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OBJECTIVES: Estrogen has been shown to play an important protective role in non-reproductive systems, such as the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to observegenderdifferences in vivo with regard to the increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interaction induced by ischemia/reperfusion as well as in microvascular reactivity to vasoactive substances using the hamster cheek pouch preparation. METHODS: Thirty-six male and 36 female hamsters, 21 weeks old, were selected for this study, and their cheek pouches were prepared for intravital microscopy. An increase in the macromolecular permeability of post-capillary venules was quantified as a leakage of intravenously injected fluorescein-labeled dextran, and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction was measured as the number of fluorescent rolling leukocytes or leukocytes adherent to the venular wall, labeled with rhodamin G, during reperfusion after 30 min of local ischemia. For microvascular reactivity, the mean internal diameter of arterioles was evaluated after the topical application of different concentrations of two vasoconstrictors, phenylephrine (?1-agonist) and endothelin-1, and two vasodilators, acetylcholine (endothelial-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelial-independent). RESULTS: The increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion was significantly lower in females compared with males [19 (17–22) leaks/cm2 vs. 124 (123–128) leaks/cm2, respectively, p<0.001), but the number of rolling or adherent leukocytes was not different between the groups. Phenylephrine-induced arteriolar constriction was significantly lower in females compared with males [77 (73–102)% vs. 64 (55–69)%, p<0.04], but there were no detectable differences in endothelin-1-dependent vasoreactivity. Additionally, arteriolar vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: The female gender could have a direct protective role in microvascular reactivity and the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion.
Panazzolo, Diogo Guarnieri; da Silva, Lucia Henriques Alves; de Almeida Cyrino, Fatima Zely Garcia; Sicuro, Fernando Lencastre; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete
Using a theoretical framework of social support, and content analysis, the content and pattern of support in messages posted in a 4-week period on a commercial health network for individuals concerned with heart disease were observed and described. Special consideration was given to identifying genderdifferences.
Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable genderdifferences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates genderdifferences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar genderdifferences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated genderdifferences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Methods Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings.
Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.
Mobile device text messaging and other typing is rapidly increasing worldwide. A checklist was utilized to characterize joint postures and typing styles in individuals appearing to be of college age (n = 859) while typing on their mobile devices in public. Genderdifferences were also ascertained. Almost universally, observed subjects had a flexed neck (91.0%, n = 782), and a non-neutral typing-side wrist (90.3%, n = 776). A greater proportion of males had protracted shoulders (p < 0.01, ?(2) test), while a greater proportion of females had a typing-side inner elbow angle of <90°, particularly while standing (p = 0.03, ?(2) test). 46.1% of subjects typed with both thumbs (two hands holding the mobile device). Just over one-third typed with their right thumb (right hand holding the mobile device). No difference in typing styles between genders was found. Future research should determine whether the non-neutral postures identified may be associated with musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:21764031
Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain genderdifferences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of genderdifferences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, genderdifferences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on genderdifferences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917
According to data from the Newly Entitled Beneficiary Survey and the 1979 and 1988 Current Population Survey, much of the gender gap in pensions is caused by genderdifferences in such labor market characteristics as experience, tenure, and income. Children and marriage have a negative effect on females' pensions, although not for more recent…
Educational Testing Service completed a four-year study that analyzed results from over 400 different assessments and 1,500 data sets involving millions of students. By comparing statistic Ds (standard mean difference) across assessments, researchers found that genderdifferences among subject areas are smaller than one might expect but grow by…
This investigation examined genderdifferences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)
In Japan, as in the United States, a growing proportion of physicians are women. Hence, the different social roles that men and women occupy and the gendered norms for behavior are increasingly relevant in ensuring that male and female physicians have equal opportunity to participate and advance in all aspects of medicine. Elsewhere in this issue, Nomura and colleagues report on a large survey of primary care residents in Japan. They found that on average women's self-rated confidence on many clinical tasks was lower than men's. This is not surprising given similar genderdifferences in self-assessed competence in other research and the socialization of women in virtually all cultures to be modest. The actual differences in average scores were small suggesting considerable overlap in the distributions of responses from male and female residents. In addition, research from other countries finds no association between physicians' self-reported confidence in clinical tasks and objective measures of competence on which female physicians rate at or above the level of their male counterparts. Congruent with different social roles for men and women, Nomura and colleagues also found genderdifferences in the average responses about work-family priorities and aspirations toward leadership, but some women indicated a desire for research careers and some men were "life-oriented." The author of this commentary argues that to draw conclusions about all male or all female physicians from average differences of a large group of residents may reinforce gender stereotypes that continue to impede each individual female physician's career advancement and each individual male physician's struggle for work-life balance. PMID:20354367
Background It is uncertain whether genderdifferences in outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are only attributable to different baseline characteristics or additional factors. Methods Databases of two German myocardial infarction network registries were combined with a total of 1104 consecutive patients admitted with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated according to standardized protocols. Results Approximately 25% of patients were females. Mean age (69 vs 61 years), incidence of diabetes (28% vs 20%), hypertension (68 vs 58%) and renal insufficiency (26% vs 19%) was significantly higher compared to males. Mean prehospital delay was numerically longer in females (227 vs 209 min) as was in hospital delay (35 vs 30 min). PCI was finally performed in 92% of females and 95% of males with comparable procedural success (95% vs 97%). Use of drug eluting stents (55% vs 68%) and application of GP 2b 3a blockers (75% vs 89%) was significantly less frequent in women. At discharge, prescription of beta blockers and lipid lowering drugs was also significantly lower in females (84% vs 90% and 71% vs 84%). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in females (10% vs 5%) without attenuation after 12 months. Adjusted mortality however did not differ significantly between genders. Conclusion Higher unadjusted mortality in females after primary PCI was accompanied by significant differences in baseline characteristics, interventional approach and secondary prophylaxis in spite of the same standard of care. Lower guideline adherence seems to be less gender specific but rather a manifestation of the risk-treatment paradox.
Summary The is growing awareness that the underrepresentation of women in clinical trials and in particular in phase I studies may\\u000a lead to incorrect handling of drugs. Despite the fact that investigations are not performed in a systematic way, there are\\u000a a number of examples showing pharmacokinetic differences between gender. From the data actually presented, it can be concluded\\u000a that the
We observed 48 children from rural preschools (M = 64 months old) in two different social contexts to test hypotheses about the type (relational, physical, verbal, nonverbal), contextual independence, and sociometry of girls' and boys' aggressive tactics. We predicted and generally found that (1) girls displayed more relational aggression than…
Findings of studies of genderdifferences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, genderdifferences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no genderdifferences in the
Prior investigations of friendship patterns have reported genderdifferences, with women's same-gender friendships tending to be richer and having a possible therapeutic value, as compared to those of men. Compared to same-gender best friendships, opposite-gender best friendships have been described as less fulfilling for women and more fulfilling for men. The present study explored such differences more fully in a
During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena.
Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H
Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible genderdifferences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. PMID:21489520
Background: Studies indicate that differences in trait anxiety and trauma-related distress may mediate the genderdifferencesobserved in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Objective: We examined the contributions of gender, trait anxiety, and trauma-related distress to the development of PTSD after an industrial disaster.Methods: Three months after a massive explosion in a fireworks factory in Kolding, Denmark, in November 2004, residents in
African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…
Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.
Genderdifferences in cognitive abilities were determined using the norms from the four standardizations of the Differential Aptitude Tests conducted between 1947 and 1980, and from the four standardizations of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test\\/Scholastic Aptitude Test conducted between 1960 and 1983. The standardized genderdifferences (ds) were averaged over grade of examinees and year of standardization to obtain a
The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze genderdifferences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…
Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga
In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of differentgenders rehearse and compose differently? How would…
Examines factors related to high attainment (using data from Scottish School Leavers Survey) and asks whether these differ for males and females. Establishes a strong relationship between social advantage/high attainment within genders. Found girls took school more seriously than males, supporting theories girls and boys experience different peer…
Moral genderdifferences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…
Moral genderdifferences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly developed rating procedure based on participants’ open-ended responses
Gertrud Nunner-Winkler; Marion Meyer-Nikele; Doris Wohlrab
Background. Individuals may respond differently to various chair designs and the factors that influence these sitting behaviours are not well understood. There is very little information in the scientific literature regarding the observation and documentation of genderdifferences in seated postures. In particular, anecdotal observations of potential gender-specific sitting behaviours led us to test the influence of gender on the
The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on genderdifferences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding genderdifferences. Because genderdifferences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…
Increased age and female gender are well-known risk factors for the development of desmopressin-induced hyponatremia. However, little focus has been on exploring genderdifferences in the antidiuretic response to desmopressin. Based on an exploratory analysis from three clinical trials, we report a significant genderdifference in the effects of desmopressin on nocturnal urine volume that could not be explained by pharmacokinetic differences. Mean desmopressin concentration profiles were tested for covariates, and age and gender were not statistically significant and only weight was significant for log(C(max)) (P = 0.0183) and borderline significant for log(AUC) (P = 0.0571). The decrease in nocturnal urine volume in nocturia patients treated with desmopressin over 28 days was significantly larger for women at the lower desmopressin melt doses of 10 and 25 ?g than for men. The ED(50) for men was modeled to be 43.2 ?g and 16.1 ?g for women, with the ED(50) men/women estimated to be 2.7 (1.3-8.1 95% CI), corresponding to significantly higher sensitivity to desmopressin in women. An increasing incidence of hyponatremia with increasing dose was found, and at the highest dose level of 100 ?g decreases in serum sodium were approximately twofold greater in women over 50 yr of age than in men. A new dose recommendation stratified by gender is suggested in the treatment of nocturia: for men, 50- to 100-?g melt is an efficacious and safe dose, while for women a dose of 25 ?g melt is recommended as efficacious with no observed incidences of hyponatremia. Areas for further research are proposed to uncover pathophysiological mechanism(s) behind these genderdifferences. PMID:21367921
Juul, Kristian Vinter; Klein, Bjarke Mirner; Sandström, Rikard; Erichsen, Lars; Nørgaard, Jens Peter
Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent genderdifferences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare genderdifferences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159
The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of scientific literacy and to document any genderdifferences with respect to each factor. Participants included 1139 students (574 females, 565 males) in grades 9 through 12 who were taking a science class at one of four Midwestern high schools. Based on National Science Education Standards, a 100 item multiple-choice test was constructed to assess scientific literacy. Confirmatory factor analysis of item parcels suggested a three factor model was the best way to explain the data resulting from the administration of this test. The factors were labeled constructs of science, abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, and social aspects of science. Genderdifferences with respect to these factors were examined using analysis of variance procedures. Because differential enrollment in science classes could cause genderdifferences in grades 11 and 12, parallel analyses were conducted on the grades 9 and 10 subsample and the grades 11 and 12 subsample. However, the results of the two analyses were similar. The most consistent genderdifferenceobserved was that females performed better than males on the social aspects of science factor. Males tended to perform better than females on the constructs of science factor, although no consistent genderdifference was noted for items dealing with life science. With respect to the abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry factor, females tended to perform better than males in grades 9 and 10, while no consistent genderdifference was observed in grades 11 and 12. Genderdifferences were also examined using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure to flag individual items that functioned differently for females and males of the same ability. Twelve items were flagged for grades 9 and 10 (8 in favor of females, 4 in favor of males). Fourteen items were flagged for grades 11 and 12 (7 in favor of females, 7 in favor of males). All of the flagged items exhibited only small to moderate differential item functioning (DIF). Only three items were similarly flagged in both subsamples, one item from each factor.
Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not genderdifferences also exist…
Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero
Genderdifferences in the epidemiology, comorbidities, and treatment responses of substance abuse have been described in adults.\\u000a However, a growing body of data suggests that genderdifferences also exist in adolescents with substance abuse. Unfortunately,\\u000a research is still limited in this age group. This article reviews genderdifferences in the diagnosis, presentation, course\\u000a of illness, and treatment response of substance
Angelica Kloos; Ronald A. Weller; Rebecca Chan; Elizabeth B. Weller
A recent meta-analysis showed a robust genderdifference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the genderdifference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the genderdifference and the finding that the genderdifference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the genderdifferences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses. PMID:24934011
Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion.
The gender gap in schooling is puzzling given that the expected returns to an individual for increased schooling — as measured by proportional wage increments — does not differ by gender. This paper explores possible explanations for the disparity using a model of parental investment in children. The model allows for differences in investments due to differences in costs —
Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, autoimmune hair-loss disorder with a complex genetic and environmental etiology. A higher incidence rate of AA in the female population is well described. It is unclear why females are more likely to be diagnosed with AA and what, if any, differences in disease phenotype exist between males and females. The identification of gender specific characteristics of disease may help clinical management and patient education in cases of AA. Accordingly, we recruited 481 North-American Caucasian AA patients (336 female, 145 male) to assess age of onset, autoimmune and atopic co-morbidity, nail involvement, family history of AA and autoimmune disease, and disease subtype. There was a female predominance (female to male ratio 2.3:1) in this AA study population. We found that male AA patients are more likely to be diagnosed in childhood (age <10 years, P= 0.067) and have a family history of AA (P= 0.004). On the other hand, female AA patients are more likely to be diagnosed in adolescence (age 10-20 years, P= 0.083), have co-morbid nail involvement (P= 0.0257), and have concomitant autoimmune disease (P= 0.014), particularly thyroid disease (P= 0.058). The clinical implications of disease heterogeneity between males and females remains to be determined.
In the United States and other Western cultures, a greater number of women seek health care services for symptoms of functional pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, than men. Recent clinical trials indicate that genderdifferences in responsiveness to drug therapy also occur. Several lines of inquiry have focused on explaining this gender-related difference due to the higher prevalence of
In Eurocentric cultures there is a belief that there are genderdifferences in mathematics achievement. In reality, those differences are small whereas differences among ethnic groups, countries, and schools--often related to privilege--are much larger. (JOW)
This article discusses two studies investigating genderdifferences in communication technology use. Most prior research has revealed strong male dominance in the use of technologies such as computers and video games. Although writers have deplored this situation, few have investigated alternative structural and content features. In the first study, responses towards a variety of information technologies across genders were explored
Norbert Mundorf; Nikhilesh Dholakia; Stuart Westin; Winifred Brownell
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in most developed countries. Gender-related differences have been found in the presentation, prevalence, and clinical outcomes of CAD in many studies. Compared to women, men present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction more often and have a higher prevalence of CAD. These findings indicate that gender may have an
Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…
Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observeddifferences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Genderdifferences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on genderdifferences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market. PMID:24435498
To examine genderdifferences in commentary about self and others in same- and mixed-gender contexts, the authors analyzed dyadic conversations involving 78 children in 5 preschool facilities. Compared to girls talking to girls, boy talking to boys made more statements with negative connotations for others and less often pointed out self-other similarities. No genderdifferences were observed in mixed-gender contexts. Compared to boys talking with boys, boys talking with girls spoke more frequently of similarities and abilities. Compared to girls with girls, girls with boys less often spoke descriptively or talked of activities and possessions and more often spoke of conduct, possibly in an effort to manage boys' behavior. Overall, the findings support a social-constructivist or contextual rather than a biological perspective on early genderdifferences. PMID:23534196
Investigates patterns of sex differences for responses to problems across the countries involved in the Second International Mathematics Study. Reports no substantial gender effects on any of the content areas using the median polishing method. (YP)
Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n?=?785; f: n?=?358, m: n?=?427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p?=?0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p?=?0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p?=?0.02). There were also significant genderdifferencesobserved with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures.
The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain genderdifferences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors. PMID:19727878
This study investigated electrophysiological (EEG) and hemodynamic (near infrared spectroscopy - NIRS) measures as a function of gender in normal adult individuals. The EEG data analysis was based on the resting eyes closed brain activity of 300 respondents (160 females). The NIRS analyses was based on 155 respondents (88 females). The total power, coherence and approximate entropy measures were calculated for the EEG recordings in the ?, ?, lower-1 ?, lower-2 ?, upper ?, ? and ? bands. Based on the filtered NIRS data the concentration, the peak frequency and the Hurst exponent (H) of oxi-Hb and deoxi-Hb were determined. Higher power values in females as compared with males were observed in the ? and ? bands. In the lower-1 ?, lower-2 ? and upper ? bands this difference was only pronounced in the parieto-occipital areas. Higher coherences in the ? band in females as compared to males was observed, whereas a reverse pattern of differences was present in the ? and ? bands. A similar pattern of differences was also observed for the ApEn measures. Males showed a higher percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, more irregular and faster spontaneous fluctuations in oxi-Hb and deoxi-Hb as compared with females. It can be concluded that males and females differ in the local as well as long range coding of information - the binding of distributed responses - as well as in the excitability dynamics of their cortical network. PMID:20875436
Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining genderdifferences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-genderdifferences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…
Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated genderdifferences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that genderdifferences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that genderdifferences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability. PMID:23462757
The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant genderdifferences in terms of…
Among college undergraduates, males consistently outperform females on tests of geographical knowledge. That difference may be caused by the fact that women have had less active control over distances and directions traveled in their lives, and thus less interest in learning about them. This may change as women's roles in society change. (PS)
Compares male and female rape reporting behavior using data from the National Crime and Victimization Survey for 897 rape victims. Data indicate that the situational characteristics of rape and factors that influence reporting a rape differ by sex. Women reported victimization more frequently than did men. (SLD)
In this study, we examined genderdifferences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning making devices than previous research, we found that 13- to 16-year old racially and economically diverse females
Robyn Fivush; Jennifer G. Bohanek; Widaad Zaman; Sally Grapin
I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…
A study examined sources of satisfaction, indicators of stress, research and teaching performance, and reward structure in the academic careers of matched pairs of male and female faculty (N=63) at a major state university. Results are presented and discussed with respect to prior research on genderdifferences and academic career. (Author/MSE)
Objective: This study examined genderdifferences in explicit and implicit atti- tudes toward overweight and explicit and implicit weight identity. Method: Normal weight women (n ¼22) and men (n ¼20) and overweight women (n ¼20) and men (n ¼21) com- pleted the Implicit Association Test and portions of the Eating Disorders Questionnaire. Results: Although explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes were
Vishal P. Grover; Pamela K. Keel; Jason P. Mitchell
Examined genderdifferences in educational achievements based on a longitudinal sample of 45,000+ Hong Kong secondary school students who took a public examination in 1997. Reports results coincided with findings from recent British studies that boys did less well than girls in all areas of school curriculum. (BT)
Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of genderdifferences in environmental awareness. (CMK)
In this study, the authors examined genderdifferences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
Genderdifferences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…
Genderdifferences were found in the performance of 103 school administrators (74 men and 29 women) participating in the University of Tulsa's Management Development Program assessment center's evaluations. Exercises included an in-basket, two interviews, an oral presentation, and two leaderless group discussions. Women scored higher on the…
Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the genderdifference in access to extension services and how this translates to observeddifferences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…
Recent research indicates genderdifferences in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether induced stress resulted in gender-specific patterns of brain activation during a decision task involving monetary reward. Specifically, we manipulated physiological stress levels using a cold pressor task, prior to a risky decision making task. Healthy men (n?=?24, 12 stressed) and women (n?=?23, 11 stressed) completed the decision task after either cold pressor stress or a control task during the period of cortisol response to the cold pressor. Genderdifferences in behavior were present in stressed participants but not controls, such that stress led to greater reward collection and faster decision speed in males but less reward collection and slower decision speed in females. A gender-by-stress interaction was observed for the dorsal striatum and anterior insula. With cold stress, activation in these regions was increased in males but decreased in females. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of stress on reward-related decision processing differs depending on gender.
Sakaki, Michiko; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Nga, Lin; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Chen, Eric Y.; Samii, Nicole; Mather, Mara
It is important to understand genderdifference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess genderdifferences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude
The influence of obesity on the lipolytic capacity of isolated sc fat cells was studied prospectively in 13 women and 10 men, all obese, but otherwise healthy, before and 2 and 3 yr after weight reduction by bariatric surgery. Nonobese subjects (25 women and 17 men) without a family history of obesity served as the control group. Lipolytic capacity was determined after stimulation at different steps of the lipolytic cascade with noradrenaline, isoprenaline, forskolin, and (Bu)(2)AMP. Bariatric surgery was followed by a marked and similar reduction of body mass index and fat cell volume (approximately 40%) in both genders. Before weight loss, lipolytic capacity per cell was elevated in obese women and decreased to normal levels after weight reduction at 2 and 3 yr. However, lipolytic capacity per fat cell surface area was not changed in obese women. In obese men, lipolytic capacity per cell was almost the same as in lean men and was not influenced by weight reduction. Lipolytic capacity was related to fat cell size in women (P = 0.0008; r = 0.58), but not in men (P = 0.67; r = 0.086). The protein content of hormone-sensitive lipase, which determines lipolytic capacity, was significantly lower in obese men and women and increased slightly after weight reduction in men only. Thus, in women, but not in men, the adipocyte lipolytic capacity is influenced by obesity and weight reduction, probably due to changes in fat cell size. These genderdifferences are not related to the amount of hormone-sensitive lipase protein in adipocytes. PMID:11836318
Numerous studies have documented genderdifferences in psychopathology; girls generally report more internalizing symptoms and boys generally report more externalizing symptoms. These genderdifferences are partially accounted for by the gender-typed personality characteristics of boys and girls. This study was designed to investigate how gender roles influence symptoms of psychopathology by examining the mediating effects of self- and peer-rated competencies.
Melissa L. Hoffmann; Kimberly K. Powlishta; Karen J. White
In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether genderdifferences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar
As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…
Extensive studies in both humans and animals have shown that females express enhanced levels of immunoreactivity compared to males. Whereas this provides females with increased resistance to many types of infection, it also makes them more susceptible to autoimmune diseases. This review will focus on gender-related differences in non-specific host defense mechanisms with a particular emphasis on monocyte\\/macrophage function and
The research focused on the exploration of genderdifferences in interaction with infant siblings in the home and the maternal socialization of baby care in girls as opposed to boys. Observations were made of 20 families, each with 2 parents, an infant under the age of 12 months, and an older child between the ages of 46 and 102 months. Five…
Background Genderdifferences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support.
Recent studies have found that the expressed emotion (EE) status of relatives of female schizophrenics may not possess the prognostic value found previously for male schizophrenics. In the present study, relatives of 110 recent onset schizophrenic patients were assessed using the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI-EE), the Five Minute Speech Sample Method (FMSS-EE) and a measure of Affective Style (AS) to determine whether affective attitudes or behaviours varied by patient gender. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) ratings made during in-patient and out-patient periods were examined to assess patient symptomatology. No differences were found by patient gender for CFI-EE, FMSS-EE, or subcomponents of the CFI-EE measure. However, when the subcomponents on the FMSS associated with a high EE critical rating were examined, males were found to be recipients of more harsh criticism than female patients. Similarly, for the AS measure, there was a distinct subgroup of male patients who received a level of criticism not seen in female patients. When the concordance across the two EE measures was examined, relatives of males were more consistent in their affective attitudes than relatives of female patients. Analysis of the BPRS data from the in-patient to the out-patient periods suggested variations by patient gender which may explain some of the differences in relatives' affective attitudes. PMID:8817703
This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on genderdifferences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…
Accuracy of participants' ratings of genderdifferences on 77 behaviors and traits was assessed by correlating participants' ratings with actual genderdifferences based on meta-analyses. Accuracy at the group level was impressively high in 5 samples of participants. Accuracy of individuals showed wide variability, suggesting that ability to accurately describe genderdifferences is an individual difference. Analysis of correlations between
Background Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, genderdifferences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are genderdifferences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. Methods 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. Results When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Conclusions Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions trigger the application of coercive measures in men. Moreover coerced women showed diminished social functioning, and more importantly more severe symptoms from the “excitement/hostile” cluster in contrast to coerced men. National and international recommendation on coercive treatment practices should include appropriate consideration of the evidence of genderdifferences in clinical presentation and aggressive behaviors found in inpatient populations.
Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining genderdifferences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the genderdifferences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate genderdifferences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Genderdifferences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males).
In a review of 46 meta-analyses of genderdifferences, overhand throwing had the largest genderdifference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…
Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.
This paper offers a preliminary examination of literature reviewing sex and genderdifferences in the five prototypic emotions of fear, anger, sadness, joy, and love. The paper notes that within the literature on sex and genderdifferences, the terms "sex" and "gender" are often erroneously referred to interchangeably ("sex" is a biological term…
In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether genderdifferences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed genderdifferences on phonologically-familiar, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726
Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…
Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of genderdifferences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…
Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.
These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as\\u000a to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of genderdifferences in subjective well-being in various societies.\\u000a Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS project, involving Norway, England,\\u000a Germany, Spain and Israel). The size of gender
Clemens Tesch-Römer; Andreas Motel-Klingebiel; Martin J. Tomasik
This paper presents findings from research exploring gender by item difficulty interaction on mathematics test scores in Cyprus. Data steamed from 2 longitudinal studies with 4 different age groups of primary school students. The hypothesis that boys tended to outperform girls on the hardest items and girls tended to outperform boys on the easiest…
Gender and aging moderate brain-behavior relationships. Advances in neuroscience enable integration of neurobehavioral, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiology measures. Here we present neurobehavioral studies thai examine cognitive and emotion processing in healthy men and women and highlight the effects of sex differences and aqinq. Neuroanatomic studies with maqnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicate that the progressive decrease in brain volume affects froniotemporal brain regions in men more than in Vi/omen, Functional imaging methods suggest sex differences in rate of blood flow, pattern of glucose metabolism, and receptor activity. The role of ovarian hormones is important in elucidating the observed relationships. A life span perspective on genderdifferences through the integration of available methodologies will advance understanding healthy people and the effects of brain disorders. PMID:22033483
OBJECTIVE Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric condition for which veterans receive service-connected disability benefits from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Historically, women have been less likely than men to obtain PTSD disability benefits. The authors examined whether these gender disparities have been redressed over time and, if not, whether appropriate clinical factors account for persisting differences. METHODS This longitudinal, observational study was based on a gender-stratified, nationally representative sample of 2,998 U.S. veterans who applied for VA disability benefits for PTSD between 1994 and 1998. The primary outcome was change in PTSD service connection over a ten-year period. RESULTS Forty-two percent (95% confidence interval [CI]=38%-45%) of the women and 50% (CI=45%-55%) of the men originally denied service connection for PTSD eventually received such benefits. Only 8% (CI=7%-10%) of women and 5% (CI=4%-6%) of men lost PTSD disability status. Compared with men, women had lower unadjusted odds of gaining PTSD service connection (odds ratio [OR]=.70, CI=.55-.90) and greater unadjusted odds of losing PTSD service connection (OR=1.76, CI=1.21-2.57). Adjusting for clinical factors accounted for the genderdifference in gaining PTSD service connection; adjusting for clinical factors and demographic characteristics eliminated the genderdifference in loss of PTSD service connection. CONCLUSIONS Gender-based differences in receipt of PTSD service connection persisted in this cohort over a ten-year period but were explained by appropriate sources of variation. Further research on possible disparities in loss of PTSD disability benefits is warranted. PMID:24535436
Sayer, Nina A; Hagel, Emily M; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Spoont, Michele R; Rosenheck, Robert A; Griffin, Joan M; Arbisi, Paul A; Murdoch, Maureen
This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949
Background: Although both gender- and sports-specific injuries exist among athletes, genderdifferences in the types of injuries caused by sports activities, except for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and anterior knee pain, are not well established.Objective: An observational study with a retrospective case-series design was conducted to investigate gender-specific differences in the types of injuries sustained while engaging in sports
Jun Iwamoto; Tsuyoshi Takeda; Yoshihiro Sato; Hideo Matsumoto
OBJECTIVESThe objective of this study was to examine genderdifferences in left ventricular (LV) function and expression of cardiac genes in response to LV pressure overload due to ascending aortic stenosis in rats.BACKGROUNDClinical studies have documented genderdifferences in the pattern of adaptive LV hypertrophy. Whether these differences result from intrinsic differences in molecular adaptation to pressure overload between men
Ellen O Weinberg; Christiane D Thienelt; Sarah E Katz; Jozef Bartunek; Minori Tajima; Susanne Rohrbach; Pamela S Douglas; Beverly H Lorell
Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and genderdifferences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observeddifferences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…
van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande
Previous studies have reported women to have a greater resis- tance to fatigue than men during sustained handgrip exercise, however, observedgenderdifferences in fatigue has been shown to be a function of contraction type. The purpose of the present study was to determine if genderdifferences exist in forearm muscle fatigue during intermittent handgrip contractions. Women (n = 11,
Genderdifferences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining genderdifferences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…
Male pedestrians are over-represented in road crashes. Among pedestrians, males violate more rules than females do. For now, it is not known whether genderdifferences in pedestrian behaviors only concern rule compliance. The objective of this study was to explore genderdifferences in pedestrian rule compliance and in gaze targets before and during crossing. 400 adult pedestrians were observed at
Does gender style adaptation detract from attributes increasingly required for successful leadership in future operations. Specifically, do women occupying leadership positions (military and civilian) adapt, exhibiting traditionally male leadership styles...
Career development research has often explored genderdifferences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…
This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…
This article provides a review of various types of literature on genderdifferences among substance abusers. The authors begin this literature review by summarizing the literature on the differing treatment needs of men and women. The authors continue with a review of the empirically based literature on genderdifferences in background…
The aim of this study was to examine how men and women observe experimentally induced pain in male and female participants and to specifically determine the accuracy of observed pain ratings, the possible interactions between the sex of the viewer and the sex of the individual being observed, and the influence of gender role expectations on observed pain ratings. The
Although genderdifferences in substance use disorders have been identified, few studies have examined genderdifferences in prescription drug dependence. The aim of this study was to examine genderdifferences in clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large clinical trial for prescription opioid dependence. Despite no pre-treatment differences in opioid dependence severity, women reported significantly greater functional impairment, greater psychiatric severity, and higher likelihood of using opioids to cope with negative affect and pain than men. Women were also more likely than men to have first obtained opioids via a legitimate prescription and to use opioids via the intended route of administration. Men reported significantly more alcohol problems than women. There were no significant genderdifferences in medication dose, treatment retention, or opioid outcomes. Thus, despite the presence of pre-treatment genderdifferences in this population, once the study treatment was initiated, women and men exhibited similar opioid use outcomes.
McHugh, R. Kathryn; DeVito, Elise E.; Dodd, Dorian; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Connery, Hilary Smith; Weiss, Roger D.
Background: Studies on genderdifferences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated genderdifferences in sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables among patients suffering exclusively from single-episode depression. Method: Systematic recruitment of 301 participants via the
Jens D. Bukh; Camilla Bock; Maj Vinberg; Ulrik Gether; Lars Vedel Kessing
The purpose of this study was to explore genderdifferences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in genderdifferences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…
Genderdifferences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Genderdifferences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…
Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy
Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of one sex with respect to the other. The variation in gender gaps in mathematics, science, and
Genderdifferences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate genderdifferences in symptom endorsements of…
Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.
BackgroundCardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic
Kaisa Silander; Mervi Alanne; Kati Kristiansson; Olli Saarela; Samuli Ripatti; Kirsi Auro; Juha Karvanen; Sangita Kulathinal; Matti Niemelä; Pekka Ellonen; Erkki Vartiainen; Pekka Jousilahti; Janna Saarela; Kari Kuulasmaa; Alun Evans; Markus Perola; Veikko Salomaa; Leena Peltonen; A. Cecile J. W. Janssens
This study examined genderdifferences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to genderdifferences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter-word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an…
Matthews, J. S.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Morrison, Frederick J.
The present research examined developmental and genderdifferences in the relative accessibility of differentgender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature.
Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
Examined genderdifferences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…
A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there genderdifferences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…
Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between gender, A-level scores and scores on the learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) of undergraduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The participants for this study were selected at random from the overall LASSI sampling exercise and males and females were…
Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…
Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar
Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity.
The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon.
Describes a time allocation study that was designed to determine how two types of teachers spent their time regarding genderdifferences in a primary school computer laboratory in Costa Rica. Topics include the sociocultural context of gender roles in Costa Rica, hypothesis testing, and the domination of boys in computer labs. Contains 101…
The aim of the current study was to investigate the genderdifferences in preferences for particular characteristics of an ideal sexual partner, and also to investigate the degree men and women accurately estimate the preferences of the other gender. A sample of 289 men and 137 women, who were serving in the army, completed a questionnaire about what they believed
While the potential for gender bias in psychotherapy is commonly recognized, most of the literature addressing this problem has concentrated on the assessment process. Therapists are left with few guidelines regarding the avoidance of bias in ongoing therapeutic relationships. This article reviews alternative explanations of genderdifference in moral judgment with particular attention to their clinical relevance. The writer suggests
A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendereddifferences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural
Four studies were conducted to assess genderdifferences in the effects of extrinsic motivation on creativity. Results indicate expectations of evaluation and work for reward lowered the creativity of middle school girls, but not that of boys. Expecting ungraded feedback reduced the negative impact of expecting evaluation and the gender…
In Finland occupational diseases are registered by diagnosis, causative agent, age, occupation, field of work, and gender. This report analyzes in detail the 1991 statistics on genderdifferences in occupational allergic diseases. A total of 1314 cases of occupational allergic diseases were reported, comprising 14.2% of all registered occupational diseases. The following allergic occupational diseases were encountered: allergic contact dermatitis
Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as genderdifferences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…
Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…
Perfectionism is a dimension which has been studied very little as a separate entity. It is not even considered as a nosological factor. No classification of the medical sciences underlines its importance other than to speak of a personality trait, of an aspect, or of a parameter. Nevertheless, perfectionism is related to multiple disorders such as depression (18, 20, 36), suicide (8, 16, 55), nutritional problems (11, 28), anxiety (3), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (53), social phobia (2), as well as insomnia (46). Certain authors stress the possible role of perfectionism in the development or the persistence of a substantial number of these disorders (7, 22, 38). Given these facts, it is all the easier to understand the interest shown by clinicians and researchers in the subject. Better detection and evaluation of its impact on behaviour is important in putting therapies in place (6, 53). Relationships between perfectionism and fear of failure have been approached (21, 51, 54). Correlations between perfectionism and high levels of state and trait anxiety have been demonstrated (23). The evaluation of perfectionism has been dealt with very little. Some questionnaires devote a sub-category to it, such as the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Irrational Beliefs Test. However, recently, it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct. Two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation. Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate defined perfectionism as the setting of excessively high standards for performance associated with critical self-evaluation. Six dimensions are described: concern over making mistakes, high personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubt about quality of performance and organization. Internal consistency and validity have been established (25, 26). Hewitt and Flett (30, 31, 33, 35) have developed another approach where three dimensions of perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality trait, but it can be used also in taking into account stress and its impact, for instance
Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observedgenderdifference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…
The genderdifference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar genderdifferences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of genderdifferences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies.
Background Youth were studied to determine the influence of gender on diastolic function, which has been shown to express abnormalities\\u000a early in the course of congestive heart failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The study participants were 121 normotensive individuals (53 girls, 68 boys) ages 14 to 18 years. Demographics, hemodynamics,\\u000a and Doppler-derived indices of diastolic function were collected. Dependent measures of diastolic function were the
G. K. Kapuku; H. C. Davis; N. Shah; A. M. McMillan; G. A. Harshfield
Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to differentgender grouping strategies to optimize learning.
The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…
More and more differences in lung cancer are being detected between men and women. Lung cancer, at the beginning of the last century a rare disease in women, has a growing incidence in women, in particular in young females. Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developed countries with different histological types and adenocarcinomas are more frequent in women than in men. Cigarette smoking is the most prevalent cause of lung cancer in women, in addition susceptibility to carcinogens may differ between the sexes. As more non-smoking women than men develop lung cancer, it is likely that they are exposed to excessive environmental carcinogens such as second-hand-smoking, in-house-radon or cooking fumes. Furthermore, genetic and hormonal influences play a role in lung cancer etiology for women. Taken together, women have a better overall survival than men with lung cancer. Differences in molecular susceptibility patterns are observed between men and women, and show that molecular targets such as EGFR or ALK more frequent in women. PMID:23677552
The present study examined genderdifferences in ADHD through a meta-analysis. Effect size estimates for the primary symptoms and correlates of ADHD were calculated in an attempt to replicate and extend a previous meta-analysis on genderdifferences in the disorder. Relatively lenient inclusion criteria were used in order to maximize the number of studies included in the effect sizes.The results
Prevalence studies on dementia generally show a higher risk in women than in men. American studies reported equal rates whereas European ones showed higher rates in women. Observational studies on hormone replacement therapy showed that treated women had a lower risk than untreated ones. Two large clinical trials in menopausal women did not find any protective effect of therapy with oestrogens or oestrogens plus progestinic hormones. However, as regards a potential protective role of female gonadal hormones on brain neurodegenerative diseases, this result cannot be considered conclusive since a large cohort study showed an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in women who underwent early oophorectomy. A possible genderdifference in the risk of AD is further supported by recent evidence suggesting that the brain's so-called cognitive reserve is reduced in women. The area of genderdifferences in AD and in neurodegenerative processes generally, although still largely unexplored, appears to offer great promise for the future development of better strategies of intervention for patients. PMID:19775536
This article examines genderdifferences in psychological distress by assessing men's and women's experience of daily stressors and psychological distress in a sample of 166 married couples. Respondents completed a structured daily diary each day over the course of 42 days. Results showed that women reported a higher prevalence of high distress days and a lower prevalence of distress-free days than men. Genderdifferences in daily distress were attributable largely to women experiencing more onsets of distress episodes rather than being more likely to continue in a distress state from one day to subsequent days. Results from hierarchical linear models (HLM) indicated that the significant genderdifferences diminished after respondents' daily stressors were taken into account. Implications of these findings for gender role and rumination theories are discussed. PMID:9781406
A substantial body of risk research indicates that women and men differ in their perceptions of risk. This paper discusses how they differ and why. A review of a number of existing empirical studies of risk perception points at several problems, regarding what genderdifferences are found in such studies, and how these differences are accounted for. Firstly, quantitative approaches,
This microanalytic study of family interaction establishes links among marital quality, gender, and parent–child relationships. Dyadic conversational exchanges between 38 mothers and fathers and their 3.5 year-old first-born son or daughter were analyzed. Marital quality was related to genderdifferences in both parent and child behavior, with less maritally adjusted fathers of daughters showing the most negativity toward their children.
Patricia K. Kerig; Philip A. Cowan; Carolyn Pape Cowan
Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for genderdifferences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.
Physicians routinely prescribe short-acting inhalers for asthmatic patients and also strive to help patients understand the necessity of carrying their inhalers at all times as a measure against asthmatic episodes. However, the actual rate of compliance among patients remains unclear. In order to gain a better understanding of adult inhaler compliance, this study utilized a questionnaire in which asthmatic patients in an allergy practice answered questions pertaining to their inhaler usage. For instance, while some queries addressed the patient's age and gender, others asked about the inhaler carrying rate, and severity of asthma. As a result of the study and subsequent statistical analysis, a few interesting findings were concluded: women were much more likely to carry an inhaler with them than men (61% vs 30%, P < 0.0001), the severity of asthma directly correlated to an increase in patient inhaler compliance, and a large percentage of patients indicated that they did not feel the need to carry their inhalers even though their physician had specified otherwise. The results of this study bear implications for patient education regarding inhaler usage and can serve to guide manufacturers in the development of better delivery systems for short-acting bronchodilators. PMID:24830116
Background. Controversy exists regarding the influence of gender on sepsis events and outcome. Epidemiological data from other countries may not always apply to local circumstances. The aim of this study was to identify genderdifferences in patient characteristics, treatment, and outcome related to the occurrence of sepsis at admission to the ICU. Methods. A prospective observational cohort study on patients admitted to the ICU over a 3-year period fulfilling sepsis criteria during the first 24 hours. Demographic data, APACHE II score, SOFA score, TISS 76, aetiology, length of stay (LOS), mortality rate, and aspects of treatment were collected and then analysed with respect to genderdifferences. Results. There were no gender-related differences in mortality or length of stay. Early organ dysfunction assessed as SOFA score at admission was a stronger risk factor for hospital mortality for women than for men. This discrepancy was mainly associated with the coagulation sub-score. CRP levels differed between genders in relation to hospital mortality. Infection from the abdominopelvic region was more common among women, whereas infection from skin or skin structures were more common in men. Conclusion. In this cohort, gender was not associated with increased mortality during a 2-year follow-up period. SOFA score at ICU admission was a stronger risk factor for hospital mortality for women than for men. The discrepancy was mainly related to the coagulation SOFA sub-score. Together with differences in CRP levels this may suggest differences in inflammatory response patterns between genders.
Liedgren, Eva; Johansson, Goran; Ferm, Martin; Winso, Ola
There is a male dominance among patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Potentially, this will increase the risk of a skewed male/female distribution in randomised, controlled trials (RCTs). We have evaluated if this has in fact happened when randomising and whether the authors have been aware of that. We performed a systematic search on PubMed from 1 January 2011 to 31 May 2012 using the mesh terms 'randomized controlled trial' and 'intensive care unit'. Twenty-five RCTs with a total of 12,788 patients met the inclusion criteria, with an overall male dominance of 63.6% (P?0.0001). Eighteen of the 25 papers had an individually statistically significant genderdifference in their total trial population. None of the 18 trials with a significant genderdifference in their overall trial population had calculated the P-value for this overall difference. In the randomised groups, there was a significant genderdifference in five papers. Seventeen had no significant genderdifference in the randomised groups, and three papers did not state gender in the randomised groups. This study show that there is a marked male dominance in RCTs conducted in ICUs. We recommend that when planning future RCTs, the authors contemplate if their results can be used indiscriminately among ICU patients if the distribution of males and females is much skewed. It is relevant to determine if ones endpoint can be influenced by genderdifferences and if there is a risk of gender influence on data, proportional allocation or stratification should be considered. PMID:24828302
In this activity, learners use a microscope to examine three different microbes: bacteria, yeast and paramecia. Educator will need to prepare the yeast solution one day before the activity. This lesson guide includes background information, educator resources and Slide Preparation Cards. A yogurt recipe is included as an extension to this activity.
Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Denk, James P.
Background: Genderdifferences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…
Genderdifferences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…
Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John
Both parents have unique contributions to make in the development of a child. Mothers and fathers think and act differently from one another, and children thrive on these differences. This book examines genderdifferences in child rearing, focusing on the conflict between male experts' advice promoting early independence and women's desire for…
The Adolescent Coping Scale was administered to 749 gifted students attending two different summer enrichment programs. Results indicate little evidence of gender or grade differences but found racial differences on the Seek Spiritual Support scale (African and Hispanic students had the highest scores), the Self-Blame scale, and the Worry scale.…
This study explored possible gender-based differences in birdwatching participation and commitment using a sample of North Carolina birding organization members. Within the theoretical contexts of recreational specialization and symbolic interactionism we examined whether male and female birdwatchers differed in objective measures of participation such as frequency of participation, birding skills, monetary investment, and years of participation. We then examined differences
Genderdifferencesobserved in interpersonal and self-critical vulnerabilities, reactivity to stressful life events, quality of relationships, and self-concepts inform a multivariate theoretical model of the moderating effects of gender on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. To test this model, data were collected in a 1-year prospective study from an ethnically diverse sample of 460 middle school students. Increases in
Bonnie J. Leadbeater; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Sidney J. Blatt; Christopher Hertzog
Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining genderdifferences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, genderdifferences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Genderdifferences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed.
Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.
We consider issues affecting professional identity formation, such as individual differences, graduate training, cultural perspectives, and ideology. We propose that genderdifferences in professional identity and functioning also are attributable, to a significant degree, to early developmental experiences. We review the professional socialization process and then discuss three theoretical issues related to genderdifferences that appear to affect women in
We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359)\\u000a using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals\\u000a that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged\\u000a in direct contact, collective types
Objective To examine genderdifferences in inpatient experiences and how they vary by dimensions of care and other patient characteristics. Data Source A total of 1,971,632 patients (medical and surgical service lines) discharged from 3,830 hospitals, July 2007–June 2008, and completing the HCAHPS survey. Study Design We compare the experiences of male and female inpatients on 10 HCAHPS dimensions using multiple linear regression, adjusting for survey mode and patient mix. Additional models add additional patient characteristics and their interactions with patient gender. Principal Findings We find generally less positive experiences for women than men, especially for Communication about Medicines, Discharge Information, and Cleanliness. Genderdifferences are similar in magnitude to previously reported HCAHPS differences by race/ethnicity. The gender gap is generally larger for older patients and for patients with worse self-reported health status. Gender disparities are largest in for-profit hospitals. Conclusions Targeting the experiences of women may be a promising means of improving overall patient experience scores (because women comprise a majority of all inpatients); the experiences of older and sicker women, and those in for-profit hospitals, may merit additional examination.
Elliott, Marc N; Lehrman, William G; Beckett, Megan K; Goldstein, Elizabeth; Hambarsoomian, Katrin; Giordano, Laura A
Given that social anxiety disorder is a common, chronic, debilitating disorder and socially anxious women appear to have different experiences related to social development and social support than men, it is essential that the genderdifferences in social anxiety and social support be understood. The present study examined perceived social support quantity and satisfaction in 23 women and 28 men
The literature on male-female differences in burnout has produced inconsistent results regarding the strength and direction of this relationship. Lack of clarity on genderdifferences in organizationally relevant phenomena, such as work burnout, frequently generates ungrounded speculations that may (mis)inform organizational decisions. To address…
th century. More recently this has expanded to include cardiac electrophysiology. The mechanisms responsible for the disparities are being elucidated. Contributing factors may include: differing amounts of sex and gonadal steroids, differences in autonomic tone, and gender specific hemodynamic variables. Women have a longer corrected QT interval and men have a lower intrinsic heart rate. Atrial fibrillation is more common
RAMESH M. GOWDA; SABRINA L. WILBUR; PAUL SCHWEITZER
The higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in men than in women of similar age, and the menopause-associated increase in cardiovascular disease in women, has led to speculation that gender-related differences in sex hormones have a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease. Compelling data have indicated that sex differences in vascular biology are determined not only by
Cristiana Vitale; Michael E. Mendelsohn; Giuseppe M. C. Rosano
Used meta analysis to test predictions from psychoanalytic, parental investment, and differential socialization theories regarding genderdifferences in ability to resist temptation. Found that although females showed more restraint than males with a very small effect size, there were appreciable differences on forbidden-object tasks and very…
Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of genderdifferences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game performance in invasion games. There also exist different participation and learning patterns.
