7 mas with the new theory by Lainey and collaborators and 17.3 and 21.6 mas with JPL SAT351 ephemerides. Topocentric or heliocentric angular differences for satellites pairs are obtained for 16 time instants during the time period from December 19, 2008 to July 16, 2009. Light curves are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/544/A29

Arlot, J.-E.; Emelyanov, N. V.; Lainey, V.; Andreev, M.; Assafin, M.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Casas, R.; Christou, A.; Colas, F.; Da Silva Neto, D. N.; Dechambre, O.; Dias-Oliveira, A.; Dourneau, G.; Farmakopoulos, A.; Gault, D.; George, T.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Herald, D.; Kozlov, V.; Kurenya, A.; Le Campion, J. F.; Lecacheux, J.; Loader, B.; Massallé, A.; Mc Brien, M.; Murphy, A.; Parakhin, N.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Schnabel, C.; Sergeev, A.; Tsamis, V.; Valdés Sada, P.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Zhang, X.

2012-08-01

110

NuSTAR Observations of Blazars and Radio Galaxies: First Results and Plans for the Future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NuSTAR, or the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, is a hard X-ray - sensitive imaging satellite successfully launched by NASA on June 13, 2012. One of the main science goals of NuSTAR is to study relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei: this includes both blazars and radio galaxies. NuSTAR has already observed several such AGN with prominent jets for calibration purposes: these include the blazars 3C273, Mkn 421, and PKS 2155-304. We show preliminary data for those sources, and discuss the plans for NuSTAR observations of blazars and radio galaxies. The emphasis of the strategy is on multi-band monitoring, coordinated with soft X-ray - sensitive instruments as well as ground-based radio, infrared, optical, and TeV telescopes.

Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Ajello, M.; Balokovic, M.; Blandford, R. D.; Boggs, S. E.; Boydstun, K.; Christensen, F.; Craig, W.; Giebels, B.; Giommi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Hayashida, M.; Humensky, B.; Inoue, Y.; Koglin, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Meier, D.; Ogle, P. M.; Paneque, D.; Perri, M.; Puccetti, S.; Readhead, A. C.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W.; NuSTAR Team

2013-01-01

111

OBSERVATIONS OF BINARY STARS WITH THE DIFFERENTIAL SPECKLE SURVEY INSTRUMENT. I. INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

First results of a new speckle imaging system, the Differential Speckle Survey Instrument, are reported. The instrument is designed to take speckle data in two filters simultaneously with two independent CCD imagers. This feature results in three advantages over other speckle cameras: (1) twice as many frames can be obtained in the same observation time which can increase the signal-to-noise ratio for astrometric measurements, (2) component colors can be derived from a single observation, and (3) the two colors give substantial leverage over atmospheric dispersion, allowing for subdiffraction-limited separations to be measured reliably. Fifty-four observations are reported from the first use of the instrument at the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO 3.5 m Telescope{sup 9}The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. in 2008 September, including seven components resolved for the first time. These observations are used to judge the basic capabilities of the instrument.

Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT 06515 (United States); Veillette, Daniel R.; Shah, Sagar C.; O'Rielly, Grant V. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, 285 Old Westport Road, North Dartmouth, MA 02747 (United States); Baena Galle, Roberto [Departament d'Astronomia i Meteorologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Van Altena, William F. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)], E-mail: horche2@southernct.edu, E-mail: drv@usno.navy.mil, E-mail: g_sshah@umassd.edu, E-mail: gorielly@umassd.edu, E-mail: rbaena@am.ub.es, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu

2009-06-15

112

Results of magnetic field observations of stars with helium anomalies with the 6-m telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new longitudinal magnetic field observations of hot CP stars with helium anomalies obtained on 6-m telescope at years 2010 and 2011. The survey includes more than 30 objects. For 8 stars magnetic field was detected for the first time. For 2 previously known magnetic stars HD 36485 and HD 35298 circular polarized spectra were obtained at different phases of the period. Both stars show lines with non-usual complicated distribution of Stokes V which is changing strongly during their rotation.

Yakunin, I.; Romanyuk, I.; Kudryavtsev, D.; Semenko, E.

2011-12-01

113

NEOWISE: Recent Results and Observations of Tiny Near-Earth Objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The minor planet-hunting portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission (Wright et al. 2010), known as NEOWISE, has resulted in the creation of an archive of single exposure images and extracted sources collected by this infrared all-sky survey (Mainzer et al. 2011). All data products have now been publicly released through NASA's Infrared Science Archive (Cutri et al. 2012). Along with the single exposure images and source databases, the NEOWISE project supported the development of tools for solar system-friendly queries of the data. We have used these tools to extract mid-infrared observations of near-Earth objects that make extremely close approaches to the Earth. Using these observations, we have computed physical properties for these objects. An overview of these derived properties as well as other recent results and status from the project will be presented.

Mainzer, Amanda K.; Bauer, J.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Nugent, C.; Cutri, R.; Wright, E. L.; NEOWISE Team

2013-10-01

114

Air Pollution Transport in an Alpine Valley: Results From Airborne and Ground-Based Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

An observational dataset from a wintertime field campaign in the Inn Valley, Austria, is analysed in order to study mechanisms\\u000a of air pollution transport in an Alpine valley. The results illustrate three types of mechanisms: transport by a density current,\\u000a back-and-forth transport by valley winds, and transport by slope winds. The first type is associated with an air mass difference

A. Gohm; F. Harnisch; J. Vergeiner; F. Obleitner; R. Schnitzhofer; A. Hansel; A. Fix; B. Neininger; S. Emeis; K. Schäfer

2009-01-01

115

Mean transport structure of the deep western boundary current east of Abaco: Model results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate the model performance on simulating the Meridional Overturning Circulation in the Atlantic Ocean (AMOC), transport structure of the Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) determined from a climatologically-forced, basin-scale simulation is compared to observational database east of Abaco Island, Bahamas. Blow 1000 m, the model results yield a narrow southward boundary current of about 31 Sv within about 150 km east of coast, and a broad northward recirculation of about 10 Sv, about 600 km further to the east. Vertically, more transport takes place in a depth range of 1000-3000 m than in 3000-5000 m, for both boundary current and recirculation. The model-determined mean transport for DWBC, cumulative from coast to 72°W (about 500 km wide), is 23 Sv, 14.5 and 8.5 Sv above and below 3000 m, respectively. These results overall compare well with observations. A smaller transport below 3000 m is in part due to the lack of northward transport of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which is not presented in simulation. As a result, the model-based AMOC across the basin (about 17 Sv), is also about 3 Sv less than the value observed.

Xu, X.; Hurlburt, H. E.

2010-12-01

116

Overview of the first HyMeX Special Observation Period over Italy: observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the first Hymex campaign (5 September-6 November 2012) referred to as Special Observation Period (SOP-1), dedicated to heavy precipitation events and flash floods in Western Mediterranean, three Italian hydro-meteorological monitoring sites were activated: Liguria-Tuscany, North-Eastern Italy and Central Italy. The extraordinary deployment of advanced instrumentation, including instrumented aircrafts, and the use of several different operational weather forecast models has allowed an unprecedented monitoring and analysis of high impact weather events around the Italian hydro-meteorological sites. This activity has seen the strict collaboration between the Italian scientific and operational communities. In this paper, an overview of the Italian organization during the SOP-1 is provided, and selected Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) are described. A significant event for each Italian target area is chosen for this analysis: IOP2 (12-13 September 2012) in North-Eastern Italy, IOP13 (15-16 October 2012) in Central Italy and IOP19 (3-5 November 2012) in Liguria and Tuscany. For each IOP the meteorological characteristics, together with special observations and weather forecasts, are analyzed with the aim of highlighting strengths and weaknesses of the forecast modeling systems. Moreover, using one of the three events, the usefulness of different operational chains is highlighted.

Ferretti, R.; Pichelli, E.; Gentile, S.; Maiello, I.; Cimini, D.; Davolio, S.; Miglietta, M. M.; Panegrossi, G.; Baldini, L.; Pasi, F.; Marzano, F. S.; Zinzi, A.; Mariani, S.; Casaioli, M.; Bartolini, G.; Loglisci, N.; Montani, A.; Marsigli, C.; Manzato, A.; Pucillo, A.; Ferrario, M. E.; Colaiuda, V.; Rotunno, R.

2013-09-01

117

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use. Landsat multispectral images provide views of large areas of the Earth under uniform lighting conditions and can be obtained at a variety of scales and formats. Not only do the Landsat data provide highly useful images showing surficial materials and structures such as folds and faults, but also measurements and computer-derived ratios of the brightness of different rock types, alteration zones, and mineral associations. These data have led to the finding of a variety of new ore deposits. In addition, the combination of Landsat digital data and aeromagnetic data has extended the use of Landsat as an exploration tool which can be used to readily relate surface features to subsurface anomalies. Magsat data, now being collected, are helping refine information on major crustal anomalies that were first recognized during the analysis of POGO data. The more nearly circular orbit, lower altitude, and increased sophistication of its vector magnetometer enable Magsat to provide more precise information than POGO. Information of this type is required to develop crustal models. Although Magsat is designed to operate for only 4-8 months, the number of orbits that it should be able to make will be sufficient to accomplish its mission and to record a major magnetic storm expected in 1980. HCMM is a two-band visible to near-IR (0.55-1.1 ?m) and thermal infrared (10.2-12.5 ?m) system designed to measure reflected solar energy, determine the heat capacity of rocks and to monitor soil moisture, thermal effluents, plant canopy temperatures and snow cover. Launched in April 1978, it is in sun-synchronous, circular orbit at an altitude of 620 km. It is a relatively low-resolution system with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 500-600 m and a swath width of 716 km. However, the system is designed to detect objects in the range of 260°-340° K with a sensitivity (NE?T) of 0.4°K at 280°. Recording the thermal radiation of urban heat islands and high thermal inertia of quartzite strata in the Appalachian region are two examples of its land applications. Launched in June 1978, Seasat operated for only 100 days, but successfully acquired much information over both sea and land. The collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery and radar altimetry was particularly important to geologists. Although there are difficulties in processing and distributing these data in a timely manner, initial evaluations indicate that the radar imagery supplements Landsat data by increasing the spectral range and offering a different look angle. The radar altimeter provides accurate profiles over narrow strips of land (1 km wide) and has demonstrated usefulness in measuring icecap surfaces (Greenland, Iceland, and Antarctica). The Salar of Uyuni in southern Bolivia served as a calibration site for the altimeter and has enabled investigators to develop a land-based smoothing algorithm that is believed to increase the accuracy of the system to 10 cm. Data from the altimeter are currently being used to measure subsidence resulting from ground water withdrawal in the Phoenix-Tucson area.

Carter, W. D.

118

Aerosol, Clouds and Water Vapor Transport across the Tropopause: Observations and Model Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosols can affect cloud particle size and lifetime, which impact precipitation, radiation and climate. Increased aerosols may cause higher water vapor abundance in air that enters the stratosphere by increasing tropopause temperature and altering cloud properties in the tropical tropopause layer. We have analyzed recent satellite observations from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and other instruments, focusing on the polluted regions over South and East Asia. We found that polluted ice clouds have smaller ice effective radius, and higher temperature and specific humidity near the tropopause than clean clouds, suggesting a possible enhancement in water vapor transport from the troposphere to the stratosphere by aerosol effects. The stratospheric water vapor is observed to have a slightly increasing trend during Aura observation period from 2004 to 2010, coincidental with the Asian aerosol trend. The contributions of atmospheric dynamics and aerosol effects to the stratospheric water vapor trend are investigated. Simulations from a coupled aerosol-climate model also show that increasing black carbon and sulfate causes increased temperature and water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

Su, H.; Jiang, J. H.; Liu, X.; Read, W. G.

2010-12-01

119

Latitudinal Variations of Sulfur Compounds in the Venus Atmosphere Based on the Correlation Between VLA Observations and Radio Occultation Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

To identify the presence of potential spatial variations in the distributions of sulfur compounds (H_2SO_4(g) and SO_2) across the disk of Venus, a dual-frequency radio observation was performed with the NRAO\\/VLA at 14.94 GHz (2 cm) and 22.46 GHz (1.3 cm) on April 5, 1996. The resulting brightness maps have been compared with a radiative transfer model, which shows both

M. A. Kolodner; S. H. Suleiman; B. J. Butler; P. G. Steffes

1997-01-01

120

Results from UV Imaging in the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portion of the GOOD-S field was observed with the HST Wide Field Camera 3 with both the UVIS and IR channels, as part of the Early Release Science Observations. Here we present a summary of our results from imaging intermediate redshift galaxies with an emphasis on what was learned from the ultraviolet portion of the observations. We discuss the size evolution of passively evolving galaxies, the assembly of massive spheroids during the peak epoch of the cosmic star-formation rate, the evolution and properties of UV-selected star-forming galaxies, analysis of AGN host galaxies, and the UV properties of z<1.5 early-type galaxies. Additionally, we will discuss how the UV data affect derived galaxy properties such as photometric redshifts and SED parameters. This work is based on the Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee. We are grateful to the Director of the Space Telescope Science Institute for awarding Director's Discretionary time for this program. Support for program 11359 was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

Cohen, Seth H.; WFC3-SOC

2013-01-01

121

Geodetic methods for monitoring water overexploitation: Results from geometric and gravimetric observation techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of population and urbanisation place increasing demands on groundwater resources for irrigation, drinking water supply and industrialisation. In semiarid and arid regions, decades of unrestrained extraction of groundwater has resulted in severe depletion of this valuable resource, leaving in turn its fingerprints in the time series of different space geodetic observing systems. On the one hand, the loss of water is accompanied by local and regional scale surface deformations that can be monitored by InSAR and permanent GPS networks with an accuracy of few millimeters. On the other hand, the mass loss is associated with changes of the Earth’s gravity field, being reflected by the observations of dedicated satellite missions. This paper analyses observation time series of InSAR and GRACE and quantifies the loss of water mass due to overexploitation of groundwater in selected regions over a period of several years. The results are subsequently compared with the output of the numerical hydrological models LaD and WGHM. Surface deformations are derived from InSAR time-series analysis using Envisat data. Mass variations are deduced from spherical harmonic expansions as well as from regional analyses of the GRACE gravity field as provided by various processing centers. Our case-studies are performed for regions in Central Iran where groundwater overdrafting is widespread.

Seitz, F.; Motagh, M.

2009-12-01

122

Greenhouse gases observation from space -initial operation and calibration results of TANSO on GOSAT- (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) observes carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) globally from space. It is a joint project of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). GOSAT was launched on January 23, 2009 from Tanegashima Space Center and placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 12:48 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. There are two instruments: the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects gas absorption spectra of Short Wave InfraRed (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as of Thermal InfraRed (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage; three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2?m) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 ?m) with 0.27 cm-1 spectral resolution. The TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to detect cloud and aerosol interference. TANSO-FTS and CAI acquire global data every three days. For the first six months after the launch, on-orbit function, performance, calibration, and validation have been checked-out. The presentation includes instrument design, pre-launch test results, observation plan, onboard calibration schemes, and the initial on-orbit results of radiometric, geometric and spectroscopic performances. The data processing on the ground is also presented.

Kuze, A.; Shiomi, K.; Suto, H.; Nakajima, M.

2009-12-01

123

GPS Signal Surface Reflections and Signal Propagation In The Troposphere: First Results From Champ Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the first year following the activation of the GPS radio occultation experiment aboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite more than 30,000 occultation events have been observed. Radio holographic analyses of 3783 occulta- tion events observed between 14 May and 10 June 2001 reveal that in about 20­30% the received signal contains contributions from components reflected at Earth's sur- face. This percentage number increases to about 70­80% at high latitudes. At low latitudes inhomogeneities in the refractivity field caused by the distribution of water vapor frequently lead to multipath propagation of the direct ray in the lower tropo- sphere. On the basis of geometrical ray tracing and multiple phase screen simulations charac- teristic frequency shifts in the radio holograms' power spectral densities are analyzed quantitatively. By correlating these frequency shifts with ground-level refractivity the events can be separated in three categories. First, the frequency shift depends almost linearly on reflection point elevation following about 0.22 km Hz-1. Second, within the subset of zero-elevation reflections an approximate correlation with specific hu- midity at ground-level is found. Thereby, specific humidities at the ground are de- rived on the basis of the GPS phase and amplitude observations, precise orbit data and ECMWF dry refractivities. The results are consistent with corresponding ECMWF values of specific humidity. Finally, in about 1.4% of the zero-elevation events the ob- served frequency shifts are inconsistent with the linear relationship between ground- level refractivity and the observed frequency shift. Comparisons with results from multiple phase screen simulations suggest that in these cases signatures caused by diffraction effects of layered structures in the refractivity field are present.

Beyerle, G.; Hocke, K.; Pavelyev, A.; Marquardt, C.; Reigber, Ch.; Schmidt, T.; Wickert, J.

124

Determining Inclinations of Active Galactic Nuclei via their Narrow-line Region Kinematics. I. Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight (LOS). However, except for a few special cases, the specific inclinations of individual AGNs are unknown. We have developed a promising technique for determining the inclinations of nearby AGNs by mapping the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs), which are often easily resolved with Hubble Space Telescope [O III] imaging and long-slit spectra from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Our studies indicate that NLR kinematics dominated by radial outflow can be fit with simple biconical outflow models that can be used to determine the inclination of the bicone axis, and hence the obscuring torus, with respect to our LOS. We present NLR analysis of 53 Seyfert galaxies and the resulting inclinations from models of 17 individual AGNs with clear signatures of biconical outflows. Our model results agree with the unified model in that Seyfert 1 AGNs have NLRs inclined further toward our LOS than Seyfert 2 AGNs. Knowing the inclinations of these AGN NLRs, and thus their accretion disk and/or torus axes, will allow us to determine how their observed properties vary as a function of polar angle. We find no correlation between the inclinations of the AGN NLRs and the disks of their host galaxies, indicating that the orientation of the gas in the torus is independent of that of the host disk. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs 11243, 11611, and 12212.

Fischer, T. C.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.

2013-11-01

125

Preliminary Results on Saturn's Inner Plasma Sheet as Observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present preliminary results of our analysis of Saturn's inner plasma sheet as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) experiment during Cassini's initial entry into Saturn's magnetosphere and when the spacecraft was put into orbit around Saturn. For this initial analysis ion fluxes are divided into two sub-groups: protons and water group ions. Depending on the status of our preliminary analysis we will discuss the ion composition and details of the fluid parameters. These results will eventually allow us to solve the force balance equation along the magnetic field (ions and electrons) and predict the vertical distribution of the plasma along the magnetic field. Once this is done we will be in a position to make detailed comparisons with the Voyager results.

Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D. G.; Coates, A. J.; Rymer, A. M.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M. F.; Reisenfeld, D.; Hill, T. W.; Dougherty, M. K.; Andre, N.; Connerney, J. E.; Richardson, J. D.

2004-12-01

126

Preliminary Results on Saturn's Inner Plasma Sheet as Observed by Cassini: Comparison with Voyager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will present preliminary results of our analysis of Saturn's inner plasma sheet as observed by the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) experiment during Cassini's initial entry into Saturn's magnetosphere and when the spacecraft was put into orbit around Saturn. For this initial analysis ion fluxes are divided into two sub-groups: protons and water group ions. Depending on the status of our preliminary analysis we will discuss the ion composition and details of the fluid parameters. These results will eventually allow us to solve the force balance equation along the magnetic field (ions and electrons) and predict the vertical distribution of the plasma along the magnetic field. Once this is done we will be in a position to make detailed comparisons with the Voyager results.

Sittler, E. C.; Johnson, R. E.; Smith, H. T.; Chornay, D.; Shappirio, M. D.; Simpson, D.; Coates, A. J.; Crary, F.; McComas, D. J.; Young, D. T.; Thomsen, M.; Reisenfeld, D.; Hill, T. W.; Dougherty, M.; Andre, N.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Richardson, J. D.; Rymer, A. M.

2004-11-01

127

Planet-Induced Emission Enhancements in HD 179949: Results from McDonald Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We monitored the Ca II H and K lines of HD 179949, a notable star in the southern hemisphere, to observe and confirm previously identified planet induced emission (PIE) as an effect of star-planet interaction. We obtained high resolution spectra (R~53000) with a signal-to-noise ratio S/N >~50 in the Ca II H and K cores during 10 nights of observation at the McDonald Observatory. Wide-band echelle spectra were taken using the 2.7-m telescope. Detailed statistical analysis of Ca II K revealed fluctuations in the Ca II K core attributable to planet induced chromospheric emission. This result is consistent with previous studies by Shkolnik et al. (2003). Additionally, we were able to confirm the reality and temporal evolution of the phase shift of the maximum of star-planet interaction previously found. However, no identifiable fluctuations were detected in the Ca II H core. The Al I ?3944Å line was also monitored to gauge if the expected activity enhancements are confined to the chromospheric layer. Our observations revealed some variability, which is apparently unassociated with planet-induced activity.

Gurdemir, L.; Redfield, S.; Cuntz, M.

2012-04-01

128

A Cluster Analysis Approach to Comparing Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Observations with General Circulation Model (GCM) Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continued validation of General Circulation Models (GCMs) is essential for their improvement, and pin-pointing their biases and systematic deviations might be of service to climate modelers. The availability of abundant multi-variate atmospheric data from the Dept. of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program sites allows for comparison of atmospheric column observations to GCM simulations at high temporal resolutions at those locations. This study focuses on using a multi-variate cluster analysis approach to compare ARM observations of tropospheric vertical temperature, humidity, wind speed profiles, and surface pressure at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site with corresponding output from an integration of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) for the same location, highlighting observed discrepancies in the GCM results. Cluster analysis is a technique for classifying multi-variate data into distinct regimes based on Euclidean distance in phase space. A parallel clustering algorithm, designed for analyzing very large datasets, was applied to developing various atmospheric column regimes at the SGP site from the observations and, separately, from the CCSM model results. A comparison of the atmospheric regimes derived from the observations against the CCSM output proves to be useful in distinguishing their individual nature and identifying singular behavior. Some atmospheric regimes are found to be poorly represented in the CCSM. For example, while ARM SGP observations show hot humid lower tropospheric conditions are usually associated with low shear conditions, such conditions in CCSM output are associated with stronger shear. Low shear conditions in CCSM usually occur in a hot, moderately humid lower troposphere. These distinct regimes in CCSM, as compared to ARM observations, suggest misrepresentation of atmospheric states in CCSM over the SGP site, which could have ramifications on the formation of clouds in CCSM simulations, affecting the local radiation budget. In addition, the multi-variance of CCSM is lower than that of ARM observations suggesting that estimates of extremes based on GCM simulations are probably conservative.

Mahajan, S.; Hoffman, F. M.; Hargrove, W. W.; Christensen, S. W.; Mills, R. T.

2007-12-01

129

Results of observations of the tritium concentration in water fractions in the disposition regions of tritium laboratories  

SciTech Connect

In this paper results of the long term of control of tritium concentration in the water fractions in the region close to the tritium laboratories of INR NAS of Ukraine are presented. The regular observations for the tritium concentration in the water fractions (thawed water of the snow cover, birch juice and sewer water) in the influence region of tritium laboratories shows small amount of tritium concentration in all kinds of investigated water fractions in comparison with the tritium concentration in the reper points. The proper connection of the levels of tritium concentration of the water samples with the quantity of the technology production is observed. In common, the tritium pollution on the territory of INR shows the tendency for a considerable decrease of the environmental pollution levels from year to year. It can be explained by the perfection of the production technology of tritium structures and targets as well as the rising of the qualification of the personnel. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Koval, G.N.; Kuzmina, A.I.; Kolomiets, N.F.; Svarichevskaya, E.V.; Rogosin, V.N.; Svyatun, O.V. [Inst. for Nuclear Research NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

1995-10-01

130

Astrometric results of observations at Russian observatories of mutual occultations and eclipses of Jupiter's Galilean satellites in 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2009, in five Russian observatories photometric observations of Jupiter's Galilean satellites during their mutual occultations and eclipses were carried out. Based on these observations, an original method was used to ascertain astrometric results such as the difference between the coordinates of pairs of satellites. Fifty-three phenomena were successfully observed. A total of 94 light curves of satellites were measured. The error in the coordinates of satellites due to random errors in photometry, calculated on all data obtained, was 0.041? in right ascension and 0.046? in declination. The discrepancies between the theory and observations in these coordinates was found to be 0.060? and 0.057?, respectively. The results were uploaded to the common database for all observations of natural satellites of planets at the Natural Satellites Data Center (NSDC), which is available online at http://www.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/index.htm . For the first time in the practice of photometric observations of satellites in epochs of mutual occultations and eclipses a new method of observation was tested, which eliminates from astrometric results the major systematic errors caused by an inaccurate account of the background level. The tests were conducted in the Terskol Observatory and the observatory of the Crimean laboratory of the Sternberg State Astronomical Institute of the Moscow State University. The application of the new method showed that the elimination of the background level at these observatories was carried out correctly.

Emelyanov, N. V.; Andreev, M. V.; Berezhnoi, A. A.; Bekhteva, A. S.; Vashkovyak, S. N.; Velikodskii, Yu. I.; Vereshchagina, I. A.; Gorshanov, D. L.; Devyatkin, A. V.; Izmailov, I. S.; Ivanov, A. V.; Irsmambetova, T. R.; Kozlov, V. A.; Karashevich, S. V.; Kurenya, A. N.; Naiden, Ya. V.; Naumov, K. N.; Parakhin, N. A.; Raskhozhev, V. N.; Selyaev, S. A.; Sergeev, A. V.; Sokov, E. N.; Khovrichev, M. Yu.; Khrutskaya, E. V.; Chernikov, M. M.

2011-06-01

131

Recent Observational Results of Seafloor Crustal Deformation Along the Suruga-Nankai Trough, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Suruga-Nankai Trough is one of the active plate boundaries in the world. The Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Amurian (Eurasian) plate along the tough, and major subduction earthquakes, Nankai and Tonankai earthquakes, have repeatedly occurred with intervals of about 100-150 years. The 1944 Tonankai and 1946 Nankai earthquakes are the most recent significant earthquakes along the trough. Therefore, the 50-years probabilities of the next major earthquakes are estimated at 80-90% by Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion, Japanese Government. It is, therefore, necessary to start monitoring crustal deformation above the source regions of the major earthquakes where in the ocean area. We developed a new system composed of the precise acoustic ranging and kinematic GPS positioning techniques for monitoring of seafloor crustal deformation [Tadokoro et al., 2006, GRL; Ikuta et al., 2008, JGR]. We had installed seven seafloor benchmarks for acoustic ranging at the Suruga-Nankai Trough region between 2002 and 2004. The water depths at the benchmarks are about 800 to 2000 m. We installed a new seafloor benchmark at the eastern margin of the Kumano Basin on June 23, 2008. Three seafloor benchmarks had been aligned perpendicular to the trough axis. In contrast, the new benchmark was installed eastward relative to the pre-installed benchmarks, and we can monitor lateral variations in crustal deformation at the region. We started the repeated measurements at four benchmarkes (two at the Kumano Basin named KMN and KMS, and the other two at the Suruga Bay named SNW and SNE) in 2005. The number of times we have measured are seven, eleven, three and nine times at KMN, KMS, SNW and SNE, respectively. Recent results of the repeated measurements show the following horizontal velocities with relative to the Amurian Plate: 6.4 cm/yr, N86W at KMN; 5.3 cm/yr, N71W at KMS; 3.3 cm/yr, N57W at SNE. The errors of the horizontal velocities are 1-3 cm/yr. Unfortunately, we have not detected any velocity at SNW benchmark because of the insufficient number of measurements as of August 2008. The orientations of the horizontal velocities is almost consistent to those derived from the on-land dense GPS observation network, GEONET of Geographical Survey Institute, Japan. Temporal and spatial variations in sound speed are major source of error in the benchmark positioning. Now we are developing other system with plural sea-surface transducers for positioning sea-bottom benchmarkes with acoustic tomography method to reduce the error caused by the sound speed variations. Acknowledgments: We are grateful to the captain and crews of R/Vs "Hokuto," Tokai University and "Asama," Mie Prefecture Fisheries Research Institute, Japan. This study has been promoted by "Research Revolution 2002" and "DONET project" of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

Tadokoro, K.; Sugimoto, S.; Watanabe, T.; Muto, D.; Kimoto, A.; Okuda, T.; Ikuta, R.; Sayanagi, K.; Kuno, M.

2008-12-01

132

Unification of the VW Arietis observation results obtained in multisite campaign.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of the two-channel photometric observations of the ? Sct star VW Ari (BDS 1269 A) made at the Mt. Dushak-Erekdag Station of the Odessa Astronomical Observatory (Turkmenistan) were combined with the STEPHI network four-channel photometry made at the Xinglong Observatory (China) and Observatorio del Teide (Spain) during the same season. A five-frequency solution is proposed at the present stage of investigation. The suggestion that VW Ari belongs to the small group of peculiar ? Boo stars eliminates some discrepancies in the earlier results, and the existence of a binary system with a star with a peculiar abundance and a star with the normal abundance finds its natural explanation. A possible identification of pulsation modes is suggested.

Dorokhova, T. N.

133

Additional attenuation of natural VLF electromagnetic waves observed by the DEMETER spacecraft resulting from preseismic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use VLF electromagnetic wave data measured by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite at an altitude of about 700 km to check for the presence of statistically significant changes of natural wave intensity (due to signals from lightning) related to preseismic activity. All the relevant data acquired by DEMETER during almost 6.5 years of the mission have been analyzed using a robust two-step data-processing schema. This enables us to compare data from the vicinity of about 8400 earthquakes with an unperturbed background distribution based on data collected during the whole DEMETER mission and to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed effects. We confirm previously reported results of a small but statistically significant decrease of the wave intensity (by ˜2 dB) at frequencies of about 1.7 kHz. The effect is observed for a few hours before the times of the main shocks; it occurs during the night. The effect is stronger between March and August, at higher latitudes and for the positions of hypocenters below the sea. We suggest an explanation based on changed properties of the lower boundary of the ionosphere, which leads to a decrease of the intensity of lightning-generated whistlers observed at the spacecraft altitude. This effect might result from a lowering of the ionosphere associated with an increase in the electrical conductivity of the lower troposphere due to an additional ionization of air molecules at the Earth's surface prior to earthquakes.

PíšA, David; N?Mec, FrantišEk; SantolíK, Ond?Ej; Parrot, Michel; Rycroft, Michael

2013-08-01

134

Observation and modeling of soft X-ray bright points. I. Initial results  

SciTech Connect

The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array was launched from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, on 1991 May 13 at 1905 UT. Full-disk, high-resolution solar images were obtained in a variety of soft X-ray and far-ultraviolet wavelengths. The 193 A (FeXII) and 44 A (SiXII) images show a large number of coronal bright points. The high spatial resolution of the FeXII image allows many of the bright points to be resolved as tiny loops. Co-alignment of the soft X-ray images with the 1216 A Ly{alpha} image reveals that all the coronal bright points have counterparts in the transition region, often resolved as a pair of footprints, which are brighter than neighboring elements of the chromospheric network. Moreover, comparison with the KPNO magnetogram shows dipole structures coincident with nearly all of the bright points. We present a quantitative analysis based on preliminary photometry of four of the bright points that were observed. By fitting a simple, numerical loop model to the photometric data, we estimate the magnitude of the coronal heating in these structures. The rate of heating per unit footpoint area is found to be similar to previous measurements for much larger coronal structures. Implications for heating of the chromosphere and lower transition region are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

Kankelborg, C.C.; Walker, A.B. II [Department of Physics and Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4060 (United States); Hoover, R.B. [NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); Barbee, T.W. Jr. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

1996-07-01

135

Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study.  

PubMed

Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each condition. Physicians and parents were asked for a global assessment of efficacy and tolerability of the respective treatments at the end of therapy. A total of 309 children were treated (hamamelis n = 231; dexpanthenol n = 78). The treatment groups were comparable regarding demographic data and baseline total scores of signs and symptoms. In all three diagnosis groups, the efficacy of hamamelis and dexpanthenol was shown by a statistically significant and clinically relevant decrease of total scores from baseline to endpoint (p < 0.0001 for each group, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Overall, the results for the hamamelis and the dexpanthenol groups were similar. Descriptive advantages for the hamamelis group were observed for a number of parameters and diagnosis groups. Both treatments were well tolerated. Ratings of the tolerability of hamamelis were "excellent" or "good" in 99.1% (physicians) and 98.2% (parents) of cases, respectively. The corresponding ratings for dexpanthenol were 97.4 and 92.3%. In conclusion, hamamelis ointment is an effective and safe treatment for certain skin disorders in children up to the age of 11 years. The observed effects are similar to dexpanthenol. PMID:17177071

Wolff, Helmut H; Kieser, Meinhard

2006-12-20

136

Visible and near-IR observations of transneptunian objects. Results from ESO and Calar Alto Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present visible (BVRI) and near-IR (JHKs) broadband photometry and visible low-dispersion spectroscopy of Transneptunian Objects (TNOs) and Centaurs. In total, 16 TNOs and 1 Centaur were observed over the past two years at ESO telescopes in La Silla and Paranal in Chile as well as at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. The sample consists of objects measured for the first time and those for which comparison data is available from literature. The targets were: 1992QB1, 1993RO, 1994EV3, 1995HM5, 1995SM55, 1996RQ20, 1996TL66, 1996TO66, 1996TP66, 1997CQ29, 1997CS29, 1998HK151, 1998TF35, 1998VG44, 1998WH24, 1998XY95, 1999TC36. The spectra of 5 TNOs (1995SM55, 1996TO66, 1997CQ29, 1997CS29, 1998HK151) show almost constant gradients over the visible wavelength range with only marginal indication for a flatter slope beyond 750-800 nm. The photometric colour gradients obtained quasi-simultaneously are in good agreement with the spectral data. This suggests that in general photometric colour gradients are a valuable diagnostic tool for spectral type classification of TNOs. The photometric study revealed a number of new objects with neutral and red colours. For re-measured objects the published broadband colours were - in general - confirmed, although a few remarkable exceptions exist. Two TNOs appear to be outlyers according to the available broadband colours: 1993EV3 and 1995HM5. 1995SM55 is the bluest TNO measured so far. No clear global correlation between V-I colour and absolute R filter brightness of our TNO targets is found. However, the data for the 5 brightest TNOs (brighter than 5 mag absolute magnitude) could also be interpreted with a linear increase of V-I colour by about 0.75 mag per brightness magnitude. The colour-colour diagrams show continuous reddening of the TNOs in V-R vs. B-V, R-I vs. B-V and R-I vs. V-R. The bimodality suggested from earlier measurements of Tegler & Romanishin (\\cite{Tegler98}) is not confirmed. According to our colour gradient statistics (number of objects per gradient interval) most of the TNOs have surface reddening between 0 and 40%/100 nm. For the Cubewanos the major population falls between 20-40%/100 nm. The Plutinos and Centaurs show a bifold grouping, i.e. a neutral/slightly reddish group (reddening <20%/100 nm) and a red group (reddening 30-40%/100 nm). The statistical significance of the various populations found is suffering - for the Centaurs and scattered disk objects very severely - from the small number of objects measured. However, the diversity of the reddening distribution of Centaurs/Plutinos and Cubewanos, if confirmed by new observations, may indicate a different balancing of resurfacing processes for these object types: for instance, for Centaurs a possibility is that re-condensed frost from coma activity may be dominant over impact re-surfacing and high energy surface processing. Based on observations performed at the European Southern Observatory at La Silla and Paranal in Chile and at the German Spanish Astronomical Centre at Calar Alto in Spain, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.

Boehnhardt, H.; Tozzi, G. P.; Birkle, K.; Hainaut, O.; Sekiguchi, T.; Vair, M.; Watanabe, J.; Rupprecht, G.; FORS Instrument Team

2001-11-01

137

Cardiac Abnormalities in HIV-Positive Patients: Results from an Observational Study in India.  

PubMed

Background: The clinical presentation of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-infected patients may be atypical or masked by concurrent illnesses that lead to misdiagnosis or they remain undiagnosed; therefore, this study was aimed to determine the frequency of cardiac abnormalities in HIV-infected patients. Material and METHODS: Consecutive HIV-infected patients of age >13 years were studied for 3 months, after obtaining their consent. After clinical assessment, chest x-ray, electrocardiogram, 2-dimensional echocardiography and serum Troponin T levels were done. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were studied, cardiomegaly was observed in the x-ray of 15% of them, abnormal electrocardiogram was seen in 18%, 2-dimensional echocardiography was abnormal in 67%; and diastolic dysfunction (42.8%) was the commonest abnormality followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (17.6%). Serum troponin T was elevated in 8%. The variables, opportunistic infections (OIs), antiretroviral therapy (ART), stage of HIV disease, and CD4 counts, did not affect the frequency of diastolic dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The diastolic dysfunction is the most common cardiac abnormality observed in HIV-infected patients. PMID:22968352

Jain, Nirdesh; Reddy, Dandu H; Verma, Shailendra Prasad; Khanna, Roopali; Vaish, Arvind Kumar; Usman, Kauser; Tripathi, Anil Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Mehrotra, Sanjay; Gupta, Alok

2012-09-11

138

A Wavenumber-Frequency Analysis of Observations and Results of a Chemistry-Climate Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wavenumber-frequency analysis method has been sparsely used in atmospheric sciences in the last 15 years despite its numerous applications. The method calculates power spectra, coherence and phase of transient large-scale Rossby waves from time series of Fourier coefficients (Hayashi 1977, 1982). At DLR, this method was employed to study how accurate the ECHAM4.L39(DLR)/CHEM chemistry-climate model (Hein et al., 2001) represents these waves in comparison to ECMWF reanalyses and how they change trough different time-slice experiments. The model represents well the observed wave amplitudes not only in the sum over all frequencies but also in the different considered frequency bands. It simultates well the baroclinic character of travelling waves in respect to vertical amplitude growth and inclination. A remarkable feature of the model is its ability to simulate so-called "normal modes" very accurately. Hayashi, Y., 1977: On the coherence between progressive and retrogressive waves and a partition of space-time power-spectra into standing parts. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 16, 368-373 Hayashi, Y., 1982: Space-time spectral analysis and its applications to atmospheric waves. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 60, 156-171 Hein, R., M. Dameris, C. Schnadt, C. Land, V. Grewe, I. Köhler, M. Ponater, R. Sausen, B. Steil, J. Landgraf, and C. Brühl, 2001: Results of an interactively coupled atmospheric chemistry-general circulation model: Comparison with observations. Ann. Geophys., 19, 435-457

Dameris, M.; Mager, F.

