These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Gender Differences in Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

2000-01-01

2

Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.  

PubMed

Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

2014-01-01

3

Differences in Oral Sexual Behaviors by Gender, Age, and Race Explain Observed Differences in Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC) Methods This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009–10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20–29, 30–44, 45–59, 60–69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Results Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001). 60–69 year olds (yo) were less likely than 45–59 or 30–44 (yo) to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001), although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR?=?1.03), and 45–59 vs. 30–44 year-old men (PR?=?0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs?=?1.3–6.8) and OSCC (IRR?=?4.7–8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. Conclusion There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups. PMID:24475067

D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole

2014-01-01

4

Gender Differences in Creativity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a consistent lack of gender differences both in creativity test

JOHN BAER; JAMES C. KAUFMAN

2008-01-01

5

Gender and Gender Identity Differences in Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, extensive research on gender and learning styles has produced a multitude of findings: gender differences in learning styles are small on average, but across studies quite different results are observed. In the present study, this heterogeneity is the central focus of our attention. Two possible interpretations concerning the educational context and the concept of gender identity

Sabine Severiens; Geert Ten Dam

1997-01-01

6

Psychological Individualism: Gender Differences or Gender Neutrality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary purpose of this article was to examine research findings pertaining to whether the genders express psychological individualism comparably. Gender comparisons of scores on four constructs deemed to reflect psychological individualism (personal identity, self-actualization, internal locus of control, and principled moral reasoning) provide no basis for concluding gender differences exist. The relationships of these variables to measures of effective

Sally L. Archer; Alan S. Waterman

1988-01-01

7

Gender Differences in Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on gender differences in economic experiments. In the three main sections, we identify robust differences in risk preferences, social (other-regarding) preferences, and competitive preferences. We also speculate on the source of these differences, as well as on their implications. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand

Rachel Croson; Uri Gneezy

2009-01-01

8

Do gender differences in primary PCI mortality represent a different adherence to guideline recommended therapy? a multicenter observation  

PubMed Central

Background It is uncertain whether gender differences in outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are only attributable to different baseline characteristics or additional factors. Methods Databases of two German myocardial infarction network registries were combined with a total of 1104 consecutive patients admitted with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated according to standardized protocols. Results Approximately 25% of patients were females. Mean age (69 vs 61 years), incidence of diabetes (28% vs 20%), hypertension (68 vs 58%) and renal insufficiency (26% vs 19%) was significantly higher compared to males. Mean prehospital delay was numerically longer in females (227 vs 209 min) as was in hospital delay (35 vs 30 min). PCI was finally performed in 92% of females and 95% of males with comparable procedural success (95% vs 97%). Use of drug eluting stents (55% vs 68%) and application of GP 2b 3a blockers (75% vs 89%) was significantly less frequent in women. At discharge, prescription of beta blockers and lipid lowering drugs was also significantly lower in females (84% vs 90% and 71% vs 84%). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in females (10% vs 5%) without attenuation after 12 months. Adjusted mortality however did not differ significantly between genders. Conclusion Higher unadjusted mortality in females after primary PCI was accompanied by significant differences in baseline characteristics, interventional approach and secondary prophylaxis in spite of the same standard of care. Lower guideline adherence seems to be less gender specific but rather a manifestation of the risk-treatment paradox. PMID:24893930

2014-01-01

9

Gender Differences in Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

2008-01-01

10

Gender differences in cognitive development.  

PubMed

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil [Child Neuropsychological Assessment] (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2007), were analyzed. The sample included 788 monolingual children (350 boys, 438 girls) ages 5 to 16 years from Mexico and Colombia. Gender differences were observed in oral language (language expression and language comprehension), spatial abilities (recognition of pictures seen from different angles), and visual (Object Integration Test) and tactile perceptual tasks, with boys outperforming girls in most cases, except for the tactile tasks. Gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1%-3%). Gender x Age interactions were observed for the tactile tasks only. It was concluded that gender differences during cognitive development are minimal, appear in only a small number of tests, and account for only a low percentage of the score variance. PMID:21744957

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-07-01

11

Gender Differences in Alexithymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alexithymia literature was meta-analyzed to determine whether there was empirical support for gender differences. Our a priori theoretical motivation for expecting higher mean levels of alexithymia in men than in women was based on Levant’s (1992) \\

Ronald F. Levant; Rosalie J. Hall; Christine M. Williams; Nadia T. Hasan

2009-01-01

12

Gender Differences in Preschool Aggression During Free Play and Structured Interactions: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 48 children from rural preschools (M = 64 months old) in two different social contexts to test hypotheses about the type (relational, physical, verbal, nonver- bal), contextual independence, and sociometry of girls' and boys' aggressive tactics. We predicted and generally found that (1) girls displayed more relational aggression than boys while boys displayed more physical and verbal aggression

Jamie M. Ostrov; Caroline F. Keating

2004-01-01

13

[Gender differences in depression].  

PubMed

Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

Karger, A

2014-09-01

14

Gender differences in pharmacokinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The is growing awareness that the underrepresentation of women in clinical trials and in particular in phase I studies may\\u000a lead to incorrect handling of drugs. Despite the fact that investigations are not performed in a systematic way, there are\\u000a a number of examples showing pharmacokinetic differences between gender. From the data actually presented, it can be concluded\\u000a that the

C. H. Gleiter; U. Gundert-Remy

1996-01-01

15

Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

2012-01-01

16

Gender differences in stalking behaviour among juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is emerging recognition that stalking is a problem behaviour among juveniles. As gender differences in the nature of stalking have been observed to exist in adult stalkers, it is important to ascertain whether gender differences are also apparent in juvenile perpetrators. This study compared the characteristics and motivations of stalking behaviour in an Australian sample of juvenile perpetrators (n = 299),

Rosemary Purcell; Michele Pathé; Paul Mullen

2010-01-01

17

Investigating Gender Differences in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

2010-01-01

18

Cognitive Gender Differences Are Disappearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in cognitive abilities were determined using the norms from the four standardizations of the Differential Aptitude Tests conducted between 1947 and 1980, and from the four standardizations of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test\\/Scholastic Aptitude Test conducted between 1960 and 1983. The standardized gender differences (ds) were averaged over grade of examinees and year of standardization to obtain a

Alan Feingold

1988-01-01

19

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-01-01

20

Gender Differences and High Attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent emphasis on raising attainment has focused attention onto the 'gender gap' in school attainment levels. Using data from the Scottish School Leavers Survey, the article examines factors related to high attainment and asks whether these differ for males and females. A strong relationship is established between social advantage and high attainment within each gender. There is no evidence of

TERESA TINKLIN

2003-01-01

21

Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE  

E-print Network

Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE Gender Differences in Preschool Children's Declared and Behavioral Compliance with Pedestrian Rules ABSTRACT The study examined gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules among preschool

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Gender Differences in Speech Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men and women behave differently in applying the Politeness Principle. The fact can be shown in using slang, humor, approbation, sympathy and using euphemism. By comparing the gender-related differences in discourse from the four factors above, the paper focuses on the chief differences between men and women in speech behavior, and interprets the possible causes for the existence of such

LI Xi

2007-01-01

23

Gender Differences and High Attainment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines factors related to high attainment (using data from Scottish School Leavers Survey) and asks whether these differ for males and females. Establishes a strong relationship between social advantage/high attainment within genders. Found girls took school more seriously than males, supporting theories girls and boys experience different peer…

Tinklin, Teresa

2003-01-01

24

Gender Differences in Moral Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

2007-01-01

25

Gender Differences in Retirement Income  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a sample of retired men and women from the Social Security Administration's Master Beneficiary Record to test theoretical explanations for gender differences in retirement income. We found that although human capital\\/status attainment, dual economy, and labor-market segmentation theories helped to explain differences in retirement income between men and women, these factors did not totally eliminate the influence

Stanley DeViney; Jennifer Crew Solomon

1996-01-01

26

Gender Differences in Moral Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly developed rating procedure based on participants’ open-ended responses

Gertrud Nunner-Winkler; Marion Meyer-Nikele; Doris Wohlrab

2007-01-01

27

Gender Differences in School Anger  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in the affective, behavioural, and cognitive components of anger in 102 students completing their first year of high school. Results supported not only the hypothesis that girls and boys do not differ in their experience (affective) of anger but also the belief that girls are more likely to express positively (behavioural) their anger than boys.