The negative affective priming of aggression was examined across different aversive contexts (general stress exposure and frustration) with a laboratory aggression paradigm that measured the intensity of shocks participants delivered to a putative employee. Participants' emotional responses were gauged via startle eyeblink reactions and self-report mood ratings. Aside from genderdifferences in overall aggression, men but not women exposed to
The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between gender and delinquency among inner-city adolescents participating in a court diversion program. Official and self-report records of 64 adolescents were analyzed to determine the influence of gender on program referrals, arrest rates, drug use, delinquency, and gang involvement. Genderdifferences emerged in both the referral source and behavioral patterns of the adolescents. Overall, males were more likely to be referred to the program for violations of the law, to have been arrested, and to have engaged in aggressive offenses and selling drugs. Females were more likely to be referred because of status offenses. Gang membership had an intensifying effect on the delinquent behaviors of all youths. Male gang members were far more likely than nonmembers to have been arrested, and female gang members were more likely than nonmembers to carry weapons. PMID:8266841
Describes a high school mini-course called "Gender Bender" (a survey course of the contemporary literature on genderdifferences) that studied gender issues that were troubling high school students. Describes how the course discussed gender and schooling; gender roles in society; images in the media; dating, marriage, and divorce; and…
Aim: The aim of this literature review was to review and discuss the differences between men and women with heart failure with regard to epidemiology, aetiology, diagnostics, prognosis, pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment, and the impact of heart failure on psychosocial factors and healthcare utilisation. Method: Two primary health care resources, medline and cinahl, were selected to review the current literature.
Purpose – This exploratory study aims to compare job demands, work outcomes, social and coping resources and indicators of psychological and physical health of male and female police officers in Norway. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using anonymously completed questionnaires. Findings – Many demographic differences were present in that male officers were older, worked more hours and overtime hours, were
The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…
Research on students’ attendance rates has focused mainly on the effects of personality variables and cognitive ability, rather than on the impact on degree outcomes. More specifically, there is scant information relating to the question of whether male and female undergraduate students have differential practices in relation to attendance, whether any such differences are significant or not in terms of
Research shows that young children are able to draw simple maps of their neighborhoods and to recognize features on aerial photographs. Among younger children there is little difference between the mapping ability of boys and girls, but as they grow older, boys consistently perform better in map drawing and map reading. (Author/SK)
Reviews research related to gender and learning in science museums. Examines 10 studies including studies of stereotypic behavior patterns, parent talk and family interactions, and gender-biased exhibits. Describes the need for a better understanding of genderdifferences in informal learning environments and more exhibits specifically designed to…
Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, characterized by oral and genital ulceration, skin lesions, and uveitis as well as vascular, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system involvement. It is prevalent in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the genderdifferences in clinical manifestations of Behçet's disease, treatment responses, mortality, and morbidity. Behçet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in males from certain geographic regions and particular ethnic groups; however, recent reports indicate more even gender distribution across the world. There are genderdifferences in clinical manifestations and severity of the disease. Ocular manifestations, vascular involvement, and neurologic symptoms are more frequently reported in male patients whereas oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and arthritis occur more frequently in female patients. The disease can have a more severe course in males, and overall mortality rate is significantly higher among young male patients.
This analysis describes methamphetamine (MA) use behaviors in a broad cross-section of (N=350) former clients from a large publicly funded treatment system and examines differences between males and females in drug use history, MA initiation and motivators, MA-related problems, acquisition, distribution, manufacture, and treatment characteristics. Results show polydrug use, prolonged MA use before treatment, initiation primarily through friends, common sensation-seeking
Mary-Lynn Brecht; Ann O'Brien; Christina von Mayrhauser; M. Douglas Anglin
Cognitive research has indicated that the difference between males and females is negligible. Paradoxically, in traditionally-taught college level introductory physics courses, males have outperformed females. UC Davis' Physics 7A (the first class of a three-quarter Introduction to Physics sequence for Life-Science students), however, counters this trend since females perform similarly to males. The gender-based performance difference within the other two quarters (Physics 7B & 7C) of the radically restructured, active-learning physics sequence still echo the traditionally-taught courses. In one experiment, I modified the laboratory activity instructions of the Physics 7C course to encourage further group interaction. These modifications did not affect the gender-based performance difference. In a later experiment, I compared students' performance on different forms of assessment for certain physics concepts during the Physics 7C course. Over 500 students took weekly quizzes at different times. The students were given different quiz questions on the same topics. Several quiz questions seemed to favor males while others were more gender equitable. I highlighted comparisons between a few pairs of questions that assessed students' understanding of the same physical concept. Males tended to perform better in responding to questions that seemed to require spatial visualization. Questions that required greater understanding of the physical concept or scientific model were more gender neutral.
There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating genderdifferences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Genderdifferences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain genderdifferences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major genderdifferences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.
Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)
In this study we investigated genderdifferences in willingness to donate organs and conversations with family members about organ donation. Results from a snowball sample of 353 men and 488 women (average age = 41–50) indicated that men are less willing to donate and less likely to have conversations about organ donation. When such conversations do occur, men are less
Teresa L. Thompson; James D. Robinson; R. Wade Kenny
Aims: To use national surveillance data in Canada to describe genderdifferences in the pattern of farm fatalities and severe injuries (those requiring hospitalisation).Methods: Data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program (CAISP) included farm work related fatalities from 1990 to 1996 for all Canadian provinces and abstracted information from hospital discharge records from eight provinces for the five fiscal
H Dimich-Ward; J R Guernsey; W Pickett; D Rennie; L Hartling; R J Brison
This paper investigates genderdifferences in the academic ethic and academic achievement among college students. The authors used the survey data collected from students attending Georgia Southern University, a unit of the University System of Georgia and one of two regional universities in the state. Results from the analysis indicate that…
Chee, Kyong Hee; Pino, Nathan W.; Smith, William L.
With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the genderdifferences in the acceptance of…
This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…
This study analyzed genderdifferences in self-regulated learning components, motivational beliefs and achievement in self-regulated online learning environment. Sample of the study consisted of 145 participants from an online programming course which is based on synchronous and asynchronous communication methods over the Internet. Motivated…
The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate genderdifferences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…
Examines status and gender role explanations of the tendency for women to conform more than men in group pressure settings. Analysis of age and sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance and when subjects formed impressions of group members' likability. Among younger…
Differences in college enrollment growth rates for African-American men and women have resulted in a large gender gap in college attendance. This paper shows that, controlling for spurious correlation with unobserved variables, having more college-educated older siblings raises rather than lowers the likelihood of college attendance for…
This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that genderdifferences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…
Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of genderdifferences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…
The present study examined genderdifferences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…
This exploratory study examined genderdifferences among drug-abusing adolescents (N = 2,281). Overall, male adolescents reported somewhat higher usage levels of various drugs than did female adolescents, and they had an earlier onset of regular marijuana use. In terms of clinical signs of problem severity, female adolescents showed higher scores than male adolescents on Physical Symptoms, Escape (with drugs), and
Elizabeth A. Opland; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield
Genderdifferences among street children in Nairobi suggest familial function, and development and mental-health outcomes. Male children are taught coping skills by their mothers early on to take up street life to support their family. Female children, expected to remain at home and learn to become women, turn to street life as the result of…
This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…
A review of recent large-scale studies on genderdifferences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and finger tapping. Females also
Genderdifferences among children and adolescents were examined on 14 separate measures of short-term memory. A nationally stratified sample of 1,279 children and adolescents, 637 males and 642 females, ranging in age between 5 and 19 years, were assessed on the 14 subtests of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Factor structure of the TOMAL was determined to be
Patricia A Lowe; Joan W Mayfield; Cecil R Reynolds
As strongly suggested by recent work, patterns of genderdifference can change because of changes in the selectivity of the sample itself. This is a statistical influence connected with the distributions of female and male scores, rather than a substantive influence related to demographic characteristics of the sample such as age or ethnicity. It…
The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual-spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined genderdifferences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in…
This paper reports a study of genderdifferences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet
Genderdifferences of gifted and talented students in mathematics performance were examined using the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) of 1995. The LEAP test is a statewide criterion-referenced test administered to all Louisiana public school children in Grades 3, 5, 7, 10, and 11. In this study, the database was restricted to…
The purpose of this study was to examine musical performance anxiety in children, with a focus on potential genderdifferences. Twenty-six sixth-grade students performing in a piano recital were monitored continuously on measures of heart rate and behaviour. Participants were interviewed in the months prior to the recital and they completed the…
Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of genderdifferences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…
Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding genderdifferences in beliefs about women. Men were significantly more likely…
The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on genderdifferences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…
Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated genderdifferences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…
Vocational researchers interested in the career development of women and people of color have noted the potentially strong influence of perceived barriers in the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In this study, ethnic and genderdifferences in perceived educational and career barriers were investigated in a sample of 1139 Mexican-American and Euro-American high school juniors and seniors.
Purpose – To examine if there are systematic gender-based differences in the perceptions of accounting firm alumni about their experiences with accounting firms. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Alumni of Big 4 firms' offices in two large cities in the USA are surveyed. The analysis is based on responses from 110 alumni who had left the firm within the previous ten years. Findings
Venkataraman M. Iyer; K. Raghunandan; Dasaratha V. Rama
This study investigated genderdifferences in North American preschoolers' biological reasoning about the concept of "life". Four-year-olds (M = 4.6, SD = 3.3 months) and five-year-olds (M = 5.6, SD = 3.8 months) were asked about the function of 13 body parts, organs, and bodily processes. Results indicated that the likelihood of mentioning the…
Purpose – This paper seeks to apply discriminate analysis to determine principal's leadership styles differences between genders in USA Midwest public schools. A distinction is to be made between “servant” (seen as aligned with emotional intelligence) and “traditional” (or top-down) leadership. The debate between the traditional (or, top-down) leadership approach, versus the servant (which is seen as aligned with emotional
Max Fridell; Rebecca Newcom Belcher; Phillip E. Messner
This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw genderdifference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…
Stress response is associated with manifestations of various psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. Hence, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence this association. Moreover, men and women tend to react differently with stress–both psychologically and biologically. These differences also need to be studied in order to have a better understanding in the genderdifferenceobserved for many disorders, which are likely to be contributed by the genderdifference in stress reactivity and responses. Such an understanding would have a significant impact on our understanding about how adult health is set during early life and how adult disease could be prevented in men and women.
Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Gupta, Chandra Shekhar
The present study was undertaken to investigate the miotic potency of soman vapor in the rat, as well as genderdifferences in the miotic response to soman vapor that have been reported previously for other nerve agents. The results of the present study demonstrate that the miotic potency of soman vapor is significantly less than that of other nerve agents, and that female rats are 2.5-3.0 times more sensitive to soman vapor than male rats. The results also demonstrate that ocular acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities differ between males and females, although this difference is not likely large enough to account for the observedgenderdifference. PMID:18568898
Dabisch, Paul A; Horsmon, Michael S; Taylor, James T; Muse, William T; Miller, Dennis B; Sommerville, Douglas R; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Thomson, Sandra
The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These genderdifferences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury.
Hazelhoff, Maria H.; Bulacio, Romina P.; Torres, Adriana M.
The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty) rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated genderdifferences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease genderdifferences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching genderdifferences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity.
Autobiographical memory is based on interactions between episodic memory contents, associated emotions, and a sense of self-continuity along the time axis of one's life. The functional neuroanatomy subserving autobiographical memory is known to include prefrontal, medial and lateral temporal, as well as retrosplenial brain areas; however, whether genderdifferences exist in neural correlates of autobiographical memory remains to be clarified. We reanalyzed data from a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment to investigate gender-related differences in the neural bases of autobiographical memories with differential remoteness and emotional valence. On the behavioral level, there were no significant genderdifferences in memory performance or emotional intensity of memories. Activations common to males and females during autobiographical memory retrieval were observed in a bilateral network of brain areas comprising medial and lateral temporal regions, including hippocampal and parahippocampal structures, posterior cingulate, as well as prefrontal cortex. In males (relative to females), all types of autobiographical memories investigated were associated with differential activation of the left parahippocampal gyrus. By contrast, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was activated differentially by females. In addition, the right insula was activated differentially in females during remote and negative memory retrieval. The data show gender-related differential neural activations within the network subserving autobiographical memory in both genders. We suggest that the differential activations may reflect gender-specific cognitive strategies during access to autobiographical memories that do not necessarily affect the behavioral level of memory performance and emotionality. PMID:15704151
Piefke, Martina; Weiss, Peter H; Markowitsch, Hans J; Fink, Gereon R
The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.
Computer games are tremendously successful and this is why the potential of using this medium for educational purposes is\\u000a increasingly recognized and researched. However, as new learning technologies need to be appropriate for all students and\\u000a ensure equal learning opportunities, it is important to take into account evidences on genderdifferences in the context of\\u000a computer games. This paper reviews
Christina M. Steiner; Michael D. Kickmeier-rust; Dietrich Albert
The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found genderdifferences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight genderdifferences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.
Current international classification systems for chemical mutagens are hazard-based rather than aimed at assessing risks quantitatively. In the past, germ-cell tests have been mainly performed with a limited number of somatic cell mutagens, and rarely under conditions aimed at comparing gender-specific differences in susceptibility to mutagen exposures. There are profound differences in the genetic constitution, and in hormonal, structural, and functional aspects of differentiation and control of gametogenesis between the sexes. A critical review of the literature suggests that these differences may have a profound impact on the relative susceptibility, stage of highest sensitivity and the relative risk for the genesis of gene mutation, as well as structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations in male and female germ cells. Transmission of germ-cell mutations to the offspring may also encounter gender-specific influences. Genderdifferences in susceptibility to chemically derived alterations in imprinting patterns may pose a threat for the health of the offspring and may also be transmitted to future generations. Recent reports on different genetic effects from high acute and from chronic low-dose exposures challenge the validity of conclusions drawn from standard methods of mutagenicity testing. In conclusion, research is urgently needed to identify genetic hazards for a larger range of chemical compounds, including those suspected to disturb proper chromosome segregation. Alterations in epigenetic programming and their health consequences will have to be investigated. More attention should be paid to gender-specific genetic effects. Finally, the database for germ-cell mutagens should be enlarged using molecular methodologies, and genetic epidemiology studies should be performed with these techniques to verify human genetic risk. PMID:17156773
The ventilatory response to hypoxia of adult conscious rats, measured during sleep as change in ventilation-oxygen consumption ratio (VE/VO2) while breathing 10% O2 for 15-30 min, was found to be approximately 23% larger in females (female) than in males (male, p < 0.001). Also arterial PCO2 during hypoxia decreased more in female. The genderdifference occurred at all metabolic levels, and was not related to normoxic VE/VO2 or the hypometabolic response to hypoxia; it was solely due to greater hyperpnea in female. With hypoxia, changes in blood pressure, heart rate and body temperature were similar between male and female; hence, genderdifferences in baro- or thermal-stimuli were not a contributing factor. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, lung, heart and diaphragm mass/body weight were also similar, whereas respiratory system compliance was higher, and resistance lower, in female. Ovariectomy did not change the female response. In prepubertal rats the VE/VO2 hypoxic response was also larger in female (approximately 12%, p < 0.05). After prolonged (approximately 4 months) hypoxia, the genderdifference in the response to acute hypoxia was no longer statistically significant. In conclusion, conscious adult female rats have a higher ventilatory response to hypoxia than male. The reason for the difference remains elusive, but is probably not due to ovarian hormones. PMID:8946574
Since the 1970s, much attention has been devoted to the male advantage in standardized mathematics tests in the United States. Although girls are found to perform equally well as boys in math classes, they are consistently outperformed on standardized math tests. This study compared the males and females in the United States, all 15-year-olds, by their performance on the PISA 2003 mathematics assessment. A multidimensional Rasch model was used for item calibration and ability estimation on the basis of four math domains: Space and Shape, Change and Relationships, Quantity, and Uncertainty. Results showed that the effect sizes of performance differences are small, all below .20, but consistent, in favor of boys. Space and Shape displayed the largest gender gap, which supports the findings from many previous studies. Quantity showed the least amount of genderdifference, which may be explained by the hypothesis that girls perform better on tasks that they are familiar with through classroom practice. PMID:18180547
Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on genderdifferences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women.
BackgroundThe course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known.Aims(1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the genderdifferences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum
Genderdifferences in glenoid anatomy have not been well studied in the current literature. Previous literature demonstrates\\u000a a mismatch between glenoid anatomy and glenoid implants for shoulder replacements. This may have clinical implications in\\u000a that glenoid loosening after shoulder arthroplasty has been cited as a frequent cause of poor performance of shoulder implants,\\u000a and perhaps the most common indication for
Objective: Two questions were posed: (1) What are the proportions of boys and girls in various categories of substantiated child abuse? (2) Do the gender proportions differ for children with and without disabilities?Method: Data collected by previous researchers from a demographically representative sample of U.S. child abuse reporting districts was analyzed. This included 1,249 case files involving 1,834 children. The
The purpose of this study is to examine genderdifferences in adolescent athletes' expectancy-related beliefs and task values as well as the relationship between the two constructs within the expectancy-value model of achievement choice. The participants were 349 males and 283 females (N = 632) participating in the 34 th Sarawak School Sports Inter-Division Athletic Meet. They were divided into
The current study was performed to determine possible genderdifferences among risk factors for suicidal behavior in epilepsy. A special rating scale for assessment of suicidality was designed. The risk of suicide attempt was higher in epilepsy with concomitant diagnoses of organic affective disorder (F=06.3, ICD-10) and cognitive impairment (F=07.62, ICD-10). Risk was higher among females than males. Early age
Background This study examined genderdifferences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no genderdifferences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Genderdifferences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce genderdifferences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence.
A number of genderdifferences have been documented in the incidence and symptomatology of the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Overall, previous reports suggest a less frequent incidence and a more benign phenotype in women mainly in Western populations, which is thought to be mediated by estrogens in particular in early stages of the disease. Not only motor symptoms seem to underlie gender effects, but also non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric and cognitive impairments, which can often precede motor manifestation. However, reliable results for genderdifferences in PD in particular of cognitive function and emotion processing, having a major impact on quality of life, are lacking. Moreover, studies investigating gender effects in PD in these areas have revealed highly heterogeneous results. The present review summarizes findings of currently available studies on gender effects on neuropsychological tests covering major cognitive domains, emotion processing as well as quality of life in patients with PD. Overall, the occurrence of cognitive impairment in PD seems to be associated with male gender, though inconsistent results were shown in cognitive screening tests. Regarding emotion recognition, men with PD were found to be less accurate than women with PD at identifying fearful expressions, whereas vice versa results appeared in healthy subjects. Lower quality of life and greater disability were reported by women compared to men with PD, which corresponds with the results in healthy subjects. Several disease-specific mediators as well as the question of a general gender and age-related effect as observed in healthy individuals are discussed. Increased knowledge on possible gender effects in PD would provide an enhanced insight in underlying pathological mechanisms, and has potential implications for the diagnosis and treatment of PD. PMID:24490118
A number of genderdifferences have been documented in the incidence and symptomatology of the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Overall, previous reports suggest a less frequent incidence and a more benign phenotype in women mainly in Western populations, which is thought to be mediated by estrogens in particular in early stages of the disease. Not only motor symptoms seem to underlie gender effects, but also non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric and cognitive impairments, which can often precede motor manifestation. However, reliable results for genderdifferences in PD in particular of cognitive function and emotion processing, having a major impact on quality of life, are lacking. Moreover, studies investigating gender effects in PD in these areas have revealed highly heterogeneous results. The present review summarizes findings of currently available studies on gender effects on neuropsychological tests covering major cognitive domains, emotion processing as well as quality of life in patients with PD. Overall, the occurrence of cognitive impairment in PD seems to be associated with male gender, though inconsistent results were shown in cognitive screening tests. Regarding emotion recognition, men with PD were found to be less accurate than women with PD at identifying fearful expressions, whereas vice versa results appeared in healthy subjects. Lower quality of life and greater disability were reported by women compared to men with PD, which corresponds with the results in healthy subjects. Several disease-specific mediators as well as the question of a general gender and age-related effect as observed in healthy individuals are discussed. Increased knowledge on possible gender effects in PD would provide an enhanced insight in underlying pathological mechanisms, and has potential implications for the diagnosis and treatment of PD.
Abstract Norepinephrine transporter (NET) function has a central ,role in the ,regulation of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations. Clinical observations in orthostatic intolerance patients suggest a genderdifference in NET function. We compared the cardiovascular response to selective NET inhibition with reboxetine between ,12 healthy men and 12 age-matched women. Finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured. The
Christoph Schroeder; Frauke Adams; Michael Boschmann; Jens Tank; Sebastian Haertter; Andre Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Friedrich C. Luft; Jens Jordan
The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and genderdifferences in using DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, for identifying gifted students from diverse ethnicities. DISCOVER is an acronym which stands for Discovering Intellectual Strength and Capabilities while Observing Varied Ethnic Responses. The sample consisted of 941 boys and…
From 1978 through 1995, a sex ratio of 6.6:1 of boys to girls (N = 275) was observed for children referred to a specialty clinic for gender identity disorder. This article attempts to evaluate several hypotheses regarding the marked sex disparity in referral rates. The sexes did not differ on four demographic variables (age at referral, IQ, and parent's social
Kenneth J. Zucker; Susan J. Bradley; Mohammad Sanikhani
We examined genderdifferences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…
Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.
Processing figurative language, such as idioms, is unique in that it requires one to make associations between words and non-literal meanings that are contextually appropriate. At the neural level, processing idiomatic phrases has been linked to recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), the left temporal cortex, superior medial prefrontal gyrus (MPFC), and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). This functional MRI study examined the brain responses associated with processing idiomatic compared to literal sentences. In addition, genderdifferences in neural responses associated with language comprehension were also explored. In an fMRI scanner, thirty-six healthy adult volunteers viewed sentences that were either literal or idiomatic in nature, and answered subsequent comprehension questions. This sentence comprehension tasks activated mainly prefrontal language areas (LIFG, LSFG, and RMFG). Consistent with previous findings, idiomatic sentences showed increased response in LIFG. These results are discussed in the backdrop of the graded salience hypothesis. Furthermore, we found genderdifferences in brain activation and functional connectivity during this task. Women showed greater overall activation than men when comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences; whereas men had significantly greater functional connectivity between LIFG and LMTG than women across tasks. Overall, the findings of this study highlight the genderdifferences in neural responses associated with figurative language comprehension. PMID:22634066
Kana, Rajesh K; Murdaugh, Donna L; Wolfe, Kelly R; Kumar, Sandhya L
Genderdifference in thermal comfort for Chinese people was investigated through two laboratory experiments. Both subjective assessment and objective measurement were taken during the experiment. Skin temperature (17 points) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured in one of the experiment. Our results show that there are genderdifferences in thermal comfort for Chinese people. Correlation of thermal sensation votes and air temperature and vapor pressure shows that females are more sensitive to temperature and less sensitive to humidity than males. Subjective assessment, skin temperature and HRV analysis suggest that females prefer neutral or slightly warmer condition, due to their constantly lower skin temperature and the fact that mean skin temperature is a good predictor of sensation and discomfort below neutrality. Female comfortable operative temperature (26.3 degrees C) is higher than male comfortable operative temperature (25.3 degrees C), although males and females have almost the same neutral temperature and that there is no genderdifference in thermal sensation near neutral conditions. PMID:17994246
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy is an autosomal dominant muscle disorder, mapped to 4q35. It is characterized by remarkable inter- and intrafamilial clinical variability ranging from severe phenotype to asymptomatic carriers. The aim of the present study was to assess the size of the Eco RI fragment in a large sample of asymptomatic or minimally affected carriers as well as symptomatic patients, comparing both sexes, in order to verify if asymptomatic carriers are randomly distributed or concentrated in some particular families and if there is preferential parental transmission (maternal or paternal) resulting in non-penetrant carriers. We have analysed a total of 506 individuals from 106 unrelated families with at least one affected facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy proband. In all patients the molecular diagnosis was confirmed following double digestion (Eco RI/Bln I fragment <35 kb). About 20% among probands' relatives who were found to carry the small fragment were asymptomatic or minimally affected, without preferential parental transmission, but with a significantly higher proportion of females (n=37) than males (n=14). Although asymptomatic carriers were found in about 30% of the families, some genealogies seem to concentrate more non-penetrant cases. A significant correlation between the size of the Eco RI fragment and severity of the phenotype was observed in the total sample but surprisingly this correlation is significant only among affected females. The genderdifference in clinical manifestation as well as the observation that asymptomatic carriers are not rare should be taken into consideration in genetic counseling of affected patients or 'at-risk' relatives. PMID:14659410
Tonini, M M O; Passos-Bueno, M R; Cerqueira, A; Matioli, S R; Pavanello, R; Zatz, M
College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate genderdifferences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954
Vascular endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events. However, less is known about genderdifferences in the endothelial function of untreated hypertensive individuals. The purpose of this study was to assess endothelial function in women and men with untreated hypertension. Ninety participants (35 women, 55 men), aged 40 to 60 years (mean age, 46.1±8.2 years), with untreated stage 1 hypertension (SBP 140–159 mmHg and/or DBP 90–99 mmHg) underwent brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation and endothelial-independent glyceryl trinitrate dilation. Women had a smaller flow-mediated dilation response than men (adjusted means±SEM; 1.8%±0.6 vs. 3.9%±0.4, p=.036). adjusting for baseline arterial diameter (p=.004), age (p=.596), ethnicity (p=.496), log shear stress ratio (p<.001), BMI (p=.009), 24-hour DBP (p=.169), HDL (p=.225), log creatinine (p=.927) and log physical activity (p=.682). Glyceryl trinitrate dilation did not differ by gender in adjusted models. Women between the ages of 40 and 60 years with untreated stage 1 hypertension exhibited a greater impairment of endothelial function compared to their male counterparts. These findings raise the possibility that female gender may impart a greater risk of cardiovascular events in patients with untreated stage 1 hypertension potentially due to poorer endothelial function.