2003-04-01

139

Field measurements along the 2010 Ms 7.1 Yushu earthquake rupture shows strike-slip and dip-slip activities, resulting in mountains uplift  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Yushu Ms 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Qinghai Province, China, on April 14th, 2010. Understanding its mechanism is critical to studying the local stress field and the mechanism of earthquake, therefore we conducted careful field investigation immediately after the main shock. Morphological field research shows that the earthquake was triggered by the Ganzi-Yushu fault, trending NW-SE and dipping NE.

W. Fuyao; H. Li; J. Pan; Z. Xu; N. Li; R. Guo; W. Zhang

2010-01-01

140

INTEGRAL observations of GX339-4: preliminary spectral fit results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of preliminary spectral fits to the first 130 ksec INTEGRAL ToO observation of GX 339-4 (see ATel #980, #986), obtained between 2007, Jan 30, 15:56 and Feb 01, 06:11. We made joint spectral fits to spectra obtained with the JEM-X (5-20 keV) and IBIS/ISGRI (23-300 keV) instruments. The model that best phenomenologically fits the joint spectrum consists of an absorbed multi-color black-body disk plus a powerlaw with a high-energy cut-off at 22 +/- 5 keV and a folding energy of 68 +/- 5 keV.

Caballero-Garcia, M. D.; Miller, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Diaz Trigo, M.

2007-02-01

141

Kinetics of polar mesospheric plasma layers: Comparison of theoretical results with observations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an analytical model for the physical understanding of the charge distribution on ice dust particles in plasma layers of polar mesospheric clouds PMCs (Noctilucent clouds and polar mesospheric summer echoes). For the case of pure ice dust (with high work function), the charging of the particles occurs only because of the accretion of electronic and ionic species on the surface of ice grains. The analysis is based on the number and energy balance of constituents and allows the charge to be only an integral multiple (positive or negative) of the electronic charge. Amongst other interesting results, the theory explains the observed charge distribution on pure ice particles and corresponding reduction of electron density (viz., Bite out) in the PMCs.

Sodha, M. S.; Misra, Shikha; Mishra, S. K. [Department of Education Building, University of Lucknow, Lucknow 226007 (India); Dixit, Amrit [Disha Institute of Management and Technology, Satya Vihar, Vidhan Sabha-Chandrakhuri Marg, Mandir Hasaud, Raipur 492101, Chhattisgarh (India)

2011-08-15

142

Results and Analysis of the RHESSI/SAS Observations of the Optical Solar Limb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Aspect System (SAS) of the RHESSI satellite measures the optical solar limb in the red continuum with a cadence typically set at 16 samples/s in each of three linear CCD sensors. RHESSI has observed the Sun continuously now for more than 9 years, and we have acquired a unique data set ranging almost over a full solar cycle and consisting of about 25x10^9single data points. These measurements have led to the most accurate oblateness measurement to date, 8.01±0.14 milliarcsec(Fivian et al., 2008), a value consistent with models predicting an oblateness from surface rotation. An excess oblateness term can be attributed to the enhanced network. New measurements of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb lead to a quadrupolarterm (a pole-to-equator temperature variation) of 0.04±0.02 K. We present the analysis of these unique data and an overview of some results.

Fivian, M. D.; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.

2011-12-01

143

A global survey of surface climate parameters from satellite observations: Preliminary results over Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth observation satellites provide us with the opportunity to survey the land surface on a frequent and global basis for agronomy applications or climate studies. Meteosat and NOAA satellites have been used in this work to estimate land surface parameters useful for climate modelling, albedo, ground temperature, vegetation index, and to study their time changes on a seasonal and year-to-year basis. Results obtained monthly from 1983 over Africa will be shown and discussed. They include: - the seasonal and interannual variabilities of the surface albedo, and the impact of the vegetation on the surface albedo in the subtropical areas ; - monthly mean values of the downward solar radiation at the surface which can be combined with surface albedo to compute the net solar radiation at the surface; - minimum, maximum and daily range of the surface temperatures in connection with the water budget in the Sahel region; - the relationship between precipitations and the vegetation biomass through the vegetation index in the Sahel region.

Dedieu, G.; Deschamps, P. Y.; Kerr, Y. H.; Raberanto, P.

144

The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey. II. Results of Precursor Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In preparation for the full Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I survey, precursor observations were carried out in 2004 August-September with the seven-beam Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) receiver system and the Wideband Arecibo Pulsar Processor spectral processors. While these observations were geared mainly at testing and debugging survey strategy, hardware, and software, approximately 48 hr of telescope time yielded science-quality data. The efficiency of system usage (allowing for minor malfunctions and the impact of radio-frequency interference) during that time was 75%. From those observations, an initial list of 730 tentative detections of varying degrees of reliability was extracted. Ninety-eight high signal-to-noise ratio candidates were deemed to be bona fide H I line detections. To test our ability to discriminate cosmic signals from radio-frequency interference and noise, 165 candidates ranging in reliability likelihood were reobserved with the single-beam L-band wide system at Arecibo in 2005 January-February. Of those, 41% were confirmed as real. We present the results of both the ALFA and the single-beam observations for the sample of 166 confirmed H I sources, as well as our assessment of their optical counterparts. Of the 166 sources, 62 coincided with previously known H I sources, while optical redshifts were available for an additional 18 galaxies; thus, 52% of the redshifts reported here were previously unknown. Of the 166 H I detections, 115 are identified with previously cataloged galaxies of either known or unknown redshift, leaving 51 objects identified for the first time. Because of the higher sensitivity of the Arecibo system, fewer than 10% of the 166 H I sources would have been detected by a HIPASS-like survey of the same region. Three of the objects have H I masses less than 107 Msolar. The full ALFALFA survey, which commenced in 2005 February, should detect more than 100 times as many objects of similarly low H I mass over the next 5 years.

Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Kent, Brian R.; Perillat, Philip; Catinella, Barbara; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Momjian, Emmanuel; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Saintonge, Amelie; Spekkens, Kristine; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Brosch, Noah; Masters, Karen L.; Springob, Christopher M.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Muller, Erik; van Driel, Wim; van Zee, Liese

2005-12-01

145

Academic success or failure in nursing students: Results of a retrospective observational study.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Nursing student academic failure is a phenomenon of growing international interest, not only because of its economic impact but also because it negatively affects the availability of future nurses in different healthcare systems. To recruit the students with the highest probability of academic success, an open challenge for universities is to recruit students who have previously demonstrated superior scholastic aptitudes that appear to be associated with a greater likelihood of academic success. Documenting the relationship between the selection methods used when selecting nursing students and academic failure will contribute to the international debate concerning the optimisation of the selection strategies. OBJECTIVES: The principal aim of this study was to investigate the role in predicting nursing student academic success of (1) the upper-secondary diploma grades and (2) the score obtained by students in the nursing degree program admission test. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was conducted. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Five cohorts of nursing students, matriculated in consecutive academic years from 2004 to 2008, in an Italian bachelor's degree program were observed retrospectively. RESULTS: Overall, 61.2% of the 1006 considered students concluded their degree within the legal duration allowed for the nursing degree. Students who failed were those who had lowest grades associated with their upper-secondary diploma coursework (p=0.000) and were male (p=0.000). The grades associated with the upper-secondary diploma coursework, unlike the admission test score, correlates positively with the final degree grade and the average value of degree program examination scores. No correlation was found between the upper-secondary diploma coursework grades and the scores obtained in the test for the nursing degree program admission test (r=-0.037). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that upper-secondary diploma coursework grades are a parameter that should receive great consideration, especially in cases where there are planned numbers of incoming nursing degree students. PMID:23706940

Lancia, Loreto; Petrucci, Cristina; Giorgi, Fabio; Dante, Angelo; Cifone, Maria Grazia

2013-05-22

146

Stable Isotopic Variability in the Carbon Cycle: Reconciling Ocean Model Results with Atmospheric Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the face of rising sea levels, species extinction, unpredictable precipitation changes, and other potential impacts of anthropogenic climate change, there is a push for the scientific community to expand our current understanding of the major sources and sinks of global warming’s most implicated culprit, CO2. Knowing the mechanisms controlling CO2 sinks and sources will be vital for policy-makers to make informed decisions regarding its mitigation. The stable carbon isotope, 13C, can be used to partition CO2 fluxes into land and ocean components. The major fluxes of this gas (fossil fuel, ocean and land) impose distinctive and predictable fractionation patterns upon the stable isotope ratio, making it an ideal tool for distinguishing between them. One drawback to this method is that photosynthesis and respiration are not contemporaneous, and because the 13C of atmospheric CO2 is being continuously depleted through the burning of 12C-rich fossil fuels (the Suess effect), there is an isotopic “disequilibrium flux” between CO2 moving into and out of the ocean and land reservoirs. In this study, we take a new approach and seek to reconcile independent estimates of time histories of ocean fluxes with atmospheric observations. We use a combination of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 data, fossil fuel emission estimates, and recent ocean model results (from two different approaches) for the ocean CO2 flux, within a box-inverse model as well as a 2D transport model. We calculate time series of land flux, disequilibrium flux and photosynthetic fractionation from 1991 through 2008. Our findings reveal that if ocean variability is as small as is suggested by the ocean model, and the isotopic variability is forced into the disequilibrium flux, then the resulting disequilibrium flux has very large interannual variability (~35 PgC‰/yr). While large interannual variability in DIS seems incompatible with the Suess effect alone, it could be explained by interannual variations in the photosynthetic fractionation term, ?ab. Interannual variations in relative strength of C3 and C4 productivity and stomatal conductance could change isotopic disequilibrium over large spatial scales, thus helping to explain the otherwise seemingly incongruent nature of the ocean model results and atmospheric observations. We produce several end-member scenarios, of varying spatial resolutions, in which photosynthetic fractionation and C4 fraction of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) absorb all variability expressed in the disequilibrium flux results. We next compare our estimates of the photosynthetic fractionation and C3/C4 changes with independent climate indicators, such as precipitation and temperature anomalies, drought indices, and soil moisture.

Alden, C. B.; White, J. W.; Miller, J. B.

2009-12-01

147

Observations of auroral roar emissions at polar cap latitudes: Results from the Early Polar Cap Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auroral roar, a radio emission occurring near the second and third electron cyclotron harmonics, has been monitored during a 51-day interval in 1998 from three ground-based high-latitude observatories: Churchill (69° corrected geomagnetic latitude (cgm)), Baker Lake (74° cgm), and the Early Polar Cap Observatory (EPCO) at Resolute (84° cgm). These observations reveal a latitude dependence of the local time distribution of auroral roar events. In the auroral zone they occur predominantly in the premidnight-midnight sector as previously reported, but in the polar cap they occur evenly throughout nighttime hours. Sorting the data by magnetic activity level confirms the effect; for example, the distribution of events at Baker Lake during times of extremely low activity (Kp<1) is concentrated near magnetic midnight, consistent with Baker Lake lying in the auroral zone when the oval is contracted. The latitude dependence of the local time distribution may be explained by propagation effects, with inefficient propagation in the auroral zone causing only relatively locally generated emissions to be detected there, while stations well poleward of the auroral zone detect emissions from sources widely distributed in longitude and latitude. Statistics of the frequencies of auroral roar events detected at Resolute show evidence of an upper frequency cutoff near 2960 kHz. Ray-tracing calculations suggest that it is plausible for auroral roar to reach Resolute from sources up to 1500 km distant in the auroral zone, but they do not provide an obvious explanation for the frequency cutoff.

LaBelle, J.; Hughes, J. M.

148

The ALFA Zone of Avoidance Survey: Results from the Precursor Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new extragalactic 21 cm observations in the Galactic Plane region. These observations are a precursor to a large scale, extragalactic, zone of avoidance survey with the Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA). The data for this survey are being taken concurrently with a Galactic survey and a pulsar survey. Full survey observations, which will begin in 2007, will reveal

Chris M. Springob; P. A. Henning; B. Catinella; F. Day; R. Minchin; E. Momjian; B. Koribalski; K. L. Masters; E. Muller; C. Pantoja; M. Putman; J. L. Rosenberg; S. Schneider; L. Staveley-Smith

2006-01-01

149

Fireball observations in central Europe and western Australia: instruments, methods, and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penetration of larger meteoroids through the atmosphere which gives rise to spectacular luminous events - fireballs or even superbolides - is of the greatest interest. Their registrations, especially photographic and newly also photoelectric recordings, provide excellent means to examine physical properties as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of extraterrestrial matter in near-Earth space. The most efficient tools for registration of these very scarce events are the fireball networks: systems covering large areas of the Earth's surface, with multiple camera stations designed to image a large fraction of the night sky. Such camera networks for fireball observations have been set up in several nations at various times in the past (European Fireball Network (EN) in the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, and Slovakia; the Prairie Network in the USA; and the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) in Canada). Of these networks, only the European fireball network is still in operation, and this continuously since it was started up, but recently new networks were established in South-West Australia and in Ontario, Canada. The two main scientific aims of all these programs remain the same as in the very beginning - first, to constrain the flux of extraterrestrial material to the Earth over a range of masses, and second, to provide a statistically significant group of meteorites with accurate orbits. This contribution was focused on the current work and some particular recent results from the European Fireball Network, especially from its Czech part (current status is described, for example, by Spurny et al., 2006) and from the Desert Fireball Network in the Nullarbor Plains of South-West Australia (Bland, 2004; Spurny et al., 2012; and Bland et al., 2012). The mode of operation of both networks and the analysis methods used were described in detail and illustrated by some examples. Similarly, the most important recent results, especially from the Desert Fireball Network, such as the Bunburra Rockhole and Mason Gully meteorite falls, were presented in detail. These results are already published by Spurny et al. (2011, Mason Gully; 2012, Bunburra Rockhole) and Bland et al. (2009, Bunburra Rockhole).

Spurny, P.

2012-01-01

150

Responses of Tundra Ecosystems to Environmental Change: Observational and Experimental Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence of environmental changes due to human-enhanced climate warming continues to accumulate from polar regions. Responses in tundra and taiga ecosystems to climate changes have been variable because of the wide range in process response rates, from metabolic processes to adjustments in ecosystem carbon balance, and the variability in environmental settings across local to regional scales. For example, strong increases in rates of plant growth and changes in species composition and abundance have been observed in parts of the Low Arctic, but very little change has been measured in high arctic tundra. A dramatic increase in the cover of deciduous shrubs in areas of the western North American Arctic is predicted to result in positive feedbacks to soil temperature, through increased surface roughness and snow depth, and to atmospheric heating by reducing albedo. Increased shrub cover has also been found in long-term experimental warming studies conducted throughout the tundra biome as part of the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX). Warming is also affecting the carbon balance of tundra and taiga, which hold 25% of the soil carbon of global terrestrial ecosystems. However, trajectories of these changes are largely unknown for most northern systems, and differ because of initial conditions of the carbon and nutrient economy. Over the longer-term, the positive increases in plant growth may be constrained by negative feedbacks to nutrient cycling, as increases in C:N ratios of plant litter slow the release of nitrogen to soils. However, nitrogen availability has been shown to increase in response to short-term warming. In this presentation, I will review the responses of tundra ecosystems to climate variability and change, both through observational and experimental studies.

Henry, G. H.

2004-05-01

151

MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results of the Australian bush fires of February 2009  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Starting on February 7, 2009, Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2 on this day alone. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We tracked the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements were compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume remained north-eastward of New Zealand and was located at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its lower part was transported eastward, followed by westward transport of its upper part. On February 17 the eastern part had reached southern South America and on February 20 the central Southern Atlantic. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific. Between February 20 and the first week of March the upper part of the plume was transported westward over Australia and the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of February 11, followed by larger amounts on February 17 and the days thereafter. From MIPAS data, C2H2/HCN and HCOOH/HCN enhancement ratios of 0.76 and 2.16 were calculated for the first days after the outbreak of the fires, which are considerably higher than the emission ratios assumed for the model run and at the upper end of values found in literature. From the temporal decrease of the enhancement ratios, mean lifetimes of 16-17 days and of 8-9 days were calculated for measured C2H2 and HCOOH. The respective lifetimes calculated from the model data are 18 and 12 days.

Glatthor, Norbert; Höpfner, Michael; Semeniuk, Kirill; Lupu, Alexandru; Palmer, Paul; McConnell, Jack; Kaminski, Jacek; von Clarmann, Thomas; Stiller, Gabriele; Funke, Bernd; Kellmann, Sylvia; Linden, Andrea; Wiegele, Andreas

2013-04-01

152

Renegotiating the Peer Review Process: Disseminating Observational Results in an Age of Instant Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science and technology impact nearly every aspect of life in the developed world today. It is not surprising then, that events in science and technology make news. On the flip side, the scientific community is increasingly exhorted to make their research relevant, as well as to communicate their results to the broader public. On another front, a combination of forces, including the rise of advanced computing and telecommunications technologies, has dramatically increased the amount of scientific data and information that are available to the public. With increasing frequency, some types of observationally derived data are available more or less immediately upon creation. Given the nature of the news process, if the science community is to affect how the public interprets newly available information, they must be ready to explain interesting results as soon as the data become available. Yet, the science community expects that results will be published in the peer-reviewed literature prior to wide dissemination. The publication and peer review process takes time, even in this age of electronic access. Thus, the norms of science and the need for timely communication with the public are often in conflict. There may be areas of scientific work where resolving this inherent conflict is unimportant. However, in any arena where public interest in these data or their interpretation is large, resolution of the conflict is necessary if the special knowledge and skills of the science community are to play a role in the formation of public opinion or policy. The science community is only now beginning to address this fundamental conflict. This paper examines a newsworthy case from the recent past where the conflict between immediacy and the scientific process is clear in order to illuminate one resolution strategy currently in use within a portion of the science community a process akin to the normal literature review process.

Duerr, R.

2006-12-01

153

Insight into collision zone dynamics from topography: numerical modelling results and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic models of subduction and continental collision are used to predict dynamic topography changes on the overriding plate. The modelling results show a distinct evolution of topography on the overriding plate, during subduction, continental collision and slab break-off. A prominent topographic feature is a temporary (few Myrs) deepening in the area of the back arc-basin after initial collision. This collisional mantle dynamic basin (CMDB) is caused by slab steepening drawing material away from the base of the overriding plate. Also during this initial collision phase, surface uplift is predicted on the overriding plate between the suture zone and the CMDB, due to the subduction of buoyant continental material and its isostatic compensation. After slab detachment, redistribution of stresses and underplating of the overriding plate causes the uplift to spread further into the overriding plate. This topographic evolution fits the stratigraphy found on the overriding plate of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone in Iran and south east Turkey. The sedimentary record from the overriding plate contains Upper Oligocene-Lower Miocene marine carbonates deposited between terrestrial clastic sedimentary rocks, in units such as the Qom Formation and its lateral equivalents. This stratigraphy shows that during the Late Oligocene-Early Miocene the surface of the overriding plate sank below sea level before rising back above sea level, without major compressional deformation recorded in the same area. This uplift and subsidence pattern correlates well with our modelled topography changes.

Bottrill, A. D.; van Hunen, J.; Allen, M. B.

2012-07-01

154

Seismic &Infrasound Integrated Array "Apatity". Techniques, data processing, first results of observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since September 2001 3 infrasound membrane type sensors "K-304 AM" have been installed on the territory seismic array "Apatity" near the lake Imandra. A seismic array comprising 11 short-period sensors (type "Geotech S-500"), disposed on small and large circle (0.4 and 1 km diameter). Infrasound sensors located on small circle near the seismograths. All data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity to the Kola Regional Seismological Centre (KRSC). Common complex we are called - Seismic &Infrasound Integrated Array (SISIA) "Apatity". To support temporary storage the transmitting data in a disk loop and access to the data "NEWNORAC" program was created. This program replaced "NORAC" system developed by Norwegian Institute NORSAR, which was in use in KRSC before. A program package EL (event locator) for display and processing of the data has been modified. Now it includes the following : - quick access to the data stored in the disk loop (last two weeks); - data convertation from disk loop format to CSS 3.0 format; - data filtering using bandpass, highpass, lowpass, adaptive or rejector filters; - calculation of spectra and sonograms (spectral diagrams); - seismic events location with plotting on a map; - calculation of backazimuth and apparent velocity of acoustic wave by similar parts of wave recordings; - loading and processing CSS 3.0 seismic and acoustic data from KRSC archive. To store the acoustic data permanently the program BARCSS was made. It rewrites the data from the disk loop to KRSC archive in CSS 3.0 format. For comparison of acoustic noise level with wind we use data from meteorological station in Kandalaksha city, sampling rate is 3 hours. During the period from October 2001 to October 2002 more than 745 seismic events, which basically connected with mine technical activity of the large mining enterprises at the Kola Peninsula, were registered. The most part of events, caused by ground explosions, was registered by infrasound part of SISIA "Apatity". Their sources were at distances from 38 to 220 km. The result of observations during the first 1 year enabled us to estimate frequency range and main directions of arrivals of acoustic waves and noise level in the place of observations. In accordance with the results and relief a 4-rays wind-noise-reducing pipe array would be install at all 3 sensors at May 2003, for improvement the delectability during windy conditions. A schemes of the SISIA "Apatity", data transmitting and processing and samples of detected signals are shown in the presentation.

Vinogradov, Y.; Baryshnikov, A.

2003-04-01

155

Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children.  

PubMed

Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters-in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback. PMID:24069007

Kersey, Alyssa J; James, Karin H

2013-09-23

156

Brain activation patterns resulting from learning letter forms through active self-production and passive observation in young children  

PubMed Central

Although previous literature suggests that writing practice facilitates neural specialization for letters, it is unclear if this facilitation is driven by the perceptual feedback from the act of writing or the actual execution of the motor act. The present study addresses this issue by measuring the change in BOLD signal in response to hand-printed letters, unlearned cursive letters, and cursive letters that 7-year-old children learned actively, by writing, and passively, by observing an experimenter write. Brain activation was assessed using fMRI while perceiving letters—in both cursive and manuscript forms. Results showed that active training led to increased recruitment of the sensori-motor network associated with letter perception as well as the insula and claustrum, but passive observation did not. This suggests that perceptual networks for newly learned cursive letters are driven by motor execution rather than by perceptual feedback.

Kersey, Alyssa J.; James, Karin H.

2013-01-01

157

Observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: A reappraisal after WMAP 3-year and first MINOS results  

SciTech Connect

In the light of recent neutrino oscillation and nonoscillation data, we revisit the phenomenological constraints applicable to three observables sensitive to absolute neutrino masses: The effective neutrino mass in single beta decay (m{sub {beta}}); the effective Majorana neutrino mass in neutrinoless double beta decay (m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}}); and the sum of neutrino masses in cosmology ({sigma}). In particular, we include the constraints coming from the first Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) data and from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three-year (3y) data, as well as other relevant cosmological data and priors. We find that the largest neutrino squared mass difference is determined with a 15% accuracy (at 2{sigma}) after adding MINOS to world data. We also find upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses {sigma} ranging from {approx}2 eV (WMAP-3y data only) to {approx}0.2 eV (all cosmological data) at 2{sigma}, in agreement with previous studies. In addition, we discuss the connection of such bounds with those placed on the matter power spectrum normalization parameter {sigma}{sub 8}. We show how the partial degeneracy between {sigma} and {sigma}{sub 8} in WMAP-3y data is broken by adding further cosmological data, and how the overall preference of such data for relatively high values of {sigma}{sub 8} pushes the upper bound of {sigma} in the sub-eV range. Finally, for various combination of data sets, we revisit the (in)compatibility between current {sigma} and m{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} constraints (and claims), and derive quantitative predictions for future single and double beta decay experiments.

Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Melchiorri, A.; Serra, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN, Universita degli Studi di Roma 'La Sapienza', P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185, Rome (Italy); Palazzo, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and Sezione INFN di Bari, Via Amendola 173, 70126, Bari (Italy); Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Silk, J. [Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Slosar, A. [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2007-03-01

158

Global ozone observations from the UARS MLS: An overview of zonal-mean results  

SciTech Connect

Global ozone observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are presented, in both vertically resolved and column abundance formats. The authors review the zonal-mean ozone variations measured over the two and a half years since launch in September 1991. Well-known features such as the annual and semiannual variations are ubiquitous. In the equatorial regions, longer-term changes are believed to be related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), with a strong semiannual signal above 20 hPa. Ozone values near 50 hPa exhibit an equatorial low from October 1991 to June 1992, after which the low ozone pattern splits into two subtropical lows (possibly in connection with residual circulation changes tied to the QBO) and returns to an equatorial low in September 1993. The ozone hole development at high southern latitudes is apparent in MLS column data integrated down to 100 hPa, with a pattern generally consistent with Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements of total column; the MLS data reinforce current knowledge of this lower-stratospheric phenomenon by providing a height-dependent view of the variations. The region from 30{degrees}S to 30{degrees}N (an area equal to half the global area) shows very little change in the ozone column from year to year and within each year. Finally, residual ozone values extracted from TOMS-minus-MLS column data are briefly presented as a preliminary view into the potential usefulness of such studies, with information on tropospheric ozone as an ultimate goal. 99 refs., 13 figs.

Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Read, W.G.; Elson, L.S.; Flower, D.A.; Jarnot, R.F. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

1994-10-15

159

Probing the Ionizing Continuum of Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies. I. Observational Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present optical spectra and emission-line ratios of 12 narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxies that we observed to study the ionizing EUV continuum. A common feature in the EUV continuum of active galactic nuclei is the big blue bump (BBB), generally associated with thermal accretion disk emission. While Galactic absorption prevents direct access to the EUV range, it can be mapped by measuring the strength of a variety of forbidden optical emission lines that respond to different EUV continuum regions. We find that narrow emission line ratios involving [O II] ?3727, H?, [O III] ?5007, [O I] ?6300, H?, [N II] ?6583, and [S II] ??6716, 6731 indicate no significant difference between NLS1 galaxies and broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) galaxies, which suggests that the spectral energy distributions of their ionizing EUV-soft X-ray continua are similar. The relative strength of important forbidden high-ionization lines like [Ne V] ?3426 compared to He II ?4686 and the relative strength of [Fe X] ?6374 appear to show the same range as in BLS1 galaxies. However, a trend of weaker F([O I] ?6300)/F(H?) emission-line ratios is indicated for NLS1 galaxies compared to BLS1 galaxies. To recover the broad emission line profiles, we used Gaussian components. This approach indicates that the broad H? profile can be well described with a broad component (FWHM~=3275+/-800 km s-1) and an intermediate broad component (FWHM~=1200+/-300 km s-1). The width of the broad component is in the typical range of normal BLS1 galaxies. The emission-line flux that is associated with the broad component in these NLS1 galaxies amounts to at least 60% of the total flux. Thus, it dominates the total line flux, similar to BLS1 galaxies.

Dietrich, M.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Kraemer, S. B.

2005-04-01

160

SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: SKY MAPS, SYSTEMATIC ERRORS, AND BASIC RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

New full-sky temperature and polarization maps based on seven years of data from WMAP are presented. The new results are consistent with previous results, but have improved due to reduced noise from the additional integration time, improved knowledge of the instrument performance, and improved data analysis procedures. The improvements are described in detail. The seven-year data set is well fit by a minimal six-parameter flat {Lambda}CDM model. The parameters for this model, using the WMAP data in conjunction with baryon acoustic oscillation data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and priors on H{sub 0} from Hubble Space Telescope observations, are {Omega}{sub b} h {sup 2} = 0.02260 {+-} 0.00053, {Omega}{sub c} h {sup 2} = 0.1123 {+-} 0.0035, {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.728{sup +0.015}{sub -0.016}, n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, {tau} = 0.087 {+-} 0.014, and {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.809 {+-} 0.024 (68% CL uncertainties). The temperature power spectrum signal-to-noise ratio per multipole is greater that unity for multipoles l {approx}< 919, allowing a robust measurement of the third acoustic peak. This measurement results in improved constraints on the matter density, {Omega}{sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1334{sup +0.0056}{sub -0.0055}, and the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z{sub eq} = 3196{sup +134}{sub -133}, using WMAP data alone. The new WMAP data, when combined with smaller angular scale microwave background anisotropy data, result in a 3{sigma} detection of the abundance of primordial helium, Y{sub He} = 0.326 {+-} 0.075. When combined with additional external data sets, the WMAP data also yield better determinations of the total mass of neutrinos, {Sigma}M{sub {nu}} {<=} 0.58 eV(95%CL), and the effective number of neutrino species, N{sub eff} = 4.34{sup +0.86}{sub -0.88}. The power-law index of the primordial power spectrum is now determined to be n{sub s} = 0.963 {+-} 0.012, excluding the Harrison-Zel'dovich-Peebles spectrum by >3{sigma}. These new WMAP measurements provide important tests of big bang cosmology.

Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Dunkley, J. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Greason, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Weiland, J. L. [ADNET Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100 Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 West 120th Street, Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Tucker, G. S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States)

2011-02-01

161

MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS OF EDGE-ON PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PROGRAM OVERVIEW AND FIRST RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We are undertaking a multi-frequency Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) survey of edge-on protoplanetary disks to probe the growth of solids in each disk, sedimentation of such material into the disk midplane, and the connection of these phenomena to the planet formation process. The projection of edge-on disk systems along our line of sight enables a study of the vertical stratification of large grains with fewer model dependencies than would be required for disks that are more face-on. Robust studies of the spatial distribution of grains up to {approx}1 cm in size are possible with the wavelength range and sensitivity of the EVLA. In this contribution, we describe target selection and observational strategies. First results concerning the Class 0 source IRAS 04368+2557 (L1527 IRS) are presented, including a study of this source's 8.46 GHz continuum variability over short and long time baselines and an indication that its protoplanetary disk may have a dearth of pebble-sized grains.

Melis, Carl [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Duchene, G. [Astronomy Department, 601 Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., MS-66, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Palmer, Patrick [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Perrin, M. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States); Maddison, S. T. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Menard, F.; Pinte, C.; Duvert, G. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Stapelfeldt, K., E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 183-900, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

2011-09-20

162

Results and Analysis of 10 Years of RHESSI/SAS Observations of the Optical Solar Limb  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Solar Aspect System (SAS) of the RHESSI satellite measures the optical solar limb in the red continuum with a cadence typically set at 16 samples/s in each of three linear CCD sensors. RHESSI has observed the Sun continuously now for more than 10 years, and we have acquired a unique data set ranging almost over a full solar cycle and consisting of about 25x10^9 single data points. These measurements have led to the most accurate oblateness measurement to date, 8.01+-0.14 milli arcsec (Fivian et al., 2008), a value consistent with models predicting an oblateness from surface rotation. An excess oblateness term can be attributed to magnetic elements possibly located in the enhanced network. New measurements of latitude-dependent brightness variations at the limb lead to a quadrupolar term (a pole-to-equator temperature variation) of 0.04+-0.02 K. We present the analysis of these unique data, an overview of some results and we report on our progress as we apply our developed analysis method to the whole 10 years of data.

Fivian, Martin; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.

2012-05-01

163

New results near {sup 100}Sn : observation of single-neutron states in {sup 101}Sn.  

SciTech Connect

A search for in-beam {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 101}Sn, which contains only one neutron outside the {sup 100}Sn core, using a novel approach was carried out at the Argonne Tandem-Linac System. {sup 101}Sn nuclei were produced using the {sup 46}Ti({sup 58}Ni, 3n){sup 101}Sn fusion-evaporation reaction. Beta-delayed protons with energies and decay times consistent with previous {sup 101}Sn decay studies were observed at the focal plane of the Fragment Mass Analyzer. In-beam {gamma} rays were detected in the Gammasphere Ge-detector array and were correlated with the {sup 101}Sn {beta}-delayed protons using the Recoil-Decay Tagging method. As a result, a {gamma}-ray transition between the single-neutron {nu}g{sub 7/2} and {nu}d{sub 5/2} states situated at the Fermi surface was identified. The measured {nu}g{sub 7/2}-{nu}d{sub 5/2} energy splitting was compared with predictions corresponding to various mean-field potentials and was used to calculate multi-neutron configurations in light Sn isotopes. Similar approach can be used to study core excitations in {sup 101}Sn and other exotic nuclei near {sup 100}Sn.

Seweryniak, D.; Carpenter, M. P.; Gros, S.; Hecht, A. A.; Hoteling, N.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Lotay, G.; Peterson, D.; Robinson, A. P.; Walters, W. B.; Wang, X.; Woods, P. J.; Zhu, S.; Physics; Univ. of Maryland; Univ. of Edinburgh; Univ. of Notre Dame

2009-03-01

164

Atmospheric turbulence in complex terrain: Verifying numerical model results with observations by remote-sensing instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is situated in an area of complex terrain. Turbulent flow due to terrain disruption could occur in the vicinity of HKIA when winds from east to southwest climb over Lantau Island, a mountainous island to the south of the airport. Low-level turbulence is an aviation hazard to the aircraft flying into and out of HKIA. It is closely monitored using remote-sensing instruments including Doppler LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) systems and wind profilers in the airport area. Forecasting of low-level turbulence by numerical weather prediction models would be useful in the provision of timely turbulence warnings to the pilots. The feasibility of forecasting eddy dissipation rate (EDR), a measure of turbulence intensity adopted in the international civil aviation community, is studied in this paper using the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System (RAMS). Super-high resolution simulation (within the regime of large eddy simulation) is performed with a horizontal grid size down to 50 m for some typical cases of turbulent airflow at HKIA, such as spring-time easterly winds in a stable boundary layer and gale-force southeasterly winds associated with a typhoon. Sensitivity of the simulation results with respect to the choice of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) parameterization scheme in RAMS is also examined. RAMS simulation with Deardorff (1980) TKE scheme is found to give the best result in comparison with actual EDR observations. It has the potential for real-time forecasting of low-level turbulence in short-term aviation applications (viz. for the next several hours).

Chan, P. W.

2009-03-01

165

Investigation of Ionospheric Disturbances Using Radio and Optical Observations in South-East Asia -- The Initial Results of the ASI and FPI Observations in Chiang Mai, Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the purpose of monitoring and forecasting equatorial ionospheric disturbances, SEALION (SouthEast Asia Low-latitude IOnospheric Network) has been developed since 2003 as a cooperation project by National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL) in Thailand, Chiang Mai University (CMU) in Thailand, National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) in Indonesia, Hanoi Institute of Geophysics (HIG), Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology in Vietnam, Center for Space Science and Applied Research (CSSAR), Chinese Academy of Sciences in China, Kyoto University in Japan, and Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL), Nagoya University in Japan. SEALION consists of five ionosondes, four GPS receivers, two GPS scintillation monitors, and a magnetometer. As a part of this project, we newly installed an all-sky imager (ASI) and a Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) at Sirindhorn observatory in Chiang Mai (18.8N, 98.9E, Dip lat. 13.1), Thailand. This site is located near conjugate to EAR site in Kototabang, Indonesia. One of main targets of the ASI observation is the large-scale wave structure (LSWS) with wavelengths of 100-1000 km. The LSWS is thought to be connected to the generation mechanism of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPB). The optical observations in Chiang Mai started in February 2010, and we have detected several ionospheric disturbance events with these instruments In this paper, we will show the initial results of the optical observations from Sirindhorn observatory, and discuss the features of ionospheric disturbances in Southeast Asia.

Kubota, M.; Nagatsuma, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Komonjinda, S.; Komolmis, T.; Somboon, E.; Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Murata, K. T.

2010-12-01

166

Using Qualitative Observation To Document Group Processes in Accelerated Schools Training: Techniques and Results.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the use of qualitative observation techniques for gathering and analyzing data related to group processes during an Accelerated Schools Model training session. The purposes for this research were to observe the training process in order better to facilitate present continuation and future training, to develop questions for…

McFarland, Katherine; Batten, Constance

167

GPS Signal Surface Reflections and Signal Propagation In The Troposphere: First Results From Champ Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the first year following the activation of the GPS radio occultation experiment aboard the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) satellite more than 30,000 occultation events have been observed. Radio holographic analyses of 3783 occulta- tion events observed between 14 May and 10 June 2001 reveal that in about 20­30% the received signal contains contributions from components reflected at Earth's sur-

G. Beyerle; K. Hocke; A. Pavelyev; C. Marquardt; Ch. Reigber; T. Schmidt; J. Wickert

2002-01-01

168

TV Observations of Meteors in INASAN: Equipment, Methods and First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the analysis the risk from particles of meteor streams, we must have proved information about masses and densities of meteors. The prime task is to select minor streams from sporadic meteors. Very few astronomers tried to do it, when others only mark observed meteor ``Sporadic'' without registering its track. So very few previous observations cannot be used for streams

Anna P. Kartashova; A. V. Bagrov; V. A. Leonov

2007-01-01

169

Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail. We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground-reduced CMB maps are presented. We now implement an optimal C –1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained ?CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is t 0 = 13.772 ± 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H 0 = 69.32 ± 0.80 km s–1 Mpc–1. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (ns = 0.9608 ± 0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (\\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{-0.0038}). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six-parameter ?CDM model, based on CMB data alone. For a model including tensors, the allowed seven-parameter volume has been reduced by a factor 117,000. Other cosmological observations are in accord with the CMB predictions, and the combined data reduces the cosmological parameter volume even further. With no significant anomalies and an adequate goodness of fit, the inflationary flat ?CDM model and its precise and accurate parameters rooted in WMAP data stands as the standard model of cosmology.

Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jarosik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

2013-10-01

170

The dispersion of 99Tc in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean: a comparison of model results and observations.  

PubMed

The radionuclide (99)Tc had been discharged from the nuclear reprocessing facility in Sellafield (UK) into the Irish Sea in increased amounts in the 1990s. We compare the simulated dispersion of (99)Tc in surface water as calculated by a hydrodynamic model and an assessment box model with field-observations from 1996 to 1999 to study concentrations, pathways and travel times. The model results are consistent with the observations and show the typical pathway of dissolved radionuclides from the Irish Sea via the North Sea along the Norwegian Coast. Subsequently the contaminated water separates into three branches of which the two Arctic branches bear the potential for future monitoring of the signal in the next decades. The results of the hydrodynamic model indicate a large variability of surface concentrations in the West Spitsbergen Current which has implications for future monitoring strategies. According to the observed and simulated distributions we suggest an improved box model structure to better capture the pattern for concentrations at the surface. PMID:15063547

Karcher, Michael J; Gerland, Sebastian; Harms, Ingo H; Iosjpe, Mikhail; Heldal, Hilde E; Kershaw, Peter J; Sickel, Morten

2004-01-01

171

The Great Cometary Show  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

172

Preliminary observation result of urban boundary layer at Taipei 101 Skyscraper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taipei 101 Skyscraper (508 m), the secondary tallest commercial building around the world, is the metropolis landmark of Taipei, Taiwan. The minute-resolution of wind field, air temperature and humidity sampled at the northeastern corner of 34th (151 m) and 82th (353 m) balconies are collected from January of 2011 until now for studying urban meteorological boundary layer. 31 sets of balloon-borne radiosondes near Taipei 101 Skyscraper were launched for comparison. Meanwhile, a CFD model (STREAM) was used to simulate the wind flow surrounding 101 Skyscraper. As expected, the measured wind field could be distorted strongly by the building. Comparing with radiosonde data, the wind direction measured at Taipei 101 skyscraper has 70~90 degrees clockwise turn (SN) under the prevailing northeastern (NE) wind flow. The measured wind speed at 101 Skyscraper also has ~50% reduction compared to radiosonde measurement, and the ratio of speed reduction from different wind directions was simulated by STREAM model well. In addition, the wind speed at 151m is larger than the measurement at 353m significantly. This near-surface wind jet phenomenon was diagnosed through STREAM model. We found the hill topographic effect 1.2 km Southeastern away 101 Skyscraper and the surrounding high buildings are the major factors to form this wind jet. Temperature measurement at 101 Skyscraper has highly linear regression (R > 0.98) with radiosonde temperature data. The minimum difference of air temperature between two-layer of 101 Skyscraper happens in the early morning, 04:00 LST (hot season) to 08:00 LST (cold season). Significant temperature inversion phenomena (below 353 m) were always observed at cloudless breeze days, no matter what the seasons. The Particulate Matter (PM) measured by Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Taipei Basin (15 sites) and our temporary measurements at 101 Skyscraper balconies near noon were collected, too. It showed that PM10 density at 353m height might reduce to ~70% of the ground level. But PM2.5 was seemed well-mixed in the near-surface urban boundary layer.

Lin, P. H.; Mei, K. C.; Chen, Y. C.

2012-04-01

173

Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and climate systems.

Kabanov, Mikhail V.

2002-03-01

174

Some results of geomagnetic storm events observed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space weather can be defined as the study of solar and interplanetary sources of geomagnetic storms. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large plasma eruptions released from the Sun and they are one of the main solar-interplanetary structures causing the geomagnetic disturbances on Earth. Such events, also named (geomagnetic storms) are caused when there are changes in the plasma and magnetic field in the space that surrounds the Earth's magnetosphere. CME passages are known to be an important origin of such changes. The damage caused by geomagnetic storms are several, including loss of data from satellite, signal scintillation, interference on radar, telecommunications cable disruption, electricity grid disturbance and black-out electrical power. They are also responsible for the appearance of auroras. It is known that quantity of cosmic rays observed in each direction on Earth's surface is approximately unchanged on the time when there are no transient solar-interplanetary events. During disturbed periods, CME may shield cosmic rays, allowing terrestrial detectors to identify some signatures on the same period. Sometimes, these signatures can be identified prior to the occurence of the disturbance using a cosmic ray network around the Earth. With this purpose, a prototype detector of high-energy cosmic rays > 50 GeV, muons, was installed in the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT in 2001. It was composed of 2 layers of 4 detectors (2x2x2) with temporal resolution of one hour. The detector was upgraded in 2005 to 56 detectors (2x4x7) and temporal resolution of one minute. The expansion enabled a decrease of error from 0.16% to 0.06% in the counting of muons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the expansion and to present results of the study of some geomagnetic storm events combining geomagnetic Dst index data, muon count rate data and data from the ACE satellite.

Kemmerich, Níkolas; Dal Lago, Alisson; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Braga, Carlos Roberto; Deives Kummer, Fabricio; Vinicius Dias Silveira, Marcos; Munakata, Kazuoki; da Silva, Marlos; Martins da Silva, Samuel

175

Respiratory symptoms and cotton dust exposure; results of a 15 year follow up observation  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine chronic effects of long term exposure to cotton dust and endotoxin on incidence of respiratory symptoms and the effect of cessation of exposure. Methods: Respiratory health in 429 Chinese cotton textile workers (study group) and 449 silk textile workers (control group) was followed prospectively from 1981 to 1996. Byssinosis, chest tightness, and non-specific respiratory symptoms were assessed by means of identical standardised questionnaires at four time points. Exposures to cotton dust and endotoxin were estimated using area samples collected at each survey. Incidence and persistence of symptoms were examined in relation to cumulative exposure and exposure cessation using generalised estimating equations (GEE). Results: Among cotton workers, the cumulative incidence of byssinosis and chest tightness was 24% and 23%, respectively, and was significantly more common in smokers than in non-smokers. A high proportion of symptoms was found to be intermittent, rather than persistent. Among silk workers, no typical byssinosis was identified; the incidence of chest tightness was 10%. Chronic bronchitis, cough, and dyspnoea were more common and persistent in the cotton group than in the silk group. Significantly lower odds ratios for symptoms were observed in cotton workers who left the cotton mills; risk was also related to years since last worked. Multivariate analysis indicated a trend for higher cumulative exposure to endotoxin in relation to a higher risk for byssinosis. Conclusion: Chronic exposure to cotton dust is related to both work specific and non-specific respiratory symptoms. Byssinosis is more strongly associated with exposure to endotoxin than to dust. Cessation of exposure may improve the respiratory health of cotton textile workers; the improvement appears to increase with time since last exposure.

Wang, X; Eisen, E; Zhang, H; Sun, B; Dai, H; Pan, L; Wegman, D; Olenchock, S; Christiani, D

2003-01-01

176

Preliminary observations and results obtained with the ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter  

SciTech Connect

We present new observations with the Ultraviolet Spectrometer and Polarimeter (UVSP) of a number of manifestations of solar activity obtained during the first 3 months of Solar Maximum Mission operations.

Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Athay, R.G.; Beckers, J.M.; Brandt, J.C.; Bruner, E.C.; Chapman, R.D.; Cheng, C.C.; Burman, J.G.; Henze, W.; Hyder, C.L.; Michalitsianos, A.G.; Shine, R.A.; Schoolman, S.A.; Woodgate, B.E.

1981-03-15

177

What is the difference between image intensifier and CCD meteor observations? II. Comparison of the results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image intensifiers can register dim light and therefore also the higher part of meteor paths compared to a CCD. Minor but long term meteor activity that produces occasionally bright meteors can be monitored with CCD equipment. Image intensifier observations are affected by the sporadic background of mainly faint meteors that cannot be detected by CCD devices. It is very natural that meteor showers detected by two different video techniques will dependent on the properties of the observing devices.

Koseki, Masahiro; Ueda, Masayoshi; Shigeno, Yoshihiko

2010-08-01

178

Comparison Between Simulated and Observational Results of Galaxy Formation for Large Scale Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Millennium simulation is the largest numerical simulation of how minor fluctuations in the density of the universe's dark matter distribution are amplified by gravity to develop into the large scale structures(LSS) and galaxy clusters seen today(Springel et al. 2005). Although the simulations have been compared with the astronomical observations of the local universe, the simulations have not been widely compared with high redshift, early universe observations. In our study we compare the simulation data(Wang et al. 2008; Guo et al. 2008(in preparation)) for the first time with observations from the COSMOS survey(Scoville et al. 2006). Three quantities are proposed to characterize the structures and the structures distribution, namely the percent area occupied by LSS at each redshift, the average area of LSS and the shapes as characterized by the square root of the area divided by the circumference. We calculate these quantities for both the observations and the simulations, and quantify discrepancies between the existing simulations and observations. In particular, the simulations exhibit earlier development of dense structures than is seen in the observational data.

Li, G.; Scoville, N. Z.

2009-10-01

179

Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA): Results From Four Target Regions in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is a worldwide network of long- term research sites established to assess the impacts of climate change in sensitive native alpine communities. Many alpine species face habitat fragmentation and loss, and even extinction because they are adapted to cold temperatures and very limited in their geographic distribution. This study summarizes the data collected from four sites comprised of three to four summits each in the Sierra Nevada and White Mountain ranges of California. The 14 summits cover elevational gradients ranging from 3170m to 4285m. On each summit, habitat characteristics, species composition, species cover, and frequency counts are recorded in sixteen 1m x 1m quadrats. Additional surveys on the percentage cover of surface types and of each species in eight larger plots extending to 10m below the summit focus on detecting changes in species richness and species migrations. Sites were analyzed both independently and as a group to explore similarities and differences in species composition, plant functional groups, phenology, and response to climate. A total of 124 species were identified across all sites. The summits within each site exhibited rich, heterogeneous plant communities, but ones in which most species were infrequent. Northern slopes generally had the highest vegetation cover and eastern slopes, the lowest. Elevation, aspect, and substrate all strongly influenced community composition. The average minimum winter soil temperature varied by more than 10C between the lowest and highest sites in the gradient. Resampling over time will allow us to discern trends in species diversity and temperature, and assess and predict losses in biodiversity and other threats to these fragile alpine ecosystems. Results from this work will contribute to a predictive understanding of shifts in the distribution of alpine species with climate warming in the western U.S.; expand existing long-term data sets on the effects of climate change in alpine environments; and provide standardized, quantitative data on the altitudinal differences in species richness, species compositions, vegetation cover, soil temperature, and snow cover period.

Butz, R. J.; Dennis, A.; Millar, C. I.; Westfall, R. D.

2008-12-01

180

Structure and dynamics of the Uranian magnetotail: Results from hot plasma and magnetic field observations  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the Voyager 2 low-energy charged particle (LECP) and magnetic field (MAG) data in the Uranian magnetotail has shown this system to have many features similar to those seen at Earth. Isotropization of core magnetosphere 28-43 keV ions has been observed at the trapping boundary upon entry into the magnetotail near L = 17, an effect seen in ion populations at Earth and attributed to neutral sheet scattering. An extensive and persistent plasma sheet boundary layer was found to contain field-aligned ion streams with a variety of angular and energetically dispersive effects. Streaming distributions in the magnetotail horn region map to the auroral emission region observed by the Voyager ultraviolet (UVS). A quiet-time near-tail region is distinguished from a distant disturbed region, where evidence of a substorm is observed. There is evidence suggesting that the distant plasma sheet is not corotating with the planet. Proton density gradients in this disturbed region indicate the presence of detached plasma structures. During what appears to be an occurring substorm, energy dispersionless field-aligned streaming, seen within the neutral sheet region, indicates close proximity to a substormlike acceleration region. Extensive observations of the Earth's magnetotail provide a model for ordering a variety of particle and magnetic phenomena observed in the Uranian magnetotail.

Kane, M.; Mauk, B.H.; Keath, E.P.; Krimigis, S.M. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD (USA))

1991-07-01

181

Results from the Prototype GLOBE at Night Worldwide Light Pollution Observation Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Students, families, and educators worldwide participated in GLOBE at Night - an international event designed to observe and record the visible stars as a means of measuring light pollution in a given location. Participation was open to anyone - anywhere in the world - who could get outside and look skyward during the week of March 22-29, 2006. Our goal was 5000 observations from around the world in this prototype program.The hands-on learning activities associated with the program were designed to extend the traditional classroom and school day with a week of nighttime observations involving teachers, students and their families. By locating specific constellations in the sky, students from around the world learned how the lights in their community contribute to light pollution. Students explored the different light sources in their community learning the relationship between science, technology and society, and they reported their observations online through a central database allowing for authentic worldwide research and analysis. The observations made during GLOBE at Night helped students and scientists together assess how the quality of the night sky varies around the world as well as the level of energy wastage associated with poorly-shielded lights.For more information, visit http://www.globe.gov/globeatnight.GLOBE at Night is a collaboration between The GLOBE Program, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Centro de Apoyo a la Didactica de la Astronomia (CADIAS) in Chile , Windows to the Universe, and Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. (ESRI).

Walker, Constance E.; Pompea, S. M.; Isbell, D.; Orellana, D.; Blurton, C.; Henderson, S.

2006-06-01

182

Neogene transtensive faulting in the Rawil axial depression (SW Switzerland): preliminary results from field observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Helvetic nappe stack in the Rawil depression between the Aar and Mont Blanc massifs is affected by dominantly dextral transtensional faults developed or reactivated during the Neogene. This area shows the evolution of a fault system from partially ductile to brittle conditions and is currently one of the most seimogenically active zones in Switzerland. This field study aims to establish which fault sets have been activated during the Neogene and possibly Quaternary to Recent, to better constrain their relative age and kinematics, and to study the transition from ductile to brittle behaviour. The observed faults can be assigned to three general sets on the basis of their strike orientation. The first set (1) strikes NE-SW. Faults with distinctly different ages of initial activity are part of this set: Cretaceous normal faults with syn-sedimentary features; thrusts due to nappe-stacking; and later normal to oblique faults. All of these faults dip mainly to the SE. Paleo-tectonic features exposed in Plaine des Roses, les Audannes and Plaine Morte suggest that faults with this general orientation were already active during Cretaceous sedimentation. The post Aptian Cretaceous stratigraphic sequence is influenced by paleo-escarpments directly related to syn-sedimentary faults. These surfaces are marked in many places by karstification and silicification, sedimentary dykes and onlap of basinal younger formations. Some of these faults have been subsequently reactivated during Neogene syn- and post-collisional extension with normal to oblique kinematics. Transtensive reactivation of Cretaceous faults initially developed a ductile mylonitic fabric (expecially in limestones) that is overprinted by cataclasites and more discrete faults surfaces. Similarly oriented NE-striking veins were also developed under transitional brittle-ductile conditions in the limestones and, from relative age relationships, are the oldest veins developed in the area. The transtensive fault sets striking (2) E-W and (3) NW-SE generally dip at a low to moderate angle to the S or SW. The two sets are broadly coeval, as indicated in the Rawil-Plaine Morte area by many examples of branching and bending of one set into the other and by similar displacement directions and deformation fabrics. Transtensional movements must largely post-date folding, because faults of sets (2) and (3) obliquely crosscut the fold system and the fold geometry can be matched to either side. Folding and the initial stage of normal to oblique faulting developed under very low grade metamorphic conditions, with exhumation during the Neogene related to extension that was parallel or slightly oblique to the main Alpine fold axis-trend. Also for these fault sets there is locally a transition from an initial more ductile mylonitic fabric to cataclasite. Calcite slickenlines and fibres on these Neogene fault planes indicate two main stretching directions. The older one is WSW-directed and generally plunges around 25°, whereas the younger one plunges S, with a steeper, mainly dip-slip movement. Crosscutting vein relationships and bending of vein tails planes indicate a counter-clockwise rotation of the stretching direction, from WSW toward S. The WSW-directed orogen-parallel stretching is similar in orientation to that associated with the Simplon-Rhône Fault and is probably coeval, implying possible activity throughout much of the Neogene. The orientation of the transtensive faults outcropping in the Rawil depression is consistent with fault plane solutions for earthquakes north of the Rhone Valley. Establishing the kinematics and mechanics of these faults developed at depth in this seismically active region can therefore help in understanding earthquake processes.

Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Mancktelow, Neil

2010-05-01

183

Astronomical observations with normal incidence multilayer optics - Recent results and future prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution X-ray and EUV images of the solar corona have been obtained with two rocket-borne normal incidence Cassegrain multilayer telescopes. The Cassegrain images correspond to material at about 10 to the 6th K and about 80,000 K. Other images, at somewhat lower resolution, were obtained with Herschelian multilayer telescopes and Wolter-Schwarzschild hybrid grazing incidence/multilayer optical systems. The Cassegrain and Herschelian images are discussed emphasizing the analysis of polar plumes observed at the limb of the sun. The application of specific multilayer techniques to astronomical observations is discussed, emphasizing observations of the sun. Current efforts to develop a comprehensive Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array rocket instrument for the study of a wide variety of problems related to the solar atmosphere are reported.

Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Hoover, Richard B.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.

1990-06-01

184

Theoretical and observational review of results on nova explosions occurring on ONeMg white dwarfs  

SciTech Connect

The nova outburst is the second most violent explosion that occurs in a galaxy. This review presents the recent observational and theoretical studies that have demonstrated that there exist two classes of nova outburst. One type of nova occurs on a CO white dwarf and the other type of nova occurs on an ONeMg white dwarf. The second class of outbursts are much more violent and occur much more frequently then the first class of outbursts. Hydrodynamic simulations of both kinds of outbursts are in excellent agreement with the observations. 51 refs.

Starrfield, S.

1986-07-07

185

Observations of Energetic O+ in the Distant Tail Magnetosheath: Results from STEREO/PLASTIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two identical Plasma and Suprathermal Ion Composition (PLASTIC) instruments are now flying on the STEREO A and B observatories, which launched in October 2006. PLASTIC is a solar wind and heliospheric ion mass spectrometer that utilizes electrostatic deflection, post-acceleration,time-of-flight, energy, and position measurements in the energy-per-charge range of 0.25-80 keV/e. During the month of February, 2007, as the spacecraft were approaching their final heliocentric orbits, STEREO B traversed the dusk-side magnetosheath and boundary layer from -100 Re to -300 Re down the tail. Throughout the month, bursts of energetic O+ were observed in the magnetosheath. The energy of the O+ extended to the upper range of the instrument, 80 keV. The occurrence of O+ correlated with periods of high solar wind velocity. We will compare these observations with observations of O+ in the near-earth magnetosheath, as observed by CLUSTER, and discuss the possible sources and transport paths for these ions.

Kistler, L. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Popecki, M. A.; Mouikis, C.; Farrugia, C.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Ellis, L.; Simunac, K.; Singer, K.; Blush, L. M.; Klecker, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Thompson, B.; Bochsler, P.; Wurz, P.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Luhmann, J.; Acuna, M.; Russell, C. T.

2007-05-01

186

Perfect versus imperfect observability---An experimental test of Bagwell's result  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a seminal paper Bagwell (1995) claims that the first mover advantage, i.e. the strategic benefit of committing oneself to an action before others can do, vanishes completely if this action is only imperfectly observed by second movers. In our paper we report on an experimental test of this prediction. We implement three versions of a game similar to an

Steffen Huck; Wieland Mueller

1998-01-01

187

Decadal Air-Sea Interaction in the North Atlantic Based on Observations and Modeling Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The decadal, 12-14 year, cycle observed in the North Atlantic SST and tide gauge data was examined using the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses, COADS data and an ocean model simulation. Besides this decadal mode, a shorter, subdecadal period of about 8 years exists in...

S. Hakkinen

1998-01-01

188

Comparison Between Simulated and Observational Results of Galaxy Formation for Large Scale Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Millennium simulation is the largest numerical simulation of how minor fluctuations in the density of the universe's dark matter distribution are amplified by gravity to develop into the large scale structures(LSS) and galaxy clusters seen today(Springel et al. 2005). Although the simulations have been compared with the astronomical observations of the local universe, the simulations have not been widely

G. Li; N. Z. Scoville

2009-01-01

189

Preliminary Results on Rosat Observations of the Blazar PKS 0537-441.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PKS 0537-447, an object with properties intermediate between BL Lacs and optically violently variable and highly polarized quasars, was observed with Rosat in Apr. 1991. The X-ray flux F(1 keV) = 0.79 +/- 0.05 mu-Jy is higher than those detected by the Ei...

A. Treves T. Belloni R. Falomo H. Fink L. Maraschi

1992-01-01

190

Systemic meningococcal infection: Which children may benefit from adjuvant haemostatic therapy? Results from an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefits of haemostatic therapy (heparin, antithrombin (AT) concentrate, fresh frozen plasma (FFP)) in severe systemic meningococcal infections (SMI) are controversial. A reduction of the still high case fatality rate would be an important indicator for potential benefits of adjuvant haemostatic therapy in children with SMI. Observational data from nationwide, active surveillance for SMI in children under 16 years

W. Nürnberger; R. v. Kries; O. Böhm; U. Göbel

1999-01-01

191

Rogue waves and wave focusing - speculations on theory, numerical results and observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will discuss recent work on the question of rogue waves on the open ocean. Observations of waves on the open sea are consistent with weakly non-linear modifications to a linear random process, at least most of the time even in violent storms1. The occurrence of large waves might then be attributable to the random alignment of many small

Paul H Taylor

192

Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in patients with psychiatric emergencies: Results of an observational trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Conventional antipsychotics augmented with benzodiazepines have been the standard acute treatment for psychiatric emergencies for more than 50 years. The inability of patients to give informed consent limits randomised, controlled studies. This observational study on immediate therapy for aggression and impulse control in acutely agitated patients (IMPULSE) evaluated the short-term effectiveness and tolerability of atypical and typical antipsychotic medications

Stefan Wilhelm; Alexander Schacht; Thomas Wagner

2008-01-01

193

Observation of Psychoactive Substance Consumption: Methods and Results of the French OPPIDUM Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a French programme designed to observe and evaluate psychoactive substance dependence and abuse. Annual surveys lasting 4 weeks are performed with drug users in drug centres. Its usefulness is discussed using examples from the study: potential for antidepressant dependence (amineptine), monitoring benzodiazepine use and consumption associated with maintenance treatments. Flunitrazepam is the most consumed benzodiazepine and often

Xavier Thirion; Joelle Micallef; Karine Barrau; Samira Djezzar; Jean Louis Sanmarco; Georges Lagier

2001-01-01

194

Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical

W. D. Carter

1981-01-01

195

Direct Imaging of an Emerging Flux Rope and a Resulting Chromospheric Jet Observed by Hinode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic flux emergence has been traditionally observed on the disk by identifying changes in magnetograms. Observations near the limb offer an alternative perspective and allow direct imaging of emerging flux ropes. We present Hinode/SOT Ca II H observations of such an event in an equatorial coronal hole on 2007 February 9. The precursor of the event was a bundle of fine material threads that extended at an oblique angle above the chromosphere and appeared to rotate about a common axis. This bundle first slowly and then rapidly swung up, accompanied by a loop that appeared at the base of the bundle and expanded at comparable rates. During the first (slow rise) stage, the apex of the loop ascended at 16 km/s, a velocity similar to that of H-alpha arch filaments (e.g., Chou & Zirin) and of emerging flux ropes expanding into the corona as found in MHD simulations (e.g., Fan & Gibson; Martinez-Sykora). The second stage started at the onset of a GOES A5 flare and the loop expansion accelerated, reaching a velocity of 130 km/s when the loop appeared to rupture near the peak of the flare. The material bundle then swung back in a whiplike manner and developed into a collimated jet, exhibiting oscillatory transverse motions across its axis, as expected from unwinding twists. Some jet material fell back along smooth streamlines, which bypass an unseen dome and presumably a null point in the low corona, depicting an inverted-Y shape. Some of these observations resemble the model (e.g., Uchida & Shibata) of the emergence of a twisted flux rope into an open field region that leads to reconnection and formation of a jet. Some observations are, however, not predicted in previous models and we will discuss their implications.

Liu, Wei; Berger, T.; Title, A. M.; Tarbell, T. D.; DeRosa, M.

2010-05-01

196

The Metal Content of Dwarf Starburst Winds: Results from Chandra Observations of NGC 1569  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present deep Chandra spectral imaging of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. The unprecedented spatial resolution allows us to spatially identify the components of the integrated X-ray spectrum. Fitted spectral models require an intrinsic absorption component and higher metal abundances than previous studies indicated. Our results provide the first direct evidence for metal-enriched winds from dwarf starburst galaxies. We identify 14 X-ray point sources in NGC 1569. Most have properties consistent with those of high-mass X-ray binaries, but one is a steep-spectrum radio source that is probably a supernova remnant. The X-ray luminosity of NGC 1569 is dominated by diffuse, thermal emission from the disk (0.7 keV) and bipolar halo (0.3 keV). Photoelectric absorption from the inclined H I disk hardens the X-ray spectrum on the northern side of the disk relative to the southern side. Requiring the fitted absorption column to match the H I column measured at 21 cm implies that the metallicity of the H I disk is significantly less than solar but greater than 0.1 Zsolar. Hence, much of the H I is enriched to levels comparable to the metallicity of the H II regions [O/H=0.2(O/H)solar]. The X-ray color variations in the halo are inconsistent with a free-streaming wind and probably reveal the location of shocks created by the interaction of the wind with a gaseous halo. The X-ray spectrum of the diffuse gas presents strong emission lines from ?-process elements. Fitted models require ?-element abundances greater than 0.25 Z?,solar and ratios of ?-elements to iron 2-4 times higher than the solar ratio. The best fit to the spectrum is obtained with solar mass fractions for the ?-elements, 1.0 Z?,solar, but a degeneracy between the metallicity and the spectral normalization prevents us from deriving an upper limit on the wind metallicity from the X-ray spectrum alone. We argue, however, that abundances larger than 2.0 Z?,solar pose awkward implications for the dynamical evolution of the wind based on our knowledge of the starburst properties. For consistency with our best-fitting abundances, the mass of interstellar gas entrained in the wind must be about 9 times the mass of stellar ejecta in the wind. Most of the oxygen carried by the wind comes from the stellar ejecta rather than entrained interstellar gas. The estimated mass of oxygen in the hot wind, 34,000 Msolar, is similar to the oxygen yield of the current starburst. Apparently the wind carries nearly all the metals ejected by the starburst. These metals appear destined to contribute to the enrichment of the intergalactic medium. Much of the nucleosynthesis in NGC 1569 must have occurred during less violent periods of star formation, however, because our measurements imply that the neutral gas disk holds at least 5 times more oxygen than wind. Based on observations obtained with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

Martin, Crystal L.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Heckman, Timothy M.

2002-08-01

197

On the optimal combination of multi-model results using observational constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new methodology for incorporating observational data into a framework for combining multi-model output such as that provided by the CMIP-5 dataset. Using spatial patterns derived from observations and reanalysis data, we are improve upon a simple multi-model mean in a number of ways using a multivariate regression based framework. In perfect model experiments where individual CMIP models are considered to be truth, we can demonstrate a reduction in bias in future projections when compared to a simple mean of the remaining models. We also improve the statistics of extreme precipitation events which are not captured well by a multi-model mean of GCMs with differing spatial precipitation patterns.

Sanderson, B. M.

2010-12-01

198

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of equatorial spread F: Results and observations in the Pacific sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation evolves under realistic background conditions including bottomside plasma shear flow and vertical current. It also incorporates C/NOFS satellite data which partially specify the forcing. A combination of generalized Rayleigh-Taylor instability (GRT) and collisional shear instability (CSI) produces growing waveforms with key features that agree with C/NOFS satellite and ALTAIR radar observations in the Pacific sector, including features such as gross morphology and rates of development. The transient response of CSI is consistent with the observation of bottomside waves with wavelengths close to 30 km, whereas the steady state behavior of the combined instability can account for the 100+ km wavelength waves that predominate in the F region.

Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.; Caton, R. G.; Groves, K. M.; Klenzing, J.; Pfaff, R. F.; Stoneback, R.; Heelis, R. A.

2012-03-01

199

The Vela Pulsar: Results from the First Year of Fermi LAT Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on analysis of timing and spectroscopy of the Vela pulsar using 11 months of observations with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The intrinsic brightness of Vela at GeV energies combined with the angular resolution and sensitivity of the LAT allows us to make the most detailed study to date of the energy-dependent

A. A. Abdo; M. Ackermann; M. Ajello; A. Allafort; W. B. Atwood; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; M. G. Baring; D. Bastieri; B. M. Baughman; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; B. Berenji; R. D. Blandford; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. W. Borgland; A. Bouvier; J. Bregeon; A. Brez; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; T. H. Burnett; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; P. A. Caraveo; S. Carrigan; J. M. Casandjian; C. Cecchi; Ö. Çelik; A. Chekhtman; C. C. Cheung; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; C. D. Dermer; A. de Luca; F. de Palma; M. Dormody; E. do Couto e. Silva; P. S. Drell; R. Dubois; D. Dumora; C. Farnier; C. Favuzzi; S. J. Fegan; W. B. Focke; P. Fortin; M. Frailis; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Gehrels; S. Germani; G. Giavitto; B. Giebels; N. Giglietto; F. Giordano; T. Glanzman; G. Godfrey; I. A. Grenier; M.-H. Grondin; J. E. Grove; L. Guillemot; S. Guiriec; D. Hadasch; A. K. Harding; E. Hays; G. Hobbs; D. Horan; R. E. Hughes; M. S. Jackson; G. Jóhannesson; A. S. Johnson; T. J. Johnson; W. N. Johnson; T. Kamae; H. Katagiri; J. Kataoka; N. Kawai; M. Kerr; J. Knödlseder; M. Kuss; J. Lande; L. Latronico; S.-H. Lee; M. Lemoine-Goumard; M. Llena Garde; F. Longo; F. Loparco; B. Lott; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; A. Makeev; R. N. Manchester; M. Marelli; M. N. Mazziotta; W. McConville; J. E. McEnery; S. McGlynn; C. Meurer; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; C. Monte; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; T. Nakamori; P. L. Nolan; J. P. Norris; A. Noutsos; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; N. Omodei; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; M. Ozaki; D. Paneque; J. H. Panetta; D. Parent; V. Pelassa; M. Pepe; M. Pesce-Rollins; M. Pierbattista; F. Piron; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; P. S. Ray; M. Razzano; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; T. Reposeur; S. Ritz; L. S. Rochester; A. Y. Rodriguez; R. W. Romani; M. Roth; F. Ryde; H. F.-W. Sadrozinski; A. Sander; P. M. Saz Parkinson; C. Sgrò; E. J. Siskind; D. A. Smith; P. D. Smith; G. Spandre; P. Spinelli; J.-L. Starck; M. S. Strickman; D. J. Suson; H. Takahashi; T. Takahashi; T. Tanaka; J. B. Thayer; J. G. Thayer; D. J. Thompson; L. Tibaldo; D. F. Torres; G. Tosti; A. Tramacere; T. L. Usher; A. Van Etten; V. Vasileiou; C. Venter; N. Vilchez; V. Vitale; A. P. Waite; P. Wang; K. Watters; P. Weltevrede; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; T. Ylinen; M. Ziegler

2010-01-01

200

Preliminary results of cloud observation with millimeter wave multi-parameter cloud profiling radar (SPIDER)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud plays one of the biggest unknown factors in global warming prediction. To observe the 3-dimensional profiles of clouds, a mm-wave multi-parameter airborne cloud profiling radar (nickname: SPIDER) has been developed by the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL). SPIDER was designed for airborne as well as ground-based use. The frequency of the radar is in the W-band (95 GHz) giving it

Hiroaki HORIE; Hiroshi HANADO; Yuji OHSAKI; T. Iguchi; Hiroshi KUMAGAI

1998-01-01

201

Satellite observations of thermospheric tides: Results from the Wind Imaging Interferometer on UARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermospheric winds measured by the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the upper atmosphere research satellite are analyzed for migrating solar tides. The data cover a 2-year period commencing February 1992 and are obtained from the atomic oxygen O(1S) 557.7-nm emission, which provides observations of the 90- to 200-km altitude range during daytime and the 90- to 110-km range at night.

Charles McLandress; Gordon G. Shepherd; Brian H. Solheim

1996-01-01

202

Hamamelis in children with skin disorders and skin injuries: results of an observational study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Published clinical experience with hamamelis ointment in children is limited. This observational study included children (age\\u000a 27 days to 11 years) with minor skin injuries, diaper dermatitis, or localized inflammation of skin. The children received\\u000a either hamamelis ointment or dexpanthenol ointment in groups at a 3-to-1 ratio. Baseline and post-treatment assessments compared\\u000a the total scores of predefined signs and symptoms for each

Helmut H. Wolff; Meinhard Kieser

2007-01-01

203

Arctic Mixed-Phase Cloud Properties from AERI Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Results from SHEBA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to retrieve microphysical properties from mixed-phase Arctic clouds is presented. This mixed-phase cloud property retrieval algorithm (MIXCRA) retrieves cloud optical depth, ice fraction, and the effective radius of the water and ice particles from ground-based, high-resolution infrared radiance and lidar cloud boundary observations. The theoretical basis for this technique is that the absorption coefficient of ice is

D. D. Turner; David D

2005-01-01

204

Constrained LQR problems in elliptic distributed control systems with point observations—convergence results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper constrained LQR problems in distributed control systems governed by the elliptic equation with point observations\\u000a are studied. A variational inequality approach coupled with potential theory in a Banach space setting is adopted. First the\\u000a admissible control set is extended to be bounded by two functions, and feedback characterization of the optimal control in\\u000a terms of the optimal

Z. Ding; J. Zhou

1997-01-01

205

Assessing the Crustal Stratigraphy of Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Orbital Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flyby images revealed subtle color variations across Mercury's surface, many of which are associated with impact craters and basins. Impact craters that excavated material spectrally distinct from the surrounding pre-impact surface serve as windows into the subsurface, allowing observations of material at depth that would otherwise remain hidden to remote observations. Previous localized studies of spectrally distinct, excavated material suggested the presence of buried volcanic plains and a heterogeneous crustal stratigraphy and support the important role of volcanism in the evolution of the crust. MESSENGER's Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) has since acquired global color (1 km/pixel) and high-resolution monochrome (250 m/pixel) base maps of the innermost planet, taken under illumination and observation geometries optimized for observing both color and morphology. These base maps, along with detailed targeted observations (up to 80 m/pixel color and 10 m/pixel monochrome), allow detailed co-mapping of geologic and spectral features across Mercury's surface. Such mapping, along with the use of scaling laws and melt-volume calculations to bound the depth of origin of crater ejecta and central peak structures, allows us to investigate many aspects of Mercury's crustal stratigraphy, including, but not limited to, the following topics: (1) The stratigraphy of four of Mercury's younger large basins: Caloris (1550 km in diameter), Rembrandt (720 km), Beethoven (630 km), and Tolstoj (360 km), which have all been flooded by spectrally distinct volcanic plains. Post-flooding craters of varying sizes enable an estimation of the thickness of the volcanic fill and the nature of the pre-flooding basin floor. These measurements will help to constrain models for subsequent compensation, uplift, and deformation; and incorporation of topography and gravity data link basin fill with the broader lithospheric evolution of Mercury. (2) The depth of origin and distribution of low-reflectance material (LRM), a likely compositional end-member. LRM centers are often associated with large crater and basin ejecta, implying that this material must originate at substantial depth. In previous studies, LRM was found to be the color unit with the greatest depth of origin. A more complete knowledge of LRM distribution in the crust will enable a better assessment of the nature of the material's pre-excavation origin. (3) The location and thickness of pre-Tolstojan (> 4.0 Ga) volcanic plains. Such plains tend to be located beneath younger intermediate plains and may be used to assess the extent of an older generation of volcanic activity.

Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Barnouin, O. S.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Head, J. W.; Klimczak, C.; Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Watters, T. R.

2011-12-01

206

The First Result of the Precursors Observation in Karymshina Observatory (Kamchatka, Russia) for Moderate Earthquakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1999 the complex geophysical observatory was created in Kamchatka, Russia under mutual Russian-Japanese scientific project. The main purpose of this project is to investigate electromagnetic and other phenomena in connection with earthquakes. The observatory is sited in the place without any sources of industrial noise. The seismic waveforms, acoustic emission, telluric currents, magnetic pulsation and chemical composition of underground water are measured continuously. The measurements of three components of ground displacement velocity is realized by seismometer in the frequency band 0.5-40 Hz with sensitivity threshold 10-8 m/s and dynamic range of 90 dB. Triaxial induction magnetometer measures geomagnetic pulsations in the frequency range 0.003-30 Hz with sensitivity threshold 20 pT/Hz1/2 at frequency 0.01 Hz and 0.02 pT/Hz1/2 at frequencies higher than 10 Hz. Dynamic range of the magnetometer is 90 dB. Measurements of NS and EW components of telluric currents with maximum distance between electrodes of about 500 m are carried out. The acoustic emission receiver (high-frequency seismometer) based on mechanical pendulum with ceramic transducer is installed in 30 m borehole. The output signals are filtered by 4 filters with central frequencies equal to 30, 160, 500 and 1000 Hz. In the same borehole was installed high-frequency seismic noise (HFSN) piezoceramic sensor with very narrow band around 30 Hz and sensitivity threshold 10-12 m. The chemical components Cl, HCO3, SO4, Na, K, Ca, H3BO3, H4SiO4, gases CH4, N2, O2, CO2, Ar, He, H2 and hydrocarbonates C2H6, C2H4, C3H8, C3H6, C4H10, C4H10i are analysed in a few wells nearby the observatory. The atmospheric pressure, direction and velocity of the wind, humidity, precipitation, air and ground temperature are measured using meteorological station installed at observatory. Since June 2000 CGO Karymshina has started regular simultaneous monitoring of the above-mentioned parameters. Processing and analysis of the data include different methods (correlation, spectrum, wavelet and polarization). Weekly quick- looks (72 graphs) and monthly reviews are regularly distributed to Russian and Japanese collaborators. Many interesting facts are revealed from the initial scientific analysis. Rather promising results on co-seismic changes of electric and magnetic fields, on an increase of ULF noise polarization ratio 2-7 days before the large seismic shocks, and corresponding intensification of VLF signals could be mentioned in this connection. The chemical composition of underground water shows many variations in hydrocarbonates, but was not found any clear anomalies connected with earthquakes.