Peter Boman

2003-01-01

28

Cognitive gender differences: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the developmental literature on cognitive gender differences and compares past and present trends in gender differences, by age, from the standardizations of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (1949–1981) and the California Achievement Tests (CAT; 1956–1985). Consistent with prior research, decreases in gender differences were found for adolescents. For children, gender differences were small or nonexistent in the Wechsler

Alan Feingold

1993-01-01

29

Gender Differences in Spelling Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, gender differences in spelling achievement were investigated for young adults (ages 17 to 21). Performances of males and females on standardized and written spelling tests were compared. All of the 40 students (20 males and 20 females) are from a low-economic, inner city, vocational program. The students were also given a…

Rios, Daisy M.

30

Gender Differences in Persuasive Dialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the ICSI Meeting corpus, which is MRDA annotated, is used in order to try and provide an answer to the question whether or not it is possible to detect gender differences in persuasive dialogues using the basics from discourse theory. These discourse basics consist of an attentional state, an intentional state and the structure of the discourse.

Jarno Roos

2005-01-01

31

Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in mathematics and science have received substantial attention in the education research since the early 1980s when strong evidence for a male advantage was found in various studies. Given that mathematics is required for a variety of careers, the potential cause(s) of this disparity have generated much research, much of it…

You, Zhixia

2010-01-01

32

Gender Differences in Teenage Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the patterns and correlates of gender differences in cigarette smoking in a national sample of white high school seniors in 1985. More females than males were smokers, because females had higher rates for the early stages of smoking adoption. Specifically, females were more likely to have tried smoking at least once and, among those who had tried

Ingrid Waldron; Diane Lye; Anastasia Brandon

1991-01-01

33

Gender Differences in Completed Schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the dramatic changes in relative male-females educational attainment over the past three decades. Stock measures of education among the entire adult population show rising attainment levels for both men and women, with men enjoying an advantage in schooling levels throughout this interval. Cohort specific analysis reveals that these stock measures mask two interesting patterns: (a) gender difference

Kerwin Kofi Charles; Ming-Ching Luoh

2002-01-01

34

Gender Differences in Wikipedia Editing Yahoo! Research  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Wikipedia Editing Judd Antin Yahoo! Research Santa Clara, VA 95054 jantin are women. However, the number of contributors is just one way to ex- amine gender differences, it is just one way to examine gender differences on Wikipedia. In this paper we focus not on the gender gap

Militzer, Burkhard

35

Gender Role Ideology and the Gender Based Differences in Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on gender differences in occupational earnings still focuses on human capital and the structure of the labor market. However, these variables rarely explain even half of the gender gap in earnings. Most research has examined the impact of gender role ideology as it impacts occupational choice, which indirectly can impact earnings. Using data from the National

Juanita M. Firestone; Richard J. Harris; Linda C. Lambert

1999-01-01

36

Possible Precursors of Gender Drinking Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the responses of sixth graders to a recently developed alcohol expectancy scale and a drinking attitude question. While factor analyses yielded the same “positive” and “negative” factors previously identified in scale construction, no significant gender differences were observed on scale items or factors. However, sixth grade males responded more favorably than their female counterparts to the general

Helen L. Johnson; Patrick B. Johnson

1998-01-01

37

Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In

Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak

2000-01-01

38

Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

2008-01-01

39

Gender Differences in Cardiac Arrhythmias  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild gender–specific differences in myocellular\\u000aand invasive electrophysiology have been described\\u000arecently. Importantly, the QT interval is slightly prolonged\\u000ain women, when compared to men. In men\\u000aatrial fibrillaton, preexcitation and ventricular tachycardia\\u000aare found more often. Modifications of the\\u000acellular “milieu” come from hormonal factors and\\u000athe autonomous nervous system. The interaction of\\u000atheses influences with regional cellular factors

Lars Eckardt; Jessica Bertrand; Günter Breithardt

2005-01-01

40

Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities  

PubMed Central

Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159

Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A.

2011-01-01

41

Gender differences in job satisfaction.  

PubMed

The competing hypotheses of socialization, structural, and social role theories were used to investigate the possible existence of gender differences in job satisfaction. The hypotheses were tested in a sample of over 13,000 U.S. employees from approximately 130 organizations and divisions across a variety of industries. The organizations were clients of a North American-based management consulting company. T tests and effect sizes were calculated to test for the possible existence of group differences in job satisfaction between women and men in both clerical and managerial positions. The results indicate support for structural theory, some support for social role theory, and a lack of support for socialization theory. An important finding is that U.S. women and men in management apparently did not differ from one another in their sources of satisfaction at work. PMID:7776638

Mason, E S

1995-04-01

42

Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

2012-01-01

43

Gender differences in localGender differences in local residents' relationships withresidents' relationships with  

E-print Network

and analyze gender in human-environment relationships. Using social role theory, we discuss the different ways that gender roles impact attitudes toward the environment in general and protected areas in particular. WeGender differences in localGender differences in local residents' relationships withresidents

Srinivasan, N.

44

Gender equality and gender differences in household work and parenting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on qualitative research with 23 British dual earner couples, this article explores theoretical issues of gender differences and gender equality as they relate specifically to an understanding and analysis of women and men's contributions to household work and parenting. It is argued that the relationship between women's greater contribution to household work and their relative inequality to men in

Andrea Doucet

1995-01-01

45

Gender Differences in Children's Internet Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses comparative empirical data from across Europe on gender differences in children's Internet use, and through a new interpretive framework on young people's experiences, seeks to add new findings to this growing international knowledge base. Linking feminist theory on gender and technology with theories of youth gender identity construction, four key areas are investigated. Firstly, the impact of

Helen McQuillan; Brian O' Neill

2009-01-01

46

Deconstructing difference: Gender, splitting, and transitional space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparently a straightforward elaboration of anatomical difference, “gender”; is symbolically tied to many kinds of cultural representations, which, in turn, set the terms not only for understanding the relations between women and men but for organizing self?experience. Consequently, problems of self may come to be coded in terms of gender, and those of gender, in terms of the self. Using

Muriel Dimen

1991-01-01

47

The Early Development of Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews findings from anthropology, psychology, and other disciplines about the role of biological factors in the development of sex differences in human behavior, including biological theories, the developmental course of sex differences, and the interaction of biological and cultural gendering processes at different ages. Current evidence suggests that major biological influences on individual differences in human gender, to

Matthew H. McIntyre; Carolyn Pope Edwards

2009-01-01

48

Gender differences in adolescent substance abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidities, and treatment responses of substance abuse have been described in adults.\\u000a However, a growing body of data suggests that gender differences also exist in adolescents with substance abuse. Unfortunately,\\u000a research is still limited in this age group. This article reviews gender differences in the diagnosis, presentation, course\\u000a of illness, and treatment response of substance

Angelica Kloos; Ronald A. Weller; Rebecca Chan; Elizabeth B. Weller

2009-01-01

49

Gender differences in alopecia areata.  