Routledge, Faye S.; Hinderliter, Alan L.; Blumenthal, James A.; Sherwood, Andrew
Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but genderdifferences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar genderdifference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676
Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang
Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any genderdifferences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential genderdifferences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions. PMID:23097131
McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D
The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon. It remains a serious problem in science education that girls are being inadequately trained to question and reflect on their science understandings. It has been suggested that girls may have more problems with misconceptions than do boys. In keeping with the constructivist ideas as to what constitutes an effective way to teach science (Burke, 1995; Lorsbach & Tobin, 2000) this study explored the ability of students to understand theoretical and conceptual principles of science. The data for this study was obtained using the methodology of a multiple choice survey which contains common misconceptions and the correct answers as choices. This survey was administered to eighth grade students in a large suburban school district by their science teachers. Interviews of a randomly selected sample group of 20 (10 boys and 10 girls) were conducted by the researcher. The results of the study used a t-test to compare boys and girls to see if there was a significant difference in types and/or number of science misconceptions. A matrix of possible answers to the survey was used to analyze the results of the interviews. There was a statistically significant difference between the means for the two groups, indicating a genderdifference in knowledge of astronomy concepts. The results of the interviews also showed a difference in astronomy knowledge and background information. In addition the interviews showed that girls were very unsure of their answers while boys defended their answers even when they were incorrect.
Objectives The present study examines genderdifferences in changes in functional status after age 50 and how such differences vary across different age groups. Methods Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, involving up to six repeated observations of a national sample of Americans older than 50 years of age between 1995 and 2006. We employed hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates in depicting temporal variations in functional status between men and women. Results As a quadratic function, the worsening of functional status was more accelerated in terms of the intercept and rate of change among women and those in older age groups. In addition, genderdifferences in the level of functional impairment were more substantial in older persons than in younger individuals, although differences in the rate of change between men and women remained constant across age groups. Discussion A life course perspective can lead to new insights regarding gender variations in health within the context of intrapersonal and interpersonal differences. Smaller genderdifferences in the level of functional impairment in the younger groups may reflect improvement of women’s socioeconomic status, greater rate of increase in chronic diseases among men, and less debilitating effects of diseases.
Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Shaw, Benjamin A.; Quinones, Ana R.; Ye, Wen; Xu, Xiao; Ofstedal, Mary Beth
Background In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS) to develop academic planning activity (APA) for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. Results There were several interesting genderdifferences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males’ APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups – with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01), equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. Conclusions Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity.
Classroom environment influences each student's educational experience. The aim of this classroom evaluation was to gain a better understanding of how each gender functions in an introductory robotics class, where LEGOs and ROBOLAB were used as a tool to teach engineering principles and basic robotics concepts. A better understanding of how each gender performs in reaction to the classroom setup will hopefully lead to the development of a learning environment that is mutually beneficial to each gender. The course, a general freshman introduction to engineering, targeted for this evaluation required students to complete robotic challenges while working within groups and participating in design competitions. The present evaluation explored genderdifferences in self-confidence levels related to robotic tasks, feelings toward competitions as a component of the course, and differences in the way males and females interact within groups. Assessment was conducted through interviews, observations, and written questionnaires. Competency in robotics activities was found to be similar although males were found to be more confident of their own abilities. Both genders felt the competitions were enjoyable and integral to the atmosphere of the class. Males in the class took the competitions more seriously than did the females. Building and programming robots were thought to be their greatest areas of learning by the women. Males, on the other hand, cited working in groups and learning to compromise as the areas where they made the greatest improvements.
Milto, Elissa; Portsmore, Merredith; Rogers, Chris
Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are genderdifferences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies genderdifferences in cognition, the literature on genderdifferences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during…
This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…
There is evidence of genderdifferences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated genderdifferences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining genderdifferences in its mental health impact have…
We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce genderdifferences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.
Genderdifference has been reported for frequency of the calcification diseases in urogenital system: according to published statistics data, they are more numerous in males. We suggest that the male increasing is due to nanobacterial infections and ways of their dissemination. There are specific gender-dependent ways for these infections which bring infection to the different target organs, namely: urinary tract, kidney, prostate in men and placenta in women. Identification of the suggested microbial pathogens and investigation of sex-determined pathways for the dissemination are the following steps to get ascertaining events of gender reasons for different calcification diseases. PMID:24018282
Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. PMID:24331878
The objective of this article is to review clinical differences between men and women with bipolar disorder. The secondary objective is to analyze the differences in adherence to medication between genders. Men usually present with manic episodes and have comorbid drug abuse, while women usually present with major depressive episode, the onset is often later, comorbidity of physical pathology is common and adherence to medication is greater than in men. In women who have an earlier onset of the illness and are single, the risk of nonadherence is higher than in other groups of women. There are two time periods that are very important in women: pregnancy and postpartum. Both are critical periods and a relapse or recurrence of symptoms at either stage can have serious consequences for the woman and/or her baby. In addition, the effect of medication on the fetus is unclear. In conclusion, there is a clear need for more studies on genderdifferences in bipolar disorder and how to improve adherence to treatment. Moreover, a better understanding of how to treat women with bipolar disorder during pregnancy and lactation will undoubtedly lead to improved outcomes for both the mother and her child. PMID:22040208
Vega, Patricia; Barbeito, Sara; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Saenz, Margarita; González-Pinto, Ana
An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology, and in the pathophysiology of disease. This refresher course will provide an overview of this new information, with the goal of providing teachers of medical students with the background necessary to include the most important aspects of sex-based differences in their medical student curricula. The presentations will discuss both male and female physiology, and will address sex-based differences due to the actions of both androgens and the ovarian steroid hormones. The presentation topics include genderdifferences in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, the musculoskeletal system, the central nervous system, and the immune system.
PhD Martha L. Blair (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Department of Pharmacology and Physiology); Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center); PhD Virginia H. Huxley (University of Missouri School of Medicine Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology); PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)
Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important genderdifferences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The genderdifferences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents.
A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these genderdifferences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of genderdifferences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773502
Aims: To use national surveillance data in Canada to describe genderdifferences in the pattern of farm fatalities and severe injuries (those requiring hospitalisation). Methods: Data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program (CAISP) included farm work related fatalities from 1990 to 1996 for all Canadian provinces and abstracted information from hospital discharge records from eight provinces for the five fiscal years of 1990 to 1994. Genderdifferences in fatalities and injuries were examined by comparison of proportions and stratified by sex, injury class (machinery, non-machinery), and age group. Results: Over the six year period of 1990 to 1996 there were approximately 11 times as many agriculture related fatalities for males compared to females (655 and 61, respectively). The most common machinery mechanisms of fatal injuries were roll-over (32%) for males and run-over (45%) for females. Agricultural machinery injuries requiring hospitalisation showed similar patterns, with proportionally more males over age 60 injured. The male:female ratio for non-machinery hospitalisations averaged 3:1. A greater percentage of males were struck by or caught against an object, whereas for females, animal related injuries predominated. Conclusions: Gender is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of fatal and non-fatal farm injuries. A greater number of males were injured, regardless of how the occurrence of injury was categorised, particularly when farm machinery was involved. As women increasingly participate in all aspects of agricultural production, there is a need to collect, interpret, and disseminate information on agricultural injury that is relevant for both sexes.
Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (p<0.001). Pre BR males were modeled by a linear RR response to SBP (p=0.000) while females had a quadratic response which saturated at high SBP (p=0.019). By day 30, both genders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (p<0.001) when compared to pre BR. Females had a higher SBS than males pre BR (p=0.006). Females exhibited saturating SBS at higher SBP (p=0.016) on day 30, while males were modeled by a linear SBS response to SBP (p=0.035). NE: Females had different NE response to diastolic BP than males pre BR (p=0.035) and on day 30 (p=0.005). CONCLUSION: NE, RR and SBS responses to BP are affected by gender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.
Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.
Genderdifferences have been well established in verbal and spatial abilities but few studies have examined if these differences also extend into the domain of working memory in terms of behavioural differences and brain activation. The conclusions that can be drawn from these studies are not clear cut but suggest that even though genderdifferences might not be apparent from behavioural measures, the underlying neural substrate associated with working memory might be different in men and women. Previous research suggests activation in a network of frontal and parietal regions during working memory tasks. This study aimed to investigate genderdifferences in patterns of brain activation during a verbal version of the N-back working memory task, which incorporates the effects of increased demands on working memory. A total of 50 healthy subjects, aged 18 to 58 years, that were equally split by gender were recruited matched for age, levels of education and ethnicity. All subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that men and women performed equally well in terms of accuracy and response times, while using similar brain regions to the same degree. Our observations indicate that verbal working memory is not affected by gender at the behavioural or neural level, and support the findings of a recent meta-analysis by Hyde ([ 2005]: Sex Roles 53:717-725) that genderdifferences are generally smaller than intra-genderdifferences in many cognitive domains. PMID:19387979
Genderdifferences in glenoid anatomy have not been well studied in the current literature. Previous literature demonstrates a mismatch between glenoid anatomy and glenoid implants for shoulder replacements. This may have clinical implications in that glenoid loosening after shoulder arthroplasty has been cited as a frequent cause of poor performance of shoulder implants, and perhaps the most common indication for revision. The purpose of this study was to determine any genderdifferences in the size and overall shape of the glenoid. Eleven measurements were taken of 363 human scapular bone specimens (equal proportions of females to males and blacks to whites). Glenoid height and width, glenoid notch location, and depth were measured for each specimen using calipers. In addition, the authors developed a classification system to describe anterior glenoid notch morphology. There was a significant difference between female and male specimens for each dimension measured (P < 0.05). Height to width ratios were also significantly different comparing men to women (P < 0.05). These differences resulted in a rounder male glenoid and more oval female glenoid. Our results showed that 80.4% of females had an anterior glenoid notch compared to only 57.6% of males. There was a significant difference between female and male specimens in the location of the anterior glenoid notch: 36.7% from the top of the glenoid in female specimens, and 28.9% in males (P < 0.0001). The clear difference between male and female glenoid anatomy may be important in various shoulder surgeries. PMID:18936873
A theoretical model of genderdifferences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of genderdifferences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…
Genderdifferences characterize children's commitment to playing electronic games. These genderdifferences are consistent with common stereotypes that may be triggered by the context and content of electronic games. If conforming to gender stereotypes in electronic game playing maintains social approval, then those children who choose alternate playing patterns risk social sanction. The present study was designed to characterize children's
Many studies have found genderdifferences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored genderdifferences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…
The major focus of this study is to propose a new research model, namely the Modified CGI gender model, for the study of genderdifferences in mathematics. This model is developed based on Fennema, Carpenter, and Peterson's (1989) CGI model. To examine the validity of this new model, this study also examines the genderdifferences in teacher and…
Examined genderdifferences in the mathematics performance of high-achieving fourth and sixth graders, noting the effects of ethnicity. Scores from 1996 California Achievement Tests indicated that students in both grades showed significant genderdifferences. There were no interaction effects of gender by ethnicity. There were inconsistent racial…
Park, Hae-Seong; Bauer, Scott C.; Sullivan, Lisa Melancon
Evaluation of genderdifferences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant genderdifferences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…
The endocrine system is intimately involved in modulating lifespan and quality of life. Facing an ever increasing proportion of aged people in the western society, there is great interest in understanding the complex interrelations between increasing age and hormonal regulation. Age-associated endocrinological changes comprise the decline of basal hormonal levels, pulsatile hormone distribution, and activity of hormonal axis, which result in changes in body composition. Men and women experience different age-associated alterations of the hormonal system. Aging per se is a risk factor for diseases like diabetes mellitus type 2, thyroid disorders, osteoporosis, frailty, and sarcopenia. Gender-specific differences with respect to symptoms, interactions, diagnosis, and therapy must be taken into consideration. Current data do not allow a general recommendation for hormonal substitution, neither for women nor for men. New research approaches following a multifactorial pathway are required to elucidate the complexity of age-associated endocrinological changes and to develop gender-specific therapies for endocrinological diseases. PMID:23780632
Due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver injury ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Individuals with NAFLD, especially those with metabolic syndrome, have higher overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and liver-related mortality compared with the general population. According to the population-based studies, NAFLD and NASH are more prevalent in males and in Hispanics. Both the gender and racial ethnic differences in NAFLD and NASH are likely attributed to interaction between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. Using genome-wide association studies, several genetic variants have been identified to be associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, these variants account for only a small amount of variation in hepatic steatosis among ethnic groups and may serve as modifiers of the natural history of NAFLD. Alternatively, these variants may not be the causative variants but simply markers representing a larger body of genetic variations. In this article, we provide a concise review of the gender and racial differences in the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in adults. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for these disparities.
Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible genderdifferences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for genderdifferences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853
Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible genderdifferences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for genderdifferences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes.
Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES) of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the genderdifferences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.
The purpose of this study was to examine genderdifferences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).
Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p?=?.007). In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p?=?.005). In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001) but not after anodal (p?=?.735) VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze pharmacological interactions among drugs taken by elderly patients and their age and genderdifferences in a population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database provided by the Institute of Geriatric and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The database was composed of 438 elderly and includes information about the patients' disease, therapy regimens, utilized drugs. All drugs reported by the elderly patients were classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification System. The drug-drug interactions and their severity were assessed using the Micromedex® Healthcare Series. RESULTS: Of the 438 elderly patients in the data base, 376 (85.8%) used pharmacotherapy, 274 were female, and 90.4% of females used drugs. The average number of drugs used by each individual younger than 80 years was 3.2±2.6. Women younger than 80 years old used more drugs than men in the same age group whereas men older than 80 years increased their use of drugs in relation to other age groups. Therefore, 32.6% of men and 49.2% of women described at least one interaction, and 8.1% of men and 10.6% of women described four or more potential drug-drug interactions. Two-thirds of drug-drug interactions were moderate in both genders, and most of them involved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, loop and thiazide diuretics, and ?-blockers. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients should be closely monitored, based on drug class, gender, age group and nutritional status.
Although gender disparity in ASD has been long documented, research addressing gender related to core ASD symptomatology (e.g.,\\u000a domains, severity, breadth, etc.) is scant. The present research examined genderdifferences in ASD symptomatology in three\\u000a populations: infants and toddlers at risk for developmental disability, children and adolescents, and adults with intellectual\\u000a disability (ID). No significant genderdifferences in ASD symptoms
The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for genderdifferences. Two hundred and one…
The present study analyzed the influence that gender and gender concepts have on predominantly white young adults' attitudes toward their body parts (body-as-object) and body functions (body-as-process). Results indicated that, regardless of gender, participants held more positive attitudes toward their body functions than toward body parts. Masculinity was positively related to body-as-object attitudes, yet this relationship was true only for
The purpose of this study was to evaluate effects of gender on anaerobic and aerobic contributions to high-intensity exercise. A group of 38 subjects (22 women, 16 men) performed modified Wingate tests against resistances of 0.086 kg kg-1 body mass (0.844 N kg-1) for women and 0.095 kg kg-1 body mass (0.932 N kg-1) for men. The aerobic contribution to total work performed was determined from breath-by-breath analyses of expired gases during each test. Total work in 30 s was 30% lower (Student's t test; P < 0.01) in women than men (211 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 299 +/- 14 J kg-1). Aerobic contribution was only 7% lower (P = 0.12) in women than men (53 +/- 1 J kg-1 versus 57 +/- 2 J kg-1). The anaerobic component of the work performed, determined by subtraction of the aerobic component from total work in 30 s, was 35% lower (P < 0.01) in women than men (158 +/- 5 J kg-1 versus 242 +/- 15 J kg-1). It is concluded that, because women provide a relatively higher (P < 0.01) portion of the energy for a 30-s test aerobically than men (25% versus 20%), total work during a Wingate test actually underestimates the genderdifference in anaerobic capacity between women and men.
The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of genderdifferences in science achievement. Although previous studies of genderdifferences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant genderdifferences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).
Our objective was to study genderdifferences in delusional disorder (DD), by comparing potential risk factors, clinical correlates, illness course characteristics, and functionality. The sample was composed of 86 outpatients with DD (according to the SCID-I for DSM-IV criteria). The following assessment instruments were used service use and demographic questionnaires, Standardized Assessment of Personality (SAP), the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (MINI), Sheehan Disability Inventory (SDI), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The female-to-male ratio was 1.6:1. Men were more likely to be single, while women were more likely to be widows. Men had a greater frequency of schizoid and schizotypal premorbid personality disorders and of premorbid substance abuse. There were no differences for other risk factors (immigration, deafness, late onset, other personality disorders, and family history). Men were younger at onset and more frequently had acute onset of the disorder. Men had more severe symptoms (higher score on the global or separate PANSS scales). There were no genderdifferences for the remaining symptomatological variables (types of DD, presence and severity of depression, presence of hallucinations, severity of global cognitive functioning and presence of axis I comorbidity). Global and partial (work, family, and social) functioning was significantly poorer among men. Course type and consumption of resources appeared to be similar. We conclude that men with DD had significantly more severe symptoms and worse functionality. They also had a higher frequency of schizoid and schizotypal premorbid personality disorders and premorbid substance abuse. PMID:20334930
de Portugal, Enrique; González, Nieves; Miriam, Vilaplana; Haro, Josep M; Usall, Judit; Cervilla, Jorge A
Aims To investigate differences in the presence of drugs, by gender, when considering deaths attributable to homicides and suicides. Design Logistic regression analysis of mortality data collected by the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System. Participants and setting A total of 5791 Colorado decedents who died of violent causes from 2004 to 2009. Measurement Forensic pathologist autopsy data on drug presence at time of death, coded as present, not present or missing. Findings Postmortem presence of drugs is associated strongly with the specific cause of violent death. Compared with suicide decedents, homicide decedents are significantly more likely to test positive for amphetamines [odds ratio (OR): 1.79; confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 2.39], marijuana (OR: 2.03; CI: 1.60, 2.58) and cocaine (OR: 2.60; CI: 2.04, 3.31), and are less likely to test positive for opiates (OR: 0.27; CI: 0.18, 0.39) and antidepressants (OR: 0.17; CI: 0.10, 0.28). When other drugs are controlled for the influence of alcohol is abated dramatically. The patterns of drug prevalence associated with homicide (particularly marijuana) are stronger among males; the patterns of drug prevalence associated with suicide are stronger among females. Conclusions Suicide and homicide decedents are characterized by varying patterns of licit and illicit drug use that differ by gender. Drugs associated with homicide (marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines) are stronger among males, while drugs associated with suicide are stronger among females (antidepressants and opiates). Taking these differences into consideration may allow for targeted interventions to reduce violent deaths.
Sheehan, Connor M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Williams, George W.; Boardman, Jason D.
A semi-structured observational study investigated genderdifferences in delivered and received relational, physical, verbal, and nonverbal aggression in a young preschool sample (N=60). Findings revealed that genderdifferences in subtypes of aggression may be apparent as early as 3 years of age. Specifically, girls were found to deliver and receive more relational aggression than males, whereas boys tended, although not
Jamie M. Ostrov; Kathleen E. Woods; Elizabeth A. Jansen; Juan F. Casas; Nicki R. Crick
This study aimed to assess short-term (12 weeks) and long-term (12 months) genderdifferences in the outcomes of patients\\u000a experiencing an episode of mania in the course of bipolar disorder. European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication\\u000a was a 2-year, prospective, observational study of the outcomes of patients with a manic or mixed episode conducted in 14 European\\u000a countries. Data were
Laia Miquel; Judith Usall; Catherine Reed; Jordan Bertsch; Eduard Vieta; Ana González-Pinto; Jules Angst; Willem Nolen; Inge van Rossum; Josep Maria Haro
This paper examines the extent of genderdifferences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7-13) within Western and non-Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender…
Background Genderdifferences in exposure to social resources play a significant role in influencing gender inequalities in health. A related question - and our focus - asks if these inequalities are also influenced by gendered vulnerabilities to social forces. Specifically, this paper examines the differential impact of social forces on the health of elderly (65+) men and women. Methods Multiple
In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on genderdifferences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about genderdifferences in sexuality. We analyzed genderdifferences in 30 reported sexual behaviors and attitudes for 834 individual samples uncovered in literature searches and 7 large national data sets. In support of evolutionary psychology, results from both the individual studies and the large data sets indicated that men reported slightly more sexual experience and more permissive attitudes than women for most of the variables. However, as predicted by the gender similarities hypothesis, most genderdifferences in sexual attitudes and behaviors were small. Exceptions were masturbation incidence, pornography use, casual sex, and attitudes toward casual sex, which all yielded medium effect sizes in which male participants reported more sexual behavior or permissive attitudes than female participants. Most effect sizes reported in the current study were comparable to those reported in Oliver and Hyde's study. In support of cognitive social learning theory, year of publication moderated the magnitude of effect sizes, with genderdifferences for some aspects of sexuality increasing over time and others decreasing. As predicted by social structural theory, nations and ethnic groups with greater gender equity had smaller genderdifferences for some reported sexual behaviors than nations and ethnic groups with less gender equity. Genderdifferences decreased with age of the sample for some sexual behaviors and attitudes. PMID:20063924
This study examined genderdifferences in 79 high-school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even when females planned to major in science, they were more interested than males in the people-oriented aspects of their planned majors. Second, biology was the one exception to females’ low interest in science. Third, females often planned a science major mainly because they needed a science background in order to enter a health profession such as medicine or physical therapy. Fourth, females generally found science uninteresting and the scientific lifestyle (as perceived by them) unattractive. Implications for teaching science were discussed.