Gordeev, E.; Uyeda, S.; Nagao, T.; Molchanov, O.; Hattori, K.; Lutikov, A.; Gladyshev, V.; Schekotov, A.; Chebrov, V.

2001-12-01

207

The Results From 5 Years of Shipboard ADCP Observations on Georges Bank During the N.W. Atlantic GLOBEC Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ADCP data have been routinely collected on a total of 81 survey, mooring, and process cruises to Georges Bank between 1995 and 1999 during the GLOBEC program, yielding a total of ~660 days of current observations. These data have been carefully processed and edited and are available through a web site: www.oasdpo.bnl.gov.mosaic/globec. Georges Bank is a tidally dominated regime so the first requirement has been to develop an observationally based detiding method. This has been accomplished with an adaptation of the Candela, et al. (1992) with nine constituents as described by Dunn et al. (2001, in preparation). This methodology reduces the space-time barotropic current variance by between 85 and 95 percent. The residual currents have been investigated for the mean and seasonal signals using Gaussian basis functions and knots whose distribution is based upon a sufficient density of observations. The results show a detailed description of the expected clockwise gyre and its seasonal intensification during the late summer and early fall. Maximal along-isobath flow occurs around yearday 270 on the southern flank which correspond to the maximal northward recirculation flow in the Great South Channel. The seasonal fluctuations are shown to be greatest over the northern flank and in the Great South and Northeast Channels, with reduced variability over the southern flank. Extending the investigation to look at the synoptic scale variability, we have been able to explain a total of about 20 to 30 percent of the residual variance through a regression analysis between local wind stress and adjusted sea level fluctuations at Woods Hole and Halifax. Examination of various repeat transects across the Bank show details of the spatial and temporal variability of Bank structures. One section across the southern flank shows the tidal mixing front as a distinct alongshore jet with a cross-shelf scale of ~20 km and maximal speeds during the summer. The same section also shows the extreme variability of the shelf/slope front with currents varying between more than 1 m/s to the east when a warm ring impinged on the Bank, to a maximum of ~0.5 m/s to the west when rings were not present.

Flagg, C. N.; Dunn, M.

2001-12-01

208

Water Vapor Feedback in the Tropical Upper Troposphere: Model Results and Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of water vapor in the tropical upper troposphere to changes in surface temperature is examined using a single-column, radiative convective model that includes couplings between the moistening effects of convective detrainment, the drying effects from clear-air subsidence, and radiative heating and cooling from water vapor. Equilibrium states of this model show that as the surface warms, changes in

Ken Minschwaner; Andrew E. Dessler

2004-01-01

209

Results of the Rio de Janeiro magnetic observations 1781-1788  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have compiled a relatively extensive catalogue of geomagnetic declination measurements performed by the Portuguese Bento Sanches Dorta in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) between 1781 and 1788. All the information was retrieved from printed documents compiled in the first three volumes of the Memories of the Portuguese Royal Academy of Sciences. During this period Sanches Dorta performed roughly 20000 individual observations, however, only a fraction of this data is presently available. In this work, all available information about these measurements is analysed. The annual change (variability and trend) and the daily cycle of geomagnetic declination at monthly scale are discussed. Keywords. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, History of geophysics, Geomagnetic field declination

Vaquero, J. M.; Trigo, R. M.

2005-07-01

210

Surfzone Currents Over Irregular Bathymetry: Drifter Observations and Numerical Model Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surfzone currents on alongshore variable bathymetry were observed with recently developed GPS-tracked drifters and numerically modeled with the time-dependent, nonlinear shallow water equations. These currents, forced by alongshore inhomogeneous pressure and radiation stress gradients, contain flow features difficult to resolve with fixed instrument arrays, such as rips, eddies, and meanders. Drifters were repeatedly released and recovered near Scripps Beach, La Jolla, California, in July 2000, 2001, and 2002. The most recent deployment of 10 drifters yielded about 32 hours of drifter data for each 5 hour deployment day. Offshore wave heights were moderate, between 0.3-1.0 m. The bathymetry, measured over a 600-700 m alongshore span with a GPS- and sonar-equipped jetski (2001 and 2002 deployments), was alongshore inhomogeneous primarily where an irregularly shaped bar-trough feature spanned the surf zone. The model simulations suggest that the alongshore inhomogeneous bathymetry strongly influences the location and strength of the observed flow features. Research supported by the California Sea Grant College Program and the Office of Naval Research.

Schmidt, W. E.; Slinn, D. N.; Guza, R. T.

2002-12-01

211

Results of UHF radar observation of the nocturnal low-level jet for wind energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use two series of eight-month UHF radar observations collected during the dry and wet seasons of AMMA field campaign. The ultimate goal is to do preliminary work to know whether the lowest layers are suitable for wind energy applications. Surface wind is usually weak in West Africa, but the regular occurrence of a nocturnal low level jet (NLLJ) could provide interesting conditions for wind energy. This work is two-fold: it first aims at improving our knowledge about the NLLJ in West Africa regarding its structure and its variability during the year. Then, special attention is paid to the first 200 m agl, to study the possibility to use the sub-jet wind as a source of energy. A set of enhanced radio-soundings is taken to help to understand the dynamics and thermodynamics and to find a way to extrapolate the wind at low level, where the UHF radars do not provide data.

Madougou, Saïdou; Saïd, Frederique; Campistron, Bernard; Lothon, Marie; Kebe, Cheikh F.

2012-10-01

212

Some results of observations of positive lightning discharges and relative phenomena in the east of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have considered spatial distributions of positive lightning discharges in the east of Siberia for the summer seasons of 2003-2007 and properties of their electromagnetic signals with the ELF "slow tail", which, as is known, can be accompanied by sprites. There are two main regions of positive discharges located in the south and west of Yakutsk. Two other "centers" (the northeastern and the eastern) are located in high-mountainous regions. In these regions the positive discharges intensity can exceed the negative discharge intensity. The electromagnetic signals in the ELF range (usually in the form of two half-cycles) were observed after the VLF atmospherics were recorded in the high-latitude regions. The delay of ELF pulses relative to the corresponding atmospherics was 0-7 ms. The long (up to 350 ms) events of quasi-periodic ELF oscillations with the period of about 7 ms (which corresponds to the quasi-period of ELF pulses) were revealed.

Mullayarov, V. A.; Kozlov, V. I.; Toropov, A. A.; Karimov, R. R.

2010-04-01

213

Lava erosion on Mercury: Model results using new observations from MESSENGER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanism has been conclusively identified on the surface of Mercury from images and color data collected by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) instrument aboard the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. Most of the volcanic deposits on Mercury are similar in morphology to lunar mare flood basalt deposits and are found on Mercury in smooth plains regions such as in the extensive northern smooth plains. Adjacent to the northern smooth plains is an unusual assemblage of 5-10-km-diameter pits, teardrop-shaped hills, rough plains, and distal lobate-margined smooth plains; these features are interpreted to represent source vents, lava sculpting of underlying terrain, and distal emplacement of extensive flow lobes. These features are consistent with eruption of high-temperature, low-viscosity komatiite-like flood lavas that erode and sculpt the underlying terrain during flow on Mercury. Evidence of this process is observed extensively on other terrestrial planets where eroded channels are often seen in association with source depressions. Here we analyze Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) data and MDIS images to document morphologic and morphometric constraints on the amount of erosion that occurred and the amount of lava that was emplaced during the formation of this scoured surface. These constraints are used as inputs into models of mechanical and thermal erosion to determine which erosion regime, mechanical or thermal, was dominant during the formation of this terrain, as well as to determine plausible erosion rates and eruption durations required to form the observed scoured terrain. We compare processes of volcanism and thermal/mechanical erosion on Mercury with similar processes on Earth, the Moon, Mars and Venus.

Hurwitz, D. M.; Head, J. W.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Strom, R. G.; Fassett, C. I.; Denevi, B. W.; Blewett, D. T.; Ernst, C. M.; Watters, T. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Byrne, P. K.; Klimczak, C.; Murchie, S. L.; Prockter, L. M.; Chabot, N. L.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Whitten, J.; Goudge, T. A.; Baker, D. M.; Ostrach, L. R.; Xiao, Z.; Merline, W. J.; Dickson, J. L.; Oberst, J.; Nittler, L. R.

2011-12-01

214

Results of the first observations with the Doppler astroreceiver DOG-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Test results are presented for the operation of a Doppler receiver, the Astroreceiver DOG-2, which is designed for geodynamic research. The receiving system consists of an antenna, preamplifiers, and the Doppler receivers with power units. The receiver is employed for the reception of signals transmitted by the NNSS satellites at frequencies of 150 and 400 MHz, as well as for the decoding of orbital information. Test results are given including the received geocentric rectangular coordinates of a special mast located at a point different from that of the antenna, the variance covariance matrix, and the semi-axes of the error ellipsoid.

Fraczyk, P.; Jaks, W.; Labedzki, A.

215

Is the observed chemical heterogeneity of the Hawaiian mantle plume real or a result of melting and mixing processes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical and isotopic heterogeneity of lavas derived from Hawaiian volcanoes has resulted in a standard model of a compositionally zoned Hawaiian mantle plume. Particularly He isotope data from Loihi, Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea have been interpreted in terms of a concentrically zoned plume, with some of the Hawaiian volcanoes having never been above the plume center. Based on He, Ne and Ar fusion data from olivines derived from Mauna Kea (surface and Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project samples), Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Kohala (Big Island) as well as Haleakala (Maui) we show that the Hawaiian plume might not be zoned but that the heterogeneities observed in the lavas can be derived from melting and mixing processes. This is in accordance with other, recently developed models. The He isotopic ratios of the studied samples vary from 7 to 18 RA, whereas Ne isotopic ratios plot along the Loihi-Kilauea line in a Ne-three isotope plot. Thus the He isotopes range from ratios typical for the upper mantle to ratios more typical for a primitive mantle source. All Ne isotopic ratios are typical for a more primitive mantle. This indicates a decoupling of He from Ne as well as a homogeneous plume source. Combined He, Ne and Ar systematics show that this decoupling is caused by predegassing fractionation process, which leaves the He isotope ratio more susceptible for changes than Ne or Ar isotope ratios. Basically, this process caused a He deficit of melts generated by the plume, as shown by 3He/22Ne below current estimates of solar composition and 4He*/21Ne* and 4He*/40Ar* lower than the theoretical production ratios. These observations can best be explained by a model in which He is fractionated from Ne and Ar during formation of plume melts generated by low melting degrees and subsequent mixing with upper mantle melts generated by higher degrees of melting. This requires He to be more compatible during melt formation than Ne and Ar. Depending on the relative proportion of mixing the resulting lavas will cover the whole observed He isotope range, whereas Ne isotopes remain relatively homogeneously distributed.

Stroncik, N. A.; Krüsmann, T.; Niedermann, S.; Erzinger, J.

2008-12-01

216

Ratio of the Greenland to global temperature change: Comparison of observations and climate modeling results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature changes over Greenland are of special interest due to a possible melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet and resulting sea level rise. General Circulation Models (GCMs) predict that the temperature changes in Greenland should proceed at a faster rate than the global temperature change. Until now there has been no confirmation that Greenland's long-term temperature changes are related to

Petr Chylek; Ulrike Lohmann

2005-01-01

217

Modular optoelectronic multispectral scanner (MOMS) - For earth observation - First results of STS7 mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic concept and the principal features of MOMS, a new optoelectronic scanning system for remote sensing from aircraft and space platforms, ar reviewed, and preliminary results of the first MOMS mission on board STS 7 are presented. The mission has yielded highly resolved images with a 20 x 20 sq m ground pixel size at 157 nm. The radiometric

D. Meissner; H. Laucht; J. Bodechtel; R. Haydn

1983-01-01

218

Observational results using the microwave temperature profiler during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Microwave Temperature Profiler (MTP) measures profiles of air temperature versus altitude. The altitude coverage is about 5 km at a flight altitude of 20 km (66,000 feet), and the profiles are obtained every 14 s. The MTP instrument is installed on NASA's ER-2 aircraft, which flew 13 missions over Antarctica during the Airborne Antarctic Ozone Experiment. Altitude temperature profiles were used to derive potential temperature cross sections. These cross sections have been useful in detecting atmospheric waves. Many wave encounters have been identified as 'mountain waves'. The mountain waves are found to extend from the lowest altitudes measured to the highest (about 24 km). The southern part of the Palmer Peninsula was found to be associated with mountain waves more than half the time. Altitude temperature profiles were also used to measure the lapse rate along the flight track. Lapse rate versus latitude plots do not show significant changes at the ozone hole boundary.

Gary, Bruce L.

1989-08-01

219

OSIRIS on Odin: First Observational Results from the IR Imager System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tomography is the representation of a three dimensional object by its two dimensional cross sections and the tomographic concept uses line integral measurements of a two dimensional field to retrieve that field. The Odin satellite that was launched on February 20, 2001 is now operational and includes an Optical Spectrograph and Infra-Red Imaging System (OSIRIS). During each orbit OSIRIS makes many thousand line integral measurements of the atmospheric volume emission rate profiles at wavelengths of 1.27 ? m and 1.53 ? m. These measurements sample the atmosphere within the two dimensional satellite orbit plane and are ideal for interpretation with a tomographic technique. The developed technique uses the line of sight integrated volume emission measurements and a modified Maximum Likelihood Expectation Maximization (MLEM) algorithm to retrieve two-dimensional structure in the atmospheric volume emission profile. In this paper the utility of the developed tomographic technique is demonstrated with examples from the OSIRIS data set. In particular it is shown that the correct interpretation of the two-dimensional volume emission rate profiles can be obtained with the use of limb imaged data and the tomographic analysis. It is also shown that the simple one-dimensional analysis of single limb scans may lead to significant errors in the apparent structure of the volume emission profiles. The capability of the OSIRIS measurements for the determination of small and large-scale horizontal structures in the Oxygen Infra-Red Atmospheric and the OH Meinel band emissions are also discussed through reference to some of the first on-orbit observations with the OSIRIS Imager. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), Finland (Tekes) and France (CNES).

Degenstein, D. A.; Lloyd, N. D.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; McDade, I. C.; Odin Team

2001-12-01

220

Age specific trends in asthma mortality in England and Wales, 1983-95: results of an observational study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in asthma mortality by age group in England and Wales during 1983-95. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: England and Wales. SUBJECTS: All deaths classified as having an underlying cause of asthma registered from 1 January 1983 to 31 December 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Time trends for age specific asthma deaths. RESULTS: Deaths in the age group 5-14 years showed an irregular downward trend during 1983-95; deaths in the age groups 15-44, 45-64, and 65-74 years peaked before 1989 and then showed a downward trend; and deaths in the age group 75-84 years peaked between 1988 and 1993 and subsequently dropped. Trends were: age group 5-14 years, 6% (95% confidence interval 3% to 9%); 15-44 years, 6% (5% to 7%); 45-64 years, 5% (4% to 6%); 65-74 years, 2% (1% to 3%). Deaths in the 75-84 and 85 and over categories plateaued. CONCLUSIONS: There are downward trends in asthma mortality in Britain, which may be due to increased use of prophylactic treatment.

Campbell, M. J.; Cogman, G. R.; Holgate, S. T.; Johnston, S. L.

1997-01-01

221

Nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ?CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, ? b h 2, ? c h 2, and ??, are each determined to a precision of ~1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5? level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ?CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ?CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to \\Omega _k = -0.0027^{+ 0.0039}_{- 0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to ?m ? < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N eff = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N eff and the primordial helium abundance, Y He, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological model and provides a striking illustration of acoustic oscillations and adiabatic initial conditions in the early universe.

Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

2013-10-01

222

Multi-Wavelength Observations of Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts: Recent Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of detections as well as significantly deep non-detections of optical/NIR afterglows of Type I (compact-object-merger population) Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) has become large enough that statistically meaningful samples can now be constructed. I present within some recent results on the luminosity distribution of Type I GRB afterglows in comparison to those of Type II GRBs (collapsar population), the issue of the existence of jet breaks in Type I GRB afterglows, and the discovery of dark Type I GRBs.

Kann, D. A.

2013-07-01

223

Observation of present-day tectonic motions in the Southeastern Carpathians: Results of the ISES\\/CRC461 GPS measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented from GPS measurements performed in the Southeastern Carpathians between 1997 and 2004. Data from 25 stations observed during 13 campaigns were analyzed by the Department of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS) of Delft University of Technology. The repeatabilities of the solutions are on the order of 1–4 mm for the horizontal, and 4–8 mm for the

V. Mocanu; W. Spakman; M. Nutto; A. Nuckelt; L. Matenco; L. Munteanu; C. Marcu; B. A. C. Ambrosius

2005-01-01

224

Solar flare model: Comparison of the results of numerical simulations and observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrodynamic flare model is based on numerical 3D simulations with the real magnetic field of an active region. An energy of ˜1032 erg necessary for a solar flare is shown to accumulate in the magnetic field of a coronal current sheet. The thermal X-ray source in the corona results from plasma heating in the current sheet upon reconnection. The hard X-ray sources are located on the solar surface at the loop foot-points. They are produced by the precipitation of electron beams accelerated in field-aligned currents. Solar cosmic rays appear upon acceleration in the electric field along a singular magnetic X-type line. The generation mechanism of the delayed cosmic-ray component is also discussed.

Podgorny, I. M.; Vashenyuk, E. V.; Podgorny, A. I.

2009-12-01

225

Geomorphic expression of strike-slip faults: field observations vs. analog experiments: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this project is to study the surface expression of strike-slip faults with main aim to find rules how these structures can be extrapolated to depth. In the first step, several basic properties of the fault architecture are in focus: (1) Is it possible to define the fault architecture by studying surface structures of the damage zone vs. the fault core, particularly the width of the damage zone? (2) Which second order structures define the damage zone of strike-slip faults, and how relate these to such reported in basement fault strike-slip analog experiments? (3) Beside classical fault bend structures, is there a systematic along-strike variation of the damage zone width and to which properties relates the variation of the damage zone width. We study the above mentioned properties on the dextral Altyn fault, which is one of the largest strike-slip on Earth with the advantage to have developed in a fully arid climate. The Altyn fault includes a ca. 250 to 600 m wide fault valley, usually with the trace of actual fault in its center. The fault valley is confined by basement highs, from which alluvial fans develop towards the center of the fault valley. The active fault trace is marked by small scale pressure ridges and offset of alluvial fans. The fault valley confining basement highs are several kilometer long and ca. 0.5 to 1 km wide and confined by rotated dextral anti-Riedel faults and internally structured by a regular fracture pattern. Dextral anti-Riedel faults are often cut by Riedel faults. Consequently, the Altyn fault comprises a several km wide damage zone. The fault core zone is a barrier to fluid flow, and the few springs of the region are located on the margin of the fault valley implying the fractured basement highs as the reservoir. Consequently, the southern Silk Road was using the Altyn fault valley. The preliminary data show that two or more orders of structures exist. Small-scale develop during a single earthquake. These finally accumulate to a several 100 m wide fault core, which is in part exposed at surface to arid climate and a km wide damage zone. The basic structures of analog experiments can be well transferred to nature, although along strike changes are common due to fault bending and fracture failure of country rocks.

Hsieh, S. Y.; Neubauer, F.; Genser, J.

2012-04-01

226

Argon in the Martian Atmosphere. Do the MARS-6 Results Agree with Optical and Radio Refraction Observations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The detection of some inert gas in the Martian atmosphere, apparently argon, by the Mars-6 space probe is recounted. A combined analysis is conducted of infrared and ultraviolet spectrometric observations as well as results of radio-occultation measuremen...

V. I. Moroz

1975-01-01

227

Solar Wind Effects on Plasma Density Depletions: C/NOFS Results with Related Observations from DMSP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before C/NOFS, the prevailing wisdom was that equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) were primarily a post-sunset phenomenon. Changes in the ionosphere after sunset create conditions favorable for instability formation as polarization electric fields increase near the terminator. Plasma irregularities that develop in the bottomside of the F-layer grow into large depletions that rise rapidly into the topside ionosphere. By two hours in local time after sunset the initial upward drift of the ionosphere reverses suppressing further development of instabilities. Tsunoda’s [1985] seasonal-longitudinal model predicted that EPB rates should peak near times when the equatorial declination and the dusk terminator are closely aligned. Under these conditions E-layer conductance vanishes at both ends of flux tubes simultaneously, allowing EPBs to grow most rapidly. We validated this model during the recent solar maximum. In this unusual solar minimum, however, C/NOFS has encountered very few post-sunset depletions. They commonly appear between local midnight and dawn. We trace the energy flow from the Sun to the Earth to demonstrate that C/NOFS measurements are providing key insights into the dynamics of the Ionosphere-Thermosphere system. Results suggest that systematic effects of solar wind / IMF on dynamics of equatorial plasmas and electric fields may allow long-term alerts about impending ionospheric disturbances that lead to scintillation activity. Reference: Tsunoda, R. T. (1985), J. Geophys. Res., 90, 447.

Burke, W. J.; Gentile, L. C.; Roddy, P. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Wilson, G. R.; de La Beaujardiere, O.; Su, Y.

2010-12-01

228

MAARSY -The Middle Atmosphere ALOMAR Radar System: Motivation, system description, observation strategies and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics is building a new MST-Radar (MAARSY) at the Andoya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. The scientific objective of MAARSY is the investigation of horizontal and vertical structures in the Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere and in the Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere with a high vertical and horizontal resolution. The VHF radar operates at 53.5 MHz and reaches a peak power of 866 kW for the complete aperture. The complete aperture can be used to form a narrow (3.4° ) and freely steerable (<30° from zenith) radar beam or to create several independent steerable beams. This is achieved by connecting each of the 433 Yagi antennas to its own transceiver. Each transceiver provides a maximum power of 2kW and can be separately controlled in both phase and transmitted power. This flexibility allows us to perform a variety of experiments comprising classical Doppler-Beam-Swinging and Full Correlation Analysis, and more advanced methods such as interferometric techniques and different vertical and horizontal scanning modes with up to 50 beam positions. The installation of MAARSY started in 2009 and the full extension is scheduled for spring 2011. We present first results obtained with an initial expansion stage of MAARSY during spring and early summer 2010.

Latteck, Ralph; Singer, Werner; Stober, Gunter; Renkwitz, Toralf; Zecha, Marius; Rapp, Markus

229

Nursing care complexity in a psychiatric setting: results of an observational study.  

PubMed

ACCESSIBLE SUMMARY: For nurses working in mental health service settings, it is a priority to perform patient assessment to identify patients' general risks. Patients' clinical status is the primary factor to consider when measuring care complexity, as well as when assessing the required nursing workload. This study highlights that there is a relationship between the complexity of psychiatric patient care, which was assigned a numerical value after the nursing assessment, and the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events in the recent histories of the patients. This study provides a useful and effective tool for quantifying the complexity of psychiatric patient nursing care and evaluating the appropriateness of the nursing staff, the number of required nurses, their competence and their skill mix. ABSTRACT: For nurses working in mental health service settings, it is a priority to perform patient assessments to identify patients' general and behavioural risks and nursing care complexity using objective criteria, to meet the demand for care and to improve the quality of service by reducing health threat conditions to the patients' selves or to others (adverse events). This study highlights that there is a relationship between the complexity of psychiatric patient care, which was assigned a numerical value after the nursing assessment, and the occurrence of psychiatric adverse events in the recent histories of the patients. The results suggest that nursing supervision should be enhanced for patients with high care complexity scores. PMID:23379833

Petrucci, C; Marcucci, G; Carpico, A; Lancia, L

2013-02-01

230

Causes of acute, undifferentiated, febrile illness in rural Thailand: results of a prospective observational study.  

PubMed

The adult patients who, between July 2001 and June 2002, presented at any of five hospitals in Thailand with acute febrile illness in the absence of an obvious focus of infection were prospectively investigated. Blood samples were taken from all of the patients and checked for aerobic bacteria and leptospires by culture. In addition, at least two samples of serum were collected at different times (on admission and 2-4 weeks post-discharge) from each patient and tested, in serological tests, for evidence of leptospirosis, rickettsioses, dengue and influenza. The 845 patients investigated, of whom 661 were male, had a median age of 38 years and a median duration of fever, on presentation, of 3.5 days. Most (76.5%) were agricultural workers and most (68.3%) had the cause of their fever identified, as leptospirosis (36.9%), scrub typhus (19.9%), dengue infection or influenza (10.7%), murine typhus (2.8%), Rickettsia helvetica infection (1.3%), Q fever (1%), or other bacterial infection (1.2%). The serological results indicated that 103 (12.2%) and nine (1%) of the patients may have had double and triple infections, respectively. Leptospirosis and rickettsioses, especially scrub typhus, were thus found to be major causes of acute, undifferentiated fever in Thai agricultural workers. PMID:16762116

Suttinont, C; Losuwanaluk, K; Niwatayakul, K; Hoontrakul, S; Intaranongpai, W; Silpasakorn, S; Suwancharoen, D; Panlar, P; Saisongkorh, W; Rolain, J M; Raoult, D; Suputtamongkol, Y

2006-06-01

231

Sea Ice Drift and Transports in the South Pacific: Model Results and Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first comprehensive study of sea ice drift, transports and formation rates in the southeastern Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean on time scales ranging from daily to interannual variability is presented. Sea ice drift in the Amundsen Sea and its forcing and variability is analysed using data from three buoys deployed on the ice in March 2000 and results of the coupled ice-ocean model BRIOS (Bremerhaven Ice Ocean Simulations). Three drift regimes are identified with wind as the main driving force and weak oceanic influence. A first sea ice budget is presented for the Amundsen Sea with meridional and zonal transports of almost equal magnitude and weak import from the Bellingshausen Sea. Transport magnitude and variability at the western boundary towards the Ross Sea depend strongly on the interplay between zonal easterlies and westerlies and meridional winds, which leads to accumulation of sea ice in or export from the southern Amundsen Sea. The latter strongly affects sea ice conditions in the eastern Ross Sea, while western Ross Sea ice is formed locally. An enhanced northward export of from the western part of the Ross Sea induces a large import of Amundsen Sea ice into its eastern part, because the export allows the Amundsen Sea ice to move further westward. The existence of two independent sea ice regimes in the Ross Sea with exceptionally high formation rates in the western part correlates positively with a zonal salinity gradient in the water column along the Ross Ice Shelf edge and possibly reduces the need for subsurface upwelling onto the western continental shelf.

Assmann, K. M.; Hellmer, H. H.; Jacobs, S. S.

2003-12-01

232

The Columbia/VATT Microlensing Survey of M31: Preliminary results from 5 seasons of observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Columbia/VATT Microlensing Survey has been monitoring fields in the outer bulge and inner disk of M31 in a search for microlensing activity. The survey has the advantages of sensitivity to lensing by Machos in the halos of both the Galaxy and M31, with a high optical depth, tau_ {M31} up to 10(-5) . In contrast to single sight-line surveys through the Galactic halo towards the LMC (MACHO, EROS) and the Galactic Bulge (OGLE), M31 offers many sight lines in a small area of sky. Furthermore, due to the high inclination of M31, tau_ {M31} is strongly modulated from the far to near side of the galaxy, implying that a measure of tau across the face of the galaxy could constrain the shape of its halo. We present the results from 5 seasons (1994-1998) of data obtained with the 1.8-m VATT, MDM 1.3-m McGraw-Hill and KPNO 4-m telescopes. Variability is detected and monitored in two broad bandpasses using the technique of ``difference image photometry'' (Tomaney & Crotts 1996, AJ, 112, 2872). Previously, we reported 6 events from the 1995 season consistent with microlensing due to masses of about 1 M_? (Crotts & Tomaney 1996, ApJ, 473, L87). Additional baseline coverage from data obtained in subsequent seasons, as well as HST snapshot images presented here, confirm that three of these candidates are inconsistent with being long-period variable stars. New candidate microlensing events discovered during the 1996-1998 seasons are discussed.

Uglesich, R.; Crotts, A. P. S.; Tomaney, A. B.; Gyuk, G.

1999-05-01

233

Lithospheric geometries revealed through electromagnetic imaging: SAMTEX (Southern Africa MagnetoTelluric Experiment) observations and results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Southern African Magnetotelluric Experiment (SAMTEX) is imaging the properties and geometries of the lithosphere below southern Africa to depths of 200+ km. Electrical conductivity is highly sensitive to ambient temperature, and to the presence of an interconnected conducting phase, such as a solid phase like graphite or sulphides, a fluid phase like partial melt, or bound water through hydrogen diffusion. Thus, primary geometrical information can be readily obtained from lithospheric-scale MT experiments about the three-dimensional variation in conductivity that can be related to formation and deformation processes. One important piece of information easily obtained from MT data is the depth to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), due to the sensitivity of conductivity to small fractions (<1%) of partial melt and/or of some hundreds of ppm of bound water. SAMTEX measurements have been made at a total of more than 750 MT sites over an area in excess of a million square kilometres, making it by far the largest-ever regional MT project undertaken. One of the most significant results from SAMTEX is the mapping of the LAB beneath the Archean cratons and bounding mobile belts of Southern Africa, particularly of the previously unknown regions of Namibia and Botswana. The LAB is shallow (150 km) beneath the mobile belts, deep (250 km) in the centres of the cratons, and transitional at the edges. Diamondiferous kimberlites are located primarily where lithosphere is transitional in thickness, or where there is a change in its anisotropy properties, both of which are craton edge effects. The electrical properties of the continental mantle derived from SAMTEX data can be compared with seismic ones derived from data from the South African Seismic Experiment (SASE) of the Kaapvaal Project. Generally there is very good predictive linear agreement between seismic velocity and log(conductivity), indicative of both being influenced by the same bulk property factors, such as temperature, Mg# and composition.

Jones, A. G.; Muller, M. R.; Evans, R. L.; Miensopust, M. P.; Khoza, D. T.; Samtex Team

2011-12-01

234

Sub-crustal earthquakes beneath the Gulf of Cadiz - First results from seismological observations with the NEAREST OBS network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geophysical and geological investigations conducted so far in the Gulf of Cadiz allow us today to have an idea of the largest active faults that can generate destructive earthquakes and tsunamis comparable to the Nov 1st, 1755 Lisbon event. However, their kinematics and seismic activity are poorly known because the seismic networks based on land do not allow a precise hypocenter location and estimation of focal mechanisms for the smaller events. Therefore the EC project NEAREST (Integrated observation from NEAR shore sourcES of Tsunamis: towards an early warning system) was initiated (GOCE, contract n. 037110). One of the main objectives of the project is the characterisation of the tsunamigenic sources in the Gulf of Cadiz through seismological monitoring of natural seismicity by means of 24 BB seismometers deployed for 11 months in addition to the GEOSTAR multi-parameter deep-sea observatory. Together with the dense onshore seismic networks the temporary OBS network will allow the location and characterization of small seismic events more precisely than it can be done with onshore stations only. Spectrograms are used to identify previously unknown earthquakes. One of the major questions is the maximum depth of seismic activity beneath the Gulf of Cadiz. In the recording period from September 2007 to August 2008 about 300 events were located within the OBS network using the Portuguese onshore seismic stations. Magnitudes range from 1 to 4.7 (ML from Institute of Meteorology Lisbon, Portugal). Using the OBS network many events could be detected which are not located by the onshore stations. First results show that the events occur to approximately 50 km depth, often deeper than the locations by land stations, and confirming the results available from regional and teleseismic waveform modelling. Focal mechanisms show strike-slip and thrust-slip events.

Geissler, W. H.; Matias, L. M.; Monna, S.; Stich, D.; Iben Brahim, A.; Mancilla, F.; Zitellini, N.; Nearest Working Group

2009-04-01

235

Japanese high-sensitivity borehole seismic observation network, Hi-net: overview and recent research results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NIED has deployed a nationwide high-sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) comprising around 800 borehole stations with a spacing of 20"|30km [Okada et al., 2004; Obara et al., 2005]. NIED Hi-net borehole stations are equipped with a three-component short-period velocity seismometer, three-component strong motion accelerometer and horizontal-component high-sensitivity accelerometer. The high-sensitivity accelerometer covers a wide response range from ground tilting to long-period seismic waves. There are four advantages of Hi-net; high sensitivity, high signal-to-noise ratio, broadband property of sensors and high density of stations. As a result, detection capability for micro earthquakes has been dramatically improved and some new geophysical phenomena have been discovered. One of remarkable discoveries from Hi-net is wide variety of slow earthquakes including non-volcanic deep low-frequency tremors [Obara, 2002], short- term slow slip events (SSE) [Obara et al., 2004], and very low-frequency (VLF) earthquakes [Ito et al., 2007]. These slow earthquakes lasting for several days occur simultaneously with a certain recurrence interval at the transition zone on the deeper plate interface along the strike of the subducting Philippine Sea plate, southwest Japan. The tremor is characterized by randomly wave trains having a predominant frequency of around 2 Hz. VLF earthquake has a predominant period of 20 s and occurs coincident with peak of tremors and SSEs. During the active stage, the source of these slow earthquakes migrates with a propagation velocity of around 10km/day along the strike of the plate geometry at the downdip side of the locked seismogenic zone. At the updip side of the seismogenic zone, another kind of VLF earthquake having a predominant period of 10s has been detected [Obara and Ito, 2005]. This shallow VLF earthquake mainly occurs inside the accretionary prism on the landward side of the Nankai trough. These slow earthquakes at updip and downdip sides of the seismogenic zone on the subducting plate interface reflect the stress relaxation process around the plate boundary. On the other hand, the Hi-net is a quite powerful tool to resolve the deep earth structure and the source process for huge earthquakes as an antenna or telescope. Receiver function analyses by using teleseismic signals from the Hi-net enabled to image the configuration of shallow subducting Philippine Sea plate [Shiomi et al., 2004] and the pathway for water into the deep mantle along the dipping Pacific plate [Kawakatsu and Watada, 2007]. The slant stack analysis of PKJKP phase detected by Hi-net from M7 shallow event in Mozambique derived constraints on inner-core compressional-wave velocity and shears attenuation and proposed a new model of shear-wave anisotropy in the inner core [Wookey and Helffrich, 2008]. Ishii et al. [2005] used the Hi-net seismic array data to map the progression of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake rupture by monitoring the direction of high-frequency radiation. Matsuzawa et al. [2008] detected a migrating long-period microtremor excited by the ocean swells generated by a cyclone in the Atlantic from the Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometer array data. As mentioned above, the Hi-net is useful for not only local seismology but also global geophysics.

Obara, K.

2008-12-01

236

FIVE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE OBSERVATIONS: DATA PROCESSING, SKY MAPS, AND BASIC RESULTS  

SciTech Connect

We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, {tau}. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter {lambda}CDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): {omega} {sub b} h {sup 2} = 0.02267{sup +0.00058} {sub -0.00059}, {omega} {sub c} h {sup 2} = 0.1131 {+-} 0.0034, {omega}{sub {lambda}} = 0.726 {+-} 0.015, n{sub s} = 0.960 {+-} 0.013, {tau} = 0.084 {+-} 0.016, and {delta}{sub R}{sup 2} = (2.445{+-}0.096)x10{sup -9} at k = 0.002 Mpc{sup -1}. From these we derive {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.812 {+-} 0.026, H {sub 0} = 70.5 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1}, {omega} {sub b} = 0.0456 {+-} 0.0015, {omega} {sub c} = 0.228 {+-} 0.013, {omega} {sub m} h {sup 2} = 0.1358{sup +0.0037} {sub -0.0036}, z {sub reion} = 10.9 {+-} 1.4, and t {sub 0} = 13.72 {+-} 0.12 Gyr. The new limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio is r < 0.22(95%CL), while the evidence for a running spectral index is insignificant, dn{sub s} /dln k = -0.028 {+-} 0.020 (68% CL). We obtain tight, simultaneous limits on the (constant) dark energy equation of state and the spatial curvature of the universe: -0.14 < 1 + w < 0.12(95%CL) and -0.0179 < {omega} {sub k} < 0.0081(95%CL). The number of relativistic degrees of freedom, expressed in units of the effective number of neutrino species, is found to be N {sub eff} = 4.4 {+-} 1.5 (68% CL), consistent with the standard value of 3.04. Models with N {sub eff} = 0 are disfavored at >99.5% confidence. Finally, new limits on physically motivated primordial non-Gaussianity parameters are -9 < f {sup local} {sub NL} < 111 (95% CL) and -151 < f {sup equil} {sub NL} < 253 (95% CL) for the local and equilateral models, respe0013ctive.