PubMed

Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, non-scarring, autoimmune hair-loss disorder with a complex genetic and environmental etiology. A higher incidence rate of AA in the female population is well described. It is unclear why females are more likely to be diagnosed with AA and what, if any, differences in disease phenotype exist between males and females. The identification of gender specific characteristics of disease may help clinical management and patient education in cases of AA. Accordingly, we recruited 481 North-American Caucasian AA patients (336 female, 145 male) to assess age of onset, autoimmune and atopic co-morbidity, nail involvement, family history of AA and autoimmune disease, and disease subtype. There was a female predominance (female to male ratio 2.3:1) in this AA study population. We found that male AA patients are more likely to be diagnosed in childhood (age <10 years, P= 0.067) and have a family history of AA (P= 0.004). On the other hand, female AA patients are more likely to be diagnosed in adolescence (age 10-20 years, P= 0.083), have co-morbid nail involvement (P= 0.0257), and have concomitant autoimmune disease (P= 0.014), particularly thyroid disease (P= 0.058). The clinical implications of disease heterogeneity between males and females remains to be determined. PMID:24719059

Lundin, Michael; Chawa, Simran; Sachdev, Amit; Bhanusali, Dhaval; Seiffert-Sinha, Kristina; Sinha, Animesh A

2014-04-01

50

Challenging experiences: gender differences in task choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine: gender differences in the choice to perform challenging tasks, gender differences in the actual performance of challenging tasks, and the impact of challenging experiences on supervisors' evaluations of individuals' potential for career advancement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In study 1, a sample of 158 students participated in a laboratory study that examined

Irene E. De Pater; Annelies E. M. Van Vianen; Agneta H. Fischer; Wendy P. Van Ginkel

2009-01-01

51

Gender Differences and Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender issues in public education, focusing on the Edina Public Schools, Minnesota. Data gathered from district, state, national, and international sources included student enrollment, student participation in school or district programs, grades from school report cards, standardized test scores, and perceptions and attitudes…

Du, Yi; Weymouth, Christine M.; Dragseth, Kenneth

52

Gender Differences in Education in a Dynamic Household Bargaining Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We interpret observed gender differences in education as the equilibrium outcome of a two-sex overlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children ...

C. Echevarria, A. Merlo

1995-01-01

53

Gender Differences in Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in most developed countries. Gender-related differences have been found in the presentation, prevalence, and clinical outcomes of CAD in many studies. Compared to women, men present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction more often and have a higher prevalence of CAD. These findings indicate that gender may have an

Ryotaro Wake; Minoru Yoshiyama

2009-01-01

54

Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

2009-01-01

55

GNDS 120: Women, Gender, Difference Research Resources  

E-print Network

1 GNDS 120: Women, Gender, Difference Research Resources Library Homepage http-studies/dictionaries-encyclopedias A Concise Companion to Feminist Theory (2003) (online) A Companion to Gender Studies (2005) (online) Also) is restricted to current Queen's students, faculty and staff. When connecting from off-campus, sign in with your

Abolmaesumi, Purang

56

Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

2008-01-01

57

Gender Differences in Student Responses to Physics  

E-print Network

male contexts Do contexts play a role in gender gap? Revised FCI: stereotypically female contexts 10Gender Differences in Student Responses to Physics Conceptual Questions Based on Question Context of FCI Study & results Conclusions 2 #12;High School Physics 3 #12;Undergraduate Physics 4 #12;Graduate

Wu, Mingshen

58

Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

2014-01-01

59

Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow  

SciTech Connect

Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-01-01

60

Gender differences in the correlates of preschoolers' behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the nature of gender differences in 4-year-olds. In each of three replications, 18–21 girls and 20–22 boys (all white) were observed at home and school. Temperamental characteristics were assessed and (in one replication) a self-concept instrument was used. Gender differences in the frequencies of particular types of interaction were few and inconsistent across replications. There

Robert A. Hinde; Alison Tamplin; Jane Barrett

1993-01-01

61

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSF Publications Database

... Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers Hypertext Format Gender ... Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers Portable Document Format (.pdf ...

62

Gender Differences in Conceptual Understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Building off of the work of Heller and Lin, Jennifer Blue's thesis analyzes student responses to free-response conceptual tests with respect to the three research questions: 1. Before instruction, are there any differences between men and women in their conceptual understanding of acceleration, as measured by a written, free-response question? Are there any differences after instruction? 2. Before instruction, are there any differences between men and women in their conceptual understanding of the nature of forces, as measured by a written, free-response question? Are there any differences after instruction? 3. Before instruction, are there any differences between men and women in their conceptual understanding of Newton's Second Law, as measured by a written, free-response question? Are there any differences after instruction?

Blue, Jennifer

2013-07-16

63

Sex and Gender are Different: Sexual Identity and Gender Identity are Different  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to enhance understanding and communication about different sexual issues. It starts by offering definitions to common terms such as sex, gender, gender identity and sexual identity. Alternate ways to discuss one’s sexual attractions are also presented. Terms are defined or redefined and examples given of their preferred use in different clinical situations, including those associated with children.

Milton Diamond

2002-01-01

64

Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

65

Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the provision of equal opportunities for men and women has been a priority in many countries, large gender differences prevail in competitive high-ranking positions. Suggested explanations include discrimination and differences in preferences and human capital. In this paper we present experimental evidence in support of an additional factor: women may be less effective than men in competitive environments,

Uri Gneezy; Muriel Niederle; Aldo Rustichini

2003-01-01

66

Gender Differences in Schooling in Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite almost universal primary education in Indonesia, and increasing female educational participation, gender differences remain in access to Indonesian education. This paper attempts to measure and explain these differences at primary and secondary level in Indonesia's provinces between 1980 and 1985. It examines the relationship between provincial school enrolment ratios for males and females and four factors: school availability, formal

Mayling Oey-Gardiner

1991-01-01

67

Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

Lex, Barbara W.

68

Gender and self-concept: A reexamination of stereotypic differences and the role of gender attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in overall self-evaluation and in specific dimensions of self-concept were examined in primarily White Caucasian college and high school students. The role of gender attitudes in the relationship between gender and self-concept was also examined. Findings indicated gender differences in overall self-evaluation that favored males, and gender differences in specific self-concept dimensions that were consistent with gender stereotypes.

Linda A. Jackson; Carole N. Hodge; Julie M. Ingram

1994-01-01

69

Gender Differences in Gifted Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Britain, the academic achievements of gifted girls in grade school are surpassing those of gifted boys in almost all areas of study and at all ages, whereas this does not appear to be the case in the USA. The evidence suggests two major reasons for this difference. Emotionally, British girls are now showing greater confidence in their abilities. Educationally,

Joan Freeman

70

Gender Differences: a biological perspective  

E-print Network

;9/12/12 3 1. Female v. Male Pelvis · Anthropiod & android pelvis more common in males · Gynecoid pelvis more common in females · 76% of women have rounded, subject to individual variation ­ but exaggerated in females due to the size difference of the true pelvis

Dever, Jennifer A.