The current longitudinal study examined adolescent genderdifferences in the developmental changes and relational correlates of secrecy from parents. For 4 successive years, starting in the second year of junior high (mean age at Time 1 = 13.2 years, SD = 0.51), 149 male and 160 female Dutch adolescents reported on secrecy from their parents and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a linear increase in secrecy, which was significantly faster for boys than for girls. Moreover, cross-lagged panel analyses showed clear concurrent and longitudinal linkages between secrecy from parents and poorer parent-child relationship quality in girls. In boys, much less strong linkages were found between poorer relationships and secrecy from parents. PMID:20053026
Infant cries are a critical survival mechanism that draw the attention of adult caregivers, who can then satisfy the basic needs of otherwise helpless infants. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of infant hunger cries on brain activity of adults who were in a cognitively non-demanding mental state of awake rest. We found that the brains of males and females, independent of parental status (parent or non parent), reacted differently to infant cries. Specifically, dorsal medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate areas, known to be involved in mind-wandering (the stream of thought typical of awake rest), remained active in men during exposure to infant cries, whereas in women activity in these regions decreased. These results reveal gender-dependent modulation of brain responses to infant requests to be fed, and specifically they indicate that women interrupt mind-wandering when exposed to the sounds of infant hunger cries, whereas men carry on without interruption.
De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; Rigo, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; De Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola
This study investigated locus of control (LC) and hopelessness (H) among 25 pairs of bereaved parents, who lost their children in the Arab-Israeli conflict, and 25 pairs of demographically matched non-bereaved parents (mean age 53). Four of the 5 hypotheses were supported by results. LC was significantly more external and H was significantly lower among bereaved parents than among the control group. In both groups, mothers demonstrated significantly more external LC and higher H than did fathers. The bereaved mothers were significantly more externally controlled and hopeless than any other subgroup. No significant correlation was found between LC and H, either in the sample as a whole or in its subgroups, contrary to the hypothesized relation. The different effects of reaction to bereavement on men and women, as emerging from the results, are discussed in the light of gender-role socialization. PMID:15053031
This study examined individual and group differences in the nature and frequency of reports of past speech in the autobiographical memories of young adults. A sample of 108 participants (60 females, 48 males) responded in writing to six memory prompts. They also completed the Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence & Helmreich, 1978). The frequency with which participants used reported speech was correlated with agreeableness, openness, and expressivity; however, regression analyses indicated that narrators' gender alone was the best predictor. Females used more reported speech than did males. The findings suggest that recollections of past speech are an under-appreciated yet important component of autobiographical memory. PMID:18432484
Differences in the expression of non-motor symptoms (NMS) by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may have important implications for their management and prognosis. Gender is a basic epidemiological variable that could influence such expression. The present study evaluated the prevalence and severity of NMS by gender in an international sample of 951 PD patients, 62.63% males, using the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS). Assessments for motor impairment and complications, global severity, and health state were also applied. All disease stages were included. No significant genderdifferences were found for demographic and clinical characteristics. For the entire sample, the most prevalent symptoms were Nocturia (64.88%) and Fatigue (62.78%) and the most prevalent affected domains were Sleep/Fatigue (84.02%) and Miscellaneous (82.44%). Fatigue, feelings of nervousness, feelings of sadness, constipation, restless legs, and pain were more common and severe in women. On the contrary, daytime sleepiness, dribbling saliva, interest in sex, and problems having sex were more prevalent and severe in men. Regarding the NMSS domains, Mood/Apathy and Miscellaneous problems (pain, loss of taste or smell, weight change, and excessive sweating) were predominantly affected in women and Sexual dysfunction in men. No other significant differences by gender were observed. To conclude, in this study significant differences between men and women in prevalence and severity of fatigue, mood, sexual and digestive problems, pain, restless legs, and daytime sleepiness were found. Gender-related patterns of NMS involvement may be relevant for clinical trials in PD. PMID:22237822
Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Falup Pecurariu, Cristian; Odin, Per; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Antonini, Angelo; Rojo-Abuin, Jose M; Borges, Vanderci; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Aarsland, Dag; Brooks, David J; Ray Chaudhuri, Kallol
The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,
Background\\/Aims: In diabetics with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), risk of death has been reported to be non-constant after the first dialysis, and different outcomes have been observed between genders. We assessed the impact of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on mortality in dialysis regarding its differential effect by gender using time-dependent analyses. Methods: All T2DM and non-diabetic (no-DM) patients who started
A. Karamé; M. Labeeuw; P. Trolliet; A. Caillette-Beaudoin; R. Cahen; R. Ecochard; R. Galland; P. Hallonet; C. Pouteil-Noble; E. Villar
This observational study examined family concordance and genderdifferences in early parent-child interaction in the family supportive sociopolitical context of Norway. Mothers and fathers from 39 Norwegian families were observed on separate occasions with their 12-month-old children (20 girls and 19 boys). Data were recorded from observations using microsocial coding methodology based on social interaction learning theory. We found no within-family concordance between mothers' and fathers' behaviors with their child. The children's negative engagement with each parent was moderately correlated. For parents with boys, fathers were overall more positively engaged than mothers. Moreover, fathers of boys displayed more positive engagement than those of girls, whereas mothers of girls and boys displayed similar levels of positive engagement. In contrast to previous findings, mothers did not verbalize more than fathers. Girls were overall more positively engaged during interaction with both mothers and fathers than boys. Thus, in a sociopolitical context that facilitates early parent-child relationships and gender equality, there were few but noteworthy genderdifferences in parent-child interaction at 12 months. PMID:24564247
Nordahl, Kristin Berg; Janson, Harald; Manger, Terje; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae
Background: Data on central region morphometry of a child brain is important not only in terms of providing us with information about central region anatomy of the brain but also in terms of the help of this information for the plans to be applied in neurosurgery. Objective: In the present study, central region morphometry of a child brain in mid-sagittal MR images was analyzed in age and gender groups. Materials and Methods: Different points determined previously, commissura posterior0 (PC) and the distances between cerebral cortex point (VCS) vertical to commissura anterior- commissura posterior line, sulcus centralis (CS), sulcus marginalis (MS), and the angle (?) between CS-PC-MS were determined and measured together with difference of gender in three different age groups (aged 6-9, 10-13, and 14-17). Results: Central region measures of the brains of boys aged 6-17 are higher than girls except for MS-PC distance. While VCS-PC, CS-PC, and MS-PC measures display a significant difference in the girls aged 14-17 when compared to the other age groups of 6-9 and 10-13 (P < 0.05), angle ? is not significantly different in age and gender groups (P > 0.05). However, while VCS-PC, CS-PC and MS-PC distances show a significant increase in girls beginning from the age of 14, this increase is limited in boys. Conclusion: Morphometric differencesobserved in different age groups in boys and girls shall contribute our evaluation of the alterations in brain development in both of genders and shall be useful in preparation of surgical operation plans to be applied to the central region. PMID:24714016
Otag, I; Tetiker, H; Kosar, M I; Otag, A; Atalar, M; Cimen, M
This study investigates genderdifferences in prevalence and effects of sexual harassment using three different estimation methods. In a representative sample of 2,349 Norwegian employees, 1.1% self-labeled as targets of sexual harassment, whereas 18.4% reported exposure to sexually harassing behaviors during the last six months. When employing latent class cluster analysis as a method for estimating prevalence of sexual harassment,
Morten Birkeland Nielsen; Brita Bjørkelo; Guy Notelaers; Ståle Einarsen
The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the S TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images requires gender-matched normal files.
This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.
Investigates developmental change and genderdifferences in sympathy and personal distress reactions in children. Examines interrelations among indexes used to assess sympathy and personal distress. (PCB)
Knowledge of genderdifferences is important because nutritional recommendations on the basis of data collected using predominantly male subjects may not be valid for women. In the present study, we performed proteomic analysis in plasma of rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) using 2-DE combined with MALDI-TOF-MS for analysis of differential regulation patterns between male and female plasma proteins. Male rats gained more body weight with increased values of biochemical parameters than female rats. Image analysis and further statistical analysis allowed detection and identification of 31 proteins that were significantly modulated in a gender-dependent manner in response to HFD. Those differential expressed proteins were classified into three groups based on their regulation patterns in response to diet and gender. Consequently, we found 13 proteins showing gender-different regulation in both normal diet (ND) and HFD, where 9 proteins showed identical regulation patterns (Group I) and 4 proteins exhibited opposite regulation mode (Group II) between the genders. Eighteen proteins showed no gender-difference but HFD-responsive regulation (Group III). Of these, Apo A-IV, CRP precursor, Hp precursor, and FGG showed a clear genderdifference in both ND and HFD, with the same regulation patterns. Present proteomic research into gender-dimorphic protein modulation in plasma would aid in improvement of gender awareness in the health care system and in implementation of evidence-based gender-specific clinical recommendations. PMID:22183950
We examined gender stereotypes and perceptions of aggression in 743 US psychology students at a northeastern university in\\u000a the USA. Participants rated a vignette depicting torture of an Iraqi prisoner by an American soldier in which the gender of\\u000a prisoner and guard were varied. The results showed that female participants viewed torture more negatively than male participants.\\u000a Additionally, participants perceived
Carolyn R. Fallahi; Carol Shaw Austad; Lisa L. Leishman; Michael Gendron; Rebecca M. Wood
We analyzed longitudinal data on academic careers and conducted interviews with faculty members to determine the scope and causes of the gender gap in patenting among life scientists. Our regressions on a random sample of 4227 life scientists over a 30-year period show that women faculty members patent at about 40% of the rate of men. We found that the gender gap has improved over time but remains large. PMID:16888138
Two age groups of children, 5- and 6-year-olds (n = 30) and 8- and 9-year-olds (n = 26), made judgments about which of two items a character should choose: a gender-typical item or a gender-atypical item that was preferred by the character. Judgments were made about situations where the character was (a) in a familiar public setting and (b) in a…
Describes two studies at the University of Helsinki (Finland) that explored the existence of genderdifferences in spontaneous study strategies use while learning from texts. Discusses results that showed no differences in text comprehension, and concludes that different study strategies more than gender issues differentiated the learning…
Slotte, Virpi; Lonka, Kirsti; Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari
The study in this article examined gender and ethnic differences in the development of Holland (1997) personality types among inner-city adolescents. Results showed gender but not ethnic differences in vocational personality types and their predictors, and suggest different pathways to the development of these types for boys and girls. Suggestions…
Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Starkey, Michael; Landgraf, Rachel; Lapan, Richard T.; Siewert, Jason J.; Reich, Allison; Trotter, Michelle J.; Neumaier, Eric R.; Huang, Ju-Ping
The stereoselective pharmacokinetics of flutriafol were investigated in male and female adult Japanese white rabbits. Following intravenous administration of rac-flutriafol to rabbits at 5 mg/kg (bd wt), the concentrations of the enantiomers in plasma were determined by a HLPC-UV method using a CDMPC-CSP chiral column. R-Flutriafol exhibited a shorter distribution half-life but a longer elimination half-life than the S-isomer. In female rabbits, the distribution half-lives of R- and S-flutriafol were found to be 0.09 and 0.18 h, respectively, significantly shorter than those in male rabbits, but the volume of distribution and elimination half-life for flutriafol enantiomers in both sexes of rabbit showed no significant differences. Female rabbits had a higher clearance for both flutriafol enantiomers. The protein binding value was high for both isomers, with enantioselectivity, but no genderdifference. It was an important factor in modulating the disposition of flutriafol. Flutriafol concentrations in kidney, liver, fat, and lung were higher than in other tissues at 10 h after administration, and the concentrations of R-flutriafol were higher in all tissues than those of its antipode. However, genderdifference in flutriafol residues in tissues was not observed. It is concluded that the stereoselectivity of flutriafol on distribution and elimination in rabbits mainly depends upon gender. PMID:21740052
The typical postsecondary academic career follows a well-ordered path with several discrete milestones. The first of these is securing a tenure-track position at an academic institution, at which point the individual is usually assigned to a junior rank, such as assistant professor. Junior faculty members ordinarily are employed on probation and are given a specified number of years to earn tenure. The second milestone, the tenure decision, is perhaps the most critical point on the academic career path. Earning tenure usually means lifetime employment and arrival at another milestone, promotion to the rank of associate professor. Failing to earn tenure often results in termination of employment at the institution. Some doctorate holders, presumably those who establish distinguished records, reach a final milestone with promotion to the rank of full professor.1 This study uses data from a nationally representativesample of recipients of doctorates in science and engineering (S&E). With these data we examined genderdifferences for four critical outcomes that reflect successful movement along the postsecondary academic career path. These four critical outcomes are tenure track placement, earning tenure, promotion to the rank of associate professor, and promotion to the rank of full professor. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Scientists,Technicians
Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...
Objectives. I examined workplace injury risk over time and across racial/ethnic and gender groups to observe patterns of change and to understand how occupational characteristics and job mobility influence these changes. Methods. I used hierarchical generalized linear models to estimate individual workplace injury and illness risk over time (“trajectories”) for a cohort of American workers who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988–1998). Results. Significant temporal variation in injury risk was observed across racial/ethnic and gender groups. At baseline, White men had a high risk of injury relative to the other groups and experienced the greatest decline over time. Latino men demonstrated a pattern of lower injury risk across time compared with White men. Among both Latinos and non-Latino Whites, women had lower odds of injury than did men. Non-Latino Black women's injury risk was similar to Black men's and greater than that for both Latino and non-Latino White women. Occupational characteristics and job mobility partly explained these differences. Conclusions. Disparities between racial/ethnic and gender groups were dynamic and changed over time. Workplace injury risk was associated with job dimensions such as work schedule, union representation, health insurance, job hours, occupational racial segregation, and occupational environmental hazards.
Prior studies have reported significant genderdifferences in the procedural outcomes after elective percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Many of these differences have been explained by the presence of more comorbidities and worse clinical characteristics such as older age, unstable angina, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension in women than in men. Moreover, women have a smaller vessel diameter, more coronary tortuosity and different plaque composition compared to men that can lead to a higher dissection rate and a greater number of procedural complications. Although early data on PTCA suggested worse immediate results in women than in men, more recent data suggest that this difference is less marked. The introduction of stents with a low profile and a higher tractability and pushability has allowed the extensive application of these devices even in small and tortuous vessels improving the outcome of PTCA. This improvement has been higher in women than in men leading to the equalization of the immediate outcome in the two sexes, even if the baseline characteristics remain worse in women. In particular, mortality and the need for urgent surgical revascularization have become extremely low without any differences between sexes. However, some authors have still found a higher incidence of complications in the first period after the procedure due to stent thrombosis in the stenting era. For this reason, meticulous antiplatelet treatment should be prescribed and drugs such as glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors may also be considered advisable to reduce the excess risk in the female population particularly in women with prothrombotic risk factors such as diabetes. At 6 and 12 months similar rates of death, late myocardial infarction, and repeated revascularization have been shown in the two sexes. Coronary stenting and the use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have also improved the immediate results in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary PTCA. Studies comparing the outcome differences between women and men with AMI and treated with primary PTCA are limited but all suggest that women benefit more than men from this procedure. The in-hospital mortality in patients with AMI is significantly higher in the female than in the male population with a higher incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in women among tissue-type plasminogen activator-treated patients. Vice versa, women and men have a similar or a slightly higher in-hospital mortality after primary PTCA without intracranial bleeding complications. For this reason, an earlier diagnosis of AMI, an earlier hospital admission and an earlier primary PTCA should be the aims of management in order to improve the outcome in women with AMI and to equalize the procedural results in the two sexes. PMID:14564977
The gender digital divide has been widely discussed and researched over the years. Previous studies have focused on a number of factors such as computer attitude, computer anxiety, computer self-efficacy, and computer experience. This study empirically tested the sensitivity of a learning style instrument, the "Gregorc Style Delineator" (GSD), to…
Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…
Purpose – This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used to capture student presentation evaluation scores and perceptions
The aim of this study was to examine genderdifferences in match performance characteristics of elite soccer players. Fifty-four male and fifty-nine female soccer players were tracked during UEFA Champions League matches using a multi-camera system (Amisco, Nice, France). Male players covered more (P<.01) distance than female players in total during a match (Effect Size [ES]: 0.5) and at higher speed thresholds (>15, >18, 18-21, 21-23, 23-25 and >27kmh(-1); ES: 0.7-1.4). Decrements in the second versus first half (P<.01) were only evident in female players for the distance covered in total and at selected speed thresholds (12-15, >12 and >15kmh(-1); ES: 0.6). Male central midfielders covered more (P<.01) total distance during a match than female central midfielders and at selected speed thresholds (15-23kmh(-1); ES: 1.3-2.2). Male full-backs and wide midfielders covered a greater distance (P<.01) than female players in the same positions at higher speed thresholds (>15, 21-23, 23-25, 25-27 and >27kmh(-1); ES: 1.5-3.1). The distance covered during the most intense 5min period of the match (>15kmh(-1)) was higher (P<.01) in male compared to female players (ES: 1.0) but no distance deficit in the next versus the average 5min period was observed for either gender (ES: 0.1-0.2). No genderdifferences were found for technical events such as the number of ball touches, time in possession of the ball or total duels won during both halves and the entire match (ES: 0.1-0.3). However, female players lost the ball more often (P<.05) and displayed lower pass completion rates than male players during both halves and the entire match (ES: 0.5-0.9). The data demonstrate that large genderdifferences exist for match performance characteristics of players competing at the highest competitive standard of European soccer. Such detailed analyses could be useful for gender-specific training information for optimal preparation. However, more research is warranted to establish gender-specific speed thresholds for elite soccer players. PMID:24139663
Bradley, Paul S; Dellal, Alexandre; Mohr, Magni; Castellano, Julen; Wilkie, Anna
Relatively little is known about genderdifferences in the orgasm experience. The objectives of this study were to compare men's and women's patterns of sexual arousal and desire before and after orgasm, and the predictors of their orgasmic pleasure. Using their typical technique, where masturbation enjoyment was similar to that experienced at home, 38 men and 38 women masturbated to orgasm in the laboratory. Physiological sexual arousal (genital temperature) and subjective sexual arousal and desire measurements were taken at baseline, after masturbation almost to orgasm, and immediately and 15 minutes after orgasm. In both genders, all measures increased significantly during masturbation, with a greater buildup leading to a more pleasurable orgasm. After orgasm, however, sexual arousal and desire decreased more quickly and consistently in men than in women, thereby replicating Masters and Johnson's ( 1966 ) observations. More men than women exhibited resolution of subjective sexual arousal and sexual satiation; their genital temperature also decreased more than women's but did not return to baseline. Women's orgasmic pleasure was related to a postorgasmic decrease in genital temperature but, unexpectedly, the maintenance of subjective sexual arousal and desire. Future studies should explore whether this pattern explains genderdifferences in the pursuit of additional orgasms. PMID:24588445
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) typically affects females at far greater rates than males; however male SLE patients often have more severe disease than females. The gender disparities have been reported in clinical manifestations and in serological and hematological indices as well. In particular, SLE complicated with nephritis is more frequent in men than women, and several groups identified male gender as a risk factor for progression to renal failure. The specific differences in pathogenesis amongst genders have yet to be conclusively defined, though genetic, hormonal, and immune responses have been analyzed thus far. Further research is warranted to further elucidate these differences and permit the development of gender-tailored treatment regimens.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether genderdifferences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) items are comparable across 2 distinctive cultural samples: Americans and Koreans. Using large, representative adult and adolescent samples from both cultures, we found that the American samples were associated with a higher proportion of items with genderdifferences than the Korean samples. The American adult sample produced genderdifferences on a higher proportion of items than did the American adolescent sample, but no such age difference was found between the Korean samples. Despite these differences between cultures and between age groups, content dimensions underlying items with genderdifferences were very similar across cultures and age groups, centering on stereotypical gender interests, behaviors, and emotions. PMID:23410238
Han, Kyunghee; Park, Hyung In; Weed, Nathan C; Lim, Jeeyoung; Johnson, Adam; Joles, Christopher
Over the past decade, scientists, healthcare providers, the public, and policy makers have made substantial efforts to improve understanding of the sex/gender* differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD)† and to recognize the importance of heart disease in women. Federal and American Heart Association (AHA) initiatives to raise awareness and to reduce gender disparities in research and clinical care are listed in Table 1. There was a near doubling of the rate of awareness of heart disease as the leading cause of death in women between 1997, when the AHA launched its first campaign for women, and 2009; during that same period, the death rate resulting from CVD decreased by nearly half.2–4 The extent to which efforts to close research gaps and to heighten awareness of heart disease in women are causally linked to lower CVD mortality or have resulted in improved clinical outcomes for women is not established. The purposes of this article are to evaluate contemporary sex/genderdifferences in the burden of CVD, to assess the impact of recent clinical trials on recommendations for the prevention of CVD in women, and to examine factors that may facilitate or impede quality CVD preventive care in women. Recommendations for the design and analyses of future CVD clinical trials in women are also provided.
Objective: The present study aims to examine genderdifferences in attitudes toward professional psychological help-seeking behavior and how genderdifferences could be affected by other cultural factor such as race. Participants: The authors selected studies that involved undergraduate and graduate students as samples, making the total number of…
Nam, Suk Kyung; Chu, Hui Jung; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Nuri; Lee, Sang Min
This study examines genderdifferences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…
A large body of literature reports that there are genderdifferences in mathematical problem solving favouring males. Strategy use, as a reflection of different patterns in mathematical problem solving between genders, is found to be related to cognitive abilities, together with psychological characteristics and mediated by experience and…
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of genderdifferences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate genderdifference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…
Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.
In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, genderdifferences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of genderdifferences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…
Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.
The economic benefits of postsecondary education are well established. However, there still seem to be differences in employment outcomes by gender or equity status. This exploratory research examined employment differences at the intersection of gender and equity status. Data were derived from a graduate survey and institutional records of a…
Used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to describe genderdifferences in rates of tobacco use among youth worldwide. Results found little difference between the genders in cigarette smoking or use of other tobacco products. There was a high use of other tobacco products compared to cigarette smoking. Findings suggest that programs should…
Background There is currently a dearth of knowledge on genderdifferences in mortality among patients on ART in Africa. Methods Using data from the national ART monitoring and evaluation system, a survival analysis of all healthcare workers, teachers, and police\\/army personnel who accessed ART in Malawi by June, September and December 2006 respectively, was undertaken. Genderdifferences in survival were
Katie Taylor-Smith; Hannock Tweya; Anthony Harries; Erik Schoutene; Andreas Jahn
Studies have consistently shown higher rates of offending for males than for females, and especially higher rates of violence. Genderdifferences in the development of social cognition may help to explain genderdifferences in crime and violence. How an individual ultimately responds to a stressful life event or risk factor depends on how that event is perceived, which, in turn,
Sarah Bennett; David P. Farrington; L. Rowell Huesmann
Reports an investigation of the effect of gender on ability to recognize simple definitions of concept words in science, as indicated by differences in test scores and in students' free writing "definitions" of physical science concept words. Significant genderdifferences favoring boys were found for students (n=1,635) of six Tasmanian high…
Dating rituals include dating—courtship methods that are regularly enacted. This study explores gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 680), it is found that some traditional genderdifferences persist, but that
Pamela Braboy Jackson; Sibyl Kleiner; Claudia Geist; Kara Cebulko
This study investigated genderdifferences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant genderdifferences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…
Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of genderdifferences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of genderdifferences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…
Research Findings: Current research regarding genderdifferences in educational settings at all socioeconomic levels suggests that young males are at high risk for developing academic, social, and emotional difficulties, resulting in increased disconnection from self and society. This study examined genderdifferences in the teacher-child…
Research Findings: Current research regarding genderdifferences in educational settings at all socioeconomic levels suggests that young males are at high risk for developing academic, social, and emotional difficulties, resulting in increased disconnection from self and society. This study examined genderdifferences in the teacher–child relationship as reported by teachers. Two specific constructs of relationship were examined: closeness and conflict.
In the course of educational expansion, genderdifferences in access to higher education have decreased substantially in many European countries. In Germany women are currently over-represented in upper secondary education and more frequently attain a general qualification for university entrance. Despite those advantages, women still enrol in…
Lorz, Markus; Schindler, Steffen; Walter, Jessica G.