Hinshaw, G.; Wollack, E.; Kogut, A. [Code 665, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Greason, M. R. [Adnet Systems, Inc., 7515 Mission Dr., Suite A100, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L. [Department of Physics, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 (United States); Komatsu, E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, 2511 Speedway, RLM 15.306, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Nolta, M. R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Spergel, D. N. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Halpern, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Limon, M. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, 550 W. 120th St., Mail Code 5247, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Meyer, S. S. [Departments of Astrophysics and Physics, KICP and EFI, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Tucker, G. S. [Department of Physics, Brown University, 182 Hope St., Providence, RI 02912-1843 (United States)], E-mail: Gary.F.Hinshaw@nasa.gov (and others)

2009-02-15

237

Venus surface and near surface anomalies on the Northern hemisphere observed by VIRTIS/VEX: First results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus nightside emission measurements of VIRTIS on Venus Express provide the opportunity of surface studies in the narrow near infrared atmospheric windows. The measurements as well as detailed new radiative transfer simulations show that radiance ratios in the emission windows between 1.0 and 1.35 m with respect to the 1.02 m window can be used to extract information about the surface elevation and temperature. Based on these analyses, first surface and near surface anomalies are identified on the Northern hemisphere of Venus, which are due to deviations of the elevation - temperature correlation in certain small areas. The data are selected from VIRTIS-M-IR nightside measurements. To ensure minimal atmospheric influence on the measured signatures, only pushbroom observations with small observation angles close to nadir are taken into account. The radiative transfer simulation technique considers absorption, emission, and multiple scattering by gaseous and particulate constituents of the atmosphere. Look-up tables of quasi-monochromatic gas absorption cross-sections are calculated using appropriate spectral line data bases and line profiles and a line-by-line procedure. Empirical continuum absorption coefficients are determined from a 'VIRTIS reference spectrum'. In order to derive the parameters of the H2SO4 clouds, Mie theory is applied. Multiple scattering is considered by a Successive Order procedure. The synthetic quasi-monochromatic intensity spectra at the model top level of the atmosphere are convolved with the VIRTIS spectral response function. The surface windows at 1.02, 1.10 and 1.18 m exhibit a clear dependence of transmitted radiation on topographical features and, thus, on surface thermal emission, since an elevation change of 12 km results in a temperature change of 100 K. In the first approximation, the radiance ratios are affine linear functions of the surface temperature. This is demonstrated by both measurements and simulations. In general, the ratio-based VIRTIS topography correlates well with the Magellan topography, but differences occur in localized areas. Different local surface anomalies do exist. These anomalies are probably a result of the lower atmosphere dynamics, errors in Magellan elevation determinations, or variations in the surface emissivity. Surface emissivity variations are important indicators of the nature of surface material. They may be due to variations in mineralogy and surface texture. While most of Venus' geologic units are thought to be basaltic in composition, some of them (tessera terrains) could be felsic. The 1 m emissivity of felsic materials is lower compared to basalts at similar texture conditions. Nevertheless, we found that anomalous areas comprise practically the same geologic units as adjacent non-anomalous terrains. The surface texture (grain size, packing density, surface roughness) is another important factor for emissivity anomalies. Grain size affects the spectral characteristics. Laboratory measurements of basalts and oxidized basalts show significant changes in the contrast of the 1 m reflectivity band. Although most of the surface of Venus is not very rough, roughness variations exist. Tesserae and rifts show a higher surface roughness compared to other areas. Finally, the Magellan radar data that represent the base of the topography information of the Venus surface result from a surface layer of about 1 m in thickness, whereas the VIRTIS-NIR data describe the optical upper surface layer only. The radiative transfer simulations show the capability of our algorithm to investigate the surface of Venus. Based on these simulations and the VIRTIS/VEX measurements, the extracted anomalies are discussed in the framework of these processes and influences mentioned above. Future improvements will contribute to eliminate the masking of the Venus nightside windows by far wing and pressure-induced absorptions of the deep atmosphere constituents. This will allow a better separation of deep atmosphere, temperature, and emissivity contributions to the Venus nightside e

Arnold, G.; Haus, R.; Kappel, D.; Basilevski, A.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.

2009-04-01

238

X-ray observations of characteristic structures and time variations from the solar corona: preliminary results from Skylab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examples taken from the S-054 X-ray telescope observations made during ; the first Skylab mission show the hot coronal plasma tracing the configuration of ; the magnetic fields. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of the ; instrument has enabled the following two facts to be more firmly established: (a) ; that the quiet homogeneous corona'' is in fuct highly

G. S. Valana; J. M. Davis; R. Giacconi; A. S. Krieger; J. K. Silk; A. F. Timothy; M. Zombeck

1973-01-01

239

Initial results of VLF Campaign observation with High-resolution Aurora Imaging Network (VLF-Chain) over Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whistler-mode waves in the VLF/ELF frequency range interact with high-energy (~10 keV) electrons to cause diffuse and pulsating auroras, and with MeV electrons in the radiation belts. However, simultaneous high-time resolution measurements of aurora and these waves have previously not been done sufficiently. We made a campaign observation of such high-time resolution measurements at Athabasca (54.72N, 246.69E, MLAT=61.3) and Fort Vermillion (58.38N, 243.99E, MLAT=64.5) using two loop antennas and several auroral cameras for February 16-26, 2012. The loop antennas at both stations measure east-west and north-south magnetic field variations with a sampling rate of 100 kHz. The panchromatic all-sky cameras at both stations measure auroras with a sampling rate of 30 Hz. The sampling timings of both instruments are corrected by GPS receivers. In addition we installed an oblique looking narrow-FoV EMCCD camera at Athabasca with a sampling rate of 100 Hz, to measure height variation of pulsating aurora. At Athabasca, routine measurements by an induction magnetometer, a proton photometer, an all-sky airglow imager, LF standard wave receiver, were also carried out. We also tried to compare these observations with satellite measurements by REIMEI, THEMIS, NOAA, and DMSP. In this presentation we will show initial results obtained from this comprehensive campaign of aurora and radio wave measurements at subauroral latitudes.

Shiokawa, Kazuo

2012-07-01

240

CWI and FIREBall: Two Spectrographs Built to Observe Emission from the IGM. Instrument Design and Early Results.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) and the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall) are two integral field specrographs designed to investigate line emission from the intergalactic medium (predominantly Ly ?, O VI, and CIV). CWI, a ground based instrument, observes in the wavelength interval 4500 to 5400 A, while FIREBall takes advantage of a narrow stratospheric balloon window around 2000 A. The performance and design of the two instruments are discussed. Results of observations of the IGM with these new tools are presented.

Matuszewski, Mateusz; Martin, C.; Morrissey, P.; Moore, A.; CWI Team; FIREBall Team

2012-01-01

241

First Results from Astronomical Observations with the GISMO 2 Millimeter Bolometer Camera at the IRAM 30m Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Title: First Results from Astronomical Observations with the GISMO 2 Millimeter Bolometer Camera at the IRAM 30m Telescope The 2mm bolometer camera GISMO (Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter Observer) was installed for the first time in November 2007 at the IRAM 30m telescope on Pico Veleta in Spain. With its 128 pixel superconducting transition edge sensor bolometer array, this instrument provides unprecedented

Johannes Staguhn; C. Allen; D. Benford; E. Sharp; T. Ames; R. Arendt; D. Chuss; E. Dwek; S. Maher; T. Miller; S. H. Moseley; S. Navarro; A. M. Sansigre; E. Schinnerer; A. Sievers; F. Walter; E. Wollack

2007-01-01

242

Results of the first joint observations of EISCAT ionospheric heating facility signals at pumping frequency, observed at St.Petersburg and Irkutsk  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the work is to present the results of the first joint analysis of the spectral and amplitude characteristics of the signals, observed simultaneously at pumping frequency in St.Petersburg and Irkutsk during functioning of the EISCAT ionospheric heating facility (Tromso). The experiment was organized from October, 29 to November 6, 2009. ESICAT heater was operating mostly at 4040kHz in ordinary polarization mode. During the experiment November 3, 2009, which was used for more detailed analysis, the heater worked in power step-ping mode at 4912.8kHz. The specifics of the experiment is nearly orthogonal propagation in Tromso-St.Petersburg direction and in Tromso-Irkutsk direction, that allows us to diagnose the variations of the received signal characteristics over nearly orthogonal pathes. Long propaga-tion path Tromso-Irkutsk allows us to neglect direct signal from sidelobes of the heater during analysis of Irkutsk data. As a result of the joint observations an empirical dependence was found between amplitudes of maximum of the spectral power of the received signal at pumping frequency, measured in St.Petersburg and Irkutsk. It was shown that the dependence differs from the linear one and is close to the power low with exponent 0.5.

Berngardt, Oleg; Abramov, Vladimir; Blagoveshchenskaya, Natalja; Kurkin, Vladimir

243

EVN observations of 6.7 GHz methanol maser polarization in massive star-forming regions. II. First statistical results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Magnetic fields have only recently been included in theoretical simulations of high-mass star formation. The simulations show that magnetic fields play an important role in the formation and dynamics of molecular outflows. Masers, in particular 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers, are the best probes of the magnetic field morphologies around massive young stellar objects on the smallest scales of 10-100 AU. Aims: Providing new observational measurements of the morphology of magnetic fields around massive young stellar objects by using 6.7-GHz CH3OH maser emission is very important for setting constraints on the numerical simulations of massive star formation. Methods: This paper focuses on 4 massive young stellar objects, IRAS 06058+2138-NIRS 1, IRAS 22272+6358A, S255-IR, and S231, which complement our previous 2012 sample (the first EVN group). From all these sources, molecular outflows have been detected in the past. Seven of the European VLBI Network antennas were used to measure the linear polarization and Zeeman-splitting of the 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers in the star-forming regions in this second EVN group. Results: We detected a total of 128 CH3OH masing cloudlets. Fractional linear polarization (0.8%-11.3%) was detected towards 18% of the CH3OH masers in our sample. The linear polarization vectors are well ordered in all the massive young stellar objects. We measured significant Zeeman-splitting in IRAS 06058+2138-NIRS 1 (?VZ = 3.8 ± 0.6 m s-1) and S255-IR (?VZ = 3.2 ± 0.7 m s-1). Conclusions: By considering the 20 massive young stellar objects towards which the morphology of magnetic fields was determined by observing 6.7-GHz CH3OH masers in both hemispheres, we find no evident correlation between the linear distributions of CH3OH masers and the outflows or the linear polarization vectors. On the other hand, we present first statistical evidence that the magnetic field (on scales 10-100 AU) is primarily oriented along the large-scale outflow direction. Moreover, we empirically find that the linear polarization fraction of unsaturated CH3OH masers is Pl < 4.5%. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Surcis, G.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; van Langevelde, H. J.; Hutawarakorn Kramer, B.; Quiroga-Nuñez, L. H.

2013-08-01

244

The effects of the Healthy Steps for Young Children Program: results from observations of parenting and child development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Healthy Steps for Young Children Program (HS) is designed to provide support for new parents through the pediatrician's office. We present findings of the effect of HS on the quality of mother–child interaction, security of attachment, and child behavior using observational data from two of the HS sites that utilized a randomized treatment design. Results indicated that mothers participating

Margaret O’Brien Caughy; Keng-Yen Huang; Therese Miller; Janice L. Genevro

2004-01-01

245

ESO Large Program on physical studies of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs: Final results of the visible spectrophotometric observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Large Program on physical studies of TNOs and Centaurs, started at ESO Cerro Paranal on April 2001, has recently been concluded. This project was devoted to the investigation of the surface properties of these icy bodies through photometric and spectroscopic observations. In this paper we present the latest results on these pristine bodies obtained from the spectrophotometric investigation in

S. Fornasier; A. Doressoundiram; G. P. Tozzi; M. A. Barucci; H. Boehnhardt; C. de Bergh; A. Delsanti; J. Davies; E. Dotto

2004-01-01

246

Integrating Observations and Knowledges for Earthquake Precursors Studies. Preliminary results and strategy of PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the combined use of different observations/parameters, from the refinement of data analysis methods and the development of suitable physical models, we are expecting major progresses in the research on earthquake's preparatory phases. More than from the use of a single parameter approach, reduced false alarm rates and improved reliability and precision (in the space-time domain) of predictions, are expected from a multi-parameter observational, multi-disciplinary, research, strategy. Less than one year after its start, PRE-EARTHQUAKES FP7 Project already demonstrated its capability to commit together independent expertise and different observation capabilities in order: a) to substantially improve our knowledge of preparatory phases of earthquakes and their possible precursors; b) to promote a worldwide Earthquake Observation System (EQuOS) as a dedicated component of GEOSS (Global Earth Observation System of Systems); c) to develop and offer to the international scientific community an integration platform where independent observations and new data analysis methodologies devoted to the research on/of earthquake precursors can be collected and cross-validated. In this paper results achieved so far, in particular on the earthquakes selected as test cases occurred in recent years in Italy (M6.3 Abruzzo April 2009), Sakhalin (M6,2, Nevelsk, August 2007) and Turkey (M6,1, Elazig March 2010) will be presented emphasizing the significant added values guaranteed by a multi-parameter, multi-disciplinary strategy.

Tramutoli, V.; Inan, S.; Jakowski, N.; Pulinets, S. A.; Romanov, A.; Filizzola, C.; Shagimuratov, I.; Pergola, N.; Genzano, N.; Alparslan, E.; Wilken, V.; Tsybulia, K.; Romanov, A.; Paciello, R.; Zakharenkova, I.; Lisi, M.; Borrries, C.; Trusov, S.; Coviello, I.; PRE-EARTHQUAKES Team

2011-12-01

247

Acoustic neuroma observation associated with an increase in symptomatic tinnitus: results of the 2007-2008 Acoustic Neuroma Association survey.  

PubMed

Object Tinnitus is a known presenting symptom of acoustic neuromas, but little is known about the impact of observation or treatment on tinnitus. Most patients experience improvement with treatment, while others may worsen. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the overall impact of observation and treatment on tinnitus outcome in patients with acoustic tumors. Methods Data from the 2007-2008 Acoustic Neuroma Association survey were used. Tinnitus severity was graded both at presentation and at last follow-up for all patients questioned. This data set was analyzed using the Student t-test and a linear regression model adjusted for possible confounders. Results Overall there were more patients receiving intervention (n = 1138) for their acoustic neuromas than observation (n = 289). Presenting tumor size positively correlated with tinnitus severity score. Regardless of treatment (microsurgery or stereotactic radiosurgery), tinnitus improved at last follow-up and worsened in those who were observed (p = 0.02). When comparing microsurgical options, retrosigmoid and translabyrinthine resection improved tinnitus symptoms (both p < 0.01). Stereotactic radiosurgery had a treatment effect similar to microsurgery. Conclusions Presenting tinnitus severity correlates strongly with tumor size. Furthermore, regardless of treatment, there appears to be an overall reduction in tinnitus severity for all forms of microsurgery and stereotactic radiosurgery. Importantly, observation leads to a worsening in symptomatic tinnitus and therefore should be weighed in the treatment recommendation. PMID:23790115

Van Gompel, Jamie J; Patel, Jaymin; Danner, Chris; Zhang, A Nanhua; Samy Youssef, A A; van Loveren, Harry R; Agazzi, Siviero

2013-06-21

248

Observed spectral properties of near-Earth objects: results for population distribution, source regions, and space weathering processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present new visible and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements for 252 near-Earth (NEO) and Mars-crossing (MC) objects observed from 1994 through 2002 as a complement to the Small Main-Belt Asteroid Spectroscopic Survey (SMASS, http:\\/\\/smass.mit.edu\\/). Combined with previously published SMASS results, we have an internally consistent data set of more than 400 of these objects for investigating trends related to size, orbits,

Richard P. Binzel; Andrew S. Rivkin; J. Scott Stuart; Alan W. Harris; Schelte J. Bus; Thomas H. Burbine

2004-01-01

249

OpenGGCM-CRCM simulation results of the 22 July 2009 storm compared with TWINS and THEMIS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial simulation results of the 22 July 2009 storm obtained with OpenGGCM (global MHD model) fully coupled with the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM), which self-consistently solves the kinetic equation for ring current ions. The event was observed by both THEMIS and TWINS missions. The two-way coupling is done by implementing pressure feedback from CRCM into OpenGGCM. CRCM receives from the OpenGGCM the ionospheric potential at its outer boundary, the flux tube volume, plasma temperature and density, and several other parameters. In turn, the CRCM returns the plasma pressure and density to the OpenGGCM. In the regions where both models overlap, the CRCM plasma pressure and density are used to push the OpenGGCM pressure and density towards the respective values computed by CRCM. In these regions, the CRCM values are considered more accurate since the CRCM includes the proper particle drifts, along with the relevant loss processes. We compare our model results for the cases with and without CRCM feedback. We see a significant increase in the plasma pressure and temperature close to Earth due to the ring current model feedback, which results in a more extended near-Earth tail region plasma sheet and stronger region-2 field-aligned currents. We observe distinctive particle injections into the ring current from the tail in the low- and mid-energy range mostly after 05.00UT. Injections in the higher energy channels are observed after the Dst minimum at ~06:00UT. We find that the simulated CRCM flux is in agreement with the observations.

Vapirev, A.; Raeder, J.; Fok, M. H.; Goldstein, J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glocer, A.; McComas, D. J.; Redfern, J. A.

2010-12-01

250

Trace gas distributions and relationships in the remote atmosphere: Results from the HIAPER Pole to Pole Observations (HIPPO) flights  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) experiment is being conducted to obtain seasonally-resolved and high resolution measurements of trace gases and aerosols over an extensive latitude and altitude range over the Pacific Ocean. The NSF Gulfstream V (GV) aircraft was instrumented to collect data from approximately 85N to 65S latitude, and from <0.5 - 14 km altitude. Thus far, three missions out of a total of five planned have taken place (January, 2009; October/November, 2009; and March/April, 2010). During the missions, whole air samples and in-situ gas chromatography were employed to measure a wide range of trace gases. The gases measured included a variety of long and short lived gases with different source distributions and emission patterns. The gases include a variety of non-methane hydrocarbons, methyl halides, halogenated solvents, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, organic nitrates, and selected sulfur species. The focus of these measurements is to characterize distribution and variability of the measured trace gases, evaluate interhemispheric differences, infer transport pathways and rates, and ultimately to test and improve large scale models of atmospheric chemistry and transport. In this presentation, we show an overview of some of the observed distributions and relationships of gases measured from whole air samples and in-situ chromatography, including some seasonal variation, and relate these observations to selected gases measured at high time resolution (e.g. CO, CH4) and at surface sites.

Smith, K.; Atlas, E. L.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Lueb, R.; Miller, B. R.; Moore, F. L.; Montzka, S. A.; Elkins, J. W.; Nance, D.; Sweeney, C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Daube, B. C.; Kort, E. A.; Jimenez, R.; Pittman, J. V.; Hendershot, R.; Romashkin, P.

2010-12-01

251

A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2-D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine tropospheric and stratospheric air masses. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify the mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). The CLaMS simulation shows, that the lowermost stratospheric air masses in the intrusion where transported along the the subtropical jet. The tropospheric air masses around the intrusion originate from the vicinity of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the CRISTA-NF observations and the CLaMS simulation.

Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2012-09-01

252

Wave-induced boundary-layer separation: A case study comparing airborne observations and results from a mesoscale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave-induced boundary-layer separation (BLS) results from the adverse-pressure gradient forces that are exerted on the atmospheric boundary-layer by internal gravity waves in flow over orography. BLS has received significant attention in recent years, particularly so, because it is a key ingredient in the formation of atmospheric rotors. Traditionally depicted as horizontal eddies in the lee of mountain ranges, rotors originate from the interaction between internal gravity waves and the atmospheric boundary-layer. Our study focuses on the first observationally documented case of wave-induced BLS, which occurred on 26 Jan 2006 in the lee of the Medicine Bow Mountains in SE Wyoming (USA). Observations from the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) aircraft, in particular, the remote sensing measurements with the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR), reveal strong wave activity, downslope winds in excess of 30 m/s, and near-surface flow reversal in the lee of the mountain range. The fine resolution of WCR data (on the order of 40x40 m2 for two-dimensional velocity fields) exhibits fine-scale vortical structures ("subrotors") which are embedded within the main rotor zone. Our case study intends to complete the characterisation of the observed boundary-layer separation event. Modelling of the event with the mesoscale Weather Research and Forecast Model (WRF) provides insight into the mesoscale triggers of wave-induced BLS and turbulence generation. Indeed, the mesoscale model underpins the expected concurrence of the essential processes (gravity waves, wave breaking, downslope windstorms, etc.) leading to BLS. To exploit the recorded in situ and radar data to their full extent, a quantitative evaluation of the structure and intensity of turbulence is conducted by means of a power spectral analysis of the vertical wind component, measured along the flight track. An intercomparison of observational and modelling results serves the purpose of model verification and can shed some more light onto the limits of validity of airborne observations and mesoscale modelling. For example, the exact timing, magnitude, and evolution of the internal gravity waves present in the mesoscale model are carefully analysed. As for the observations, measures of turbulence gained from in situ and radar data, collected over complex topography within a limited period of time, must be interpreted with caution. Approaches to tackling these challenges are a matter of ongoing research and will be discussed in concluding.

Strauss, L.; Serafin, S.; Grubiši?, V.

2012-04-01

253

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.|

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

254

The 2007 September 1 Aurigid meteor shower: predictions and first results from airborne and ground based observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We predicted the encounter of Earth with the dust trail of comet C/1911 N1 (Kiess) on 2007 September 1, when an outburst of meteors was expected from a radiant in the constellation of Auriga (EOS, Aug 7 issue). We anticipated that the shower would be best seen from the western states of the USA, Canada, and Mexico, including Hawaii and Alaska. It would be the only such Aurigid shower outburst in our lifetime. The meteoroids dated back to ejection around 4 A.D., give or take 40 years. These Aurigids were our best chance yet to study the 1-revolution dust trail of a known long-period comet, for measurements of the dust ejection conditions, and for clues about the possible presence of a cosmic ray induced crust in a comet which only recently returned from the Oort cloud. An airborne observing campaign was organized, called the Aurigid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign, involving two Gulfstream GV aircraft, which were deployed from NASA Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, California. This enabled a team of 24 researchers, with an array of different cameras, to observe the shower from an altitude of 47,000 ft. The shower manifested much as expected, with a peak rate of about ZHR = 100 /hr, a peak time of 11:15 +/- 5 min. UTC, a duration of about 2 hours, and an abundance of bright +3 to -2 magnitude meteors. The shower was also well observed from the ground by both professional and amateur astronomers. Here, we will present some of those first results, discuss the shower's impact on the public, summarize the predictions, compare those to the observed shower activity, and report on the ongoing investigation of comet Kiess and its meteoroid stream.

Jenniskens, P.; Vaubaillon, J.

2007-12-01

255

Preliminary results of land subsidence monitoring project in Konya Closed Basin between 2006-2009 by means of GNSS observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the potential dangers that might arise as a result of bringing excessive amounts of groundwater to the surface of the Earth is land subsidence. Such surface deformations - these velocities may vary from a few millimetres to a few metres per year - do the greatest damage to infrastructure facilities and buildings in residential units. Agricultural lands, in which excessive irrigation is performed, and densely populated cities are more likely to suffer from land subsidence. Konya Closed Basin (KCB), where a rapid groundwater withdrawal has been observed during the last 30-40 years, is faced with such a threat. In this study, the possibility of the occurrence of land subsidence, related to groundwater withdrawal for the KCB, is assessed and the geodetic studies conducted up to now, with the intention of identifying land subsidence, are introduced. The vertical displacements of between -12 and -52 mm/year have been detected through GNSS observations collected on the 6-point test network. The land subsidence phenomenon has been developing in the areas where the groundwater is extensively used for irrigation and daily life. The results support the findings derived from the historical leveling records and point out the need of an extended study based on both GNSS and InSAR techniques for spatial and temporal mapping of land subsidence in the KCB.

Ustun, A.; Tusat, E.; Yalvac, S.

2010-06-01

256

Occurrence conditions of roll waves for three grain-fluid models and comparison with results from experiments and field observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the flow and deposition behaviour of debris flows, phenomena like particle sorting, levee formation and the development of roll waves are expected to be important processes. However, these processes are not well understood and hardly implemented in modelling approaches. In this study, we focus on the development of roll waves and derive advanced criteria separating stable and instable flow regimes for three debris flow models. These criteria are expressed using critical Froude numbers. Each of these simple flow models reflect different sources of flow resistance: laminar-viscous stress (Bingham type), dispersive stress due to particle collision (Bagnold type), and a model combining turbulent and dispersive stresses. Subsequently, we compare the predictions from these models with results from laboratory experiments with grain-fluid mixtures in a straight flume and with observations from a debris flow monitoring site at the Lattenbach creek in Austria. The experimental flows match with a turbulent flow model including particle collisions. For the natural flows the connection between models and observations is not clear due to limited field data. The results of our study contribute to an improved determination of critical flow conditions and provide data for model testing.

Arai, M.; Huebl, J.; Kaitna, R.

2013-10-01

257

The New York Harbor Observation System (NYHOS): Preliminary Results on Real-Time Quality Control of Hourly Reported Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The New York Harbor Observation System is a regional integrated system dedicated to monitoring the New York Harbor area through model-directed observations and model forecast for security and surveillance purposes. Observations encompass a unique combination of sensors, both at fixed stations and upon dynamic platforms. Measurements include surface and bottom CTD (YSI) from numerous shore-side and buoy stations, moored ADCP (RDI) and bottom CTD (SeaBird) from a cross river transect, High Frequency radars (CODAR) as well as surface CTD (Seabird) from a series of ferries. The combined data allow an optimal fine coverage of the studied area of the order of 50{km}2, within a time window of 60 min. Transmission is performed hourly via wireless transmission (both UHF conventional radio and cellular), cable or regular telephone lines. In order to insure the quality of the newly collected data, we proceed in two steps. First, we test our data for quality control using the NDBC man-machine mix data control protocols. These protocols concern in particular data associated with physical processes, such as sea level, water temperature, conductivity and salinity. They focus on transmission errors, gross range and time-continuity checks and wind gust to wind speed checks, following D.B. Gilhousen (1998) specifications. We then test our data for quality control using protocols based on static as well as dynamic checks as proposed by Miller et al. (2003). We address in particular spatial and temporal data disparity resulting from the operational mode of the instrumented ferries using wavelets following Mallat, (1998). Assuming the physical data is temporally constant within a one hour time frame, the fine model grid, used by the system's nowcast and forecast model, is filled using simple data interpolation. The modified data persistence analysis can then be used as background for horizontal consistency checks. Results of the two approaches are compared in terms of detection percentage and false alarm percentage. Shore-based and moored CTD are used as reference values to test the ferry data when possible. Then, results on salinity and temperature disparities in the New York harbor as functions of space and time scales are shown. Adapted algorithms, derived from these results, are discussed in details.

Dardier, G. M.; Bruno, M. S.; Blumberg, A. F.; Fullerton, B. J.; Herrington, T. O.; Zagrai, E.; Turner, J. W.

2004-05-01

258

Observational Bias during Nutrition Surveillance: Results of a Mixed Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Data Collection System in Northern Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background The Sahel is subject to seasonal hungry periods with increasing rates of malnutrition. In Northern Nigeria, there is no surveillance system and surveys are rare. The objectives were to analyse possible observational bias in a sentinel surveillance system using repeated mixed longitudinal/cross-sectional data and estimate the extent of seasonal variation. Methods Thirty clusters were randomly selected using probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling from Kazaure Local Government Area, Jigawa State. In each cluster, all the children aged 6–59 months within 20 randomly selected households had their mid-upper arm circumference measured and were tested for oedema. The surveys were repeated every 2 or 4 weeks. At each survey round, three of the clusters were randomly selected to be replaced by three new clusters chosen at random by PPS. The seasonal variation of acute malnutrition was assessed using cyclical regression. The effect of repeated visits to the same cluster was examined using general linear mixed effects models adjusted for the seasonal change. Results There was a significant seasonal fluctuation of Global Acute Malnutrition (GAM) with a peak in October. With each repeat survey of a cluster, the prevalence of GAM decreased by 1.6% (95% CI: 0.4 to 2.7; p?=?0.012) relative to the prevalence observed during the previous visit after adjusting for seasonal change. Conclusions Northern Nigeria has a seasonal variation in the prevalence of acute malnutrition. Repeated surveys in the same cluster-village, even if different children are selected, lead to a progressive improvement of the nutritional status of that village. Sentinel site surveillance of nutritional status is prone to observational bias, with the sentinel site progressively deviating from that of the community it is presumed to represent.

Grellety, Emmanuel; Luquero, Francisco J.; Mambula, Christopher; Adamu, Hassana H.; Elder, Greg; Porten, Klaudia

2013-01-01

259

The growth of the oceanic boundary layer during the COARE intensive observational period: Large Eddy simulation results  

SciTech Connect

A principal goal of the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) is to gain an understanding of the processes that control mixing in the upper 100 m of the western tropical Pacific warm pool. The warm pool is an important heat reservoir for the global ocean and is responsible for many of the observed climatic changes associated with El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events. This water mass is highly sensitive to mixed-layer processes that are controlled by surface heat, salinity, and momentum fluxes. During most of the year, these fluxes are dominated by solar heating and occasional squalls that freshen the top of the mixed layer and force shallow mixing of about 10-20 m. From November to April, the usual weather pattern is frequently altered by westerly wind bursts that are forced by tropical cyclones and intraseasonal oscillations. These wind bursts generate a strong eastward surface current and can force mixing as deep as 100 m over a period of days. Observations from the intensive observation period (IOP) in COARE indicate that mixed-layer deepening is accompanied by strong turbulence dissipation at the mixed layer base. A short westerly wind burst occurred during the first leg of TOGA-COARE, and lasted about 4-5 days. During this period, the maximum winds were about 10 m s{sup -1}, and the resulting eastward surface flow was about 0.5 m s{sup -1}. The strength of this event was somewhat weaker than a typical westerly wind burst, but the mixed-layer structure and growth are similar to the more vigorous wind bursts discussed.

Skyllingstad, E.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Sequim, WA (United States); Wijesekera, H.W.; Gregg, M.C. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Applied Physics Lab.] [and others

1995-03-01

260

Contradiction between the results of observations of resistance and critical current quantum oscillations in asymmetric superconducting rings  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field dependences of critical current, resistance, and rectified voltage of asymmetric (half circles of different widths) and symmetrical (half circles of equal widths) aluminum rings close to the super-conducting transition were measured. All these dependences are periodic magnetic field functions with periods corresponding to the flux quantum in the ring. The periodic dependences of critical current measured in opposite directions were found to be close to each other for symmetrical rings and shifted with respect to each other by half the flux quantum in asymmetric rings with ratios between half circle widths of from 1.25 to 2. This shift of the dependences by a quarter of the flux quantum as the ring becomes asymmetric makes critical current anisotropic, which explains the effect of alternating current rectification observed for asymmetric rings. Shifts of the extrema of the periodic dependences of critical current by a quarter of the flux quantum directly contradict the results obtained by measuring asymmetric ring resistance oscillations, whose extrema are, as for symmetrical rings, observed at magnetic fluxes equal to an integer and a half of flux quanta.

Gurtovoi, V. L.; Dubonos, S. V.; Karpii, S. V.; Nikulov, A. V., E-mail: nikulov@ipmt-hpm.ac.ru; Tulin, V. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronic Technology and Ultra-High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

2007-07-15

261

The instrumentation and the BBM test results of thermal and near-infrared sensor for carbon observation (TANSO) on GOSAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) is a satellite to monitor the carbon dioxide (CO2) and the methane (CH4) globally from orbit. GOSAT will be placed in a 666 km sun-synchronous orbit of 13:00 local time, with an inclination angle of 98 deg. Two instruments are accommodated on GOSAT. Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation Fourier-Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) detects the Short wave infrared (SWIR) reflected on the earth's surface as well as the thermal infrared (TIR) radiated from the ground and the atmosphere. TANSO-FTS is capable of detecting wide spectral coverage, specifically, three narrow bands (0.76, 1.6, and 2 micron) and a wide band (5.5-14.3 micron) with 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution. TANSO Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI) is a radiometer of ultraviolet (UV), visible, and SWIR to correct cloud and aerosol interference. The paper presents the instrument design of TANSO-FTS/CAI, and test results using Bread Board Model (BBM) are presented.

Kuze, Akihiko; Urabe, Tomoyuki; Suto, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Yutaka; Hamazaki, Takashi

2006-09-01

262

A Holographic Road Show.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)|

Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

1979-01-01

263

The Diane Rehm Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

264

Star Show Classroom Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson from Math Machines, the class will "plan and conduct a simulated astronomical observing session to photgraph a variety of star types." The instructor will set up several "stars" around the classroom, and students will then set up a telescope location and estimate the altitude and azimuth to photograph each star. A participant handout (including worksheet) and facilitator notes are made available for download in DOC file format. Links to calculator programs are also included.

Thomas, Fred

2011-11-03

265

Electromagnetic and plasma environment in the near-moon space: Initial result of SELENE/MAP observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigation of electromagnetic and plasma environment around the lunar surface and the near-moon space is of great importance from the viewpoints of science, technology, and manned explorations in the near future. One of the remarkable features of the lunar environment is charging up of the surface of the moon; above all, the lunar surface on the night side occasionally charges strongly negative, and upward-accelerated electrons by a large potential difference between the surface and the spacecraft can be measured in the near-moon space. However, accurate estimation of the lunar surface potential has been difficult, because the spacecraft itself should have an unknown electrostatic potential relative to the ambient plasma. Here we study electromagnetic and plasma environment of the near-moon space, making use of ion, electron, and magnetic field data from a Japanese lunar orbiter KAGUYA (SELENE), which was launched on 14 September 2007 and is traveling at ˜100 km altitude in a polar orbit. The simultaneous measurement of ions and electrons by the KAGUYA-MAP instrument helps us understand more quantitatively the near-moon space environment. Initial observation shows that electrons accelerated upward from the moon surface toward the spacecraft are at times accompanied by a variation in flux or energy of ions. Such correlation between electrons and ions suggests complex electrostatic potential distribution not only on the lunar surface but also around the spacecraft. We will discuss possible potential distribution and plasma environment in the near-moon space.

Nishino, Masaki N.; Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Asamura, Kazushi; Tanaka, Takaaki; Terasawa, Toshio; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Yamamoto, Tadateru I.; Fujimoto, Masaki

266

Spatial variation of >106 Mev proton fluxes observed during the Ulysses rapid latitude scan: Ulysses COSPIN/KET results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic physical processes that lead to the long-term modulation of cosmic rays in the heliosphere have been known for many years. However, our knowledge of the relative importance of the various processes is still incomplete. Observations of cosmic rays at high latitudes can be used to improve our understanding of modulation processes. In this paper we present measurements of galactic proton fluxes with energies above 106 MeV made by the Kiel Electron Telescope on board the Ulysses spacecraft during the fast scan from the South polar passage in September 1994 to the North pole in August 1995, under solar minimum conditions. Comparison of proton fluxes at high latitudes and in the ecliptic shows a 20% higher flux in polar regions. The flux increase is not symmetric with respect to the heliographic equator but rather with respect to a surface shifted by 7° South. In such a coordinate system the latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres has a value of (0.33±0.02)%/deg.

Heber, B.; Dröge, W.; Kunow, H.; Müller-Mellin, R.; Wibberenz, G.; Ferrando, P.; Raviart, A.; Paizis, C.

267

Predicting prognosis in stable angina--results from the Euro heart survey of stable angina: prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the prognosis associated with stable angina in a contemporary population as seen in clinical practice, to identify the key prognostic features, and from this to construct a simple score to assist risk prediction. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Pan-European survey in 156 outpatient cardiology clinics. Participants 3031 patients were included on the basis of a new clinical diagnosis by a cardiologist of stable angina with follow-up at one year. Main outcome measure Death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Results The rate of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction in the first year was 2.3 per 100 patient years; the rate was 3.9 per 100 patient years in the subgroup (n = 994) with angiographic confirmation of coronary disease. The clinical and investigative factors most predictive of adverse outcome were comorbidity, diabetes, shorter duration of symptoms, increasing severity of symptoms, abnormal ventricular function, resting electrocardiogaphic changes, or not having any stress test done. Results of non-invasive stress tests did not significantly predict outcome in the population who had tests done. A score was constructed using the parameters predictive of outcome to estimate the probability of death or myocardial infarction within one year of presentation with stable angina. Conclusions A score based on the presence of simple, objective clinical and investigative variables makes it possible to discriminate effectively between very low risk and very high risk patients and to estimate the probability of death or non-fatal myocardial infarction over one year.

Daly, Caroline A; De Stavola, Bianca; Sendon, Jose L Lopez; Tavazzi, Luigi; Boersma, Eric; Clemens, Felicity; Danchin, Nicholas; Delahaye, Francois; Gitt, Anselm; Julian, Desmond; Mulcahy, David; Ruzyllo, Witold; Thygesen, Kristian; Verheugt, Freek; Fox, Kim M

2006-01-01

268

Amniocentesis and the risk of second trimester fetal loss in twin pregnancies: results from a prospective observational study.  