71

Gender differences in the temporal voice areas  

PubMed Central

There is not only evidence for behavioral differences in voice perception between female and male listeners, but also recent suggestions for differences in neural correlates between genders. The fMRI functional voice localizer (comprising a univariate analysis contrasting stimulation with vocal vs. non-vocal sounds) is known to give robust estimates of the temporal voice areas (TVAs). However, there is growing interest in employing multivariate analysis approaches to fMRI data (e.g., multivariate pattern analysis; MVPA). The aim of the current study was to localize voice-related areas in both female and male listeners and to investigate whether brain maps may differ depending on the gender of the listener. After a univariate analysis, a random effects analysis was performed on female (n = 149) and male (n = 123) listeners and contrasts between them were computed. In addition, MVPA with a whole-brain searchlight approach was implemented and classification maps were entered into a second-level permutation based random effects models using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM; Nichols and Holmes, 2002). Gender differences were found only in the MVPA. Identified regions were located in the middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (bilateral) and the middle superior temporal gyrus (right hemisphere). Our results suggest differences in classifier performance between genders in response to the voice localizer with higher classification accuracy from local BOLD signal patterns in several temporal-lobe regions in female listeners. PMID:25126055

Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Giordano, Bruno L.; Belin, Pascal

2014-01-01

72

Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

2013-01-01

73

Gender differences and attitudes towards homosexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this research is two-fold. First, it examined individuals' attitudes towards homosexuals in Singapore. Second, it also investigated whether gender differences in attitudes towards homosexuals exist. Respondents comprised 365 students and data were collected through the use of questionnaires. Results generally suggested that respondents harboured negative attitudes towards homosexuals. The prevalence of such ambivalent attitudes seemed to suggest that respondents were still generally quite conservative in their attitudes towards gender roles and homosexuality. Our findings also revealed that, generally, women reported that they were more comfortable in working closely with male homosexuals while the reverse was true for men. Implications of our findings were discussed. PMID:12521244

Lim, Vivien K G

2002-01-01

74

Gender Differences in Bacterial STIs in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: The incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is rising in Canada. If these curable infections were prevented and treated, serious long-term sequelae including infertility, and associated treatment costs, could be dramatically reduced. STIs pose a greater risk to women than men in many ways, and further gender differences exist in screening and diagnosis. KEY FINDINGS: Reported incidence

Thomas Wong; Ameeta Singh; Janice Mann; Lisa Hansen; Sharon McMahon

2004-01-01

75

Gender Differences in Mathematics: An International Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate whether gender accounts for student differences in performance and achievement in mathematics. Data for the study were drawn from the Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS) of seventh and eighth grade students from Japan, Belgium, Canada (British Columbia and Ontario), France, the United States,…

Ethington, Corinna A.

76

Gender Differences in Brain and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly discusses the difficulties in determining the brain–behavior relationship and reviews the literature on some potential mechanisms underlying gender differences in behavioral responses. Mechanisms that are discussed include genetic effects, organizational effects of gonadal hormones, genomic actions of steroids, nongenomic effects of steroids, and environmental influences. The review is an introduction to the articles presented in this special

Sandra J Kelly; Nancy L Ostrowski; Marlene A Wilson

1999-01-01

77

Gender Differences in Moderate Drinking Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women appear to become more impaired than men after drinking equivalent amounts of alcohol, achieving higher blood alcohol concentrations even when doses are adjusted for body weight. This finding may be attributable in part to gender differences in total body water content. Men and women appear to eliminate approximately the same total amount of alcohol per unit body weight per

Martin S. Mumenthaler; Joy L. Taylor; Ruth O'Hara; Jerome A. Yesavage

78

Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003 a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2 motivation, that emphasizes learner

Scott Kissau

2006-01-01

79

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

2012-01-01

80

Gender Differences in ADHD Subtype Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From 1994 to 1995, data from a large sample (N = 4,371)…

Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael

2005-01-01

81

Web Appendix: The Phantom Gender Difference  

E-print Network

In the spirit of Katz and Murphy (1992) and more recently Aguiar and Hurst (2007), I also estimate college wageWeb Appendix: The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium William H.J. Hubbard and (potential) experience, and then computing the college wage premium on a cell-by-cell basis. For each cell, I

Sprott, Julien Clinton

82

Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions given by athletes for performance can influence performance satisfaction, expectation of future success, and persistence in training and competition. Young and inexperienced athletes often show gender differences in sport attribution, with males attributing success to controllable or stable factors like ability and effort, and females attributing success to uncontrollable or unstable factors like luck and social support. Would

Helen M. Hendy; Bonnie J. Boyer

1993-01-01

83

Gender Differences in Assessment Center Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences were found in the performance of 103 school administrators (74 men and 29 women) participating in the University of Tulsa's Management Development Program assessment center's evaluations. Exercises included an in-basket, two interviews, an oral presentation, and two leaderless group discussions. Women scored higher on the…

Ehinger, J. M.; Guier, L. R.

84

Gender Differences in Peace Education Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to…

Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

2009-01-01

85

Scientific literacy: Factor structure and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of scientific literacy and to document any gender differences with respect to each factor. Participants included 1139 students (574 females, 565 males) in grades 9 through 12 who were taking a science class at one of four Midwestern high schools. Based on National Science Education Standards, a 100 item

James Joseph Manhart

1997-01-01

86

Gender differences in morning and evening lateness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of morning–evening preference consistently recognize age differences, but gender differences are rarely reported. To examine these differences, we applied the Sleep–Wake Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (Putilov 1990, 2000, 2007). Unlike unidimensional morningness–eveningness scales, it includes separate scales for the measurement of Evening and Morning lateness (E and M, respectively). Data on 7465 adolescents and adults suggest that both E and

Arcady A. Putilov; Evgeniy G. Verevkin; Evgeniya Ivanova; Olga G. Donskaya; Dmitriy A. Putilov

2008-01-01

87

Gender and racial differences in mathematical performance.  

PubMed

The authors examined gender and racial differences in mathematics performance among 5th- and 8th-grade students in the United States. Math performance was assessed by scores on the math-concepts and math-computation sections of the California Achievement Test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1986) given at the end of the previous year. There were no significant gender differences, but in both grades, the White students scored significantly higher than the Black students. The racial differences were more pronounced in the scores for concepts than in the scores for computation. Responses to a parent questionnaire showed significant relationships between parents' self-reported math anxiety, parents' most advanced math course, and parents' education level in relation to the child's math performance. Differences in these relationships suggest that, although parents' beliefs and attitudes about math influence their child's math performance, the relationship is complex and may vary with race. PMID:10646303

Hall, C W; Davis, N B; Bolen, L M; Chia, R

1999-12-01

88

Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates gender differences in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether induced stress resulted in gender-specific patterns of brain activation during a decision task involving monetary reward. Specifically, we manipulated physiological stress levels using a cold pressor task, prior to a risky decision making task. Healthy men (n?=?24, 12 stressed) and women (n?=?23, 11 stressed) completed the decision task after either cold pressor stress or a control task during the period of cortisol response to the cold pressor. Gender differences in behavior were present in stressed participants but not controls, such that stress led to greater reward collection and faster decision speed in males but less reward collection and slower decision speed in females. A gender-by-stress interaction was observed for the dorsal striatum and anterior insula. With cold stress, activation in these regions was increased in males but decreased in females. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of stress on reward-related decision processing differs depending on gender. PMID:21609968

Lighthall, Nichole R; Sakaki, Michiko; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Nga, Lin; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Chen, Eric Y; Samii, Nicole; Mather, Mara

2012-04-01

89

Gender Differences in Child Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

2013-01-01

90

Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender

Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

2012-01-01

91

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude

Kishor Atreya; Kishor

2007-01-01

92

Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

Riese, Marilyn L.

93

Gender Differences in Children's Nurturant Interactions with Their Infant Siblings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research focused on the exploration of gender differences in interaction with infant siblings in the home and the maternal socialization of baby care in girls as opposed to boys. Observations were made of 20 families, each with 2 parents, an infant under the age of 12 months, and an older child between the ages of 46 and 102 months. Five…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

94

Coping with Stress in the Australian Job Network: Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors attempted to identify (a) the coping strategies used by employment service case managers in Queensland, Australia, and (b) the strategies that could be beneficial in reducing the relatively high burnout levels that have been observed in this population. Significant gender differences in coping styles were found, and an association…

Patton, Wendy; Goddard, Richard

2006-01-01

95

Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

Wilhelm, Jennifer

2009-01-01

96

Does PTSD Differ According to Gender Among Military Veterans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a study involving systematic random samples of 225 male and 232 female military veterans respectively that had received services at a VAMC in the South. The purpose was to examine what ecological factors predict a diagnosis of PTSD among those veterans. As expected, gender differences in relevant predictors of PTSD were observed: Generally, interpersonal factors, depression and fearfulness

Brent B. Benda; Holly A. House

2003-01-01

97

Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender

Carl, John D.