In the studies reported here, females were more likely than males to report high levels of depression accompanied by anxiety and somatic symptomatology such as disordered eating and headache, but not more likely to report depression unaccompanied by these symptoms. This genderdifference in depression prevalence and the symptomatology associated with depression was due to a subgroup of females who
Background The time of initial hypertension diagnosis represents an opportunity to assess subsequent risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The extent to which women and men with newly identified hypertension are at similar risk for adverse cardiovascular events, including chronic kidney disease, is not well known. Methods Among women and men with incident hypertension from 2001–2006 enrolled in the Cardiovascular Research Network (CVRN) Hypertension Registry, we compared incident events including all-cause death; hospitalization for myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), or stroke; and the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multivariable models adjusted for patient demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Among 177,521 patients with incident hypertension, 55% were women. Compared to men, women were older, more likely white and had more kidney disease at baseline. Over median 3.2 years (IQR 1.6–4.8) of follow-up, after adjustment, women were equally likely to be hospitalized for HF (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76–1.07) and were significantly less likely to die of any cause (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80–0.90) or be hospitalized for MI (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.39–0.50) or stroke (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.60–0.77) compared to men. Women were significantly more likely to develop chronic kidney disease (9.60% vs. 7.15%; adjusted HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.12–1.22) than men. Conclusion In this cohort with incident hypertension, women were more likely to develop chronic kidney disease and less likely to develop other cardiovascular outcomes compared to men. Future studies should investigate the potential reasons for these genderdifferences.
Daugherty, Stacie L.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Zeng, Chan; Ho, P. Michael; Margolis, Karen L.; O'Connor, Patrick J.; Go, Alan S.; Magid, David J.
This paper investigates genderdifferences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive genderdifferences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant genderdifferences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the genderdifferences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of genderdifferences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level.
Weisberg, Yanna J.; DeYoung, Colin G.; Hirsh, Jacob B.
In preparation for the NASA Artificial Gravity (AG) pilot study, the tolerability of the proposed AG parameters was tested in 11 ambulatory human subjects (6m, 5w) by exposing each to a short arm centrifuge trial. Subjects were oriented in the supine position (but inclined 6deg head down) on one arm of the centrifuge, and the rotation rate (30.6-33.4 rpm) and radial position of the feet were set to produce 2.5G of equivalent gravitational load at the force plate directly beneath the feet, 1G at the level of the mediastinum, and approximately 0.55G at the labyrinth. Amongst the 6 men participating in this preliminary study, 5 completed at least 60 minutes of the trial successfully with no adverse sequelae. However, amongst the female cohort the test was stopped by the medical monitor before 60 min in all but one case, with pre-syncope listed as the reason for termination in all cases. Mean time before abort of the centrifuge run amongst the women was 33.2 +/- 20.97 min. It is known that women have a greater predisposition to syncope during orthostatic stress, under normal tilt table conditions, during LBNP, and following space flight. The reasons for this difference are the subject of some debate, but anthropometric factors, the vasoactive effects of sex hormones, genderdifferences in susceptibility to motion sickness, catecholamine levels, ability to augment total peripheral resistance in response to orthostatic stress, and structural differences in cardiac anatomy and physiology have all been suggested. This finding led to the exclusion of women from the AG pilot study. Clearly if AG is to be employed as a multi-system countermeasure it must provide physiological protection at rotation rates within the tolerance limits of all potential astronauts. Further investigation of the responses of women to centrifugation will be necessary to determine how to adjust AG parameters for tolerance by female subjects before a more detailed investigation of the appropriate dose in terms of G load, rotation rate, exposure duration and frequency can be performed.
Fong, Kevin J.; Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H.
This study explored the extent and type of men and women's relationship to baseball at the end of the 20th century. Unobtrusive observations of the behaviors and comments of visitors to the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum in Cooperstown, New York, were undertaken during a 7-day period to explore how men and women related to baseball. The "doing of gender" by visitors was observed in several areas: (a) historical and personal connection to baseball, (b) ability to experience a bond with others through baseball, and (c) approach to touring the Hall of Fame and Museum. Women generally were seen as outsiders and peripheral to baseball and often connected to the sport in a manner different from men. PMID:14510295
The present study used the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation and Research (NIDRR) funded Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) database to examine the effect of gender on presentation of executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and variables that might impact the course and degree of recovery. The Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) was chosen as a measure of
Jennifer H. Marwitz; Katrina Lesher; William C. Walker; Tamara Bushnik
We examined the influence of gender on the polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a retrospective study of 830 patients with OSA diagnosed by overnight polysomnogra- phy (PSG). The severity of OSA was determined from the apnea- hypopnea index (AHI) for total sleep time (AHI TST ), and was clas- sified as mild (5 to 25 events\\/h), moderate
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of gender upon the relation between protean and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective career success, in today's dynamic and changing organizational context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire conducted on 150 graduate and post-graduate distance learning students. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings
Mihaela Enache; Jose M. Sallan; Pep Simo; Vicenç Fernandez
Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning difficulty specific to mathematics learning. The prevalence of DD may be equivalent to that of dyslexia, posing an important challenge for effective educational provision. Nevertheless, there is no agreed definition of DD and there are controversies surrounding cutoff decisions, specificity and gender…
I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,
Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…
Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.
Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…
Hypothesis: Among factors postulated to affect out- come in sepsis is the gender of the patient, with a sug- gestion that females may have lower mortality. This study tested the hypothesis that female patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit with a documented infec- tion have a lower mortality rate. Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospectively col- lected data
Soumitra R. Eachempati; Lynn Hydo; Philip S. Barie
The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…
Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.
A study of the sport socialization of children between the ages of nine and 12 indicated that White children are influenced by specific agents of socialization such as fathers and teachers, while Black children are influenced by situational and contextual variables. Noteworthy from the gender comparisons is the predominantly same-sex influence on…
Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…
This study explored gendered relations between children's self-perceptions and emotion understanding. Ninety-one children (52 girls, 39 boys; 5-8 years) completed self-report self-perception measures and participated in individual interviews to assess three dimensions of self-understanding (continuity, agency, distinctiveness) and emotion…
This study is aimed at assessing gender-and age-related differences in PTSD symptoms in bank employees exposed to robbery and subsequently involved in Psychological Debriefing (PD). The study included 49 females and 51 males (average age 40.9). Impact of Event Scale (IES) was administered before PD (T0) and after 45 days (T1); Post-traumatic Checklist (PCL) only at T1. The sample exhibited a significant decrease in IES score regardless of gender. Female employees obtained higher IES and PCL scores. No age differences were observed. Consistent with most studies, our results may be explained by a higher susceptibility in women. PMID:23393874
Fichera, G P; Neri, L; Musti, M; Coggiola, M; Russignaga, D; Costa, G
Examined the nature and extent of parental influences on gender differentiation in 161 4-year olds from Hungary and England. Found that certain aspects of parental gender typing were associated with individual differences in children's behavior and gender typing. Association was related to sex of parent and of child, context, and aspect of gender…
Genderdifferences and similarities in the relations of key constructs in Eccles and colleagues’ (Wigfield & Eccles, 2000) model of achievement were examined as predictors of math grades and enrollment intentions for Grade 9 boys (n = 263) and girls (n = 277). A number of gender similarities were found, particularly in the prediction of math grades. There were, however,
Gail Crombie; Nancy Sinclair; Naida Silverthorn; Barbara M. Byrne; David L. DuBois; Anne Trinneer
The relationship between gender and mathematical achievement was investigated in 440 female and 480 male Norwegian third graders. Boys had higher test scores, but the effect size was small. Boys performed better in numeracy, mental arithmetic, and measurement problems. Marked genderdifferences were found at extreme tails of the distribution.…
Services marketers can influence the evaluation of service quality by “managing” customer expectations. Expectations can also provide insights into market segmentation strategies. Gender is often used as a segmentation variable since it is easily identifiable, accessible, and profitable. The purpose of this study was to examine if there are any gender-based differences in the expectations of service quality in the
This study examines genderdifferences in the development of dieting among a representative sample of 1,368 Norwegian boys and girls. The respondents were followed over 3 time points from ages 13/14 to 20/21. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted showing that girls' dieting scores increased while boys' scores remained constant. Gender…
This article investigates changes in genderdifferences evident in the performance of grade 8th grade students participating in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) between 1995 and 2003. Gender specific results and patterns found in TIMSS 1995 were compared with later cycles of the study in order to address the…
This study examines genderdifferences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…
Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey
This study examines the gender pay gap among university faculty by analyzing genderdifferences in one component of faculty members' salaries--"market premiums." The data were collected during the Fall of 2002 using a survey of faculty at a single Canadian research university. Correspondence analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed…
This study examines teacher-student interactions and selected student genderdifferences with volunteer boys and recruited girls in a technology class. The participants were teachers and triads of girls and boys in single-gender sections of a technology course where the students built, designed features for, and programmed Lego robots. We analyzed…
This paper from The Human Health working group of SGOMSEC 16 examines a broad range of issues on gender effects in toxicology. Genderdifferences in toxicology begin at the gamete and embryo stage, continuing through development and maturation and into old age. Sex influences exp...
Response patterns to the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) were analyzed for a sample of 203 Hispanic and 254 Anglo first- through fifth-grade children from a rural school district in southern Colorado. Gender distributions were nearly equal. Gender and ethnic differences were examined within the context of determining whether the CPM…
The impact of gender on computer related attitudes, ability, and use has been actively documented, but little research has been done examining how to modify and reduce imbalances. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ubiquitous computing (24-hour access to a laptop and the Internet) on genderdifferences in pre-service teachers…
This study examined genderdifferences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…
This paper presents the results of a 2-year study conducted in Japanese junior high schools to examine the changes in attitude towards science with regard to genderdifference. The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) identifies Japan as the country with the largest gender gap in "liking science." The results of the study…
Examines the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and a number of cognitive and noncognitive variables, and explores whether genderdifferences existed for any of these relationships. Concludes that general chemistry grade, ACT-math score, and motivation are significant predictors of organic chemistry achievement. Indicates gender…
Many studies have been conducted on genderdifferences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding gender…
Genderdifferences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…
Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey
Genderdifferences in student achievement have been widely studied. Considering the long-term effects of externalising behaviour problems on children's later academic performance, it can be conjectured that gender disparities in student achievement may be rooted in developmental characteristics in early childhood. As an effort towards contributing…
The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment.
Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.
Current research on child maltreatment examines differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanics and between female and male children\\/youth in the overall population. However, this research does not shed light on whether ethnicity-associated differences hold for each gender. Similarly, where genderdifferences are reported without regard of ethnicity, one does not know whether these differences hold within ethnic groups. In order to
Purpose – This survey-based study examines gender-based perspectives of job orientation, expectations, and motivations in the country of Poland. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Polish professionals were asked to rate 25 job characteristics according to their importance to the rater on a five-point scale (5 = very important, 1 = not important). Mean scores were calculated and rank ordered for males and females
Robert Frankel; Joseph Tomkiewicz; Tope Adeyemi-Bello; Mariusz Sagan
This study explores genderdifferences in lifetime and recent substance use/internalizing behavior, childhood externalizing behavior and gambling preferences among African-American youth gamblers. Data are from a prospective study of a community sample of 452 urban African-American youth that began at entry into first grade and was followed for ten years. Gambling was associated with high teacher ratings of childhood externalizing behaviors among males, and with high parent ratings of childhood impulsivity and hyperactivity among both genders. Internalizing behavior was associated with female gambling. No male-female differences in substance use/lifetime conduct disorder among gamblers were noted. Gambling preferences/frequency differed across genders.
Martins, Silvia S.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Chilcoat, Howard D.
Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in grapes, berries and other plants, has been proposed as an ideal chemopreventative agent due to its plethora of health promoting activities. However, despite its lofty promise as a cancer prevention agent its success in human clinical trials has been limited due to its poor bioavailability. Thus, interest in other natural polyphenols is intensifying including the naturally occurring dimethylated analog of resveratrol, pterostilbene. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes plays a vital role in the metabolism of both resveratrol and pterostilbene. The current study sought to elucidate the UGT family members responsible for the metabolism of pterostilbene and to examine genderdifferences in the glucuronidation of resveratrol and pterostilbene. We demonstrate that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are mainly responsible for pterostilbene glucuronidation although UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 also had detectable activity. Intriguingly, UGT1A1 exhibits the highest activity against both resveratrol and pterostilbene despite altered hydroxyl group specificity. Using pooled human liver microsomes, enzyme kinetics were determined for pterostilbene and resveratrol glucuronides. In all cases females were more efficient than males, indicating potential genderdifferences in stilbene metabolism. Importantly, the glucuronidation of pterostilbene is much less efficient than that of resveratrol, indicating that pterostilbene will have dramatically decreased metabolism in humans. PMID:23965644
Dellinger, Ryan W; Garcia, Angela M Gomez; Meyskens, Frank L
Evidence has shown genderdifferences regarding the critical roles of histamine in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and angina pectoris. Histamine depolarizes unmyelinated C-type neurons without any effects on myelinated A-type vagal ganglion neurons (VGNs) in male rats. However, little is known if VGNs from females react to histamine in a similar manner. Membrane depolarization and inward currents were tested in VGNs isolated from adult rats using a whole-cell patch technique. Results from males were consistent with the literature. Surprisingly, histamine-induced depolarization and inward currents were observed in both unmyelinated C-type and myelinated A- and Ah-type VGNs from female rats. In Ah-type neurons, responses to 1.0 ?M histamine were stronger in intact females than in males and significantly reduced in ovariectomized (OVX) females. In C-type neurons, histamine-induced events were significantly smaller (pA/pF) in intact females compared with males and this histamine-induced activity was dramatically increased by OVX. Female A-types responded to histamine, which was further increased following ovariectomy. Histamine at 300 nM depolarized Ah-types in females, but not Ah-types in OVX females. In contrast, the sensitivity of A- and C-types to histamine was upregulated by OVX. These data demonstrate genderdifferences in VGN chemosensitivity to histamine for the first time. Myelinated Ah-types showed the highest sensitivity to histamine across female populations, which was changed by OVX. These novel findings improve the understanding of genderdifferences in the prevalence of asthma, anaphylaxis, and pain. Changes in sensitivity to histamine by OVX may explain alterations in the prevalence of certain pathophysiological conditions when women reach a postmenopausal age.
Television (TV) viewing is associated with an increased risk in childhood obesity. Research surrounding food habits of tweens largely bypass snacking preferences while watching TV in the home. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe snacking prevalence by tween gender, and to describe parental rules surrounding snacking while watching TV at home. Survey data were obtained in 2008 from 4th through 6th grade students (N=1557) who attended 12 New England schools. Complete self-reported measures (N=1448) included demographics, household and bedroom TV ownership, TV watching frequency, snacking prevalence, snacking preferences, and parental rules regarding snacking while watching TV. Comparisons were generated using chi-square analyses. Overall, the majority of children (69.2%) snacked “sometimes” or “always” during TV viewing, with the majority of responses (62.9%) categorized as foods. The most popular food snacks for both genders in this sample were salty snacks (47.9%), with fruits and vegetables ranking a distant second (18.4%). Girls (22.6%) selected fruits and vegetables more frequently than boys (14.7%), P=0.003. Of those drinking beverages (n=514), boys selected sugar-sweetened beverages more often than girls (43.5% versus 31.7%), P=0.006, and girls chose juice more often than boys (12.3% versus 6.1%), P=0.02. Overall, approximately half (53.2%) of students consumed less healthy snacks while watching TV. Interventions for parents and both genders of tweens focusing on healthful snacking choices may have long-term beneficial outcomes.
Skatrud-Mickelson, Monica; Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.
In focusing on genderdifferences in anger expression, Trnka (2013) provides a useful complement to the article by Ingram et al., (2012) analyzing genderdifferences in children's narratives about peer conflict. I agree that genderdifferences in anger are more likely to be the result of differential socialization processes regarding the expression of anger than by innate differences in the experience of anger. Genderdifferences in intersexual anger and aggression are likely to be affected by the social context, and especially whether a female is interacting with a romantic partner or an unknown male. The implication of socialization in anger expression raises the possibility that culture plays a causal role in encouraging cooperative breeding by inhibiting inter-female aggressive displays. Another of Trnka's proposals, that the expression of anger contributes to reconciliation and inhibits long-term relationship damage, is intuitively plausible and supported by the research literature, but not by data from the current study. PMID:23893792
The individual gender type was assessed using the Bem sex role inventory. Seventy patients with panic disorders (PD) and 50 healthy people (controls) were studied. There was a few patients with masculine features (4.3%) compared to the control group (22%). The correlations between a small number of masculine characteristics (less than 10 traits), the development of agoraphobia in PD, the progressive course of PD with the poor response to treatment and marked social maladaptation were found. It has been concluded that the insufficient masculinization is a personality feature of PD patients predisposing to avoidant behavior. PMID:23250589
Purpose Women have been associated with adverse outcomes after radical cystectomy for lower tract urothelial carcinoma. We evaluated\\u000a the prognostic value of gender in an international cohort of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper\\u000a tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We retrospectively studied 754 patients treated with RNU for UTUC without neoadjuvant chemotherapy at nine centers located\\u000a in Asia, Canada, and
Shahrokh F. Shariat; Ricardo L. Favaretto; Amit Gupta; Hans-Martin Fritsche; Kazumasa Matsumoto; Wassim Kassouf; Thomas J. Walton; Stefan Tritschler; Shiro Baba; Kazuhito Matsushita; Patrick J. Bastian; Juan I. Martínez-Salamanca; Christian Seitz; Armin Pycha; Wolfgang Otto; Pierre I. Karakiewicz; Vincenzo Ficarra; Giacomo Novara
This paper from Jing Feng, Ian Spence and Jay Pratt discusses genderdifferences in spatial cognition. The team "found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this genderdifference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender disparity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition." Two spatial reasoning experiments are described in the paper. This research may be helpful for instructors and technical programs looking to improve female students' spatial abilities. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
Collaborative cognition research has demonstrated that social partners can positively impact individuals’ thinking and problem-solving performance. Research in adulthood and aging has been less clear about dyadic effects, such as partner gender, on collaborative cognition. The current study examined the objective and subjective experiences of older men and women’s collaboration on three everyday problems. Tasks included comprehension of everyday printed materials, a social dilemma task, and an errand-planning task. A sample of 98 older married couples (N = 196) worked both collaboratively and individually with either their spouse (N = 52 dyads) or a stranger of the other gender (N = 46 dyads). Analyses conducted using the actor-partner methodology (e.g., Gonzalez & Griffin, 1997; Kenny, 1996) suggest that men tended to be more influential during dyadic problem solving, particularly on more ambiguous tasks. Subjective appraisals of collaboration also varied between male and female partners, with familiarity of partner playing a large role in expectations of collaboration. Most notably, women assigned to work with an unfamiliar male partner tended to rate their satisfaction with collaborative teamwork less positively. Both self and partner-rated subjective appraisals, particularly expectations of competitiveness, were predictive of collaborative performance.
The contention that women are more erotically plastic than men is supported by a significant body of data, from which it has been inferred (Baumeister, 2000) that female sexuality may be more flexible and more heavily influenced by contextual factors than that of men. As a direct test of erotic plasticity, the present study investigated the extent to which acculturation was associated differentially (as would be predicted by the theory of greater female erotic plasticity) with the sexual attitudes and experiences of 111 college men and 167 college women. For sexual attitudes, main effects were found for gender, acculturation level, and ethnicity. Women endorsed more conservative attitudes than men, less acculturated individuals endorsed more conservative sexual attitudes than the more acculturated group, and Asian Americans had the most conservative sexual attitudes. For sexual experience, a main effect was found for acculturation, with the more highly acculturated group reporting a greater variety of sexual experiences than the less acculturated group. There were no gender-by-acculturation interactions. This study thus did not find support for the theory of female erotic plasticity, insofar as the impact of acculturation on a sample of ethno-culturally diverse college students. PMID:18686150
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of victim age, victim gender, and observergender on the tendency to attribute responsibility for extrafamilial child sexual abuse to the victim and the nonoffending parents.Method: A 2 (Victim Age) × 2 (Victim Gender) × 2 (ObserverGender) between-subjects design was employed. Undergraduate students (N = 145) read a
This paper examined gender similarities and differences in the predictors of treatment entry and the combination of treatment entry and completion. The sample consisted of 2,219 male and female program participants. Maximum likelihood probit estimation wa...
... to 100 percent due to rounding. Source: SAMHSA Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS), 2007. Co-occurring Disorder Genderdifferences also were found in the prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. Among young adult American ...
Prior research has demonstrated a male advantage in spatial skills and science achievement. The present research integrated these findings by testing the potential role of spatial skills in genderdifferences in the science performance of eighth-grade students (13-15 years old). In (N = 113), the findings showed that mental rotation ability mediated genderdifferences in physical science and technology/engineering test scores. In (N = 73,245), science performance was examined in a state population of eighth-grade students. As in , the results revealed larger genderdifferences on items that showed higher correlations with mental rotation. These findings underscore the importance of considering spatial training interventions aimed at reducing genderdifferences in the science performance of school-aged children. PMID:24673201
Ganley, Colleen M; Vasilyeva, Marina; Dulaney, Alana
GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711...
In the United States, more women than men seek health-care services for symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A number\\u000a of explanations are given for this genderdifference including the higher rates of somatic non-gastrointestinal symptoms and\\u000a increased psychological distress reported by women with IBS. However, these genderdifferences are found in studies that rely\\u000a on retrospective recall with little
Kevin C. Cain; Monica E. Jarrett; Robert L. Burr; Sheldon Rosen; Vicky L. Hertig; Margaret M. Heitkemper
Miyaguchi, K and Demura, S. Genderdifference in ability using the stretch-shortening cycle in the upper extremities. J Strength Cond Res 23(1): 231-236, 2009—A genderdifference in ability using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC ability) in the upper extremities has not been studied in detail. This study aimed to devise an index to evaluate SSC ability during powerful elbow flexion and
KERNOZEK, T. W., M. R. TORRY, H. VAN HOOF, H. COWLEY, and S. TANNER. GenderDifferences in Frontal and Sagittal Plane Biomechanics during Drop Landings. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 1003-1012, 2005. Purpose: To determine genderdifferences in lower-extremity joint kinematics and kinetics between age- and skill-matched recreational athletes. Methods: Inverse dynamic solutions estimated the lower-extremity
THOMAS W. KERNOZEK; MICHAEL R. TORRY; HEATHER VAN HOOF; HANNI COWLEY; SUZANNE TANNER
Design: Retrospective study of clinical records. Two stage stratified cluster sampling was used to select a nationally representative sample of patients receiving a coronary revascularisation procedure in 1997. Setting: All of Spain. Main outcome measures: Odds ratios (OR) in men and women for different clinical and diagnostic variables related with coronary disease. A logistic regression model was developed to estimate the association between coronary symptoms and gender. Results: In the univariate analysis the prevalence of the following risk factors for coronary heart disease was higher in women than in men: obesity (OR=1.8), hypertension (OR=2.9) and diabetes (OR=2.1). High surgical risk was also more prevalent among women (OR=2.6). In the logistic regression analysis women's risk of being symptomatic at the time of revascularisation was more than double that of men (OR=2.4). Conclusions: Women have more severe coronary symptoms at the time of coronary revascularisation than do men. These results suggest that women receive revascularisation at a more advanced stage of coronary disease. Further research is needed to clarify what social, cultural or biological factors may be implicated in the genderdifferencesobserved.