PubMed

Abstract Aim: To compare the rate of pregnancy loss between twin pregnancies undergoing a genetic amniocentesis (AC) and a control group with similar characteristics. Methods: Prospective observational study on a population of twin pregnancies referred to our prenatal diagnosis unit for screening from 1990 to 2010. Those women referred for an AC were compared with those without indication for the procedure. Primary outcomes were pregnancy loss within the 4 weeks after procedure and pregnancy loss before 24 weeks. Secondary outcome included neonatal morbidity, gestational age at delivery and birth weight. Results: Maternal characteristics were similar for both groups, except for maternal age. There was neither difference in the pregnancy loss rate within 4 weeks (2.7 versus 2.6%) nor in the loss rate before 24 weeks of gestation (1.2 versus 1.1%). Gestational age at birth was 36 weeks for both groups. Chorionicity and gestational age at procedure played no role in modifying the risk. Conclusion: Based on our results, there is no difference in the pregnancy loss rate in twin gestations, regardless of chorionicity or gestational age at procedure, either within 4 weeks after the procedure or before 24 weeks, in patients who undergo AC when compared with patients who do not. PMID:23544929

Lenis-Cordoba, Natalia; Sánchez, María Ángeles; Bello-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Sagalá-Martinez, Juan; Campos, Nazareth; Carreras-Moratonas, Elena; Cabero-Roura, Lluis

2013-05-07

269

The IRAM key-project: small-scale structure of pre-star-forming regions. I. Observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the observational results of the first IRAM key-project and a straightforward interpretation of the most salient features of the data. The project is devoted to the analysis of the processes which drive the dissipation of the non-thermal support of molecular clouds, a mandatory step toward the formation of almost thermally supported cores. The selected fields therefore all contain a starless dense core of small internal velocity dispersion. The maps include the core (of size ~ 0.1 pc) or a fraction of it, and extend over large areas of their environment (several arc minutes, or several tenths of pc at the distance of the clouds, d<150pc). Maps have been completed in five transitions, 12COJ=1-0e\\ and (J=2-1), 13COJ=1-0e\\ and (J=2-1) and C18OJ=1-0e, at high angular resolution (22'' and 11'' at low and high frequency respectively, with a sampling of 7.5'') and a velocity resolution of 0.05km s^{-1}. The spatial resolution of the high frequency maps is ~ 1700 AU. The data set, because of its size, the good signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra and the multiplicity of the lines observed, provides several new results, as follows: (1) there is little unresolved structure left in the maps of line integrated emission, but unresolved structure is still present in the channel maps of all the fields and all the lines. The velocity gradients involved reach values as large as 10km s^{-1} pc(-1) , implying large accelerations never observed before at small scale in non star-forming clouds, (2) the texture and velocity dispersion of the gas bright in 12CO and barely detected in 13CO are significatively different from those of the gas bright in the three isotopes. The gas bright in 12CO only exhibits filamentary structure with, in some cases, unresolved transverse dimensions, and aspect ratios larger than ~ 5. Its velocity dispersion is much larger than that of the latter. Unexpectedly, it is in the more opaque transitions and in the gas component of larger velocity dispersion that the smallest scale structure has been observed, (3) the dense cores are not isolated structures but are connected, in space and velocity, to another kind of filamentary structures, bright in 13CO and C18O, (4) the brightness temperature ratio of the two lowest CO rotational transitions is remarkably uniform: R(2-1/1-0)=0.65+/-0.15 for 80% of the data points in the three fields, from the brightest to the weakest detected lines, across the whole profiles and for both 12CO and 13CO isotopes, (5) the 13CO lines reach intensities as large as those of the 12CO lines, though the line profiles are in general neither flat-topped nor self-reversed. >From these well defined spectral properties, we infer that the lines have to form in very small cells, weakly coupled radiatively to one another, optically thick in the 12CO lines and that the line shapes are governed mostly by the spatial and velocity dilution of the emitting cells in the beam. Under the simple assumption that the cells are statistically independent, we estimate that they are smaller than ~ 200 AU with H_2 densities nH_2 ~ a few 10(3) cm^{-3} in the gas component barely detected in 13CO, and are up to two orders of magnitude denser in the component bright in the three isotopes. We also notice an anticorrelation between the intensities of the 13CO lines and their linewidths which we interpret as a signature of a gradual loss of the non-thermal support which increases the phase-space radiative coupling of the cells.

Falgarone, E.; Panis, J.-F.; Heithausen, A.; Perault, M.; Stutzki, J.; Puget, J.-L.; Bensch, F.

1998-03-01

270

Do Elephants Show Empathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elephants show a rich social organization and display a number of unusual traits. In this paper, we analyse reports collected over a thirty-five year period, describing behaviour that has the potential to reveal signs of empathic understanding. These include coalition formation, the offering of protection and comfort to others, retrieving and 'babysitting' calves, aiding individuals that would otherwise have difficulty

Lucy A. Bates; Phyllis C. Lee; Norah Njiraini; Joyce H. Poole; Katito Sayialel; Soila Sayialel; Cynthia J. Moss; Richard W. Byrne

2008-01-01

271

What Do Maps Show?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

272

Shakespearean Slide Shows.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a condensed method for involving students in the kind of theatrical problem-solving that transforms a script to a play. Describes how to incorporate a "human slide show" into the class. Notes that students must read plays not just to understand events, but to make artistic choices about how to stage the action so that an audience…

Flynn, Rosalind M.

2002-01-01

273

Stage a Water Show  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

Frasier, Debra

2008-01-01

274

ISU Demonstration Road Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at SE Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Student activities and descriptions of the demonstrated material are also provided.

Shropshire, Steven

2004-04-06

275

Factors influencing response to Botulinum toxin type A in patients with idiopathic cervical dystonia: results from an international observational study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Real-life data on response to Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) in cervical dystonia (CD) are sparse. An expert group of neurologists was convened with the overall aim of developing a definition of treatment response, which could be applied in a non-interventional study of BoNT-A-treated subjects with CD. Design International, multicentre, prospective, observational study of a single injection cycle of BoNT-A as part of normal clinical practice. Setting 38 centres across Australia, Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Portugal, Russia and the UK. Participants 404 adult subjects with idiopathic CD. Most subjects were women, aged 41–60?years and had previously received BoNT-A. Outcome measures Patients were classified as responders if they met all the following four criteria: magnitude of effect (?25% improvement Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale), duration of effect (?12-week interval between the BoNT-A injection day and subject-reported waning of treatment effect), tolerability (absence of severe related adverse event) and subject's positive Clinical Global Improvement (CGI). Results High rates of response were observed for magnitude of effect (73.6%), tolerability (97.5%) and subject's clinical global improvement (69.8%). The subjective duration of effect criterion was achieved by 49.3% of subjects; 28.6% of subjects achieved the responder definition. Factors most strongly associated with response were age (<40?years; OR 3.9, p<0.05) and absence of baseline head tremor (OR 1.5; not significant). Conclusions Three of four criteria were met by most patients. The proposed multidimensional definition of response appears to be practical for routine practice. Unrealistically high patient expectation and subjectivity may influence the perception of a quick waning of effect, but highlights that this aspect may be a hurdle to response in some patients. Clinical registration number (NCT00833196; ClinicalTrials.gov).

Ehler, Edvard; Zakine, Benjamin; Maisonobe, Pascal; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

2012-01-01

276

Comparison of incoherent scatter radar observations of SIMPLEX electron density depletion with SAMI2 and SAMI3 model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engines have been used for active ionospheric modification experiments employing ground based ionospheric radars as diagnostic tools. These experiments initiated by the Naval Research Laboratory in 1995 have been scheduled as the Shuttle Ionospheric Modification with Pulsed Localized Exhaust or SIMPLEX through the US Dept. of Defense's Space Test Program. During 2009, two SIMPLEX experiments with the shuttles STS-119 and STS-128 were viewed by the Millstone Hill 440 MHz radar in Westford, MA operated by the MIT Haystack Observatory. The objectives of these experiments were to observe local ion-acoustic turbulence and the ionospheric density irregularities created by the exhaust injection across the magnetic field that present a Bragg scattering target for the radar. The exhaust also creates a depletion in the background electron density at F-region altitudes that persists for a relatively long time and is readily detected by an incoherent scatter radar. The OMS engine burns release 10 kg/s of H2O, CO2, H2, and N2 molecules that charge exchange with ambient O+ ions at the F region heights, producing molecular ions and the electron density depletion due to the recombination with the ambient electrons. 2009 was a year of deep solar minimum that saw the background electron density values 19% lower than were expected during a solar minimum. (Emmert et al., GRL, 2010). We believe that the long recovery time from density depletion in SIMPLEX experiments of 2009 may have a root in the unique nature of the deep solar minimum. The density whole production and recovery will be modeled using NRL SAMI2 and SAMI3 model and the results will be discussed along with the observations using the incoherent scatter radar.

Bhatt, A.; Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Erickson, P. J.

2010-12-01

277

Eu3+ uptake by calcite: preliminary results from coprecipitation experiments and observations with surface-sensitive techniques.  

PubMed

A lack of information in databases for contamination risk assessment about the transport behaviour of the trivalent f-orbital elements in groundwater systems where calcite is at equilibrium motivated this study of Eu(3+) uptake. The free drift technique was used to examine the effects of Eu(3+) concentration, presence of Na(+) or K(+) and temperature, as well as calcite nucleation and precipitation kinetics, on the partitioning of calcite. Changes in surface composition and morphology resulting from exposure of single crystals of Iceland spar to Eu(3+)-bearing solutions were observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). First results confirm that calcite has high affinity for Eu(3+). Rates of nucleation and precipitation strongly affect the extent of uptake but the presence of Na(+) and K(+) has no effect, suggesting formation of solid solution as CaCO(3)-EuOHCO(3). Surface-sensitive techniques prove that Eu(3+) is adsorbed to calcite even when the surface is dissolving and adsorption is not accompanied by precipitation of a separate Eu(3+)-solid phase. Adsorbed Eu modifies calcite's dissolution behaviour, roughening terraces and rounding step edges, and producing surface morphology where some surface sites appear blocked. Results imply that Eu(3+) concentrations in natural calcites are limited by Eu(3+) availability rather than by a lack of ability to fit into calcite's atomic structure. This behaviour can probably be expected for other trivalent rare Earth elements (REE), actinides and fission products whose behaviour is similar to that of Eu(3+). These elements are likely to be incorporated within the calcite bulk in systems where it is precipitating and the demonstrated strong partitioning ensures some uptake even where calcite is at or under saturation. PMID:12598092

Stipp, S L S; Lakshtanov, L Z; Jensen, J T; Baker, J A

2003-03-01

278

Viewing television talk shows  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined how motivation, audience activity, and attitudes influenced the likelihood of watching societal?issue and relational topics on television talk programs. Path analysis supported differences in ritualized and instrumental motives for watching talk shows. Information and exciting?entertainment motivation predicted greater’ realism of, affinity with, involvement with, and intent to watch talk television. Pass?time motivation predicted reduced affinity with and intent

Alan M. Rubin; Mary M. Step

1997-01-01

279

The Truman Show  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Truman Show is hardly a film you would automatically speak about as a game. At first glance, it is tempting to interpret the story of\\u000a Truman Burbank — his perpetual subjection to the artificial (televisual) world of Seahaven and its gargantuan reality TV project,\\u000a his eventual escape from the “OmniCam Ecosphere” building and the paternalistic surveillance of director Christof

Rolf F. Nohr

280

Physical And Thermal Properties Of The Centaurs 2060 Chiron And 10199 Chariklo: Results From Far-infrared Observations With The Herschel Space Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centaurs are trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) on unstable orbits between Jupiter and Neptune. Centaurs may show activity and some of them are classified also as comets. In order to better investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of TNOs and Centaurs an Open Time Key Program entitled "TNOs are Cool: A survey of the Transneptunian Region" was submitted to the Herschel Space telescope (Muller et al. 2009, EM&P, 105, 209). This proposal was awarded 372.7 hours to perform radiometric measurements of a large sample of 140 TNOs/Centaurs. Eighteen Centaurs were observed within this program with the PACS instrument in 3 bands (70, 100, and 160 micron), and two of them (Chiron and Chariklo), were observed also at longer wavelengths (250, 350, and 500 micron) with the SPIRE instrument. In this work we present the results of the combined SPIRE and PACS instruments observations of 2060 Chiron and 10199 Chariklo. The Herschel data, coupled with those obtained by Spitzer-MIPS at 24 and 70 micron, have been modeled with both NEATM (Harris 1998, Icarus 131) and thermophysical models in order to derive their albedo, diameter and thermal properties, including thermal inertia and emissivity. Particular care was taken in estimating the absolute magnitude from new and literature data of the two Centaurs during the Herschel observations, as both bodies show brightness variation with the heliocentric distance caused by their cometary activity. Chiron and Chariklo have very similar sizes, and both show a decrease of their emissivity with wavelength, decrease which is particularly strong on Chiron. No coma was detected in the far-infrared images for these two Centaurs. We will present the derived physical and thermal properties for both targets and discuss the possible cause for the emissivity drop at submm-wavelengths.

Fornasier, Sonia; Lellouch, E.; Mueller, T.; Panuzzo, P.; Kiss, C.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lim, T.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Mommert, M.; Tozzi, G.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Duffard, R.; Mottola, S.; TNOs are Cool Team

2012-10-01

281

Slide Show Template  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Basic protocol approach: – Search Strategy for identifying TEE: Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities ... After IVIG Infusion Unknown All 1 (1%) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents

282

Observations and Numerical Simulation Model Analysis Results of Dissolved Oxygen Characteristics in an Enclosed Coastal Sea, Osaka Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reproduce changes of the dissolved oxygen concentration in summer in the vicinity of the Nanko thermal power plant, located in the inner part of Osaka Bay, a numerical simulation model was developed. According to the model results, daily fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration in the surface layer is high in June, the early stratification period, because of instability of stratification and after July. The dissolved oxygen concentration gradually decreases from a level of 6 to 17 mg/L in June to a level of 6 to 9 mg/L in July in the vicinity of the Nanko thermal power plant. Both the observations and model values near the depth of the thermal power plant outlet are 3 to 5 mg/L, which is considered not to affect the water quality of dissolved oxygen. Our simulation model should be able to reproduce the characteristics of dissolved oxygen concentration during the stratification period in the vicinity of the Nanko thermal power plant.

Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Kiyono, Michiyasu; Yokota, Mizurou; Akimoto, Yasushi; Marumo, Keiyu; Ichikawa, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Kouichi; Yanagawa, Ryouichi

283

Single-agent pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer: results of an Austrian observational trial  

PubMed Central

Background In advanced breast cancer, multiple sequential lines of treatments are frequently applied. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) has a favourable toxicity profile and can be used in first or higher lines of therapy. PLD has demonstrated response activity even after prior anthracycline exposure. Methods 129 consecutive patients with advanced breast cancer, of whom the majority had been massively pretreated, received PLD as monotherapy within licensed approval, for which efficacy and toxicities were documented. Results In a routine therapy setting, PLD was administered in a slightly reduced dose (median, 40 mg/m2 per cycle). Response rate (complete and partial remission) was 26%, and stable disease was observed in 19% of patients. Progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 5.8 months and 14.2 months, respectively. There was no difference in terms of response and PFS, no matter if patients had already received anthracycline treatment. Interestingly, PFS proved similar regardless whether PLD was administered as palliative therapy in first, second or third line. Furthermore, PFS and OS were similar in patients with response or stable disease, underscoring the view that disease stabilization is associated with a profound clinical benefit. The most common side effects reported were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (17%), exanthema (14%) and mucositis (12%). Conclusions Efficacy and toxicity data in these "real life" patients permit the conclusion that PLD is a valuable option in the treatment of advanced breast cancer even in heavily pretreated patients.

2011-01-01

284

Vertical Concentration Profiles of Nitrous Acid in the Boundary Layer: Comparison of Observations and 1D Modeling Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrous acid, HONO, is an important precursor for OH radicals in the polluted atmosphere. HONO accumulates in the nocturnal boundary layer (NBL) and its photolysis at sunrise is often the dominant OH source at the ground. Although it is well known that HONO is formed by the heterogeneous conversion of NO2, the surfaces involved in this process have not been clearly identified. The concentrations of HONO also depend strongly on the stability of the NBL. Many of the uncertainties about HONO formation in the atmosphere originate in the poorly understood role of the various urban surfaces and the influence of vertical mixing, which can lead to strong vertical concentration gradients of both HONO and NO2. In recent years we have performed several field experiments to study the NO2 - HONO system in the polluted boundary layer (e.g. TEXAQS, 2000, NEAQS/NAOPEX, 2002). In all studies we measured vertical concentration profiles of NO2, HONO, and various other trace gases in the boundary layer by Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy continuously throughout the night and the following morning. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the vertical distribution of NO2 and HONO in these urban environments. The observations will be compared with results from a one-dimensional chemical transport model in order to investigate the influence of the ground, building surfaces, and aerosol on the formation of HONO. The altitude dependence of the early morning OH formation will also be discussed.

Stutz, J.; Geyer, A.; Wang, S.

2003-12-01

285

[Natalizumab in the treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: the preliminary results of the observational program "Sovet"].  

PubMed

The post marketing observational program "Sovet" has been launched in 2011. Sixty-nine patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab (NZ), a second generation DMD, have been examined. NZ infusions were carried out during 1h every 4 weeks for 12 months. After treatment, there were a significant reduction in the frequency of relapses from 2.22±0.98 to 0.18±0.42 per year and a trend towards the decrease in EDSS scores from 3.69±1.00 to 3.37±1.17. Adverse effects were noted in 11 patients, with each patient having no more than one side-effect. One patient discontinued treatment due to a generalized allergic reaction. These findings are in line with literature results on the positive effect of NZ on the course and symptoms of MS. It has been concluded, that the strict selection of patients and their correct management during the treatment with NZ may provide the positive balance between advantages and potential risks. PMID:23528599

Popova, E V; Brylev, L V; Davydovskaia, M V

2013-01-01

286

How healthy are chronically ill patients after eight years of homeopathic treatment? - Results from a long term observational study  

PubMed Central

Background Homeopathy is a highly debated but often used medical treatment. With this cohort study we aimed to evaluate health status changes under homeopathic treatment in routine care. Here we extend former results, now presenting data of an 8-year follow-up. Methods In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 homeopathic primary care practices in Germany and Switzerland, data from all patients (age >1 year) consulting the physician for the first time were observed. The main outcome measures were: The patients' perceived change in complaint severity (numeric rating scales from 0 = no complaint to 10 = maximal severity) and quality of life as measured by the SF-36 at baseline, and after 2 and 8 years. Results A total of 3,709 patients were studied, 73% (2,722 adults, 72.8% female, age at baseline 41.0 ± 12.3; 819 children, 48.4% female, age 6.5 ± 4.0) contributed data to the 8-year follow-up. The most frequent diagnoses were allergic rhinitis and headache in adults, and atopic dermatitis and multiple recurrent infections in children. Disease severity decreased significantly (p < 0.001) between baseline, 2 and 8 years (adults from 6.2 ± 1.7 to 2.9 ± 2.2 and 2.7 ± 2.1; children from 6.1 ± 1.8 to 2.1 ± 2.0 and 1.7 ± 1.9). Physical and mental quality of life sores also increased considerably. Younger age, female gender and more severe disease at baseline were factors predictive of better therapeutic success. Conclusion Patients who seek homeopathic treatment are likely to improve considerably. These effects persist for as long as 8 years.

Witt, Claudia M; Ludtke, Rainer; Mengler, Nils; Willich, Stefan N

2008-01-01

287

Ionospheric parameters variations observation during solar eclipses of 29 march 2006 and 01 august 2008. Preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper some results several of cooperative experiments are presented. Experiments were held during times of solar eclipses at 29 march 2006 and 01 august 2008. Solar eclipse of 29 march 2006 were observed by HF Doppler sounder "Spectr" and ionosonde "Cyclon" located in Kazan. The measuring equipment of "Spectr" is a system of closely spaced receivers using the HF Doppler technique. There were three measurement lines for "Spectr". In this experiment we use broadcasting HF-station signals, as test signals. First radioline was Jerusalem-Kazan (frequency 5,915 MHz, Radio KolIsrael), this line cross path of eclipse. Second radio line was Arkhangelsk -Kazan ("Radio of Russia ", frequency 6,160 MHz) and the third was Moscow-Kazan radioline on two frequencies (special radio station of exact time (RVM), frequencies 4,996 and 9,996 MHz). Cooperative complex experiment (KSU, ISTP SB RAS) was help during solar eclipse of 01 august 2008. The experiment was held from 27.07.08 to 08.08.08 at time of full solar eclipse. Receiving part (KSU) was situated in Kazan University (HF Doppler sounder "Spectr", CHIRP receiver) and transmitters (ISTP SB RAS) were placed in Irkutsk, Magadan, Norilsk. Impulse signals on two fixed frequencies (frequencies 10,99999 and 12,33333 MHz in day time, and 7,43333 and 8,33333 MHz in night) and CHRRP signals with division in time domain for were radiated from each transmitter. In addition radio lines Moscow -Kazan (RVM 4,996 MHz) and Archangelsk -Kazan (6,160 MHz) were observed. All radio lines from Siberia cross path of solar eclipse, additional lines is situated in eclipse shadow. Most interesting line is Irkutsk -Kazan, because center of radioline is situated near path of total eclipse. Radio line Irkutsk -Kazan was crossed path of solar eclipse, near Novosibirsk city, maximum phase crossing was in 10:41 UT. The ionosonde "Cyclon" was working in minute cycles during solar eclipse, maximum eclipse phase in Kazan was 0,69.

Ruslan, Latypov; Akchurin, Adel; Berngardt, Oleg; Dresher, Alexandr; Bochkarev, Vladimir; Orlov, Igor; Teplov, Vadim; Petrova, Inna; Zykov, Evgenii

288

Recent results from a nested multi-static HF radar network for the NorthEast Observing System (NEOS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Anested HF radar network has been deployed along the New Jersey coast as part of the New Jersey Shelf Observing System (NJSOS) and the larger regional NorthEast Observing System (NEOS). A 25 MHz standard system (range about 50 km) setup for continuous operation since 1999 includes two sites in Brant Beach and Brigantine, New Jersey. A

J. T. Kohut; S. M. Glenn; H. J. Roarty

2003-01-01

289

Clinical Experience with the NIR Stent: Retrospective Observation on Acute Results and Follow-up in 709 Patients.  

PubMed

The NIR stent is an expandable cellular coronary prosthesis with high flexibility and excellent trackability. The very low crossing profile, associated to the high flexibility, makes this stent suitable for complex and distal lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and long-term (clinical follow-up) efficacy of elective and/or urgent deployment of the NIR stent in a broad patient group with coronary artery disease. Between June 1996 and May 1997, 986 NIR stents were implanted in 781 vessels (de novo or restenotic lesions in native vessels, saphenous vein grafts and internal mammary conduits) of 709 consecutive patients (498 men, 211 women) undergoing coronary angioplasty in two Villa Maria Group Catheterization Laboratories. Procedural angiographic success was achieved in 98.4% of all the lesions treated, ranging from 100% success rate in type A lesion to 97.6% in type C lesions (overall procedural success, 98.4%). Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were considered from PTCA/stenting time to the patient discharge. The in-hospital MACE were limited and occurred in 15 patients: urgent surgical revascularization 0.8%, death 0.7%, sub-acute stent thrombosis 0.5% (overall in-hospital MACE rate 2.1%). Clinical follow-up data were obtained at 8.6 +/- 2.8 months following the stenting procedure. The event-free survival rate was 87.9%. The late MACE rate evaluation showed death, target lesion revascularization 9.9% (over-all late MACE rate 12.1%). The NIR stent performances in this broad patient population were excellent, showing very high procedural success rate both in normal and complex coronary anatomy. On the basis of the previous data, we can define NIR stent a safe multifunctional device suitable both for easy and complex situations. The clinical late results are very promising in term of event-free survivals and late MACE. PMID:10758208

Cremonesi; Alberti; Castriota; Ricci; El Jamal B; Grattoni; Manetti; Nannini; Filippini

2000-03-01

290

NPR: The Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

National Public Radio's "The Picture Show" photo blog is a great way to avoid culling through the thousands of less interesting and engaging photographs on the web. With a dedicated team of professionals, this blog brings together different posts that profile various sets of photographs that cover 19th century war in Afghanistan, visual memories of WWII, unpublished photographs of JFK's presidential campaign, and abandoned buildings on the islands in Boston Harbor. Visitors can search through previous posts, use social media features to share the photo features with friends, and also sign up to receive new materials via their RSS feed. There's quite a nice mix of material here, and visitors can also comment on the photos and recommend the collection to friends and others.

291

Egg: the Arts Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

292

American History Picture Show  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

Bennion, Ms.

2009-11-23

293

A potential show stopper  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of thermal self-focusing instability on radio-wave power transmission in the SPS program are examined. It is found that, without lowering the power per beam, orbital radius, or operating wavelength of solar power satellites, the thermal self-focusing, fluctuation-amplifying instability will be excited in the F-region during at least some periods of the sunspot cycle. This instability could result in

J. E. Drummond

1980-01-01

294

Annual water-level measurements in observation wells, 1951-1955, and atlas of maps showing changes in water levels for various periods from beginning of record through 1954, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report tabulates the annual measurements of water level in the observation wells in the various irrigated areas, primarily from 1951 through 1955. It summarizes changes in water level by discussion and with an atlas of nearly all the maps of change of water level for the period of record to 1955 for each area in which observations are being made. Included also are hydrographs for the period of record through 1954 of several selected wells in the various areas irrigated from ground-water sources. The annual measurements of water level before 1951, seasonal measurements, and daily records of water levels in wells equipped with recording gages have been published in an annual series of U. S. Geological Survey water-supply papers.

Reeder, Harold O.

1959-01-01

295

Eiscat observations of strong ion outflows from the F-region ionosphere during auroral activity: Preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of large outward field-aligned flows of the bulk ion population in the F region during auroral activity are presented. These ion outflows are most commonly observed within auroral arcs, and are not well correlated with diffuse aurora. The ions (mainly \\/ital O\\/\\/sup +\\/) may reach field-aligned outward velocities of more than 500 m\\/s and the calculated ion fluxes usually

H. J. Opgenoorth

1989-01-01

296

Planetary-scale variability in the low-latitude E region field-aligned irregularities: First results from Gadanki observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present for the first time planetary-scale wave signatures in the low-latitude E region field-aligned irregularities (FAI) observed during June 2004 to May 2005 using the Gadanki mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere radar. We have observed a clear signature of 5-8 day variability in echo occurrence, in SNR, and also in Doppler velocity observed above 100 km. Concurrent temperature observations made using the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on board the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetic and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite have also clearly shown the presence of 5-8 day variability similar to that of FAI. The temperature variations have been characterized with zonal wave numbers of 3 and 4 and vertical wavelength of 15-20 km. These waves are found to have increasing amplitude with increasing height and phase progressing downward, suggesting that they were of lower atmospheric origin. It is emphasized that the planetary-scale characteristics of neutral atmosphere in the FAI observations are important in understanding the vertical coupling of the low-latitude ionosphere-atmosphere system. These observations and the pertinent issues are discussed in the light of current understanding of the planetary-scale role on the FAI variability.

Phanikumar, D. V.; Patra, A. K.; Ratnam, M. V.; Sripathi, S.

2009-01-01

297

An Amazon basin-wide intercomparison of ecosystem land surface models and flux observations: Results from the LBA-MIP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amazon forests play an important and complex role in the global cycles of water and carbon, and important advances have been made in understanding Amazon processes in recent years. However, reconciling modeled mechanisms with observations across scales remains a challenge. To better address this challenge, we initiated a Model Intercomparison Project for the ‘Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia’ (LBA-MIP) to integrate modeling and observational studies for improved understanding of Amazon basin water and carbon cycling. Here, we report on expanded analysis from this project, which used the network of meteorological data from Amazon tower sites (the BrasilFlux network) in forest and converted lands to drive a suite of land surface ecosystem models that simulate energy, water and CO2 fluxes. We focus here on controls on gross primary photosynthesis (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET), and in particular on how well models capture the observed diurnal and seasonal cycles across sites. We intercompare stomatal (via available soil moisture), phenological, and available energy controls on GPP and ET across models and observations. We found that available energy is the dominant control on ET across the Amazon basin, and in assessing mechanisms responsible for differences in model performance with respect to ET, we found that soil moisture storage capacity was an important factor in ability of models to match observed seasonal cycles. We evaluated model performance with respect to GPP in terms of light use efficiency as well as leaf phenology, where observations were available. Finally, we discuss important ancillary measurements at flux tower sites (e.g., deep soil moisture profiles, LAI, and litterfall) necessary to improve our ability to empirically discriminate among different model mechanisms used to match observed seasonal patterns.

Christoffersen, B. J.; Araujo, A.; Baker, I. T.; Costa, M. H.; Goncalves, L.; Imbuzeiro, H.; Kruijt, B.; Manzi, A.; Poulter, B.; von Randow, C.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Da Rocha, H. R.; Saleska, S. R.

2009-12-01

298

Baseline characteristics of an incident haemodialysis population in Spain: results from ANSWER--a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background. The ANSWER study aims to identify risk factors leading to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in a Spanish incident haemodialysis population. This paper summarizes the baseline characteristics of this population. Methods. A prospective, observational, one-cohort study, including all consecutive incident haemodialysis patients from 147 Spanish nephrology services, was conducted. Patients were enrolled between October 2003 and September 2004. Sociodemographic, clinical, laboratory and health care characteristics were collected. Results. Baseline characteristics are described for 2341 incident haemodialysis patients [mean (SD) age 65.2 (14.5) years, 63% males]. The main cause of renal failure was diabetic nephropathy (26%). The majority of patients (57%) had a Karnofsky score of 80–100 and 27% were followed up by a nephrologist for ?6 months. In total, 86% of the patients had hypertension, 43% had dyslipidaemia and 44% had a history of cardiovascular disease. Initial vascular access was obtained via a temporary catheter in 30% of patients, via a permanent catheter in 16% and via an arteriovenous fistula in 54%. Albumin levels were <3.5 g/dl in 43% of patients. Immediately prior to the onset of haemodialysis, the mean (SD) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was 7.6 (2.8) ml/min/1.73 m2, and only 6.7% of the patients were within the K/DOQI guidelines for all four bone mineral markers. In addition, a high proportion of patients had anaemia markers outside the EBPG guidelines (haemoglobin <11 g/dl, 59%, ferritin <100 or >500 ng/ml, 41% and saturated transferrin <20 or >40%, 50%) despite previous treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in 41% of cases. Conclusions. There is excessive use of temporary catheters and a high prevalence of uraemia-related cardiovascular risk factors among incident haemodialysis patients in Spain. The poor control of hypertension, anaemia, malnutrition and mineral metabolism and late referral to a nephrologist indicate the need for improving the therapeutic management of patients before the onset of haemodialysis.

Perez-Garcia, Rafael; Martin-Malo, Alejandro; Fort, Joan; Cuevas, Xavier; Llados, Fina; Lozano, Javier; Garcia, Fernando

2009-01-01

299

Eiscat observations of strong ion outflows from the F-region ionosphere during auroral activity: Preliminary results  

SciTech Connect

Observations of large outward field-aligned flows of the bulk ion population in the F region during auroral activity are presented. These ion outflows are most commonly observed within auroral arcs, and are not well correlated with diffuse aurora. The ions (mainly /ital O//sup +/) may reach field-aligned outward velocities of more than 500 m/s and the calculated ion fluxes usually reach 10/sup 13/ m/sup /minus/2/ s/sup /minus/1/. Strong electron temperature enhancements in the F region are observed in connection with almost all ion outflow events. However, high electron temperatures are not always an indicator for these strong ion outflow events. Our measurements have been carried out at the EISCAT incoherent scatter facility near Tromso, Norway. The exact mechanism causing the ion outflow is not yet understood, but several possible mechanisms are briefly discussed. /copyright/ American Geophysical Union 1989

Wahlund, J.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

1989-07-01

300

A stratospheric intrusion at the subtropical jet over the Mediterranean Sea: air-borne remote sensing observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing measurements from the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescope for the Atmosphere - New Frontiers (CRISTA-NF) during a flight on 29 July 2006 are presented. This flight is part of the AMMA-SCOUT-O3 measurement campaign, where CRISTA-NF was deployed on the high-flying research aircraft M55-Geophysica. The flight path was located over Italy and the Mediterranean Sea and crossed over the subtropical jet twice. Measurements of temperature, and the volume mixing ratios of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), nitric acid (HNO3) and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) are available with a vertical resolution of up to 500 m between about 6 to 21 km altitude. CRISTA-NF observes these trace gases simultaneously and provides a quasi-2D view of the transition region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. The observation of these different trace gases allows to determine the origin of air masses in the stratosphere or troposphere. As expected, higher abundances are found where the main source of the trace gases is located: in the stratosphere for O3 and in the troposphere for H2O and PAN. Tracer-tracer correlations between O3 and PAN are used to identify mixed tropospheric and lowermost stratospheric air at the subtropical jet and around the thermal tropopause north of the jet. An intrusion of stratospheric air into the troposphere associated with the subtropical jet is found in the CRISTA-NF observations. The observations indicate that the intrusion is connected to a tropopause fold which is not resolved in the ECMWF analysis data. The intrusion was reproduced in a simulation with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). This work discusses the nature of the observed processes at the subtropical jet based on the CRISTA-NF observations and the CLaMS simulation.

Weigel, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Günther, G.; Khosrawi, F.; Olschewski, F.; Preusse, P.; Spang, R.; Stroh, F.; Riese, M.

2012-03-01

301

iVINE - Ionization in the parallel TREE/SPH code VINE: first results on the observed age-spread around O-stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a three-dimensional, fully parallelized, efficient implementation of ionizing ultraviolet (UV) radiation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) including self-gravity. Our method is based on the SPH/TREE code VINE. We therefore call it iVINE (for Ionization + VINE). This approach allows detailed high-resolution studies of the effects of ionizing radiation from, for example, young massive stars on their turbulent parental molecular clouds. In this paper, we describe the concept and the numerical implementation of the radiative transfer for a plane-parallel geometry and we discuss several test cases demonstrating the efficiency and accuracy of the new method. As a first application, we study the radiatively driven implosion of marginally stable molecular clouds at various distances of a strong UV source and show that they are driven into gravitational collapse. The resulting cores are very compact and dense exactly as it is observed in clustered environments. Our simulations indicate that the time of triggered collapse depends on the distance of the core from the UV source. Clouds closer to the source collapse several 105yr earlier than more distant clouds. This effect can explain the observed age spread in OB associations where stars closer to the source are found to be younger. We discuss possible uncertainties in the observational derivation of shock front velocities due to early stripping of protostellar envelopes by ionizing radiation.

Gritschneder, M.; Naab, T.; Burkert, A.; Walch, S.; Heitsch, F.; Wetzstein, M.

2009-02-01

302

Vertical Mixing and Chemistry Over an Arid Urban Site: First Results from Skyscraper Observations Made During the Phoenix Sunrise Campaign  

SciTech Connect

We report here on combined meteorological and chemical trace-gas observations made from two levels of a skyscraper in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. These observations were made as part the U.S. Department of Energy's Phoenix Sunrise Campaign in June 2001. The motivation for this campaign developed from studies in other urban areas that found peak ozone values above the surface layer appeared to play an important role in governing the surface ozone concentrations in the early morning. The first examination of the data here suggests (a) the vertical extent of the boundary layer before sunrise is below 200 m and the concentrations of trace gases are very sensitive to the stability of the atmosphere, as shown by the observed gradients. Capturing these processes with an air quality model will require a very high degree of vertical resolution. (b) Typically at night, and sometimes during the day, we would see lower concentrations of ozone at the ground, as expected from the titration of O3 with N O. On June 26 this difference throughout much of the day was of order 10 to 15 ppb. It is not clear if this is a local effect associated with street canyons, or representative of what actually occurs over the entire city and environs. (c) DOAS observations highlight the relationship between the gradient structure of reactive trace gases and meteorology at night.

Berkowitz, Carl M. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Stutz, Jochen (California, Univ Of - Los Ange); Spicer, Chester W. (UNKNOWN); Doran, J Christopher (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Fast, Jerome D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wang, Shuhui (California, Univ Of - Los Ange)

2002-01-17

303

Observational Study in Ten Beauty Salons: Results Informing Development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers from the North Carolina BEAUTY and Health Project conducted an observational study in 10 North Carolina beauty salons to gain insight into naturally occurring conversations between cosmetologists and customers, and to assess features of the salon environment that might be used to inform the development of salon-based health promotion…

Solomon, Felicia M.; Linnan, Laura A.; Wasilewski, Yvonne; Lee, Ann Marie; Katz, Mira L.; Yang, Jingzhen

2004-01-01

304

The climate signal in the stable isotopes of snow from Summit, Greenland: Results of comparisons with modern climate observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent efforts to link the isotopic composition of snow in Greenland with meteorological and climatic parameters have indicated that relatively local information such as observed annual temperatures from coastal Greenland sites, as well as more synoptic scale features such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the temperature seesaw between Jakobshaven, Greenland, and Oslo, Norway, are significantly correlated with delta18O

J. W. C. White; L. K. Barlow; D. Fisher; P. Grootes; J. Jouzel; S. J. Johnsen; M. Stuiver; H. Clausen

1997-01-01

305

Ionospheric Spectroscopy and Atmospheric Chemistry (ISAAC) experiment on the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS): quick look results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ionospheric Spectroscopy And Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment is a high resolution mid-ultraviolet Ebert-Fastie spectrograph that is flying on the USAF Advanced Research and Global Observing Satellite (ARGOS, launched 23 February 1999). The instrument is designed to spectrally resolve the rotational structure of the nitric oxide bands, which will be used to infer the temperature in the lower thermosphere (90 -

Kenneth D. Wolfram; Kenneth F. Dymond; Scott A. Budzien; Clyde B. Fortna; Robert P. Mccoy; Eric J. Bucsela

1999-01-01

306

A theoretical and observational study of the radiative properties of cirrus: Results from FIRE 1986. [FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment)  

SciTech Connect

A two-steam radiative transfer model is used to examine the radiative properties of cirrus clouds and compare simulations with the observations made during the cirrus FIRE IFO. The sensitivity of cirrus cloud radiative properties to altitude and size distribution changes are examined. The net radiative effect of cirrus in the infrared is largely determined by the amount of ice in the cloud and the surface-cloud base temperature different (and thus altitude). Increases (decreases) of this temperature difference produce a net radiative heating (cooling). Cloud-top solar heating increases (decrease) with increasing (decreasing) altitude as the optical path of the atmosphere above the cloud layer decreases (increases). The impact of varying concentrations of ice particles less than 100 [mu]m in diameter is also examined. The addition of these particles greatly enhances the longwave absorption and shortwave albedo of cirrus clouds in a manner that is spectrally dependent. Model simulations using observed microphysical and environmental conditions are compared to measured cirrus cloud radiative properties. Although cloud inhomogeneties are shown to be quite large, broad agreement in the cloud emittance is found between the highly uncertain observations of FIRE, other aircraft observations, and model simulations. Similar comparisons of the solar albedo reveal cirrus clouds to be significantly brighter than predicted by the model. Possible explanations of this brightening anomaly suggest that it may not be possible to use Mie scattering to model the cloud albedo. 43 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

Stackhouse, P.W. Jr.; Stephens, G.L. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States))

1991-09-15

307

Observation of Convergent Oscillations of the Flux Line Lattice as a Result of Magnetic Flux Jumping in Hard Superconductors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have monitored new peculiarities of the dynamics of catastrophic avalanches of the magnetic flux in superconducting Nb, Nb-Ti, and YBaCuO samples: i) convergent oscillations of the magnetic flux; ii) a threshold for entering the huge flux avalanches in the shielding experiments; iii) a threshold for the exit of a residual flux in the trapping experiments. The observed phenomena are

Victor V. Chabanenko; V. F. Rusakov; V. A. Yampol'skii; Stanislaw Piechota; Adam Nabialek; Sergei V. Vasiliev; Henryk Szymczak

2001-01-01

308

The Directions of the Thermal Stratification Transformations of Upper Radu?skie Lake as a Result of Observed Climatic Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decades a significant, positive trend of mean annual water surface temperature (WST) in Upper Radunskie Lake was observed. One of the reasons was the variations in local climatic conditions. The mean rate of WST increase over the period 1961-2005 amounted to 0.03°C yr?1. Treating the WST variations as an overall response of the lake system to the

Dariusz BOROWIAK; Jacek BARANCZUK; Kamil NOWINSKI

309

Is lack of musical ability simply the result of failure to practise? Probably not, if new investigations are anything to go by. They show that a disorder akin to dyslexia affects the processing of pitch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peretz and colleagues 4,5 set out to put these observations on firmer grounds. To rule out a general learning disorder, they selected 11 subjects from a larger group of self-declared unmusical volunteers who had achieved a high level of education, had been exposed to music during childhood lessons, and had been unsuccessful in mastering music from the start. Previous research

Thomas F. Münte

2002-01-01

310

[Simultaneous analyses of gaseeous and particulate sulfur in the atmosphere by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry--results of observation and discussion-- (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Concentrations of gaseous and particulate sulfur in the atmosphere were simultaneously measured for 24 hours at a time interval of one hour by the use of the method described in the previous report (this journal, 24, 312 (1975)). Such measurements were made sixteen times in the period from April to September, 1975. As the result of the measurements, it was found that the method used can be applied to practical observation with sufficient reliability. The concentration of gaseous sulfur showed always a larger variation coefficient than that of particulate sulfur. Both the concentrations of gaseous and particulate sulfur were found strongly dependent on the wind direction and velocity and other meteorological conditions. After hot and fine days continued, the concentration of particulate sulfur rose considerably reaching 20 microgramS/m3. PMID:578940

Matsuda, Y; Mamuro, T

1977-05-01

311

Results of observation of the geomechanical conditions of a rock bed during the early sagging of the bed roof  

SciTech Connect

The authors have analyzed the observations of rock pressure effects in mechanized Kuzbass mines. They identify two groups of mine beds differing by the varying pattern of the geomechanical state of the bed during the development and manifestation of early roof sagging. In 47% of Kuzbass seams, rock pressure producing the roof sagging presents a high risk to the safety of breakage stopes. Expressions have been derived for predicting the size of the potential zone affected by the early roof sagging in Suzbass mines.