2012-01-01

98

Gender differences in environmental behaviors in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China represents the third largest economy and the highest level of national carbon dioxide emissions when compared to other\\u000a nations across the globe. Yet, little social science research has focused on the environmentally oriented behaviors of Chinese\\u000a nationals, key to understanding levels of environmental impact. This study examines, in China, gender differences in environmentally\\u000a oriented behaviors, environmental knowledge, and general

Chenyang Xiao; Dayong Hong

2010-01-01

99

Gender differences in digital music distribution methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender differences among Greek Internet users in using digital music distribution methods. First, a Web-based\\u000a questionnaire was developed and placed on most popular Greek forums. Then, 300 Greek Internet users stated their opinions\\u000a regarding digital music and the following downloading methods: 1) Http downloading, 2) P2P downloading, 3) Torrent downloading,\\u000a and 4) Combined iTunes method. The results

Kalliopi Tzantzara; Anastasios A. Economides

2010-01-01

100

Gender differences in host defense mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive studies in both humans and animals have shown that females express enhanced levels of immunoreactivity compared to males. Whereas this provides females with increased resistance to many types of infection, it also makes them more susceptible to autoimmune diseases. This review will focus on gender-related differences in non-specific host defense mechanisms with a particular emphasis on monocyte\\/macrophage function and

Joseph G. Cannon; Barbara A. St. Pierre

1997-01-01

101

Different, Not Better: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on gender differences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…

Geist, Eugene A.; King, Margaret

2008-01-01

102

An Examination of Gender Differences in Adolescent Adjustment: The Effect of Competence on Gender Role Differences in Symptoms of Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have documented gender differences in psychopathology; girls generally report more internalizing symptoms and boys generally report more externalizing symptoms. These gender differences are partially accounted for by the gender-typed personality characteristics of boys and girls. This study was designed to investigate how gender roles influence symptoms of psychopathology by examining the mediating effects of self- and peer-rated competencies.

Melissa L. Hoffmann; Kimberly K. Powlishta; Karen J. White

2004-01-01

103

Gender Differences in Problem Drinking and Depression: Different “Vulnerabilities?”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between stressors and resources and the functioning of a sample of 515 men and women who had a drinking problem. At a one-year follow-up, both women and men had improved on three functioning measures: alcohol consumption, days intoxicated, and depression. There were no gender differences at Time 2 on alcohol consumption, but men had more

Marilyn McKean Skaff; John W. Finney; Rudolf H. Moos

1999-01-01

104

The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

105

Gender differences in self-rated emotional expressiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to assess gender differences in the expression of different feelings as well as to examine the relationship between each gender's confidence in expressing different feelings and the target person's gender. The subjects, 100 male and 125 female psychology students at a community college, self-rated their confidence in expressing emotions by completing the Efficacy and

Michael J. Blier; Linda A. Blier-Wilson

1989-01-01

106

Further results on gender and cognitive differences in help effectiveness  

E-print Network

Further results on gender and cognitive differences in help effectiveness Ivon Arroyo1 , Tom Murray, Amherst Abstract. We explored the effectiveness of help for 350 students of different genders that what constitutes good teaching will not be the same for students of different genders [Carr, 97; Royer

Arroyo, Ivon M.

107

Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre*  

E-print Network

1 Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre* & Boubaker Hlaimi Abstract: This study analyses gender differences in fixed term contracts in 19 European countries, using to be more feminized and that gender differences in temporary employment can arise from a female specific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

108

Gender Differences in Completed Schooling Kerwin Kofi Charles  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Completed Schooling Kerwin Kofi Charles University of Michigan kcharles specific analysis reveals that these stock measures mask two interesting patterns: (a) gender difference in the 1970's is an important exception. In addition to other differences, their work does not focus on gender

Shyy, Wei

109

Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms Christophe J. NORDMAN (*) François;Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms#### Christophe J. Nordman * François is known about gender wage differences in developing countries, especially with respect to the possible

Boyer, Edmond

110

RESEARCH Open Access Gender difference and sex hormone production  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Gender difference and sex hormone production in rodent renal ischemia and analyze the influence of gender differences on tissue remodelling during the recovery process. Method: Age and tissue injury is gender-dependent. These differences are associated with a modulation of sex hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Is the gender difference in mental rotation disappearing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigators have used meta-analysis to compare the results of studies of gender differences on various spatial tests and have concluded that the magnitude of the gender difference in spatial ability is decreasing over time. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to compare the effect size (d) of the gender difference in 14 studies published from 1975 to 1992 which

Mary Soares Masters; Barbara Sanders

1993-01-01

112

Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype\\u000a domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and\\u000a boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses\\u000a revealed that girls and older

Cindy Faith Miller; Leah E. Lurye; Kristina M. Zosuls; Diane N. Ruble

2009-01-01

113

Cognitive gender differences in very young children parallel biologically based cognitive gender differences in monkeys.  

PubMed

Infant humans were trained on 2 cognitive tests that have previously revealed, in infant monkeys, a double dissociation that was reversible by perinatal manipulations of androgens and ablations of specific brain sites. Children showed the same sex-linked behavior found with infant monkeys: young boys were superior on the object reversal task and young girls were superior on the concurrent discrimination task. As happened previously with infant monkeys, the gender difference was not apparent in older human subjects. Thus, early in ontogeny, cognitive gender differences have now been discovered in both humans and monkeys, probably a result of gender differences in androgens that influence the maturation rate of specific brain systems. PMID:8864260

Overman, W H; Bachevalier, J; Schuhmann, E; Ryan, P

1996-08-01

114

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

115

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving Ivon Arroyo and Beverly P. Woolf important to consider for domains for which there are well-established group differences, such as gender: developmental stage of the learner (Piagetian), spatial ability, math-facts-retrieval and gender

Arroyo, Ivon M.

116

Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

2010-01-01

117

Gender differences in the incentive salience of adult and infant faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces—heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been observed in sensitivity to infant cuteness, infant faces appear to

Amanda C. Hahn; Dengke Xiao; Reiner Sprengelmeyer; David I. Perrett

2012-01-01

118

Determinants of Individual Differences and Gender Differences in Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence

Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer

2001-01-01

119

Gender differences in causes of depression.  

PubMed

This study adopts a stress process perspective to analyze gender differences in the causes of depression. The stress process links psychological well-being to position in the social structure via the mediating and moderating effects of stressors and resources. The study examines stressors and resources as mediators of the SES/depression relationship, and resources as moderators of the stressor/depression relationship. Furthermore, it tests the hypotheses that women are more exposed and more vulnerable to stressors than are men, that women benefit more psychologically from socially supportive relationships, and suffer more from conflict-ridden relationships than men. The analysis utilizes survey data of urban Nevadans age 45-74, collected in the Fall of 1997, and employs ordinary least squares regression to test the stress process model. The results indicate that financial strain and perceptions of danger in one's neighborhood mediate the relationship between SES and depression, but resources do not moderate the effects of stressors on depression. Women are more exposed to stressors than men, but are not more vulnerable to them. Positive social relationships do have more beneficial psychological effects for women than for men, but the effects of marital conflict do not vary by gender. Implications for social policy and treatment for depression are discussed. PMID:11527104

Elliott, M

2001-01-01

120

Gender differences in mathematics achievement: an investigation of gender differences by item difficulty interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from research exploring gender by item difficulty interaction on mathematics test scores in Cyprus. Data steamed from 2 longitudinal studies with 4 different age groups of primary school students. The hypothesis that boys tended to outperform girls on the hardest items and girls tended to outperform boys on the easiest items was generally supported for each

Leonidas Kyriakides; Panayiotis Antoniou

2009-01-01

121

Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and

M. Gail Jones; Jack Wheatley

1990-01-01

122

[Gender differences in genetic and environmental etiology of gender role personality (BSRI)].  