Background Genderdifferences of the human brain are an important issue in neuroscience research. In recent years, an increasing amount of evidence has been gathered from noninvasive neuroimaging studies supporting a sexual dimorphism of the human brain. However, there is a lack of imaging studies on genderdifferences of brain metabolic networks based on a large population sample. Materials and Methods FDG PET data of 400 right-handed, healthy subjects, including 200 females (age: 25?45 years, mean age±SD: 40.9±3.9 years) and 200 age-matched males were obtained and analyzed in the present study. We first investigated the regional differences of brain glucose metabolism between genders using a voxel-based two-sample t-test analysis. Subsequently, we investigated the genderdifferences of the metabolic networks. Sixteen metabolic covariance networks using seed-based correlation were analyzed. Seven regions showing significant regional metabolic differences between genders, and nine regions conventionally used in the resting-state network studies were selected as regions-of-interest. Permutation tests were used for comparing within- and between-network connectivity between genders. Results Compared with the males, females showed higher metabolism in the posterior part and lower metabolism in the anterior part of the brain. Moreover, there were widely distributed patterns of the metabolic networks in the human brain. In addition, significant genderdifferences within and between brain glucose metabolic networks were revealed in the present study. Conclusion This study provides solid data that reveal genderdifferences in regional brain glucose metabolism and brain glucose metabolic networks. These observations might contribute to the better understanding of the genderdifferences in human brain functions, and suggest that gender should be included as a covariate when designing experiments and explaining results of brain glucose metabolic networks in the control and experimental individuals or patients.
Despite evidence that middle adolescent girls (ages 14–17) experience more body dissatisfaction than early adolescent girls\\u000a (ages 10–13) or boys at these ages, researchers have rarely considered whether such differences are observed regarding factors\\u000a related to body dissatisfaction, particularly within non-Western samples. To address this issue, gender and age group differences\\u000a in media and interpersonal influences on body dissatisfaction were
Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the genderdifference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the genderdifference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents…
Cox, Stephanie J.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet S.
The author presents findings from a study of education, land, and nonland asset transfers from parents to children in 344 households in five rice villages in the Philippines. A model with family fixed effects is developed which explains transfers better than either individual heterogeneity or observed parent and child characteristics without family fixed effects. Analysis revealed that families facing different land constraints exhibit significantly different patterns of educational investment in children. In a subsample with completed inheritance, daughters receive less education, land, and total inheritance, but are compensated with nonland assets. Parents also exhibit preferential behavior toward children of the same gender such that daughters of better educated mothers receive more land, nonland assets, and total inheritance. Better educated fathers, however, give land preferentially to sons, but favor daughters in education. PMID:12318545
Many studies have been conducted on genderdifferences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding genderdifferences in IPV, but national data collections do not regularly report on this information. This study expects to fill this gap by using nationally representative data to examine differences in the nature and context of IPV between male and female perpetrators. This study uses the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Descriptive statistics for each gender are first obtained (n = 2,190). A discriminant analysis is used with gender as a grouping variable, including only perpetrators of IPV (n = 236). The independent variables are age, race, education, employment, financial security, frequency and severity of IPV, controlling behaviors, and the initiator of physical arguments. The study findings suggest that women and men do not vary much in the prevalence, frequency, and severity of IPV, controlling behaviors, or the initiation of physical arguments. They also suggest that those variables are rather weak in differentiating IPV against men from IPV against women. Since the study revealed some genderdifferences in IPV and, at the same time, encountered methodological difficulties in convincingly showing them as real genderdifferences, more research is clearly needed. PMID:22366476
Background and aimLittle is known about the impact of gender on short-term effects of atorvastatin. We investigated the genderdifferences in the short-term lipid-lowering and pleiotropic effects of atorvastatin therapy.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether there are significant genderdifferences concerning lifetime prevalence of substance use reported among a group of African-American urban community college students. Although genderdifferences have commonly been examined in studies of substance use and abuse, it appears that gender similarities may be more significant, including substance abusers and treatment. The interaction
This study examined the influence of gender and region on object control (OC) and locomotor skill development. Participants were 275 midwestern African American and 194 southwestern Hispanic preschool children who were disadvantaged. All were evaluated on the Test of Gross MotorDevelopment-2 (Ulrich, 2000). Two, 2 Gender (girls, boys) x 2 Region (midwest, southwest) analyses of variance were conducted on OC and locomotor percentile rank. Both midwestern and southwestern preschoolers were developmentally delayed in locomotor and OC skills (< 30th percentile). There was a significant difference for gender (p < .0001) and Gender x Region interaction (p = .02) for OC skills. Boys outperformed girls in the midwestern and southwestern regions. For locomotor skills, there was a significant difference for region (p < .001), with midwestern preschoolers having better locomotor skills. PMID:20387395
In September 2006, members of the Sex, Gender and Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain met to discuss the following: (1) what is known about sex and genderdifferences in pain and analgesia; (2) what are the “best practice” guidelines for pain research with respect to sex and gender; and (3) what are the crucial questions to address in the near future? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from basic science, clinical and psychosocial pain researchers, as well as from recognized experts in sexual differentiation and reproductive endocrinology. We intend this document to serve as a utilitarian and thought-provoking guide for future research on sex and genderdifferences in pain and analgesia, both for those currently working in this field as well as those still wondering, “Do I really need to study females?”
Greenspan, Joel D.; Craft, Rebecca M.; LeResche, Linda; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Berkley, Karen J.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Gold, Michael S.; Holdcroft, Anita; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Mayer, Emeran A.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Murphy, Anne Z.; Traub, Richard J.
This study examines U.S. college students’ fear of crime for others and uses the “doing gender” perspective to help explain\\u000a genderdifferences. A sample of 931 college students (421 male students\\/510 female students and 605 White students\\/326 Black\\u000a students) under the age of 30 from a Southeastern public university provided information on fear of crime, fear for others,\\u000a and other
Genderdifferences in physical self-concept among elementary- and secondary-school students were investigated. Physical self-concept was measured by the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire. The results indicated significantly higher physical self-concept in boys than in girls in eight subdomains, as well as global physical self-concept and self-esteem. Physical self-concept decreased with increasing age, and there was a significant age by gender interaction in
AnneTorhild Klomsten; Einar M. Skaalvik; GeirArild Espnes
Psychiatric comorbidity was examined for a sample of 212 methadone patients dually addicted to opiates and cocaine, focusing on genderdifferences. Diagnoses were determined by the SCID for DSM-III-R. Men displayed more lifetime (but not current) substance use disorders, while women displayed more lifetime and current non-substance use disorders. There were several significant interactions among psychiatric disorders and gender. Women
Stephen Magura; Sung-Yeon Kang; Andrew Rosenblum; Leonard Handelsman; Jeffrey Foote
Objectives. The research hypothesis was that healthy adults would walk differently according to their gender when walked barefoot at their comfortable speed. The aim of this study was to prove the hypothesis in healthy Korean adults.Design. Between-gender statistical comparisons of the gait analysis data including spatiotemporal, three-dimensional joint kinematic and kinetic data.Background. There have been few attempts to identify the
The segregation of the sexes in top-level sport usually is justified with the physical differences between men and women. But on closer examination, you can recognize that sex differences have not the same meaning in all sports, instead there are various groups of sports with different modes of inclusion of the sexes. So maybe the segregation of the sexes in
Plasma HIV RNA copy number is a strong prognostic marker of progression to AIDS in antiretroviral-naive persons. Recent research suggests women have lower HIV RNA levels than comparable men. Because clinical care recommendations currently include HIV RNA thresholds as a guide to initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART), the authors undertook the present quantitative meta-analysis to explore the relation between gender and plasma HIV RNA levels. A genderdifference in HIV RNA levels was observed in the CD4-unadjusted and -adjusted analyses. The summary estimate including only CD4-adjusted results with the lowest heterogeneity indicated that on average, women have 41% lower plasma HIV RNA levels than men (-.23 log; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.16 to -.31 log ). Because numerous studies have found similar HIV disease progression rates in men and women, adjusted for CD4 but not HIV RNA, the present meta-analysis supports the use of lower HIV RNA thresholds in women than in men to guide initiation of ART. Given the patient characteristics in the original studies used in this meta-analysis, the results are most likely to apply to therapy-naive persons with CD4 lymphocyte counts >200 cells/mm, a subgroup for whom HIV RNA levels may strongly influence the decision to initiate therapy. PMID:12352145
Napravnik, Sonia; Poole, Charles; Thomas, James C; Eron, Joseph J
Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding genderdifferences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Genderdifferences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by genderdifferences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few and very small N studies published indicated that males have a poorer pre-morbid cognitive performance than females. This study examined the genderdifferences in premorbid cognition, utilizing cognitive assessments performed on female and male adolescents before induction into military service. The Israeli Draft Board Registry, which contains cognitive assessments equivalent to IQ scores on 16-18 year old Israeli adolescents, was linked with the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which records all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Scores on premorbid cognitive performance in schizophrenia were examined in 90 female-male case pairs matched for school attended as a proxy for socio-economic status. The mean age of first hospitalization was 20. 1+/-1.8 years of age for males and 19.6+/-1.8 years of age for females. A repeated-measures ANCOVA with age of first hospitalization and years of formal education as covariates, and controlling for genderdifferences in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents, revealed a significant difference in pre-morbid cognitive performance between males and females on all four cognitive measures [F(1,87)=8.07, P=0.006] with females scoring lower (worse) than males. In this national cohort, pre-morbid cognition was poorer in female, compared with male, adolescents who will suffer from schizophrenia in the future, a result consistent with some, but not all, similar studies. These results may be valid only for patients with first hospitalization around age 20. Hence, genderdifferences in premorbid cognition should be taken into account when assessing genderdifferences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:11042436
Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Kaplan, Z; Mark, M; Nahon, D; Davidson, M
Background The coexistence of several chronic diseases in one same individual, known as multimorbidity, is an important challenge facing health care systems in developed countries. Recent studies have revealed the existence of multimorbidity patterns clustering systematically associated distinct clinical entities. We sought to describe age and genderdifferences in the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in men and women over 65 years. Methods Observational retrospective multicentre study based on diagnostic information gathered from electronic medical records of 19 primary care centres in Aragon and Catalonia. Multimorbidity patterns were identified through exploratory factor analysis. We performed a descriptive analysis of previously obtained patterns (i.e. cardiometabolic (CM), mechanical (MEC) and psychogeriatric (PG)) and the diseases included in the patterns stratifying by sex and age group. Results 67.5% of the aged population suffered two or more chronic diseases. 32.2% of men and 45.3% of women were assigned to at least one specific pattern of multimorbidity, and 4.6% of men and 8% of women presented more than one pattern simultaneously. Among women over 65 years the most frequent pattern was the MEC pattern (33.3%), whereas among men it was the CM pattern (21.2%). While the prevalence of the CM and MEC patterns decreased with age, the PG pattern showed a higher prevalence in the older age groups. Conclusions Significant genderdifferences were observed in the prevalence of multimorbidity patterns, women showing a higher prevalence of the MEC and PG patterns, as well as a higher degree of pattern overlapping, probably due to a higher life expectancy and/or worse health. Future studies on multimorbidity patterns should take into account these differences and, therefore, the study of multimorbidity and its impact should be stratified by age and sex.
With the development of sensitive molecular techniques for detection of low levels of asymptomatic pathogens, it becoming clear that vertical transmission is a common feature of some insect pathogenic viruses, and likely to be essential to virus survival when opportunities for horizontal transmission are unfavorable. Vertical transmission of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) is common in natural populations of S. exigua. To assess whether gender affected transgenerational virus transmission, four mating group treatments were performed using healthy and sublethally infected insects: i) healthy males (H?) × healthy females (H?); ii) infected males (I?) × healthy females (H?); iii) healthy males (H?) × infected females (I?) and iv) infected males (I?) × infected females (I?). Experimental adults and their offspring were analyzed by qPCR to determine the prevalence of infection. Both males and females were able to transmit the infection to the next generation, although female-mediated transmission resulted in a higher prevalence of infected offspring. Male-mediated venereal transmission was half as efficient as maternally-mediated transmission. Egg surface decontamination studies indicated that the main route of transmission is likely transovarial rather than transovum. Both male and female offspring were infected by their parents in similar proportions. Incorporating vertically-transmitted genotypes into virus-based insecticides could provide moderate levels of transgenerational pest control, thereby extending the periods between bioinsecticide applications. PMID:23940671
According to fear-avoidance models of pain perception, heightened fear of pain may increase disruptive effects of pain; however, the extent to which this affects self-reported pain severity versus physiological indices of pain is not well delineated. The current study examined self-report measures and physiological indices of pain during a cold pressor (CP) task. Individual differences in fear of pain and pain catastrophizing were also assessed via questionnaire. The primary aim of the current study was to examine the extent to which individual differences associated with fear and catastrophizing in response to pain influences subjective and physiological measures of pain. A secondary aim was to examine genderdifferences associated with response to pain. Average subjective pain ratings were higher for females than males. In contrast, males exhibited higher systolic and diastolic reactivity in response to the CP task relative to females, as well as failure to fully recover to baseline levels. Follow-up correlational analyses revealed that subjective pain ratings were positively associated with fear of pain in both sexes, but were not associated with cardiovascular indices. These results suggest that fear of pain and pain catastrophizing do not influence cardiovascular responses to induced pain. Further research is necessary in order to determine whether these genderdifferences in blood pressure and heart rate response profiles are due to biological or psychosocial influences. Results support the notion that fear of pain increases subjective pain ratings, but does not influence cardiovascular responses during CP pain-induction. PMID:24696322
Genderdifferences in tobacco withdrawal are of considerable clinical importance, but research findings on this topic have been mixed. Methodological variation in samples sizes, experimental design, and measures across studies may explain the inconsistent results. The current study examined whether male (n = 101) and female (n = 102) smokers (?15 cigarettes/day) differed in abstinence-induced changes on a battery of self-report measures (withdrawal, affect, craving), cognitive performance tasks (attention, psychomotor performance), and physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure, brain electroencephalogram). Participants attended 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions, 1 following 12 hr of abstinence and the other following ad libitum smoking. Results showed that women reported greater abstinence-induced increases in negative affect, withdrawal-related distress, and urge to smoke to relieve withdrawal distress. In contrast, both genders reported similar abstinence-induced changes in positive affect and urge to smoke for pleasure. Men and women exhibited generally similar abstinence-induced changes in physiological and cognitive performance measures. In addition, gender did not moderate the association between withdrawal symptoms and baseline measures of smoking behavior and dependence. Abstinence-induced changes in withdrawal distress mediated the effect of gender on latency until the 1st cigarette of the day at trend levels (p < .10). These findings suggest that there are qualitative genderdifferences in the acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome that may underlie gender-specific smoking patterns.
Leventhal, Adam M.; Boyd, Susan; Moolchan, Eric T.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lerman, Caryn; Pickworth, Wallace B.
There is evidence of genderdifferences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated genderdifferences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining genderdifferences in its mental health impact have produced inconsistent findings. The present study examines the moderating effects of gender on the longitudinal association between exposure to violence and a variety of mental health symptoms (externalizing, internalizing, PTSD, dissociation) in a racially diverse urban adolescent sample (N = 615; 50.6% female; Time 1 mean age = 14.15; Time 2 mean age = 16.70). For both genders, exposure to violence prospectively predicted increases in all types of symptoms. Although boys reported more exposure to violence on average, girls experiencing violence were more likely to experience dissociative (but not PTSD, internalizing, or externalizing) symptoms. The results suggest that adolescent girls exposed to potentially traumatic events may be especially vulnerable to experiencing certain trauma-related symptoms and imply gender-specific pathways to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:21400207
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the factors associated with insomnia in community-dwelling elderly as a function of the nature and number of insomnia symptoms (IS) e.g. difficulty with initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty with maintaining sleep (DMS) and early morning awakening (EMA). Methods IS were assessed in a sample of 2673 men and 3213 women aged 65 years and over. The participants were administered standardized questionnaires regarding the frequency of IS and other sleep characteristics (snoring, nightmares, sleeping medication, sleepiness) as well as various socio-demographic, behavioral and clinical variables, and measures of physical and mental health. Results More than 70% of men and women reported at least one IS, DMS being the most prevalent symptom in both men and women. Women reported more frequently two or three IS whereas men reported more often only one IS. Multivariate regression analyses stratified by gender showed that men and women shared numerous factors associated with IS, sleeping medication, nightmares, sleepiness, chronic diseases, and depression being independently associated with two or three IS. For both sexes, age was associated with only one IS in all age categories. Loud snoring was strongly associated with increased DMS in men only. High body mass index increased the risk for DIS in men but tended to decrease it in women. In women, hormonal replacement therapy, Mediterranean diet, caffeine and alcohol intake had a protective effect. Conclusion Our data suggest that women may have specific predisposition factors of multiple IS which may involve both behavioral and hormonal factors. Identification and treatment of these risk factors may form the basis of an intervention program for reduction of insomnia symptoms in the elderly..
Females have higher rates of depression than males, a disparity that emerges in adolescence and persists into adulthood. This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effects of school context on genderdifferences in depressive symptoms among adolescents based on two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 9,709 teens, 127 schools). Analysis indicates significant school-level variation in both overall symptom levels and the average gender gap in depression net of prior symptoms and individual-level covariates. Aggregate levels of depressive symptomatology were positively associated with contextual-level socioeconomic status (SES) disadvantage. A cross-level contingency emerged for the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms with school SES and aggregate perceived community safety such that the gender “gap” was most apparent in contexts characterized by low SES disadvantage and high levels of perceived safety. These results highlight the importance of context to understanding the development of mental health disparities.
Information about how success and gender affect students' views of ideal and actual classroom role behavior can help both researchers and teachers better understand classroom components such as achievement and curriculum. A 20-item double Q sort was used to measure differences in perceptions of high school science students according to letter grades and gender. Individual Q sort item rankings of 160 students were tested for significant differences according to letter grade received; item ratings were compared according to gender for 215 students. Differences in perception according to success were found for both ideal and actual behavior; 8 and 5 items, respectively, out of each 20-item sort were found to be significant at the p = < 0.05 level. No such overall patterns of difference in view were found between boys and girls, although three ideal student items and one actual self-report item were found to be significantly different at the p = < 0.05 level.
Empathy is understood as a multidimensional construct involving both cognitive and emotional factors for which, traditionally, genderdifferences have been reported. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis in Catalog Sel Documents Psychol 10:1-19, 1980) is an instrument made up of four subscales, each measuring a different dimension of the global concept of empathy. Attending to genderdifferences, the present study's objective is twofold. First, it aims to determine, conceptually speaking, whether or not the model analyzed by this instrument is equivalent for the two sexes. Second, it aims to determine which dimensions involved in empathy most strongly predict genderdifferences. The results convey that the proposed model is invariant between boys and girls, although the dimensions exhibited significant differences of magnitude as a function of sex. Mainly two variables (Considerate Social Style and Impassiveness) were capable of distinguishing between men and women. Possible reasons for these results are also discussed. PMID:22890826
Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Delgado Egido, Begoña; Carrasco Ortiz, Miguel A; Del Barrio Gandara, M V
This study examined genderdifferences in a range of lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 272 offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program. Although these men and women did not differ in severity of substance use in the six months prior to incarceration, women were significantly more likely than men to report a lifetime psychiatric disorder and a lifetime severe disorder. Furthermore, genderdifferences emerged in the pattern of lifetime psychiatric comorbidity. Women reported greater lifetime major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, eating disorder, and borderline personality disorder; men were more likely than women to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Additionally, female offenders were found to have a higher degree of internalizing disorders than male offenders, but there were no genderdifferences in degree of externalizing disorders. The study concluded that women offenders newly admitted to a prison substance abuse program present with a greater psychiatric vulnerability and a different pattern of psychiatric comorbidity than their male counterparts.
Zlotnick, Caron; Clarke, Jennifer G.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Roberts, Mary B.; Sacks, Stanley; Melnick, Gerald
The aim of the study was to investigate genderdifferences and similarities in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with respect to Axis I comorbidity, Axis II comorbidity, general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised), and dimensional personality traits (NEO-Personality-Inventory Revised [NEO-PI-R] and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]). Fifty-seven men and 114 women with BPD were included in the study. Regarding Axis I and II disorders in an exploratory analysis, men with BPD more often fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and conduct disorder in childhood, whereas women had higher frequencies of bulimia nervosa, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia. After correcting for multiple tests, only the genderdifferences in narcissistic and antisocial personality disorder remained significant. In the SCL-90-R profile, no significant genderdifferences could be identified. In the exploratory analysis of the dimensional personality traits, women showed higher rates on the NEO-PI-R main factors (Neuroticism and Agreeableness) compared to men. In the DAPP-BQ profile, men reached higher sores on the main factor, Dissocial Behavior. When correcting for multiple tests, genderdifferences still existed for Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior. Our results argue for genderdifferences in Axis I and II comorbidity and dimensional personality traits in BPD. However, in general, more similarities than differences were shown in this study. PMID:22686225
The aim of the study was to investigate genderdifferences and similarities in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) with respect to Axis I comorbidity, Axis II comorbidity, general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist 90-Revised), and dimensional personality traits (NEO-Personality-Inventory Revised [NEO-PI-R] and the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Profile Basic questionnaire [DAPP-BQ]). Fifty-seven men and 114 women with BPD were included in the study. Regarding Axis I and II disorders in an exploratory analysis, men with BPD more often fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for binge eating disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and conduct disorder in childhood, whereas women had higher frequencies of bulimia nervosa, posttraumatic stress disorder, and panic disorder with agoraphobia. After correcting for multiple tests, only the genderdifferences in narcissistic and antisocial personality disorder remained significant. In the SCL-90-R profile, no significant genderdifferences could be identified. In the exploratory analysis of the dimensional personality traits, women showed higher rates on the NEO-PI-R main factors (Neuroticism and Agreeableness) compared to men. In the DAPP-BQ profile, men reached higher sores on the main factor, Dissocial Behavior. When correcting for multiple tests, genderdifferences still existed for Neuroticism and Dissocial Behavior. Our results argue for genderdifferences in Axis I and II comorbidity and dimensional personality traits in BPD. However, in general, more similarities than differences were shown in this study. PMID:22494170
We examined health-related quality of life in adults in the Louisiana Health Aging Study (LHAS) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (HK\\/R) that made landfall on the U.S. Gulf Coast region in 2005. Analyses of pre- and post-disaster SF-36 scores yielded changes in physical function and bodily pain. Mental health scores were lower for women than men. Genderdifferences were observed
Jennifer Silva Brown; Katie E. Cherry; Loren D. Marks; Erin M. Jackson; Julia Volaufova; Christina Lefante; S. Michal Jazwinski
Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized genderdifferences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants' subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that genderdifferences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization. PMID:22952631
Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized genderdifferences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants’ subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that genderdifferences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization.
Previous research into genderdifferences suggest that the frequency of domestic abuse is equivalent for men and women, that forms of abuse differ by gender, that outcomes are more negative for women, and that the motive for abusive behavior is a desire on the part of men to control women and a desire on the part of women to defend themselves. Based on these predictions, this study compared broader contextual questions of outcomes and attributions to shed light on the gender-specific nature of domestic abuse. Data were gathered from 30 women and 34 men who were involved in violent relationships (not with each other). Data were gathered from the women using the Conflict Tactics Scale and from both groups using the Relationship Abuse Questionnaire. It was found that the frequency of verbal, psychological, threat, and physical abuse did not differ significantly by gender. However, there were major genderdifferences in outcomes of physical, verbal, psychological, and threat abuse. Men reported frightening their partner significantly more often and were more concerned with controlling the woman. Attributions for abuse also differed between men and women, with women showing a strong self-defense motive. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings and to refine the study instruments. Research is also needed to advance efforts to use the term "battering" as a distinction from violence that is employed for self-defense. PMID:12322014
Neuroanatomical differences due to aging and gender have been well documented and these differences may be associated with differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, little is known about the dynamic organization of anatomical connectivity within the cerebral cortex, which may underlie population differences in brain function. In this study, we investigated age- and sex- effects on the anatomical connectivity patterns of 95 normal subjects ranging in age from 19 to 85 years. Using the connectivity probability derived from diffusion MRI tractography, we characterized the cerebral cortex as a weighted network of connected regions. This approach captures the underlying organization of anatomical connectivity for each subject at a regional level. Advanced graph theoretical analysis revealed that the resulting cortical networks exhibited “small-world” character, i.e. efficient information transfer both at local and global scale. In particular, the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus were consistently observed as centrally connected regions, independent of age and sex. Further analysis revealed a reduction in overall cortical connectivity with age. There were also changes in the underlying network organization that resulted in decreased local efficiency, and also a shift of regional efficiency from the parietal and occipital to frontal and temporal neocortex in older brains. In addition, women showed greater overall cortical connectivity and the underlying organization of their cortical networks was more efficient, both locally and globally. There were also distributed regional differences in efficiency between sexes. Our results provide new insights into the substrates that underlie behavioral and cognitive differences in aging and sex.