Neborskii, V.M.

1986-05-01

312

Views of parents, teachers and children on health promotion in kindergarten--first results from formative focus groups and observations.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to capture the views of children, parents and teachers on the topic of physical activity in kindergarten through observation and focus group interviews. The study was conducted in the kindergartens from the sampling group in the Danish part of PERISCOPE. 1(st) methodology: Children interviewed inside by the researcher on preferable movements and settings and then observed outside during their playtime. 2(nd) methodology: Children asked to draw themselves playing their most preferred physical activity. Parents and kindergarten teachers interviewed in two different groups, using an identical guide. Children are skilled in taking advantage of the space and facilities available for physical activity; girls need more support than boys to initiate physical activity; children are happy with the facilities and the toys available in the kindergarten. Teachers feel an increasing pressure to take more responsibility and initiatives for the children's health habits. Parents state that if more physical activity is initiated in the kindergarten, it could make children request domestic activity. Physical activity and movement concept are too abstract for children of this age to talk about: they quickly lose their focus and concentration. The new methodology of videotaping gives the researcher the chance to interpret facial expressions to capture movement, talk and actions, and to make a distinction among children, as they tend to interrupt each other. However, this method contains a weakness, if used alone, by the fact that the shooting is only a reflection of what the video camera has recorded. PMID:21923292

Sansolios, Sanne; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

2011-10-01

313

Preliminary results comparing DHSVM and Sacramento Model simulations versus observed flows in the Cheat River Basin, WV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Weather Service (NWS) Ohio River Forecast Center (OHRFC) has calibrated the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) Model to approximately 100 subbasins in the Ohio River Basin for use in current daily operations. Many additional calibrations are expected to be completed in the coming months. However, research is also underway to evaluate the use of a fully distributed hydrologic model, the Distributed Hydrologic Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM), developed at the University of Washington. DHSVM has been implemented for the Cheat River Basin, a high terrain region of West Virginia, that experiences significant snowfall and orographically driven precipitation enhancement. Model simulation comparisons between the SAC-SMA model and DHSVM against observed flows will be presented. Distributed hydrologic models have long promised improvements over lumped conceptual models such as the SAC-SMA. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) combined with significant improvements in both the quantity and quality of soils, vegetation, terrain, landuse, and other geophysical data sets have made it feasible to objectively estimate model parameters for hydrologic models over broad areas, namely, the Ohio River Basin. The more physically-based hydrologic models become, the more quickly these models can be implemented and the more easily their model states can be interpreted and compared to remotely sensed observations, while minimizing subjective model calibrations. An additional benefit of the use of physically-based distributed hydrologic models, like DHSVM, is the capability of interfacing with atmospheric numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through their land-surface parameterizations.

Adams, T. E.

2001-05-01

314

First results from the UHRF: ultra-high-resolution observations of atomic interstellar lines towards zeta Ophiuchi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present ultra-high-resolution observations of optical interstellar lines towards zeta Oph obtained during the commissioning phase of the new Ultra-High-Resolution Facility (UHRF) at the AAT. The UHRF has achieved its design resolving power of R~=10^6, and has very clearly resolved hyperfine splitting in three of the 11 identified Na I D-line velocity components towards zeta Oph. In addition, the intrinsic line profiles of the 3s-4p Na I doublet at 3302 A have been measured for the first time. 12 velocity components are identified in the interstellar Ca II K-line absorption profile, of which seven have definite velocity counterparts in the Na I profile. Three of the Na I velocity components have b-values which correspond to a gas temperature of about 200 K, for the case of pure thermal broadening. The strongest component in the sightline (-14.8 km s^-1) was found to have a b-value of 0.6^+0.2_-0.1 km s^-1, corresponding to a temperature of 500 K. If a true gas kinetic temperature of 54 K is assumed to apply to this component, from the H_2 rotational excitation temperature previously measured for the zeta Oph sightline, then the observed Na I and Fe I line profiles both imply an rms turbulent velocity of 0.4 km s^-1 within the cloud, just less than the local sound speed. The observed Ca II linewidths are all significantly larger than those of the corresponding Na I components. The Ca IIcomponents are interpreted as arising from warm neutral material (intercloud medium) surrounding cooler clouds, while half of the Na I components arise from cool clouds and half arise from warm intercloud material. The measured Na I/CaII column density ratios, and the inferred temperatures, are consistent with a model in which calcium is heavily depleted on to grains in cool clouds but is restored to the gas phase by impact desorption in the warm intercloud medium.

Barlow, M. J.; Crawford, I. A.; Diego, F.; Dryburgh, M.; Fish, A. C.; Howarth, I. D.; Spyromilio, J.; Walker, D. D.

1995-01-01

315

Rotational state of the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1: Results from Hubble Space Telescope observations in 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 was first observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in December 1997 [Lamy, P., Toth, I., A'Hearn, M.F., Weaver, H., Weissman, P.R., 2001. Icarus 154, 337 344], but the temporal coverage was insufficient to determine its rotational period. Because the success of the Deep Impact mission was critically dependent on understanding the rotational state and approximate shape and size of the nucleus, we extensively re-observed 9P/Tempel 1, this time with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS), from May 7.9 to 9.5, 2004 (UT). At the mid-point of the observing window, the comet was 3.52 AU from the Sun, 4.03 AU from the Earth, and at a solar phase angle of 13.3°. The program was comprised of 18 separate visits, each one corresponding to an HST orbit filled with 3 ACS exposures of either 800 or 857 s duration with the F606W broadband filter. These very deep exposures revealed a star-like object, without any apparent coma. The light curve, defined by 49 data points, is characterized by a mean apparent V magnitude of 21.8 and an amplitude of 0.5 mag, indicating that we were viewing the varying cross-section of a rotating, elongated body. The periodicity was analyzed with seven different techniques yielding a rotational period in the range 39.40 to 43.00 h, and a mean value of 41.27±1.85 h (1?). Using an albedo p=0.04 and a linear phase law with a coefficient ?=0.0465 magdeg, we determined an effective radius of 3.01 km; a possible prolate spheroid solution has semi-axes a=3.71 km, b=2.36 km and a minimum axial ratio a/b˜1.57. By comparing the light curves obtained in 1997 and in 2004, we were able to constrain the phase function of the nucleus. Finally, an upper limit of Af?<0.04 cm is set based on the non-detection of the coma.

Lamy, Philippe L.; Toth, Imre; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Weaver, Harold A.; Jorda, Laurent

316

Rotational state of the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1: Results from Hubble Space Telescope observations in 2004  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 was first observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in December 1997 [Lamy, P., Toth, I., A'Hearn, M.F., Weaver, H., Weissman, P.R., 2001. Icarus 154, 337-344], but the temporal coverage was insufficient to determine its rotational period. Because the success of the Deep Impact mission was critically dependent on understanding the rotational state and approximate shape and size of the nucleus, we extensively re-observed 9P/Tempel 1, this time with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS), from May 7.9 to 9.5, 2004 (UT). At the mid-point of the observing window, the comet was 3.52 AU from the Sun, 4.03 AU from the Earth, and at a solar phase angle of 13.3°. The program was comprised of 18 separate visits, each one corresponding to an HST orbit filled with 3 ACS exposures of either 800 or 857 s duration with the F606W broadband filter. These very deep exposures revealed a star-like object, without any apparent coma. The light curve, defined by 49 data points, is characterized by a mean apparent V magnitude of 21.8 and an amplitude of 0.5 mag, indicating that we were viewing the varying cross-section of a rotating, elongated body. The periodicity was analyzed with seven different techniques yielding a rotational period in the range 39.40 to 43.00 h, and a mean value of 41.27±1.85 h (1 ?). Using an albedo p=0.04 and a linear phase law with a coefficient ?=0.0465 magdeg, we determined an effective radius of 3.01 km; a possible prolate spheroid solution has semi-axes a=3.71 km, b=2.36 km and a minimum axial ratio a/b˜1.57. By comparing the light curves obtained in 1997 and in 2004, we were able to constrain the phase function of the nucleus. Finally, an upper limit of Af?<0.04 cm is set based on the non-detection of the coma.

Lamy, Philippe L.; Toth, Imre; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Weaver, Harold A.; Jorda, Laurent

2007-03-01

317

Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) on the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS): quick look results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Global Imaging Monitor of the Ionosphere (GIMI) is one of nine space research and technology instruments aboard the Air Force Space Test Program's Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). The ARGOS was launched into a sun-synchronous polar orbit by a Delta II launch vehicle from Vendenberg AFB, CA on the morning of 23 February 1999. At the time of this writing, GIMI had completed preliminary check-outs in orbit, with actual data takes beginning in late May, 1999. The GIMI instrument consists of two far- ultraviolet cameras, using electron-bombarded CCD array detectors, operating in the 75 - 115 nm wavelength range (Camera 1) and the 131 - 160 and 131 - 200 nm wavelength ranges (Camera 2). Both cameras are mounted on a two-axis gimbaled pointing system and simultaneously view the same 9 degree(s)-square field.

Carruthers, George R.; Seeley, Timothy D.

1999-09-01

318

Ionospheric Spectroscopy and Atmospheric Chemistry (ISAAC) experiment on the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS): quick look results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ionospheric Spectroscopy And Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment is a high resolution mid-ultraviolet Ebert-Fastie spectrograph that is flying on the USAF Advanced Research and Global Observing Satellite (ARGOS, launched 23 February 1999). The instrument is designed to spectrally resolve the rotational structure of the nitric oxide bands, which will be used to infer the temperature in the lower thermosphere (90 - 200 km altitude range). The instrument is operated as a limb imager with a limb scan occurring every 100 seconds throughout the expected three year mission life. The ARGOS is in a sun-synchronous, near-polar orbit at 833 km altitude with an ascending node crossing time of 2:30 PM. We will present an overview of the instrument and discuss its calibration and in-flight performance.

Wolfram, Kenneth D.; Dymond, Kenneth F.; Budzien, Scott A.; Fortna, Clyde B.; Mccoy, Robert P.; Bucsela, Eric J.

1999-09-01

319

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, and metabolic changes after 3 months of treatment with antipsychotics - results from a German observational study  

PubMed Central

Background This observational study explored the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adult in- and outpatients with untreated or treated schizophrenia at baseline, and month-3 after initiation or switch of antipsychotic treatment. Methods MetS-prevalence (AHA/NHLB-definition) was assessed and Clopper-Pearson 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Factors associated with MetS were explored through univariate and multivariate logistic regressions (both visits). Results MetS-prevalence was 44.3% (CI 39.8;48.9) at baseline and 49.6% (CI 45.0;54.2) at month-3. Previously unmedicated patients showed the lowest baseline MetS-prevalence (24.7%, CI 18.3;32.1). MetS-prevalence was not significantly different, regardless if patients previously received typical or atypical antipsychotics. Increased MetS-risk was associated with somatic comorbidity and non-smoking at both visits, and with non-psychiatric co-medication, male sex, and increased C-reactive protein at month-3. Conclusions At baseline, MetS was most prevalent in patients with previous antipsychotic medication. Limited metabolic changes were observed 3 months after switch/initiation of antipsychotic therapy. Trial Registration Number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: n.a.

2011-01-01

320

In haematopoietic SCT for acute leukemia TBI impacts on relapse but not survival: results of a multicentre observational study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine whether parameters related to TBI impacted upon OS and relapse in patients with acute leukemia in CR who underwent haematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in 11 Italian Radiation Oncology Centres. Data were analysed from 507 patients (313 males; 194 females; median age 15 years; 318 with ALL; 188 with AML; 1 case not recorded). Besides 128 autologous transplants, donors included 192 matched siblings, 74 mismatched family members and 113 unrelated individuals. Autologous and allogeneic transplants were analysed separately. Median follow-up was 40.1 months. TBI schedules and HSCT type were closely related. Uni- and multi-variate analyses showed no parameter was significant for OS or relapse in autologous transplantation. Multivariate analysis showed type of transplant and disease impacted significantly on OS in allogeneic transplantation. Disease, GVHD and TBI dose were risk factors for relapse. This analysis illustrates that Italian Transplant Centre use of TBI is in line with international practice. Most Centres adopted a hyperfractionated schedule that is used worldwide (12 Gy in six fractions over 3 days), which appears to have become standard. TBI doses impacted significantly upon relapse rates. PMID:23708705

Aristei, C; Santucci, A; Corvò, R; Gardani, G; Ricardi, U; Scarzello, G; Magrini, S M; Donato, V; Falcinelli, L; Bacigalupo, A; Locatelli, F; Aversa, F; Barbieri, E

2013-05-27

321

Annual Freshwater and Heat Content From 2003-2004: First Results from the Beaufort Gyre Observing System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seasonal variability of freshwater and heat content in the Beaufort Gyre will be presented, and causes of interannual changes will be discussed based on data from the Beaufort Gyre Freshwater Experiment (BGFE; http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre), a prototype Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP), and using CTD and XCTD data collected between 2001 and 2004. As part of the BGFE and in combination with the JWACS cruises on the CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent, three bottom-tethered moorings were deployed in August 2003 at coordinates 75N and 150W, 78N and 150W and 77N and 140W, and were recovered in August 2004. Year-long time series of sea ice draft (from upward looking sonars mounted at the top mooring float), temperature, salinity, and currents in the 50-2000m layer (from moored profilers), and bottom pressure (from pressure tide gauges) were retrieved from the instruments. Information in the upper ocean above 50 m, were also obtained from four drifting ice beacons which were also installed during the 2003 cruise and have telemetered temperature and salinity data at 10, 25, and 40 m for more than a full year. In order to continue collecting data from the Beaufort Gyre to study multiannual variability, the moorings were refurbished and redeployed in 2004 at the same locations and the buoy array was augmented with an ITP (providing CTD data with 1 meter vertical resolution and 6 hours temporal resolution down to 750 m) establishing the Beaufort Gyre Observing System (BGOS).

Proshutinsky, A.; Krishfield, R.; Carmack, E.; McLaughlin, F.; Zimmerman, S.; Shimada, K.; Itoh, M.

2004-12-01

322

A systematic error in MST/ST radar wind measurement induced by a finite range volume effect: 1. Observational results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind measurement by MST/ST radars may be accompanied by a systematic error due to a finite range volume effect which works when a thin turbulent layer is simultaneously located in several adjacent range volumes. The error occurs when the layer coincides with a cross section through the range volume which is not symmetric with respect to the center of the beam. The finite range volume effect appears as a false vertical shear of horizontal wind in a vertical scale of the order of a few hundred meters, even if the ambient wind field is uniform. The false wind shear sometimes exceeds 40 ms-1 km-1 in magnitude or the critical value to induce the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Also the effect leads to a false temporal variation of the wind measurement, although the wind field does not change at all. The false wind shear with a magnitude less than 40 ms-1 km-1 cannot be discriminated from a true one in the observed data. It seems hard to indicate directly that the finite range volume effect appears as theoretically conceived. Judging from wind velocity and echo intensity data obtained by the MU radar in Japan, this effect appears quite frequently in the atmosphere. The small vertical scale wind shear as well as the temporal variation found only at a specific range should be treated with great care except when the ambient wind field is weak, where the finite range volume effect is not so important.

Fukao, Shoichiro; Sato, Toru; May, Peter T.; Tsuda, Toshitaka; Kato, Susumu; Inaba, Motoyuki; Kimura, Iwane

1988-01-01

323

Results and phenomena observed from the DF-4 BWR (boiling water reactor) control blade-channel box test  

SciTech Connect

The DF-4 in-pile fuel damage experiment, one of a series of tests performed as part of the USNRC's internationally sponsored severe fuel damage (SFD) program, and carried out at Sandia National Laboratories, addressed the behavior of boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel canisters and control blades in the high temperature environment of an unrecovered loss of coolant accident. The DF-4 test is described in some detail herein and results from the experiment are presented. Significant results from prior experiments in the series are also summarized. Important findings from the DF-4 test include the low temperature melting of the stainless steel control blade caused by reaction with the B/sub 4/C, and the subsequent low temperature attack of the Zr-4 channel box by the relocating molten blade components. This early melt and relocation phenomena could significantly influence the progression of meltdown in BWRs and should be considered in SFD accident analyses. 14 refs., 9 figs.

Gauntt, R.O.; Gasser, R.D.; Fryer, C.P.; Walker, J.V.

1988-01-01

324

Observations of tornadoes and wall clouds with a portable FM-CW Doppler radar: 1989--1990 results  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to report on our progress using a portable, 1 W,FM (frequency modulated)-CW (continuous wave) Doppler radar developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to make measurements of the wind field in tornadoes and wall clouds along with simultaneous visual documentation. Results using a CW version of the radar in 1987--1988 are given in Bluestein and Unruh (1989). 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Bluestein, H.B. (Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (USA). School of Meteorology); Unruh, W.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-01-01

325

[Comparative observations of the results from community studies of the precision of the energy requirements of young female cattle].  

PubMed

Institutes from 4 CMEA countries took part in coordinated joint studies for a precise determination of the energy requirement of young female cattle. A comparative description of the results is given. The most important conclusion is that the energy requirement of young female cattle of various dairy cattle genotypes can be described with sufficient accuracy according to the net energy fattening (NEFcattle) requirement equation derived in the GDR if the keeping conditions are taken into account. PMID:3421839

Jentsch, W; Hoffmann, L; Kolarz, I; Strzetelski, J; Várhegyi, J

1988-05-01

326

Early Neurological Outcome of Young Infants Exposed to Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Pregnancy: Results from the Observational SMOK Study  

PubMed Central

Background Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy is common while the effect on the infant’s neurological outcome is unknown. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal SSRI-exposure on the infants’ neurological functioning, adjusted for maternal mental health. Methods A prospective observational study from May 2007 to April 2010. The study groups comprised 63 SSRI-exposed infants (SSRI group) and 44 non-exposed infants (non-SSRI group). Maternal depression and anxiety were measured using questionnaires. The main outcome measures during the first week after birth and at three to four months were the quality of the infants’ general movements (GMs) according to Prechtl and a detailed motor optimality score. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for abnormal GM quality in the SSRI and non-SSRI groups, and adjusted for maternal depression, anxiety, and other confounders. The study was registered under 53506435 in the ISRCTN. Findings All infants were born around term. During the first week, abnormal GMs occurred more frequently in the SSRI group than in the non-SSRI group (59% versus 33%) and the median MOS was lower (13 versus 18). The OR for abnormal GMs in the SSRI versus the non-SSRI group was 3·0 (95% CI, 1.3 to 6.9) and increased after adjustment for confounders. At three to four months, more SSRI-exposed infants had monotonous movements (48% versus 20%) with lower median MOSs (26 versus 28). The OR for monotonous movements was 3·5 (95% CI, 1.5 to 8.6) and increased after adjusting for confounders. Interpretation Prenatal exposure to SSRI had an adverse effect on early neurological functioning as reflected by GM quality, irrespective of maternal depression and anxiety, and other confounders. Physicians should take this into account in consultation with parents.

de Vries, Nathalie K. S.; van der Veere, Christine N.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.

2013-01-01

327

Impact of convective outflow and biomass burning into the tropical lower stratosphere as diagnosed from satellite observations and model results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space-borne measurements of chemical species (N2O, CH4, H2O and CO) and related products (temperature, cloud occurrence frequency, fire counts, winds, and outgoing longwave radiation) are used to assess the impact of tropospheric processes on the tropical lower stratosphere during the March-May 2002-2004 period. We show that tropospheric air masses characterized by high concentrations of CO, CH4 and N2O are uplifted to the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) by strong convective outflows preferentially over Western Africa, Indonesia and Northern South America. The emission of CO and CH4 associated with biomass burning modifies even more the distribution of these species, particularly above Western Africa and Northern South America. The rapid and strong vertical outflow over Western Africa is also responsible for the dehydration of the cold TTL. Although convection is present over Western Pacific, it does not penetrate into the TTL and, consequently, does not alter the distribution of long-lived species. This is in general agreement with the output from the three-dimensional chemical transport model MOCAGE over the same time frame.

Ricaud, P.; Barret, B.; Attie, J.; Le Flochmoen, E.; Teyssedre, H.; Peuch, V.; Edwards, D. P.

2006-12-01

328

Observations of Non-Methane Hydrocarbons Over India During the Asian Summer Monsoon Period: Results from CARIBIC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) involves the monthly deployment of an instrument container equipped to make atmospheric measurements from onboard a long-range commercial airliner. Since December 2004, flights for the second phase of CARIBIC have been aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 traveling between Frankfurt, Germany and destinations in Asia, North America and South America. The instrument package housed in the container (1.5 ton) is fully automated and during each monthly set of flights carries out a variety of real-time trace gas and aerosol measurements, and also collects 28 air samples, which are analyzed upon return to the laboratory. Routine measurements made from the sampling flasks include non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) analysis, and these measurements provide the basis for the data presented here. Between April and September of 2008, the container was deployed monthly on two sequential roundtrip flights between Frankfurt and Chennai, India. To achieve greater resolution, air samples were collected only on the first of the roundtrip flights, with 14 samples collected on the flight to Chennai and 14 collected on the return. These flights provided the opportunity to study the composition of the upper troposphere in this region during the Asian summer monsoon period (typically June-September), which is characterized by anticyclonic circulation in the upper troposphere coupled with deep convection. Samples collected during the monsoon period exhibit elevated levels of NMHCs relative to samples collected outside of the monsoon period, with enhancements in ethyne and benzene being more substantial than enhancements in the alkanes. Enhanced mixing ratios are observed between 15N and 40N, and correspond to enhancements in other trace gases, namely methane and CO. Ethyne in particular is strongly correlated with both methane and CO in this region; while CO and ethyne share a common, combustion, source, methane and ethyne do not, and this relationship indicates convection of a well-mixed air mass that is strongly and recently influenced by both agricultural and anthropogenic/urban sources. Trends in and relationships between NMHCs during the monsoon period will be discussed here, as well as their relationships to other trace gases.

Baker, A. K.; Schuck, T. J.; Slemr, F.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

2008-12-01

329

Cumulative funnel plots for the early detection of interoperator variation: retrospective database analysis of observed versus predicted results of percutaneous coronary intervention  

PubMed Central

Objective To use funnel plots and cumulative funnel plots to compare in-hospital outcome data for operators undertaking percutaneous coronary interventions with predicted results derived from a validated risk score to allow for early detection of variation in performance. Design Analysis of prospectively collected data. Setting Tertiary centre NHS hospital in the north east of England. Participants Five cardiologists carrying out percutaneous coronary interventions between January 2003 and December 2006. Main outcome measures In-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (in-hospital death, Q wave myocardial infarction, emergency coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and cerebrovascular accident) analysed against the logistic north west quality improvement programme predicted risk, for each operator. Results are displayed as funnel plots summarising overall performance for each operator and cumulative funnel plots for an individual operator’s performance on a case series basis. Results The funnel plots for 5198 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions showed an average observed rate for major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events of 1.96% overall. This was below the predicted risk of 2.06% by the logistic north west quality improvement programme risk score. Rates of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events for all operators were within the 3? upper control limit of 2.75% and 2? upper warning limit of 2.49%. Conclusion The overall in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events rates were under the predicted event rate. In-hospital rates after percutaneous coronary intervention procedure can be monitored successfully using funnel and cumulative funnel plots with 3? control limits to display and publish each operator’s outcomes. The upper warning limit (2? control limit) could be used for internal monitoring. The main advantage of these charts is their transparency, as they show observed and predicted events separately. By this approach individual operators can monitor their own performance, using the predicted risk for their patients but in a way that is compatible with benchmarking to colleagues, encapsulated by the funnel plot. This methodology is applicable regardless of variations in individual operator case volume and case mix.

2008-01-01

330

Real-life global survey evaluating patients with atrial fibrillation (REALISE-AF): results of an international observational registry.  

PubMed

Despite being one of the most studied arrhythmias, there is paucity of information regarding atrial fibrillation (AF) control in the general population and the treatment strategies utilized by healthcare providers. REALISE-AF is an ongoing international registry investigating the management of AF and its control in nonhospitalized subjects. The registry has enrolled patients in 26 countries worldwide with the primary aim to determine the control of AF. This article presents a review of the initial results from the REALISE-AF registry and compares it to major practice-changing clinical trials conducted in the past. It also gives an overview of the current management strategies, recent updates in treatment and what further developments portend in the future. PMID:22390799

Alam, Mahboob; Bandeali, Salman Jamaluddin; Shahzad, Saima A; Lakkis, Nasser

2012-03-01

331

Experimental observation and an empirical model of enhanced heap stability resulting from the mixing of granular materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the existence of enhanced heap stability as a result of the mixing of granular materials. Our setup consists of a rectangular container, filled with a binary mixture of granular matter up to some height h, that is rapidly opened at one wall to allow repose angle (?c) formation. We develop an empirical model for ?c based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The model is parameterized by an effective cohesion c and an effective coefficient of friction ? that depend on: (1) the granular proportions and (2) the c and ? for pure cases. Good agreement is achieved between the experiment and the model. We note that even the experimental fluctuations of ?c as a function of granular proportions are well correlated (<2% deviation) with the computed uncertainty of the empirical model.

Arciaga, M.; Pastor, M.; Batac, R.; Bantang, J.; Monterola, C.

2009-07-01

332

A model-based approach to adjust microwave observations for operational applications: results of a campaign at Munich Airport in winter 2011/2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the frame of the project "LuFo iPort VIS" which focuses on the implementation of a site specific visibility forecast, a field campaign was organised to offer detailed information to a numerical fog model. As part of additional observing activities a 22-channel microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) was operating at the Munich Airport site in Germany from October 2011 to February 2012 in order to provide vertical temperature and humidity profiles as well as cloud liquid water information. Independently from the model-related aims of the campaign, the MWRP observations were used to study their capabilities to work in operational meteorological networks. Over the past decade a growing quantity of MWRP has been introduced and a user community (MWRnet) was established to encourage activities directed at the set up of an operational network. On that account, the comparability of observations from different network sites plays a fundamental role for any applications in climatology and numerical weather forecast. In practice, however, systematic temperature and humidity differences (bias) between MWRP retrievals and co-located radiosonde profiles were observed and reported by several authors. This bias can be caused by instrumental offsets as well as by the absorption model used in the retrieval algorithms. At the Lindenberg observatory besides a neural network provided by the manufacturer, a measurement-based regression method was developed to reduce the bias. These regression operators are calculated on the basis of coincident radiosonde observations and MWRP brightness temperature (TB) measurements. However, MWRP applications in a network require comparable results at just any site, even if no radiosondes are available. The motivation of this work is directed to a verification of the suitability of the operational local forecast model COSMO-EU of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) for the calculation of model-based regression operators in order to provide unbiased vertical profiles during the campaign at Munich Airport. The results of this algorithm and the retrievals of a neural network, specially developed for the site, are compared with radiosondes from Oberschleißheim located about 10 km apart from the MWRP site. The bias of the retrievals could be considerably reduced and the accuracy, which has been assessed for the airport site, is quite similar to those of the operational radiometer site at Lindenberg above 1 km height. Additional investigations are made to determine the length of the training period necessary for generating best estimates. Thereby three months have proven to be adequate. The results of the study show that on the basis of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model data, available everywhere at any time, the model-based regression method is capable to provide comparable results at a multitude of sites. Furthermore, the approach offers auspicious conditions for automation and continuous updating.

Güldner, J.

2013-03-01

333

The S locus-linked Primula homeotic mutant sepaloid shows characteristics of a B-function mutant but does not result from mutation in a B-function gene.  

PubMed

Floral homeotic and flower development mutants of Primula, including double, Hose in Hose, Jack in the Green and Split Perianth, have been cultivated since the late 1500s as ornamental plants but until recently have attracted limited scientific attention. Here we describe the characterization of a new mutant phenotype, sepaloid, that produces flowers comprising only sepals and carpels. The sepaloid mutation is recessive, and is linked to the S locus that controls floral heteromorphy. The phenotype shows developmental variability, with flowers containing three whorls of sepals surrounding fertile carpels, two whorls of sepals with a diminished third whorl of sepals surrounding a fourth whorl of carpels, or three whorls of sepals surrounding abnormal carpels. In some respects, these phenotypes resemble the Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum homeotic B-function mutants apetala3/deficiens (ap3/def) and pistillata/globosa (pi/glo). We have isolated the Primula vulgaris B-function genes PvDEFICIENS (PvDEF) and PvGLOBOSA (PvGLO), expression of both of which is affected in the sepaloid mutant. PvGLO, like sepaloid, is linked to the S locus, whereas PvDEF is not. However, our analyses reveal that sepaloid and PvGLO represent different genes. We conclude that SEPALOID is an S-linked independent regulator of floral organ identity genes including PvDEF and PvGLO. PMID:18564384

Li, Jinhong; Webster, Margaret; Dudas, Brigitta; Cook, Holly; Manfield, Iain; Davies, Brendan; Gilmartin, Philip M

2008-06-28

334

Electroacupuncture Modulates Reproductive Hormone Levels in Patients with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Results from a Prospective Observational Study  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on serum FSH, E2, and LH levels, women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) were treated with EA once a day, five times a week for the first four weeks and once every other day, three times a week, for the following two months, and then were followed up for three months. Serum E2, FSH, and LH levels were measured at baseline, at the end of treatment, and during followup. A total of 11 women with POI were included in this prospective consecutive case series study. Compared with baseline, patients' serum E2 increased, FSH decreased, and LH decreased (P = 0.002, 0.001, and 0.002, resp.) after EA treatment, and these effects persisted during followup. With treatment, 10 patients resumed menstruation (10/11, 90.91%), whereas one patient remained amenorrhea. During followup, two patients, including the one with amenorrhea during treatment, reported absence of menstruation. Temporary pain occurred occasionally, and no other adverse events were found during treatment. The results suggest that EA could decrease serum FSH and LH levels and increase serum E2 level in women with POI with little or no side effects; however, further randomized control trials are needed.

Zhou, Kehua; Jiang, Jingxi; Wu, Jiani; Liu, Zhishun

2013-01-01

335

New results from ground-based observations of asteroid 21 Lutetia prior to the Rosetta fly-by  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On its journey to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the International Rosetta Mission (ESA) was planned to fly-by two asteroids: (2867) Steins and (21) Lutetia. (21) Lutetia was encountered on July 10th 2010. Although classified as an M-type asteroid due to its high albedo, its reflectance spectrum in the near and mid-infrared region, suggests a primitive composition, more typical of C-type asteroids. We have obtained uvbyRI photometric measurements covering the complete rotational period of the asteroid (about 8 hrs), as well as visible and near-infrared spectra in the range 0.4-2.5 micron. The spectroscopic data were taken at different rotational aspects to search for any significant inhomogeneities in asteroid's surface mineralogy. We used BUSCA at the 2.2 m telescope in Calar Alto Observatory (Almeria, CSIC-MPG), and the 1 m telescope at Lulin Observatory (Taiwan, NCU) to do the photometry; visible spectra were obtained with CAFOS, at the 2.2 m telescope of Calar Alto, while near-infrared spectra were obtained using NICS at the 3.6 m TNG of ``El Roque de los Muchachos" Observatory (La Palma). We present here the obtained values of lightcurve amplitudes, rotational period and phase coefficients, as well as results from a mineralogical analysis performed on the asteroid spectra. Lutetia was no longer be visible from Earth after May, so our data, taken during March and April, provide us with the most updated and recent information about Lutetia's surface properties prior to the fly-by. The information retrieved from this ground-based data will be part of a more complete analysis of the data acquired with the OSIRIS instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft.

de León, J.; Duffard, R.; Lara, L. M.

2011-11-01

336

GUIDING NONLINEAR FORCE-FREE MODELING USING CORONAL OBSERVATIONS: FIRST RESULTS USING A QUASI-GRAD-RUBIN SCHEME  

SciTech Connect

At present, many models of the coronal magnetic field rely on photospheric vector magnetograms, but these data have been shown to be problematic as the sole boundary information for nonlinear force-free field extrapolations. Magnetic fields in the corona manifest themselves in high-energy images (X-rays and EUV) in the shapes of coronal loops, providing an additional constraint that is not at present used as constraints in the computational domain, directly influencing the evolution of the model. This is in part due to the mathematical complications of incorporating such input into numerical models. Projection effects, confusion due to overlapping loops (the coronal plasma is optically thin), and the limited number of usable loops further complicate the use of information from coronal images. We develop and test a new algorithm to use images of coronal loops in the modeling of the solar coronal magnetic field. We first fit projected field lines with those of constant-{alpha} force-free fields to approximate the three-dimensional distribution of currents in the corona along a sparse set of trajectories. We then apply a Grad-Rubin-like iterative technique, which uses these trajectories as volume constraints on the values of {alpha}, to obtain a volume-filling nonlinear force-free model of the magnetic field, modifying a code and method presented by Wheatland. We thoroughly test the technique on known analytical and solar-like model magnetic fields previously used for comparing different extrapolation techniques and compare the results with those obtained by currently available methods relying only on the photospheric data. We conclude that we have developed a functioning method of modeling the coronal magnetic field by combining the line-of-sight component of the photospheric magnetic field with information from coronal images. Whereas we focus on the use of coronal loop information in combination with line-of-sight magnetograms, the method is readily extended to incorporate vector-magnetic data over any part of the photospheric boundary.

Malanushenko, A. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT (United States); Schrijver, C. J.; DeRosa, M. L. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Wheatland, M. S.; Gilchrist, S. A. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney (Australia)

2012-09-10

337

Mineral Surfaces and Their Implications for Microbial Attachment: Results from Monte Carlo Simulations and Direct Surface Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral surfaces in contact with aqueous solutions form the interface at which microbial attachment and development is likely to occur and reactions will progress. Therefore, it is key to understand how microbes attach to crystal surfaces, and how they eventually impact mineral reaction kinetics. A prerequisite for any attempt to define these processes is the understanding and quantification of surface area. For practical reasons, we use the total surface area, even if we agreed that it would be more correct to use the reactive surface area, which is understood to be a fraction of the total. Surprisingly, recent computer based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of mineral dissolution reactions have indicated that this concept might be flawed. The following questions elucidate this conclusion: How large is the reactive surface area? AND: How reactive is it? The first answer will be given in units of surface area, the second answer, however, can not be given in this unit. This has the unfortunate consequence that the reactivity term is embedded within the rate constant itself. A comparison of reactive versus total surface area implies that one part of the surface is reactive while the other is not. This concept is arbitrary and otherwise incorrect, as shown by analytical techniques like AFM and VSI that provide spatially resolved information. Additional evidence comes from model calculations that indicate that every locus the crystal surface has a certain reactivity. Expressed in terms of a MC model, these reactivities are expressed as probabilities; - otherwise, parts of the surface would be inert. Focusing at the molecular scale, we understand that each surface molecule has a certain probability to leave the structure and that every adatom has a probability to become a new member of the structure. The probabilities for the processes to occur depend, beside other factors, on the energy configuration at each location. Therefore, it is the number, type, and distribution of surface sites that define the average reactivity of a crystalline surface at any given time. This insight has large implications for a number topics: (1) reactive surface area can not be expressed solely in units of area, (2) nor can it be compared directly with total surface area. (3) Even more important, the distribution of sites at a given surface have the inherent potential for dynamic change. Therefore, we can not expect a unique rate for a dissolution process, but a range of rates. This conclusion is in agreement with many very well constrained experimental results. An attempt to model microorganisms on mineral surfaces and their interactions should address this problem because all interactions occur at the molecular scale. For example, Shewanella MR-1 attaches to specific sites at carbonate surfaces, i.e., the outcrops of line defects. By blocking these sites MR-1 modifies the reactivity of the surface and therefore the dissolution or growth kinetics.