PubMed

This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality. PMID:19938658

Sasaki, Shoko; Yamagata, Shinji; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

2009-10-01

123

Gender and Poverty: A Life Cycle Approach to the Analysis of the Differences in Gender Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lokshin and Mroz study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in

Michael Lokshin; Thomas A. Mroz

2003-01-01

124

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

2004-01-01

125

Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.  

PubMed

We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives. PMID:25154113

Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

2014-01-01

126

Gender differences and programming environments: across programming populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been significant research into gender regarding educational and workplace practices, there has been little investigation of gender differences pertaining to problem solving with programming tools and environments. As a result, there is little evidence as to what role gender plays in programming tools---and what little evidence there is has involved mainly novice and end-user programmers in academic

Margaret M. Burnett; Scott D. Fleming; Shamsi Iqbal; Gina Venolia; Vidya Rajaram; Umer Farooq; Valentina Grigoreanu; Mary Czerwinski

2010-01-01

127

Gender differences in entrepreneurial networks: adding an alter perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – By adding an alter perspective to the traditional ego perspective on gender differences in entrepreneurial networks, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether involvement of family members who are not partners and exchange of emotional support is associated not only with the gender of the entrepreneurs but also the gender of entrepreneurs' alters. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Building

Kim Klyver

2011-01-01

128

The Meaning of Difference: Gender Theory, Postmodernism, and Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent postmodern movements, constructivism and deconstruction, challenge the idea of a single meaning of reality and suggest that meanings result from social experience. We show how these postmodern approaches can be applied to the psychology of gender. Examining gender theories from a constructivist standpoint, we note that the primary meaning of gender in psychology has been difference. The exaggeration

Rachel T. Hare-Mustin; Jeanne Marecek

1988-01-01

129

Gender Differences in Postural Stability Among Children  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to examine the gender differences in postural stability among 8–12 year-old children. Twenty-six children participated in this repeated measures study to measure the centre of pressure (COP) under one normal condition (CONTROL: hard surface, eyes open, and looking straight ahead) and two challenging sensory conditions (ECHB: eyes closed and head back; and EOCS: eyes open and compliant surface) in randomized order. Girls had significantly lower COP path velocity (COP-PV, p < 0.05, medium effect), smaller radial displacement (COP-RD, p < 0.05, medium effect), and lower area velocity (COP-AV, p < 0.05, medium effect) as compared to boys when the three conditions were pooled. Gender differences were found in the percentage changes in COP-RD during ECHB (p < 0.05, large effect) and EOCS (p < 0.05, medium effect), and in COP-AV during both ECHB and EOCS conditions (p < 0.05, medium effect). Postural stability performance of girls had higher correlations with age (?0.62 vs. ?0.40), body mass (?0.60 vs. ?0.42), foot length (?0.68 vs. ?0.45), and physical activity level (?0.45 vs. 0.02), as compared to boys. Girls had better postural stability than boys but were more affected by altered sensory input information. Girls are more capable of integrating their sensory inputs, whereas boys treat each sensory input somewhat separately and rely more on somatosensory feedback. Exercises such as standing on unstable surfaces with eyes open instead of eye closed and head back are more beneficial to children’s postural stability control system. PMID:23487417

Smith, Andrew W.; Ulmer, Franciska F.; Wong, Del P.

2012-01-01

130

Gender differences in proclivity for unethical behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores possible connections between gender and the willingness to engage in unethical business behavior. Two approaches to gender and ethics are presented: the structural approach and the socialization approach. Data from a sample of 213 business school students reveal that men are more than two times as likely as women to engage in actions regarded as unethical but

Michael Betz; Lenahan O'Connell; Jon M. Shepard

1989-01-01

131

Gender differences: Let's see them in writing  

SciTech Connect

Differences between males and females in the nature of their verbal communication have been documented. The findings of this study have provided a new dimensional to those of previous research. There is support for the idea that among college graduates with similar communication skills, females use written communication as a means of establishing rapport more than males. In a voluntary, relatively unstructured task, females tend to write longer responses and to express themselves by complete thoughts (sentences). Females are also more likely to use first person singular pronouns and first person singular possessive adjectives. There is no support in this situation for gender differences in offering solutions to described program weaknesses. The length of the open-ended responses describing weaknesses and strengths are more closely related to each other than they are to ratings of program satisfaction. This study was unique in that it was based on written communication of college graduates in a voluntary task. Differences in findings from of those of other studies may be due to experience and education of the participants. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Boser, J.A.; Wiley, P.D. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Clark, S.B. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

1991-01-01

132

Magnitude of psychological gender differences. Another side to the story.  

PubMed

A. H. Eagly (1995) argued that feminism created a political climate that has lead to research that inaccurately minimizes psychological gender differences. In this article, the authors assert that feminist psychologists do not have a uniform position on this issue, and that many have argued for large gender differences. Meta-analyses indicate great variability in the magnitude of gender differences across different behaviors. However, more psychological gender differences (25%) fall in the close-to-zero range than do other effects in psychology (6%). PMID:7726468

Hyde, J S; Plant, E A

1995-03-01

133

Gender differences in cue exposure reactivity and 9-month outcome.  

PubMed

Gender differences have been shown to be related to the course of cocaine dependence and treatment. While previous research has shown cue exposure procedures to be somewhat effective at reducing reactivity of substance dependent individuals to drug related stimuli, the few studies that have examined gender differences in craving and cue-reactivity have yielded equivocal results. We have recently demonstrated that an active cue-exposure procedure that featured cocaine-dependent individuals receiving immediate feedback about their level of physiological arousal following videotaped exposure to cocaine-related stimuli was capable of positively influencing in-treatment (helplessness, abstinence efficacy) as well as 9-month followup outcome (i.e., urinalysis) indices (Sterling, R., Gottheil, E., Murphy, J., & Weinstein, S. (2001). Cue exposure and abstinence efficacy. College on Problems of Drug Dependence, Phoenix, AZ, June 17, 2001). The purpose of the present study was to determine whether differential in-treatment or 9-month followup outcomes were obtained for male and female study participants. Subjects in this study were 81 individuals (47 male/34 female) who met DSM-IV criteria for cocaine dependence and who had consented to be randomly assigned to either the active cue-exposure or control conditions. Participants were compared along a myriad of pre-treatment, in-treatment, and 9-month followup measures. Other than males reporting more recent employment, there was no obvious systematic pattern of differences on pre-treatment indices. No gender differences in treatment retention were observed. With respect to 9-month followup, no gender differences on measures of addiction severity, psychological functioning, or urinalyses were noted. However males were more "cue-reactive" and more successful at establishing control over their reactivity to the cocaine stimuli. Additional research is needed to determine whether these differences in reactivity can be more clearly defined and utilized positively in a treatment setting. PMID:15223092

Sterling, Robert C; Dean, Jessica; Weinstein, Stephen P; Murphy, Jennifer; Gottheil, Edward