Gong, Gaolang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Carbonell, Felix; Chen, Zhang J.; He, Yong; Evans, Alan C.
Objective: The present study extends the literature on factors involved in college students' drinking tendencies by examining differences between men and women in their ability to accurately estimate personal intoxication. The study also assessed whether men and women who typically consume large quantities of alcohol when they attend parties have more difficulty accurately assessing intoxication compared with lighter drinkers. Method: The research used the external cueing approach (ECA) of Turrisi and colleagues as the informational paradigm to examine 3,707 college students' gender, typical drinking at parties, and how they relate to perceptions of intoxication. Results: The study revealed that approximately 20% (n = 710) of participants underestimated their blood alcohol concentration using the ECA. Among participants who made underestimation errors, genderdifferences were observed in that women made significantly more underestimation errors in the scenarios that contained four to five drinks and men made more underestimation errors in the scenarios that contained six to seven drinks. In addition, a three-way interaction revealed that female students who reported typically drinking larger amounts of alcohol in party settings were more likely to make errors when estimating their intoxication for moderately high numbers of drinks (e.g., four to five drinks). Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of examining the importance of college student drinking, gender, typical alcohol consumption at a party, and estimation of intoxication. Implications of gender effects in relation to high-risk drinking activities (i.e., pregaming and drinking games) as well as prevention efforts are discussed.
Mallett, Kimberly A.; Turrisi, Rob; Larimer, Mary E.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.
Inflammatory conditions that affect the posterior pole are diverse. Specifically, birdshot chorioretinopathy and the white dot syndromes present with multiple white dots in the fundus. These diseases appear to affect similar age groups but there is question as to whether or not a difference exists between the genders. This review summarizes the current studies on birdshot chorioretinopathy and the white dot syndromes as they are related to gender, exploring the differences, if any, which may exist between prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response for these diseases. Though the specific etiology of these diseases remains unclear, future treatments may be guided as to how these diseases affect the sexes differently.
This study determined if genderdifferences in physical activity could be accounted for by differences in selected social-cognitive determinants of activity behavior. Some 334 fifth grade, predominantly African-American students provided information regarding after-school physical activity and the hypothesized determinants of activity behavior. Boys reported significantly greater participation in vigorous ( > or = 6 METs) and in moderate to vigorous ( > or = 4 METs). Relative to girls, boys demonstrated higher levels of physical fitness, greater self-efficacy in overcoming barriers to physical activity, greater amounts of television watching, and higher levels of participation in community sports and physical activity organizations. When mean physical activity scores for girls and boys were adjusted for the effects of these determinant variables, the significant genderdifference in physical activity remained. However, adjustment for self-efficacy in overcoming barriers and community sports reduced the gender gap by 5% and 7%, respectively. In contrast, adjustment for television watching increased the gender gap by about 8%. Results indicated perceived confidence in overcoming barriers to physical activity and participation in community physical activity programs are factors related to the genderdifference in physical activity. PMID:8683949
Trost, S G; Pate, R R; Dowda, M; Saunders, R; Ward, D S; Felton, G
The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine genderdifferences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant genderdifferences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant genderdifferences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.
Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that genderdifferences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored genderdifferences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare genderdifferences in scores. Significant genderdifferences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431
The increasing availability of human cardiac tissues for study are critically important in increasing our understanding of the impact of gender, age, and other parameters, such as medications and cardiac disease, on arrhythmia susceptibility. In this study, we aimed to compare the mRNA expression of 89 ion channel subunits, calcium handling proteins, and transcription factors important in cardiac conduction and arrhythmogenesis in the left atria (LA) and ventricles (LV) of failing and nonfailing human hearts of both genders. Total RNA samples, prepared from failing male (n?=?9) and female (n?=?7), and from nonfailing male (n?=?9) and female (n?=?9) hearts, were probed using custom-designed Taqman gene arrays. Analyses were performed to explore the relationships between gender, failure state, and chamber expression. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chamber specific expression patterns, but failed to identify disease- or gender-dependent clustering. Gender-specific analysis showed lower expression levels in transcripts encoding for Kv4.3, KChIP2, Kv1.5, and Kir3.1 in the failing female as compared with the male LA. Analysis of LV transcripts, however, did not reveal significant differences based on gender. Overall, our data highlight the differential expression and transcriptional remodeling of ion channel subunits in the human heart as a function of gender and cardiac disease. Furthermore, the availability of such data sets will allow for the development of disease-, gender-, and, most importantly, patient-specific cardiac models, with the ability to utilize such information as mRNA expression to predict cardiac phenotype.
Ambrosi, Christina M.; Yamada, Kathryn A.; Nerbonne, Jeanne M.; Efimov, Igor R.
Background It has been reported that there is a difference in drug prescription between males and females. Even after adjustment for multi-morbidity, females tend to use more prescription drugs compared to males. In this study, we wanted to analyse whether the genderdifference in drug treatment could be explained by gender-related morbidity. Methods Data was collected on all individuals 20 years and older in the county of Östergötland in Sweden. The Johns Hopkins ACG Case-Mix System was used to calculate individual level of multi-morbidity. A report from the Swedish National Institute of Public Health using the WHO term DALY was the basis for gender-related morbidity. Prescription drugs used to treat diseases that mainly affect females were excluded from the analyses. Results The odds of having prescription drugs for males, compared to females, increased from 0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44-0.46) to 0.82 (95% CI 0.81-0.83) after exclusion of prescription drugs that are used to treat diseases that mainly affect females. Conclusion Gender-related morbidity and the use of anti-conception drugs may explain a large part of the difference in prescription drug use between males and females but still there remains a difference between the genders at 18%. This implicates that it is of importance to take the gender-related morbidity into consideration, and to exclude anti-conception drugs, when performing studies regarding difference in drug use between the genders.
The biological basis for differences between the sexes has become increasingly clear in recent years. The nature–nurture debate has made way for the view that the individual is a product of the interaction between genes and environment. For the world of school leadership this means that instead of arguing about them, we should acknowledge the differences between female and male
In this study, the authors investigated the extent to which boys and girls differed in their college-ready performance in reading, in math, and in both subjects for the 2006-2007 school year for the state of Texas (n = 1,099 high schools). Also examined were the extent to which boys and girls differed in their performance on the Scholastic…
Combs, Julie P.; Slate, John R.; Moore, George W.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Edmonson, Stacey L.
This paper analyzes the turnover and promotion of male and female lawyers, using data on two cohorts of lawyers; one which entered law firms between 1969 and 1973, and the other entering between 1980 and 1983. This study considers whether law firm promotion decisions have differed for women, and if so, whether these differences have declined over time. A competing
An investigation of differences in the friendship patterns of men and of women reported that women appeared to be expressive in their friendship styles while men's same-sex friendships were best characterized as being instrumental. To examine these differences further, a study was conducted which investigated the relationship of friendship and…
In this work, we investigate whether genderdifferences are present in the iClicker student response system during introductory physics lectures in an engaged environment. We find that men and women are equally likely to respond to questions correctly and in the same amount of time. We also find that both genders make use of multiple responses in the same timescale, however, the average number of responses for a given question is significantly higher for men than women. Upon analyzing these responses, we also find men are slightly more likely than women to change their response, while the response base station is open. Both genders benefit from peer instruction by answering more quickly and correctly. The connection between previously documented timescale differences, differences in ungraded responses, and their implications for the classroom environment are discussed.
A sample of 116 children (M=6 years 7 months) in Grade 1 was randomly assigned to experimental (n=60) and control (n=56) groups, with equal numbers of boys and girls in each group. The experimental group received a program aimed at improving representation and transformation of visuospatial information, whereas the control group received a substitute program. All children were administered mental rotation tests before and after an intervention program and a Global-Local Processing Strategies test before the intervention. The results revealed that initial genderdifferences in spatial ability disappeared following treatment in the experimental but not in the control group. Genderdifferences were moderated by strategies used to process visuospatial information. Intervention and processing strategies were essential in reducing genderdifferences in spatial abilities. PMID:20840231
This paper examines differences in national health care spending by gender and age. Our research found significant variations in per person spending by gender across age groups, health services, and types of payers. For example, in 2004 per capita health care spending for females was 32 percent more than for males. Per capita differences were most pronounced among the working-age population, largely because of spending for maternity care. Except for children, total spending for and by females was greater than that for and by males, for most services and payers. The genderdifference in total spending was most pronounced in the elderly, as a result of the longer life expectancy of women. PMID:21148180
Asthma and obesity disproportionately affect US African-American youth. Among youth with asthma, obesity has been associated with poor control. The impact of gender on this association is unclear. We examined these relationships in a sample of urban, African-American adolescents with asthma. Questionnaires were used to identify high school students with asthma, and to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) to asthma morbidity, by gender. Of 5967 students completing questionnaires, 599 (10%) met criteria for asthma and 507 had data sufficient for inclusion in further analyses (46% male, mean age = 15.1 yr). Univariately, BMI > 85th percentile was significantly related only to reported emergency department visits (ED) and school days missed for any reason, Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval) = 1.7(1.1–2.7), p = 0.01 and 1.8(1.1–3.0), p = 0.01, respectively. A significant gender-BMI interaction (p < 0.05) was observed in multivariate models for ED visits, hospitalizations and school days missed for asthma. In gender-specific models, adjusted Risk Ratios for BMI > 85th and ED visits, hospitalizations, and school days missed because of asthma were 1.7(0.9–3.2), 6.6(3.1–14.6) and 3.6(1.8–7.2) in males. These associations were not observed in females. Gender modifies the association between BMI and asthma-related morbidity among adolescents with asthma. Results have implications for clinical management as well as future research.
Joseph, C. L. M.; Havstad, S. L.; Ownby, D. R.; Zoratti, E.; Peterson, E. L.; Stringer, S.; Johnson, C. C.
There is substantial literature on research performance differences between male and female researchers, and its explanation. Using publication records of 852 social scientists, we show that performance differences indeed exist. However, our case study suggests that in the younger generation of researchers these have disappeared. If performance differences exist at all in our case, young female researchers outperform young male researchers. The trend in developed societies, that women increasingly outperform men in all levels of education, is also becoming effective in the science system. PMID:23162173
van Arensbergen, Pleun; van der Weijden, Inge; van den Besselaar, Peter
High-altitude exposure is characterized by the appearance of periodic breathing during sleep. Only limited evidence is available, however, on the presence of gender-related differences in this breathing pattern. In 37 healthy subjects, 23 male and 14 female, we performed nocturnal cardio-respiratory monitoring in the following conditions: (1) sea level; (2) first/second night at an altitude of 3400 m; (3) first/second night at an altitude of 5400 m and after a 10 day sojourn at 5400 m. At sea level, a normal breathing pattern was observed in all subjects throughout the night. At 3400 m the apnea-hypopnea index was 40.3 ± 33.0 in males (central apneas 77.6%, central hypopneas 22.4%) and 2.4 ± 2.8 in females (central apneas 58.2%, central hypopneas 41.8%; P < 0.01). During the first recording at 5400 m, the apnea-hypopnea index was 87.5 ± 35.7 in males (central apneas 60.0%, central hypopneas 40.0%) and 41.1 ± 44.0 in females (central apneas 73.2%, central hypopneas 26.8%; P < 0.01), again with a higher frequency of central events in males as seen at lower altitude. Similar results were observed after 10 days. With increasing altitude, there was also a progressive reduction in respiratory cycle length during central apneas in males (26.9 ± 3.4 s at 3400 m and 22.6 ± 3.7 s at 5400 m). Females, who displayed a significant number of central apneas only at the highest reached altitude, were characterized by longer cycle length than males at similar altitude (30.1 ± 5.8 s at 5400 m). In conclusion, at high altitude, nocturnal periodic breathing affects males more than females. Females started to present a significant number of central sleep apneas only at the highest reached altitude. After 10 days at 5400 m genderdifferences in the apnea-hypopnea index similar to those observed after acute exposure were still observed, accompanied by differences in respiratory cycle length. PMID:23294420
Leptin, the product of theobgene, is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that appears to regulate both satiety and thermogenesis. In the present report, we have reexamined the relationship between circulating leptin concentration and body fat in humans using a more valid measure of adiposity (hydrodensitometry) and have extended these observations to examine the influence of regional body fat distribution and cardiorespiratory
Matthew S. Hickey; Richard G. Israel; Suzanne N. Gardiner; Robert V. Considine; Michael R. McCammon; Gilian L. Tyndall; Joseph A. Houmard; Richard H. L. Marks; Jose F. Caro
This research note examines the information processing components of a videogame called MAZE, in order to determine if males and females differ in the basic cognitive skills required by the game. While videogame performance was similar for males and femal...
The purpose of this technical report is to provide an overview of the literature on the similarities and differences between men and women in their physiological responses to heat stress. Studies that compare thermoregulation in physically fit and sedenta...
The spatial and temporal pattern of manifestation of ossification nuclei of the spinal column in fetal life have been well established by histologic and radiologic studies. Sonographic evaluation of the fetal spine depends on visualization of the ossification centers, but the sequence of development of ossification centers in the vertebral column obtained by embryologists and sonographers and radiology are conflicting. We carried out a longitudinal study to establish the ultrasonographic appearance and timing of development of primary ossification centers of the fetal spine in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. A total of 80 mothers were evaluated during their pregnancy with two echographic controls; in the first trimester, the spine length was measured and, in the second trimester of pregnancy, the timing of ossification of the bodies and neural arches of sacral vertebrae and the difference in appearance between the female and male genders were evaluated. Spinal length measurements obtained in the first trimester and percentage of detection of sacral vertebral structures increased progressively with a regular pattern in relation to gestational age. Spinal length at first ultrasound examination was slightly correlated with time of appearance of sacral bodies and arches. Ossification timing was significantly earlier in females than in males. The study has attempted to improve our understanding of the sonographic detection of the spinal ossification. Data presented give some further information on the stages of appearance of sacral vertebrae body centers during intrauterine development. Differences between genders and interindividual variations in ossification timing were observed at a very early stage of development. This could be of value when fetal growth is evaluated. Moreover, further knowledge of spinal development may be useful for early diagnosis of spinal abnormalities and for fetal biometrics. PMID:15936488
Vignolo, M; Ginocchio, G; Parodi, A; Torrisi, C; Pistorio, A; Venturini, P L; Aicardi, G; De Biasio, P
School lunches serve to improve nutritional status and to promote the health of children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the portion sizes of school lunches served and consumed in Japanese elementary schools. In addition, genderdifference in servings and consumption were also studied. A cross-sectional study was undertaken between October 2007 and February 2008 in schools located in Tokyo and Okayama, Japan. A total of 192 fifth-grade children attending four elementary schools participated in this study. Weighed plate waste methods and observation were used to collect dietary data for two non-consecutive days. The proportion of children who chose staple foods along with main dishes and/or side dishes for at least one day was higher in boys than in girls (respectively, for staple food: 42.1% vs. 9.3%, for main dish and/or side dish: 68.4% vs. 44.3%, P < 0.001). The ratio of initial amount served to amount offered was 0.88 ± 0.11 for boys and 0.84 ± 0.10 for girls (P < 0.05). The ratio of amount consumed to amount offered was 1.04 ± 0.19 for boys and 0.88 ± 0.12 for girls (P < 0.001). Weight was related to amount consumed both in boys (r = 0.222, P < 0.05) and in girls (r = 0.201, P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the nutritional standards of school lunch programs should take into account genderdifferences. Clearly, boys were more likely to consume more than the initial amounts served due to their higher propensity to take second helpings. Boys feel few reservations about taking second helpings to adjust their total intake. However, school lunch plans should take into consideration girls' reluctance to do so, by serving appropriate initial portion sizes.
We elucidated the gender and condylar effects on distal femur morphology (DFM) while evaluating a newly developed computational framework that enables fully automated analyses of DFM in an objectively defined sagittal plane. Ninety high-resolution CT-acquired distal femur models from 51 males and 39 females were analyzed. The models were accurately characterized (mean least-squares fitting residual <0.16?mm), and re-oriented to a unified sagittal plane; three morphometric measures were extracted from each model: the semi-major (a) and semi-minor (b) axis lengths of the best-fitted ellipse, and the radius (r) of the smallest flexion facet-a circle with the smallest radius best-fitted to the posterior articulating surface. Statistical analyses employing nonparametric repeated-measures ANOVA found: no significance difference between condyles or between limbs in any of the morphometric measures; significant gender effects on a, b, and r, but no gender effect on the aspect ratio (a/b). An inspection of statistical distributions of medial-lateral condyle size differences also revealed a genderdifference. The findings promote a better understanding of DFM and its relation to knee mechanics and have implications on computer-aided surgery of the knee and gender-specific implant design. PMID:22025249
We elucidated the gender and condylar effects on distal femur morphology (DFM) while evaluating a newly developed computational framework that enables fully automated analyses of DFM in an objectively defined sagittal plane. Ninety high-resolution CT-acquired distal femur models from 51 males and 39 females were analyzed. The models were accurately characterized (mean least-squares fitting residual < 0.16 mm), and re-oriented to a unified sagittal plane; three morphometric measures were extracted from each model: the semi-major (a) and semi-minor (b) axis lengths of the best-fitted ellipse, and the radius (r) of the smallest flexion facet—a circle with the smallest radius best-fitted to the posterior articulating surface. Statistical analyses employing non-parametric repeated-measures ANOVA found: no significance difference between condyles or between limbs in any of the morphometric measures; significant gender effects on a, b, and r, but no gender effect on the aspect ratio (a/b). An inspection of statistical distributions of medial-lateral condyle size differences also revealed a genderdifference. The findings promote a better understanding of DFM and its relation to knee mechanics and have implications on computer-aided surgery of the knee and gender-specific implant design.
It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory “stress” cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from “donors,” extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated “detector” subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei). When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether genderdifferences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals), we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender.
It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei). When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether genderdifferences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals), we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender. PMID:23894310
Objective: Women and men generally differ in how frequently they engage in other- and self-directed physical violence and may show distinct emotional risk factors for engagement in these high-impact behaviors. To inform this area, we investigated genderdifferences in the relationship of emotional tendencies (i.e., anger, hostility, and anhedonic…
Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Finy, M. Sima; Verona, Edelyn
As part of the research leading to the implementation of computer-based case simulations (CCS) for the licensing examinations of the National Board of Medical Examiners, genderdifferences in performance were studied for one form consisting of 18 cases. A secondary purpose of the study was to note differences in style or approach that might…
Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines genderdifferences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…
Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric
Ethnic and genderdifferences in motivation to manage were studied through sentence completion tests and in-basket exercises completed by 138 White, 9 American Indian, 28 Black, 64 Hispanic, 44 Asian, and 5 "other" college students. Both types of differences were found. Implications for identification of management talent are discussed. (SLD)
Analyzed peer interactions in high school students practicing a swimming skill, examining potential dyad type-by- genderdifferences in peer interaction modes (guidance-tutoring, imitation, cooperation, and parallel activity). Students trained in symmetrical (same competence) or asymmetrical (different competence) same-sex dyads. Tutoring and…
d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Gernigon, Christophe; Huet, Marie-Laure; Cadopi, Marielle; Winnykamen, Fayda
This paper examines whether genderdifferences in risk propensity and strategy in financial decision-making can be viewed as general traits, or whether they arise because of context factors. It presents the results of two computerised laboratory experiments designed to examine whether differences in risk preference and decision strategies are explained by the framing of tasks and level of task familiarity
Background\\/Aims: Differences in the clinical presentation of men and women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are of potential interest for investigations into the neurobiology, genetics, natural history, and treatment response of BPD. The purpose of this study was to investigate genderdifferences in axis I and axis II comorbidity and in diagnostic criteria in BPD patients. Methods: 110 women and
Stefanie Wagner; Julia Hoch; Robert von Cube; Christian Skaletz; Klaus Lieb; Norbert Dahmen
Objectives: It is generally assumed that there are minimal genderdifferences in the safety and efficacy of central nervous system drugs, as is evidenced by men and women receiving the same drug dosage. There is, however, evidence that drugs may have a differential effect on performance in men and women, given reported differences in pharmacokinetics as well as the presence
Objectives: It is generally assumed that there are minimal genderdifferences in the safety an efficacy of central nervous system (CNS)-drugs, as is evidenced by men and women receiving the same drug dosage. There is however evidence that drugs may have a differential effect on performance in men and women, given reported differences in pharmacokinetics as well as the presence
Differences in thermal comfort between male and female subjects are generally considered to be small. In this study genderdifferences in thermal comfort and use of thermostats were examined by a quantitative interview survey with a total of 3094 respondents, and by controlled experiments. The studies were carried out in Finland and considered everyday thermal environments: homes, offices and a
In this study, female and male Thais clavigera whelks were exposed to aqueous and dietary (using oysters as the prey) tributyltin (TBT) for up to 45 days, followed by a 30-day depuration, in order to examine the genderdifferences in TBT accumulation and transformation. The metabolites of TBT [dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT)] were also measured in different tissues of
Xinhong Wang; Chao Fang; Huasheng Hong; Wen-Xiong Wang
Few studies have comprehensively examined possible genderdifferences in the school functioning of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study investigated differences in academic, social, and emotional and behavioral functioning between 133 male and 42 female elementary school students who met research diagnostic…
DuPaul, George J.; Jitendra, Asha K.; Tresco, Katy E.; Junod, Rosemary E. Vile; Volpe, Robert J.; Lutz, J. Gary
A meta-analysis of studies of genderdifferences in computer attitudes and behavior found that males exhibited greater sex-role stereotyping of computers, higher computer self-efficacy, and more positive attitudes toward computers than females. Most differences in attitudes and behavior were small, with the largest found in high school students.…
This study examines whether responses to questions concerning teenage sexual activity and teenage pregnancy differ by gender and by the marital status of the respondent's parents. A questionnaire was completed by 231 students attending a college in the Midwest. A number of significant differences were found in the analysis. Subjects from intact…
This study conducts a meta-analysis using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to address the questions of the extent of genderdifferences in reading, whether or not these differences apply similarly across English and non-English speaking countries and decrease with age. Female secondary students performed 0.19 standard deviation units above their…
Describes a study of the attitudes and beliefs of male and female business students in a community college, focusing on gender-based differences in perceptions of education, self-concepts, and orientation toward several goals. Found no attitudinal or motivational differences between male and female students. (DMM)
This study explores the nature of intentional family relationships between friends of differentgenders and different sexual orientations. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 46 members of 23 friendship dyads, I first make the case that the friends considered one another family and I specify the criteria they use for making such designations. I…
"GenderDifferences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty" presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation's top research universities. Much of this…
Abstract Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and genderdifferences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by genderdifferences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and genderdifferences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and genderdifferences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068
The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…