Luttge, A.; Arvidson, R. S.

2003-12-01

338

The GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa) experiment: first results from GPS, GRACE and surface gravity observations in relation to water storage changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrological time-varying processes (soil moisture, aquifers) redistribute underground water and hence lead to alter the gravity and shape of the Earth at various length scales (from very local effects to continental size) because of Newtonian attraction and elastic loading. We present here a new experiment set up in 2008 in West Africa called GHYRAF (Gravity and Hydrology in Africa). The first goal is to better characterize the annual cycle of water storage in West Africa and to assess the predictions of global hydrology models (GLDAS, LadWorld) for this region. Our project will also help to validate satellite gravity observations (GRACE) with ground gravity and GPS observations. This project is multidisciplinary (gravimetry, geodesy, subsurface geophysics, hydrology) and allows several French and African teams to work together in order to better understand the changes in water storage by using different types of observations. This research program mainly concentrates geographically on three distinct regions: the Sahara (Tamanrasset, South of Algeria) with almost no rainfall, the Sahelian zone (Niamey and Diffa in Niger) with moderate and highly variable rainfall and the equatorial monsoon band (Djougou, Benin Republic) with heavy rainfall. Different kinds of surface gravity measurements are involved: the repetition several times a year with an absolute gravimeter (FG5) at the 4 above-mentioned specific sites; complementary measurements with a portable A10 absolute meter and measurements on dense repetition networks with microgravimeters (Scintrex). The main gravity stations are collocated with permanent GPS stations in order to independently estimate the gravity contribution due to vertical motion of the ground. Since gravity is sensitive to various length scales involved in hydrology, we will rely on dense in-situ measurements (rain gauges, piezometers, soil moisture probes) and subsurface geophysics (MRS) to model local gravity effects. We will report on preliminary results of the GHYRAF experiment based on the repetition of the first FG5 AG measurements in Niger and Benin and their relation to local water content changes. We will also show the results from a preliminary treatment of the available GPS data mainly originating from the AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses) program and their comparison with theoretical predictions for the continental scale hydrological loading. We will finally present some comparisons between GRACE data, hydrology models and hydro-meteorological data for the Niger and Chad basins.

Hinderer, J.

2009-04-01

339

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration  

SciTech Connect

National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

Dan Jimenez (NOS)Sheri Raborn, CPA (National Orange Show); Tom Baker (California Construction Authority)

2008-03-31

340

Optical observations of the X-ray binary V1727 Cygni (=4U 2129+47) during a low state - Some unexpected results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors report on observations of the X-ray binary V1727 Cygni, which ordinarily displays a pronounced X-ray heating light curve on a 5.2 hr period, taken when the object was in an X-ray and optical low state. Extensive CCD photometry obtained at McGraw-Hill Observatory shows no photometric modulation. No eclipse is detected, despite extensive coverage at the expected phase in both the V and B photometric bands. The authors describe attempts to reconcile these observations with previous models of this supposedly well-characterized system, which predict that the low state should exhibit strong ellipsoidal variations or eclipses or both.

Thorstensen, John R.; Brownsberger, Kenneth R.; Mook, Delo E.; Berg, Chris; Bramson, Jim; Borden, Doug; Eisenthal, Josh; Fischer, Eric; Hamilton, Dave; Huettner, Steve; Kokko, Ken; Miele, Frank; Nichols, Steve; Scheible, Paul; Usadi, Adam; Walsh, Rob; Wlodkowsi, Paul; Remillard, Ronald A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Koo, David C.; Charles, Philip A.

1988-11-01

341

View of hospital district, showing cannon in foreground, showing building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of hospital district, showing cannon in foreground, showing building H1 at left, showing building H72 in background; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, East of Nave Drive, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

342

The effectiveness of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines in adults: a systematic review of observational studies and comparison with results from randomised controlled trials.  

PubMed

The use of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has remained controversial since licensure, especially in the elderly. Observational studies form much of the evidence base. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies and compared results with those obtained from an earlier review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Estimates of protection against invasive disease from observational studies were consistent, homogenous and compatible with sparse information obtained from RCTs. Studies were of moderate quality. From 13 observational studies the estimate of vaccine efficacy against invasive disease was 53% (46-59%) compared with 38% (-4 to 63%) from nine RCTs. Estimates of protection against all-cause pneumonia were based on fewer, heterogeneous studies that were not consistent with the findings from RCTs for this outcome. From five studies combined efficacy was 32% (7-50%) compared with 3% (-16 to 19%) from 13 RCTs. PMID:15297076

Conaty, Stephen; Watson, Lorna; Dinnes, Jacqueline; Waugh, Norman

2004-08-13

343

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

SciTech Connect

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

Sernelius, Bo E. [Division of Theory and Modeling, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

2009-10-15

344

Instrument Development for SHOW project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is a critically important constituent throughout the stratosphere and mesosphere The SHOW project will develop a new instrument to measure water vapour from 15km to 85km height on a global scale using the unique capabilities provided by Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy SHS This work builds on Canadian expertise in fabricating solid Michelson interferometers to fill a significant niche in our current capability The SHS setup the FTS with the mirrors replaced by diffraction gratings at Littrow configuration wavelength depended Fizeau fringes are recorded by a 320 256 InGaAs near infrared camera without any scanning elements the high resolution spectral information along one detector dimension can be obtain from Fourier analysis and the other dimension will provide the spatial information At a limb view point a field-widened SHS with half-angle of 6 degrees for water observations at 1364nm is desired the resolution is 0 02nm within full bandwidth of 2nm and the resolving power is about 68 000 The laboratory work for the instrument development and the designing building and testing of the pre-prototype are presented

Lin, Y. L.; Shepherd, M. G.; Shepherd, G. G.; Solheim, B. H.; Brown, S.

345

A Study of the Largescale Structure in the Distribution of Galaxies in a Region Centered about the Cancer Cluster - Part Two - Further Observational Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Further observational results are presented from a study of the large-scale structure in the distribution of galaxies in an ˜4000 deg2 region nominally centered about the Cancer cluster. The spectra of 260 sample galaxies detected in H I, and their measured parameters and computed properties, are given.

M. D. Bicay; R. Giovanelli

1986-01-01

346

Reconciliation and Interpretation of the Big Bend National Park Light Extinction Source Apportionment: Results from the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational Study—Part II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently completed Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study focused on particulate sulfate source attribution for a 4?month period from July through October 1999. A companion paper in this issue by Schichtel et al. describes the methods evaluation and results reconciliation of the BRAVO Study sul-fate attribution approaches. This paper summarizes the BRAVO Study extinction budget assessment

Marc L. Pitchford; Bret A. Schichtel; Kristi A. Gebhart; Michael G. Barna; William C. Malm; Ivar H. Tombach; Eladio M. Knipping

2005-01-01

347

Decadal-scale climate variability in the tropical and North Pacific during the 1970s and 1980s: Observations and model results  

SciTech Connect

An abrupt change in the large-scale boreal winter circulation pattern over the North Pacific was observed during the mid-1970s. This paper presents a variety of observed data and model results to describe the climate shift, and to understand some of the links within the coupled climate system that produced, it. Five main findings are emphasized: (1) evidence of abrupt, simultaneous, and apparently related changes can be found in many fields and in many model results; the climate shift is not an artifact, (2) over the tropical Pacific the climate change represents a shift in the state of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system, some aspects of which resemble features associated with El Nino episodes. However, the shift in state is not well characterized as due to a change in the frequency of intensity of El Nino episodes; it is better described as a change in background mean state, (3) When forced with observed SSTs, both a very simple atmospheric model and a full general circulation model (GCM) qualitatively simulate aspects of the decadalscale shift over the tropical Pacific, (4) when forced with observed surface wind stress, two ocean models of the tropical Pacific, in which surface heat fluxes are parameterized as Newtonian damping, reproduce some aspects of the near-equatorial decadal SST signal. However, the models do not reproduce the large changes in SST observed at higher latitudes of the tropical Pacific. suggesting that altered surface heat fluxes dominated in producing these changes, and (5) an important new finding of this study is the success of a GCM in reproducing important aspects of the observed mid-1970s shift in winter northern hemisphere circulation. Comparative analyses of the observed and GCM simulated circulation suggest the altered patterns of tropical Pacific SST and convection were important in forcing the changes in the mid-latitude circulation, a finding corroborated by recent GCM experiments. 70 refs., 18 figs.

Graham, N.E. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)

1994-08-01

348

Continuous observations of the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N: Major results and present challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RAPID-WATCH/MOCHA array for monitoring the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) at 26.5°N has been in continuous operation since April 2004. Here we present a 4 year timeseries of its strength and variability. The 26.5°N section is separated into a Florida Strait section west of the Bahamas where the Gulf Stream transport is monitored from cable voltage measurements and a mid-ocean section from the Bahamas to Africa. Variability in the wind-driven surface-layer Ekman transport is derived from QuikScat satellite-based observations. The zonally integrated geostrophic profile of northward velocity of the mid-ocean flow is estimated from time-series measurements of temperature and salinity throughout the water column at the eastern and western boundaries and on either side of the mid-Atlantic Ridge, complemented by direct velocity measurements. Here we focus on two aspects, (i) the interactions of the different branches of the AMOC, and (ii) the observed AMOC variability. i. We show that the addition of bottom pressure as an independent indicator of the ocean circulation adds to provide the experimental proof that the upper-ocean northward transport fluctuations are compensated for by fluctuations of the deep-ocean southward transport. In particular fluctuations in either Gulf Stream or deep western boundary current transports are compensated in a barotropic manner very close to the continental slope off the Bahamas. Bottom pressure further reveals that the abyssal, zonally integrated transport variations at 5000 m exceed that at any other level below the thermocline. The presence of the large-amplitude abyssal transport variability is puzzling, as it clearly exceeds the level of variability required for a compensation of upper-ocean transports We also document how wave dynamics within 100 km of the western boundary provides an efficient mechanism to suppress an imprint of the offshore eddy field on the AMOC. ii. The mean AMOC strength is 18.5 and it fluctuates over time by ±4.9 Sv. The sub-seasonal variance (periods between 10 and 90 days) of the Ekman transport exceeds that of the Gulf Stream and mid-ocean, dominating fluctuations of the AMOC. However, the seasonal variance of both the Gulf Stream and mid-ocean transports dominate seasonal fluctuations of the AMOC. The strength of the AMOC displays a seasonal cycle of 7 Sv peak-to-peak, with maxima in early Autumn and minima in early Spring. A strong seasonal cycle in eastern boundary densities from the surface to 1400 dbar dominates the upper mid-ocean seasonal cycle and appears to be driven by seasonal variations of the eastern boundary wind stress curl. Our results further show that the inferred meridional heat transport at 26.5° N is closely correlated with the strength of the AMOC, and that the gyre contribution to fluctuations in the heat transport is likely to be an order of magnitude smaller than the overturning component.

Kanzow, Torsten; Cunningham, Stuart; Johns, William; Bryden, Harry; Hirschi, Joel; Baringer, Molly; Meinen, Christopher; Paz Chidicho, Maria; Marotzke, Jochem; Beal, Lisa

2010-05-01

349

NEW RESULTS FROM THE MAGELLAN IMACS SPECTROSCOPIC Ly{alpha} SURVEY: NICMOS OBSERVATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z = 5.7  

SciTech Connect

We present NICMOS J {sub 110} (rest-frame 1200-2100 A) observations of the three z = 5.7 Ly{alpha} emitters discovered in the blind multislit spectroscopic survey by Martin et al. These images confirm the presence of the two sources that were previously only seen in spectroscopic observations. The third source, which is undetected in our J {sub 110} observations, has been detected in narrowband imaging of the Cosmic Origins Survey, so our non-detection implies a rest-frame equivalent width >146 A (3{sigma}). The two J {sub 110}-detected sources have more modest rest-frame equivalent widths of 30-40 A, but all three are typical of high-redshift Ly{alpha} emitters. In addition, the J {sub 110}-detected sources have UV luminosities that are within a factor of 2 of L*{sub UV}, and sizes that appear compact (r {sub hl{approx}} 0.''15) in our NIC2 images-consistent with a redshift of 5.7. We use these UV-continuum and Ly{alpha} measurements to estimate the i {sub 775}-z {sub 850} colors of these galaxies and show that at least one and possibly all three would be missed by the i-dropout Lyman break galaxy selection. These observations help demonstrate the utility of multislit narrowband spectroscopy as a technique for finding faint emission-line galaxies.

Henry, Alaina L.; Martin, Crystal L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dressler, Alan; McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Sawicki, Marcin, E-mail: ahenry@physics.ucsb.ed [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

2010-08-10

350

SETI Is Still Alive: Results from One Year of High Resolution Microwave Survey Observations and a Progress Report on Project PHOENIX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On October 12, 1992 NASA inaugurated its High Resolution Microwave Survey, as SETI observations began simultaneously at DSS13 within the Goldstone complex in the Mojave Desert and at the Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico. Thereafter, routine Sky Survey observations were conducted weekly, controlling the antenna at Goldstone remotely from JPL, and the first 200 hours (of 2600 hours) of Arecibo Targeted Search observations were completed by mid-November. No credible candidate ETI signals were detected. The false alarm rate from RFI at L-band (roughly 1.4 GHz) was very high at both sites, whereas S-band (roughly 2.3 GHz) was relatively free from interference. In addition to verifying the performance of the special-purpose supercomputers that had been developed to serve as spectrometers and pattern recognition devices for the Sky Survey and Targeted Search, these initial observations provided the first good look at the temporal structure of the bothersome RFI. In the case of the Targeted Search, these valuable early lessons resulted in the development of additional signal processing components to permit simultaneous operation at two widely separated observing sites as a pseudo-interferometer, for the purpose of verifying the extraterrestrial origin of detected candidate signals. Both the Sky Survey and the Targeted Search were expanding their instantaneous frequency coverage when Congress terminated the funds for HRMS on October 1, 1993 after only one year of a planned ten-year observing program. This paper describes the publicly available data sets that have been archived from that first year of observing, it also summarizes the lessons learned from our field experience, and provides a brief progress report on the SETI Institute's Project Phoenix, that will complete the targeted search with private funding.

Tarter, Jill C.

1994-05-01

351

Preliminary Results on Direct Observation of True Ternary fission in the reaction {sup 232}Th+d (10 MeV)  

SciTech Connect

Results of the first direct observation of the true ternary fission of {sup 234}Pa* nucleus are presented. The yield of the effect depending of the experimental geometry is about 10{sup -5}/binary fission. Mass of the lightest fragment in the triplet lies mainly in the range of (20 divide 40) a.m.u. Connection between the effect and known heavy ion or lead radioactivity is discussed.

Pyatkov, Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 115409, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kamanin, D.; Alexandrov, A.; Alexandrova, I.; Kondratyev, N.; Kuznetsova, E.; Tyukavkin, A.; Zhuchko, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980, Dubna (Russian Federation); Krasznohorkay, A.; Csatlos, M.; Csige, L.; Gulyas, J.; Naqvi, F.; Tornyi, T. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary)

2010-04-30

352

Asia: Showing the Changing Seasons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeaWiFS false color data showing seasonal change in the oceans and on land for Asia. The data is seasonally averaged, and shows the sequence: fall, winter, spring, summer, fall, winter, spring (for the Northern Hemisphere).

Allen, Jesse; Newcombe, Marte; Feldman, Gene

1998-09-09

353

Mass Density Models Based on the Frequency of Observed Standing Alfven Waves: AMPTE/CCE Results for L = 6-10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frequency of magnetospheric standing Alfven waves depends on the magnetic field and plasma along the path of the waves. This fact has been used to estimate the plasma mass density from the frequency of magnetic pulsations observed either on ground or in space. However, construction of global mass density models with this approach is yet be achieved due to uncertainty in interpreting ground observations and sparse spatial coverage of reported satellite observations except at geostationary orbit. Meanwhile, there are mass density models derived from satellite observation of plasma along with theoretical considerations. In this study we compare the frequency of toroidal standing Alfven waves observed by AMPTE/CCE in the middle magnetosphere (L = 6-10) with the theoretical frequency obtained using an empirical mass density model [Gallagher et al., 2000] and the T89c magnetic field model. We determine the toroidal frequency using particle and magnetic field time series. From 4 years of data we obtained approximately 4000 20-min intervals containing a clear signature of the standing waves. The spatial map of the frequency constructed from these events indicates a clear local time and radial distance dependence. Regardless of local time, the L dependence of the rate for frequency change is in excellent agreement between the observation and model. As for the frequency we find a good agreement for 12-24 MLT but a large discrepancy near midnight: the model mass density tends to be too small. These results imply that the existing plasma mass model is quite good for the dayside, but that it may require adjustment on the nightside. On the other hand, our theoretical calculations of frequency are least reliable in this region. Gallagher, D. L., P. D. Craven, and R. H. Comfort, Global core plasma model, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 18,819, 2000.

Takahashi, K.; Denton, R. E.; Gallagher, D.

2001-05-01

354

A review of the relevance of the `CLOUD' results and other recent observations to the possible effect of cosmic rays on the terrestrial climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the contribution of cosmic rays to climate change is a continuing one and one of importance. In principle, at least, the recent results from the CLOUD project at CERN provide information about the role of ionizing particles in 'sensitizing' atmospheric aerosols which might, later, give rise to cloud droplets. Our analysis shows that, although important in cloud physics the results do not lead to the conclusion that cosmic rays affect atmospheric clouds significantly, at least if H2SO4 is the dominant source of aerosols in the atmosphere. An analysis of the very recent studies of stratospheric aerosol changes following a giant solar energetic particles event shows a similar negligible effect. Recent measurements of the cosmic ray intensity show that a former decrease with time has been reversed. Thus, even if cosmic rays enhanced cloud production, there would be a small global cooling, not warming.

Erlykin, A. D.; Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

2013-08-01

355

Initial Results of DC Electric Fields, Associated Plasma Drifts, Magnetic Fields, and Plasma Waves Observed on the C/NOFS Satellite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial results are presented from the Vector Electric Field Investigation (VEFI) on the Air Force Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite, a mission designed to understand, model, and forecast the presence of equatorial ionospheric irregulari-ties. The VEFI instrument includes a vector DC electric field detector, a fixed-bias Langmuir probe operating in the ion saturation regime, a flux gate magnetometer, an optical lightning de-tector, and associated electronics including a burst memory. Compared to data obtained during more active solar conditions, the ambient DC electric fields and their associated E x B drifts are variable and somewhat weak, typically <¡ 1 mV/m. Although average drift directions show sim-ilarities to those previously reported, eastward/outward during day and westward/downward at night, this pattern varies significantly with longitude and is not always present. Daytime vertical drifts near the magnetic equator are largest after sunrise, with smaller average ve-locities after noon. Little or no pre-reversal enhancement in the vertical drift near sunset is observed, attributable to the solar minimum conditions creating a much reduced neutral dy-namo at the satellite altitude. The nighttime ionosphere is characterized by larger amplitude, structured electric fields, even where the plasma density appears nearly quiescent. Data from successive orbits reveal that the vertical drifts and plasma density are both clearly organized with longitude. The spread-F density depletions and corresponding electric fields that have been detected thus far have displayed a preponderance to appear between midnight and dawn. Associated with the narrow plasma depletions that are detected are broad spectra of electric field and plasma density irregularities for which a full vector set of measurements is available for detailed study. Finally, the data set includes a wide range of ELF/VLF/HF oscillations corresponding to a variety of plasma waves, in particular banded ELF hiss, whistlers, and lower hybrid wave turbulence triggered by lightning-induced sferics. The VEFI data represents a new set of measurements that are germane to numerous fundamental aspects of the electrodynamics and irregularities inherent to the Earth's low latitude ionosphere.

Pfaff, Robert

356

28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

357

The Origin of Daughter Species in Cometary Comae: Results from Observations of Comets 103P/Hartley and C/2009 P1 Garradd  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of daughter species in cometary comae has been a subject of much debate. Some cases, like that of OH and H2O, are well understood, while most cases are not. In order for the origin of daughter species to be properly understood, coincident observations of both daughter species and their candidate parent molecules are needed to constrain the prevailing coma photochemistry. We present analysis of near simultaneous observations of candidate parent molecules and their daughters in comets 103P/Hartley and C/2009 P1 Garradd using a combination of infrared and optical spectroscopy with the goal of more firmly understanding the parentage of C2 and CN and using the red-to-green line ratios in OI as a probe of the relative production rates of its dominant parents, H2O, CO, and CO2. We obtained optical observations with the ARCES echelle spectrometer mounted on the Astrophysical Research Consortium 3.5-meter telescope at Apache Point Observatory located in Sunspot, New Mexico, while we obtained IR observations for Garradd with the CSHELL IR spectrometer mounted on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii. We also compare our results to measurements of candidate parent species reported in the literature. Observations in the optical were conducted with sufficient time resolution and time coverage to detect modulation in the production rates and mixing ratios from rotation (Hartley) and changing heliocentric distance (Garradd). We measure how the production rates and mixing ratios vary and discuss the implications for the progeny of C2, CN, and OI in cometary comae.

McKay, Adam; Chanover, N.; DiSanti, M.; Morgenthaler, J. P.; Villanueva, G.; Cochran, A.; Harris, W.; Dello Russo, N.; Vervack, R. J.

2013-10-01

358

The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Planetary and Low-Luminosity Object Transits in the Fields of Galactic Disk. Results of the 2003 OGLE Observing Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of two observing campaigns conducted by the OGLE-III survey in the 2003 observing season aiming at the detection of new objects with planetary transiting companions. Six fields of 35'x35' each located in the Galactic disk were monitored with high frequency for several weeks in February-July 2003. Additional observations of three of these fields were also collected in the 2004 season. Altogether about 800 and 1500 epochs were collected for the fields of both campaigns, respectively. The search for low depth transits was conducted on about 230 000 stars with photometry better than 15 mmag. It was focused on detection of planetary companions, thus clear non-planetary cases were not included in the final list of selected objects. Altogether we discovered 40 stars with shallow (<=0.05 mag) flat-bottomed transits. In each case several individual transits were observed allowing determination of photometric elements. Additionally, the lower limits on radii of the primary and companion were calculated. From the photometric point of view the new OGLE sample contains many very good candidates for extrasolar transiting planets. However, only the future spectroscopic follow-up observations of the OGLE sample - determination of the amplitude of radial velocity and exclusion of blending possibilities - may allow to confirm their planetary status. In general, the transiting objects may be extrasolar planets, brown dwarfs, M-type dwarfs or fake transits caused by blending. All photometric data of objects with transiting companions discovered during the 2003 campaigns are available to the astronomical community from the OGLE Internet archive.

Udalski, A.; Szymanski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzynski, G.; Soszynski, I.; Zebrun, K.; Szewczyk, O.; Wyrzykowski, L.

2004-12-01

359

Comparing results from a physical model with satellite and in situ observations to determine whether biomass burning aerosols over the Amazon brighten or burn off clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles affect clouds through competing microphysical and radiative (semi-direct and cloud absorption) effects, each of which dominates at different degrees of aerosol loading. Here, we analyze the influence of competing aerosol effects on mixed-phase clouds, precipitation, and radiative fields over the Amazon with a climate-air pollution-weather forecast model that treats aerosol-cloud-radiative interactions physically. Extensive comparisons with remotely sensed observations and in situ measurements are performed. Both observations and model results suggest an increase in cloud optical depth (COD) with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD) at low AODs, and a decrease in COD with increasing AOD at higher AODs in accord with previous observational and modeling studies. The increase is attributed to a combination of microphysical and dynamical effects, whereas the decrease is attributed to a dominance of radiative effects that thin and darken clouds. An analogous relationship is shown for other modeled cloud variables as well. The similarity between the remotely sensed observations and model results suggests that these correlations are physically based and are not dominated by satellite retrieval artifacts. Cloud brightening due to BB is found to dominate in the early morning, whereas cloud inhibition is found to dominate in the afternoon and at night. BB decreased the net top of the atmosphere solar+IR irradiance modestly, but with large diurnal variation. We conclude that models that exclude treatment of aerosol radiative effects are likely to over-predict the microphysical effects of aerosols and underestimate the warming due to aerosols containing black and brown carbon.

Ten Hoeve, John E.; Jacobson, Mark Z.; Remer, Lorraine A.

2012-04-01

360

Initial results of high-latitude magnetopause and low-latitude flank flux transfer events from 3 years of Cluster observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present initial results from a statistical study of Cluster multispacecraft flux transfer event (FTE) observations at the high-latitude magnetopause and low-latitude flanks from February 2001 to June 2003. Cluster FTEs are observed at both the high-latitude magnetopause and low-latitude flanks for both southward and northward IMF. Among the 1222 FTEs, 36%, 20%, 14%, and 30% are seen by one, two, three, and four Cluster satellites, respectively. There are 73% (27%) of the FTEs observed outside (inside) the magnetopause, which might be caused by the motion of FTEs toward the magnetosheath when they propagate from subsolar magnetopause to the midlatitude and high-latitude magnetopause and low-latitude flanks. We obtain an average FTE separation time of 7.09 min, which is at the lower end of the previous results. The mean BN peak-peak magnitude of Cluster FTEs is significantly larger than that from low-latitude FTE studies. FTE BN peak-peak magnitude clearly increases with increasing absolute magnetic latitude (MLAT), it has a weaker dependence on magnetic local time (MLT) with a peak near the magnetic local noon, and it has a complex dependence on Earth dipole tilt with a peak at around zero. FTE periodic behavior is found to be controlled by MLT, with a general increase of FTE separation time with increasing MLT, and by Earth dipole tilt, with a peak FTE separation time at around zero Earth dipole tilt. There is no clear dependence of FTE separation time on MLAT. There is a weak increase of FTE BN peak-peak magnitude with increasing FTE separation time, and we see no clear dependence of it on FTE BN peak-peak time. When no FTE identification thresholds are used, more accurate calculations of some FTE statistical parameters, including the mean BN peak-peak time, can be obtained. Further, comparing results with different thresholds can help obtain useful information about FTEs.

Wang, Y. L.; Elphic, R. C.; Lavraud, B.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Birn, J.; Raeder, J.; Russell, C. T.; Kawano, H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X. X.; Friedel, R. H.

2005-11-01

361

Neutral winds and temperature in the tropical mesosphere and lower thermosphere during January 1993: Observation and comparison with TIME-GCM results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the E region neutral winds and temperature observed by the Arecibo incoherent scatter radar (ISR) and a collocated spectrometer during the January 20-30, 1993, period and compare them with the thermosphere/ionosphere/mesosphere electrodynamics global circulation model (TIME-GCM) predictions. The model is most successful in predicting the meridional wind phase and magnitude throughout the altitude range of 95-145 km. Although the model can also predict the overall pattern of zonal wind and temperature, its daytime eastward wind exceeds the observations by about 35 m/s at 105 km and its temperature deviation from mean is typically 3 times smaller than the observations. The overestimation of the eastward meanflow in the model is likely associated with an overestimation in gravity wave forcing which prevents the propagation of the diurnal tide to 100 km. The diurnal tide, which is quite substantial at 100 km from the radar measurement, deposits its momentum to enhance the westward meanflow [Miyahara and Wu, 1989]. One reason for the smaller simulated temperature fluctuation is that the current model does not include any semidiurnal forcing at the lower boundary (30 km). According to a recent study by Hagan [1996], water vapor absorption of solar near-infrared radiation in the troposphere can have a very large effect on the tides in the lower thermosphere. We further note that the observed semidiurnal tide experiences a fast growth rate at 105 km and saturates at slightly above 110 km, while the model prediction shows a much smaller growth rate in this region despite a much longer vertical wavelength. This suggests that the model may overestimate the molecular/eddy viscosity in the turbopause region. During the January 1993 period, the observed mean mesopause temperature, 160 K, is about 30 K colder than the model prediction and current prevailing beliefs. Although such a cold mesopause at a tropical latitude needs to be verified by more experiments, it cannot be precluded theoretically due to large uncertainties in radiative and dynamical heating/cooling rates, most particularly the radiative cooling rate from CO2.

Zhou, Q. H.; Sulzer, M. P.; Tepley, C. A.; Fesen, C. G.; Roble, R. G.; Kelley, M. C.

1997-06-01

362

High-resolution observations of core and suprathermal ions in the auroral ionosphere: Techniques and results from the GEODESIC sounding rocket  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-energy (Ek ˜ 10-1--10 1 eV) ions comprise the bulk of Earth's ionosphere, and represent the initial stages of ion heating and outflow from Earth's auroral regions. The suprathermal ion imager (SII) is a fast (˜93 images/sec), compact, two-dimensional ion energy (0 < Ek < 20 eV) and direction-of-arrival analyzer designed to observe the energy distributions of these ions in detail, with emphasis on exploring small-scale (˜10--100 m) structure in the ionosphere. The SII was flown into an auroral substorm on the GEODESIC sounding rocket from Poker Flat, Alaska, on 26 February 2000. The technical element of this thesis deals with the development of a computer model of the SII, and techniques for extracting and interpreting physical quantities from the SII observations. Laboratory and in-flight calibrations demonstrate that the analyzer imaging capability departs from the ideal model. Nevertheless, the SII represents a technological step forward, and has yielded new scientific results. The scientific element of this thesis focuses on simultaneous observations of ion energy distributions and low-frequency plasma waves in the topside (500--1000 km) auroral ionosphere. GEODESIC encountered three types of plasma wave which have previously been associated with ion heating. However, heated ions were only observed in association with localized density depletions and wave enhancements known as lower-hybrid solitary structures (LHSS). Approximately 90% of the LHSS ion number density is comprised of the ambient isotropic sub-eV core population. The remaining 10% corresponds to transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) to within 5° transverse to the geomagnetic field and to mean energies up to 5--10 eV, consistent with previous findings. Contrary to previously published observations, the GEODESIC TAI is consistent with localized bulk heating of some of the ambient core. Ion heating was not observed in association with large-scale (>1 km) broadband extremely low frequency (BB ELF) wave enhancements. Similarly, no ion heating was detected in the presence of large amplitude, short perpendicular wavelength Alfven waves. Differences between low-frequency ion flow fluctuations and convection drift fluctuations can be explained only partially by ion polarization drift physics.

Burchill, Johnathan Kerr

363

Effects of teriparatide in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis pre-treated with bisphosphonates: 36-month results from the European Forsteo Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe fracture rates, back pain, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and prior bisphosphonate therapy, treated with teriparatide for up to 18 months and followed up for a further 18 months. Design Prospective, multinational, and observational study. Methods Data on prior bisphosphonate use, clinical fractures, back pain visual analog scale (VAS), and HRQoL (EQ-5D) were collected over 36 months. Fracture data were summarized in 6-month intervals and analyzed using logistic regression with repeated measures. Changes from baseline in back pain VAS and EQ-VAS were analyzed using a repeated measures model. Results Of the 1581 enrolled patients with follow-up data, 1161 (73.4%) had a history of prior bisphosphonate use (median duration: 36 months). Of them, 169 (14.6%) sustained ?1 fracture during 36-month follow-up. Adjusted odds of fracture were significantly decreased at each 6-month interval compared with the first 6 months of teriparatide treatment: 37% decrease in the 12 to <18 months period during teriparatide treatment (P=0.03) and a 76% decrease in the 12- to 18-month period after teriparatide was discontinued (P<0.001). Significant reductions in back pain and improvement in HRQoL were observed. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with severe osteoporosis previously treated with bisphosphonates had a significant reduction in the incidence of fractures compared with the first 6 months of therapy, a reduction in back pain and an improvement in HRQoL during up to 18 months of teriparatide treatment. These outcomes were still evident for at least 18 months after teriparatide was discontinued. The results should be interpreted in the context of an uncontrolled, observational study in a routine clinical setting.

Jakob, F; Oertel, H; Langdahl, B; Ljunggren, O; Barrett, A; Karras, D; Walsh, J B; Fahrleitner-Pammer, A; Rajzbaum, G; Barker, C; Lems, W F; Marin, F

2012-01-01

364

Micrometeor Observations Using the Arecibo 430 MHz Radar. I. Determination of the Ballistic Parameter from Measured Doppler Velocity and Deceleration Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a sample of radar meteors detected during the November 1997 Leonids shower period using the narrow-beam, high-power Arecibo Observatory 430-MHz radar. During this period ˜7700 events were detected over 73 h of observations that included six mornings. Near apex-crossing, 6-10 events per minute were observed in the ˜300-m diameter beam. From these events a total of 390 meteors are characterized by a clear linear deceleration as derived from the radial Doppler speed determined from the meteor-echo leading-edge (head-echo). We interpret our results in terms of the meteor ballistic parameter—the ratio of the meteoroid mass to cross-sectional area—yielding a physical characterization of these particles prior to any assumptions regarding meteoroid shape and mass density. In addition, we compare these measurements with the results of a numerical solution of the meteor deceleration equation and find them in good agreement. The size and dynamical mass of the meteoroids are estimated considering these particles to be spheres with densities of 3 g/cm 3. We also discuss atmospheric energy-loss mechanisms of these meteroids. We believe these are the first radar meteor decelerations detected since those ones reported by J. V. Evans (1966, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 171-188) and F. Verniani (1966, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2749-2761; 1973, J. Geophys. Res. 78, 8429-8462) and the first ones for meteors of this size.

Janches, D.; Mathews, J. D.; Meisel, D. D.; Zhou, Q.-H.

2000-05-01

365

The OOPSLA trivia show (TOOTS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OOPSLA has a longstanding tradition of being a forum for discussing the cutting edge of technology in a fun and participatory environment. The type of events sponsored by OOPSLA sometimes border on the unconventional. This event represents an atypical panel that conforms to the concept of a game show that is focused on questions and answers related to OOPSLA themes.

Jeff Gray; Douglas C. Schmidt

2009-01-01

366

A Spitzer IRAC Imaging Survey for T Dwarf Companions around M, L, and T Dwarfs: Observations, Results, and Monte Carlo Population Analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report observational techniques, results, and Monte Carlo population analyses from a Spitzer Infrared Array Camera imaging survey for substellar companions to 117 nearby M, L, and T dwarf systems (median distance of 10 pc, mass range of 0.6 to ~0.05 M ?). The two-epoch survey achieves typical detection sensitivities to substellar companions of [4.5 ?m] <= 17.2 mag for angular separations between about 7'' and 165''. Based on common proper motion analysis, we find no evidence for new substellar companions. Using Monte Carlo orbital simulations (assuming random inclination, random eccentricity, and random longitude of pericenter), we conclude that the observational sensitivities translate to an ability to detect 600-1100 K brown dwarf companions at semimajor axes gsim35 AU and to detect 500-600 K companions at semimajor axes gsim60 AU. The simulations also estimate a 600-1100 K T dwarf companion fraction of <3.4% for 35-1200 AU separations and <12.4% for the 500-600 K companions for 60-1000 AU separations.

Carson, J. C.; Marengo, M.; Patten, B. M.; Luhman, K. L.; Sonnett, S. M.; Hora, J. L.; Schuster, M. T.; Allen, P. R.; Fazio, G. G.; Stauffer, J. R.; Schnupp, C.

2011-12-01

367

Rice Convection Model simulation of the substorm-associated injection of an observed plasma bubble into the inner magnetosphere: 2. Simulation results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results from a Rice Convection Model simulation of the early expansion phase of a substorm that occurred 22 July 1998. The theoretical basis of the simulation is the idea that the plasma injected into the inner magnetosphere during a substorm primarily consists of a low-content plasma bubble, which is made up of flux tubes with lower values of the entropy parameter PV 5/3 than their neighbors. As discussed in an accompanying paper, to simulate this event, we carefully tailor model inputs to fit Geotail observations of the bubble at X GSM ? -9 R E . We find that both potential and induction electric fields play important roles in transporting and energizing the particles during the event. The potential electric field associated with Birkeland currents that flow along the east and west sides of the bubble (i.e., the substorm current wedge) is characterized by a localized strengthening of the westward auroral ionospheric electric field within the bubble, as well as the production of a region of enhanced westward flow just Equatorward of the diffuse electron aurora. The inner edge of the modeled plasma sheet assumes a dented-in form that is similar in shape to the injection boundary proposed many years ago on observational grounds. Flux tubes that are pushed earthward ahead of the bubble at onset form a sharp pressure peak near local midnight and geosynchronous orbit, and the particles on those tubes contribute significantly to the injection of particles into the inner magnetosphere.

Zhang, J.-C.; Wolf, R. A.; Spiro, R. W.; Erickson, G. M.; Sazykin, S.; Toffoletto, F. R.; Yang, J.

2009-08-01

368

?18O water isotope in the iLOVECLIM model (version 1.0) - Part 2: Evaluation of model results against observed ?18O in water samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The H218O stable isotope was previously introduced in the three coupled components of the earth system model iLOVECLIM: atmosphere, ocean and vegetation. The results of a long (5000 yr) pre-industrial equilibrium simulation are presented and evaluated against measurement of H218O abundance in present-day water for the atmospheric and oceanic components. For the atmosphere, it is found that the model reproduces the observed spatial distribution and relationships to climate variables with some merit, though limitations following our approach are highlighted. Indeed, we obtain the main gradients with a robust representation of the Rayleigh distillation but caveats appear in Antarctica and around the Mediterranean region due to model limitation. For the oceanic component, the agreement between the modelled and observed distribution of water ?18O is found to be very good. Mean ocean surface latitudinal gradients are faithfully reproduced as well as the mark of the main intermediate and deep water masses. This opens large prospects for the applications in palaeoclimatic context.

Roche, D. M.; Caley, T.

2013-09-01