2004-07-01

134

Gender Differences in Chronic Kidney Disease: Underpinnings and Therapeutic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nephrology, gender differences exist with regard to the epidemiology, evolution and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In some cases, these differences run contrary to the general population trends. This review discusses such gender and sex disparities, including differing impact of traditional and novel risk factors, prescription patterns, differences in the responses to therapies, as well as hormonal factors,

Juan Jesús Carrero

2010-01-01

135

Spatial rotation and recognizing emotions: Gender related differences in brain activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity – assessed with EEG methodology – while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2 alpha band. Males and females displayed an inverse IQ-activation relationship

Norbert Jaušovec; Ksenija Jaušovec

2008-01-01

136

Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

2012-01-01

137

Gender Differences in Ethical Perceptions of Business Practices: A Social Role Theory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20, 000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples

George R. Franke; Deborah F. Crown; Deborah F. Spake

1997-01-01

138

Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

2012-01-01

139

Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

2008-01-01

140

Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam images versus verbal cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of

Peggy L. St. Jacques; Martin A. Conway; Roberto Cabeza

2010-01-01

141

Gender differences in autobiographical memory for everyday events: Retrieval elicited by SenseCam images versus verbal cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences are frequently observed in autobiographical memory (AM). However, few studies have investigated the neural basis of potential gender differences in AM. In the present functional MRI (fMRI) study we investigated gender differences in AMs elicited using dynamic visual images vs verbal cues. We used a novel technology called a SenseCam, a wearable device that automatically takes thousands of

Peggy L. St. Jacques; Martin A. Conway; Roberto Cabeza

2011-01-01

142

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence Theodore J. Cicero*, Bruce Nock, Edward R. Meyer  

E-print Network

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence in the rat Theodore J. Cicero In earlier studies, it was shown that there were gender differences in several aspects of the pharmacological observations with spontaneous withdrawal, we found no gender differences in the naloxone- precipitated

Steinbach, Joe Henry

143

The Emergence of Gender Difference in Depressed Mood During Adolescence: The Role of Intensified Gender Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of depressive mood was examined in a representative and nationwide sample of approximately 12,000 Norwegian adolescents. From the age of 14, girls scored 0.5 SD above boys in depressed mood, a difference that was stable throughout the adolescent period. At the age of 12, no gender difference was found. The gender difference was due to girls becoming more

Lars Wichstrøm

1999-01-01

144

Gender differences in information search: implications for retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence on search behavior of gender, purchase confidence, and internal knowledge in different purchase situations. It is expected that there will be gender differences on search behavior, particularly given different purchase situations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the main and interaction effects of the

Nelson Barber; Tim Dodd; Natalia Kolyesnikova

2009-01-01

145

A Review of Gender Differences Among Substance Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a review of various types of literature on gender differences among substance abusers. The authors begin this literature review by summarizing the literature on the differing treatment needs of men and women. The authors continue with a review of the empirically based literature on gender differences in background characteristics of substance users. They conclude with a review

Bernadette Pelissier; Nicole Jones

2005-01-01

146

A Review of Gender Differences among Substance Abusers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a review of various types of literature on gender differences among substance abusers. The authors begin this literature review by summarizing the literature on the differing treatment needs of men and women. The authors continue with a review of the empirically based literature on gender differences in background…

Pelissier, Bernadette; Jones, Nicole

2005-01-01

147

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data  

E-print Network

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data Jonce Dimov1 , Inge to be an impor- tant pathological feature of MS (see for instance [2]). Gender differences according to a number- ducted in order to unravel differences between male and female patiens. To this end, a unique dataset

Marchiori, Elena

148

Gender-Related Heart Rate Differences in Human Neonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine gender-related differences in heart rate of human neonates controlled for their behavior. Previous studies could not find any difference in male and female fetuses and newborns, although this gender- dependent difference clearly exists in children and adults. The heart rate of 99 newborns (47 girls and 52 boys) was measured with

EMESE NAGY; HAJNALKA ORVOS; GYORGY BARDOS; PETER MOLNAR

149

Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red-backed salamanders  

E-print Network

Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red online 27 October 2004; MS. number: A9684) Most studies of animal behaviour are based on direct animals by men and women observers (`gender identification bias') for any of the behaviours examined

Marsh, David

150

Gender Differences in Marital and Life Satisfaction among Chinese Malaysians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in marital and life satisfaction in a convenience sample of 425 Chinese Malaysian men\\u000a (41%) and women (59%). Consistent with findings in many Western cultures, gender role theory predictions were supported in\\u000a this study. While controlling for age and education, MANCOVA tests revealed men reporting higher levels of marital satisfaction\\u000a than women, whereas gender differences

Kok-Mun Ng; Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy; Clinton G. Gudmunson; WinNee Cheong

2009-01-01

151

Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

2012-01-01

152

Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes  

PubMed Central

To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all ?2 p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle (“t-bone”) crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training – for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

2012-01-01

153

Regional Differences in Gender-Role Attitudes: Variations by Gender and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use data from the General Social Survey (1985-1998) to examine the effects of region on gender-role attitudes, focusing on variations across time by gender and race. Regional differences in gender-role attitudes persisted into the 1990s for white men and women, with southern whites holding more traditional attitudes than those held by whites in other parts of

Rebecca S. Powers; J. Jill Suitor; Susana Guerra; Monisa Shackelford; Dorothy Mecom; Kim Gusman

2003-01-01

154

The stability of individual differences in gender typing: Implications for understanding gender segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of individual differences has important implications for understanding the origins of gender-typed behaviors. For example, if some children have a stronger preference for same-sex playmates (gender segregation) than do others, then exploring characteristics that may differentiate these children from their peers (e.g., preference for gender-typed toys or teacher proximity) should prove fruitful. Otherwise, research might be focused more

Kimberly K. Powlishta; Lisa A. Serbin; Lora C. Moller

1993-01-01

155

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role Inventory) and demographic information also were obtained. Factor analysis of the COPE revealed 4

Jill M. Washburn-Ormachea; Stephen B. Hillman; Shlomo S. Sawilowsky

2004-01-01

156

Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from an action adventure versus a sad film, and to animated previews of a prototypical “male” versus “female” movie. Females were more likely than males to express sadness in response to the sad scene, and gender differences in intensities of sadness increased with age. Children were much more likely

Mary Beth Oliver; Stephen Green

2001-01-01

157

Gender differences in memory for a sexual story  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research extended previous work that identified gender differences in memory for a sexual text. That work identified a memory bias for the sexes in recognition memory, whereas we found gender differences in errors in recall memory. Recall memory is particularly important because it provides the opportunity for the individual to construct memory. This provides the opportunity for distortion

Janis Kirsch-Rosenkrantz; James H. Geer

1991-01-01

158

Gender Differences in Schizophrenia on MRI Brain Scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many reports of clinical and biological gender differences in schizophrenia. Gender differences in structural brain abnormalities in schizophrenia have been reported on both computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We present here a new MRI study of cerebral structures in schizophrenia. On the basis of previous findings, we hypothesized that schizophrenic males are more likely

Henry A. Nasrallah; Steven B. Schwarzkopf; Stephen C. Olson; Jeffrey A. Coffman

1990-01-01

159

Gender Differences in Responses to Traumatic Events: A Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in psychological responses to motor vehicle accidents were examined as part of a large-scale prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from an emergency room (n = 275) and interviewed 1 week, 1 month, and 4 months later. No gender differences were seen in the prevalence or recovery from PTSD, or in symptom levels at 1- and 4

Sara A. Freedman; Natali Gluck; Rivka Tuval-Mashiach; Dalia Brandes; Tuvia Peri; Arieh Y. Shalev

2002-01-01

160

Gender Differences in Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Psychoticism in 37 Nations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean gender differences on Eysenck's three personality traits of extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were collated for 37 nations. Women obtained higher means than men on neuroticism in all countries, and men obtained higher means than women on psychoticism in 34 countries and on extraversion in 30 countries. The relation between the magnitude of the gender differences and per capita incomes

Richard Lynn; Terence Martin

1997-01-01

161

Method of Measurement and Gender Differences in Scholastic Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in scholastic achievement as a function of measurement method were examined by comparing performance of 739 15-year-old boys and 758 15-year-old girls in Irish high schools on multiple-choice and free-response tests of mathematics, Irish, and English achievement. Method-based gender differences are discussed. (SLD)

Bolger, Niall; Kellaghan, Thomas

1990-01-01

162

The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no gender differences in depression rates in prepubescent children, but, after the age of 15, girls and women are about twice as likely to be depressed as boys and men. In this article, three models for how gender differences in depression might develop in early adolescence are described and evaluated. According to Model 1, the causes of depression

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema; Joan S. Girgus

1994-01-01

163

Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…

Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

2004-01-01

164

Problems and issues in research on gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems specific to the study of gender differences — terminology, conceptualization, commonsense beliefs, evaluation and\\u000a objectivity — are considered before reviewing reports of differences in psychological and social behaviour. Exploration of\\u000a the interrelation of individual psychological and social variables is followed by reflection on the nature of an adequate\\u000a theory of gender differentiation.

Barbara B. Lloyd; John Archer

1981-01-01

165

Gender Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors of Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Incarcerated men and women differ in their views on HIV prevalence rates and susceptibility and their ability to prevent HIV infection. The objective of this study was to assess sex and gender differences in HIV risk behaviors of inmates in order to better support the consideration of gender in the development of HIV prevention interventions for the incarcerated population.

Titilayo C. Abiona; Adedeji S. Adefuye; Joseph A. Balogun; Patricia E. Sloan

2009-01-01

166

Gender and Geography: Sex Differences in Spatial Pattern Preferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated possible differences in seating preferences due to gender. Found, among other results, that males and females preferred different seating patterns when interacting with males in a task-oriented setting. Discusses results in terms of communication functions: defining intimacy, creating gender roles, and allocating status within…

Cline, Rebecca J.

1984-01-01

167

Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

2013-01-01

168

Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2012-01-01

169

Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

2008-01-01

170

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

2010-01-01

171

Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

172

Gender differences in severity of writing and reading disabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men were more impaired in

Virginia W. Berninger; Kathleen H. Nielsen; Robert D. Abbott; Ellen Wijsman; Wendy Raskind

2008-01-01

173

Gender differences in brain activation patterns during mental rotation and number related cognitive tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the visuo-spatial and mathematical cognitive domain seem to rely on the preferences for different cognitive strategies. Such differences may involve or reflect different neural circuits. In this study three number related tasks and a mental rotation fMRI-paradigm were used to examine whether different brain activation and performance patterns could be observed between genders. In a simple magnitude

KARIN KUCIAN; T HOMAS LOENNEKER; T HOMAS DIETRICH; ERNST MARTIN

2005-01-01

174

Sex differences in gender-related childhood memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on theories of gender development, especially the one proposed by Nancy Chodorow, it was predicted that boys' gender-related childhood memories will be different from girls' on five dimensions related to activity, emotionality, and sex appropriateness. Forty-five men and 45 women were asked to describe their earliest gender-related childhood memories. The memories were analyzed by two judges. The data document

Ariella Friedman; Ayala Pines

1991-01-01

175

Measuring Gender Differences in Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between gender, A-level scores and scores on the learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) of undergraduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The participants for this study were selected at random from the overall LASSI sampling exercise and males and females were…

Downing, Kevin; Chan, Sui-Wah; Downing, Woo-Kyung; Kwong, Theresa; Lam, Tsz-Fung

2008-01-01

176

Doing Gender Difference Through Greeting Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greeting card communication reflects the highly gendered division of both emotional and domestic labor in US culture. It is generally thought that American men do not take as much responsibility for sending greeting cards as women, or display competence in this mode of communication. Both survey data and field work with greeting card consumers confirm this overall pattern. For many

Emily West

2009-01-01

177

Gender Differences in Courtship Violence Victimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated rates of commission of acts and initiation of violence were similar across gender, although females sustained more higher level violence. Males reports of motives were largely culpability reducing. Females reported many more sexual assaults and physical and emotional injury than males. Male did not perceive families as sustaining…

Makepeace, James M.

1986-01-01

178

Measuring gender differences in cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between gender, A-level scores and scores on the learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) of undergraduate students. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The participants for this study were selected at random from the overall LASSI sampling exercise and males and females were compared using the LASSI scales at a Hong Kong University.

Kevin Downing; Sui-Wah Chan; Woo-Kyung Downing; Theresa Kwong; Tsz-Fung Lam

2008-01-01

179

[Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].  

PubMed

Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy. PMID:20423630

Fernández, Juan

2010-05-01

180

Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children  

PubMed Central

The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

181

Gender role attitudes and attitudes to abortion: Are there gender differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender differences in gender role attitudes and attitudes to abortion in a sample of 141 undergraduate students. Religion and religiosity were treated as covariates. Using the short version of Spence and Helmreich's (1978) Attitudes to Women Scale (AWS) taken from Spence and Hahn [Spence, J. T., & Hahn, E. D. (1997). The Attitudes Toward Women Scale and

Cynthia J. Patel; Lucinda Johns

2009-01-01

182

Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

Pollard, K. Michael

2011-01-01

183

Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

1999-01-01

184

Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

2011-01-01

185

Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

Major, Brenda

1989-01-01

186

Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working

Yuriko Doi; Masumi Minowa

2003-01-01

187

Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

188

Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-com- municable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illus- trates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to

Carol Vlassoff

2007-01-01

189

Gender differences in adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of adults report inconsistent findings as to whether males or females are more likely to use violent behaviors toward their partner. Although partner violence frequently begins during adolescence, few dating violence studies involve adolescents and even fewer report findings by gender. This study examines gender differences in adolescent dating violence. Data are from self-administered questionnaires com- pleted by 81%

Vangie A. Foshee

1996-01-01

190

[Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].  

PubMed

Perfectionism is a dimension which has been studied very little as a separate entity. It is not even considered as a nosological factor. No classification of the medical sciences underlines its importance other than to speak of a personality trait, of an aspect, or of a parameter. Nevertheless, perfectionism is related to multiple disorders such as depression (18, 20, 36), suicide (8, 16, 55), nutritional problems (11, 28), anxiety (3), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (53), social phobia (2), as well as insomnia (46). Certain authors stress the possible role of perfectionism in the development or the persistence of a substantial number of these disorders (7, 22, 38). Given these facts, it is all the easier to understand the interest shown by clinicians and researchers in the subject. Better detection and evaluation of its impact on behaviour is important in putting therapies in place (6, 53). Relationships between perfectionism and fear of failure have been approached (21, 51, 54). Correlations between perfectionism and high levels of state and trait anxiety have been demonstrated (23). The evaluation of perfectionism has been dealt with very little. Some questionnaires devote a sub-category to it, such as the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Irrational Beliefs Test. However, recently, it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct. Two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation. Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate defined perfectionism as the setting of excessively high standards for performance associated with critical self-evaluation. Six dimensions are described: concern over making mistakes, high personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubt about quality of performance and organization. Internal consistency and validity have been established (25, 26). Hewitt and Flett (30, 31, 33, 35) have developed another approach where three dimensions of perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality trait, but it can be used also in taking into account stress and its impact, for instance

Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

2003-01-01

191

Implicit Attitudes in Sexuality: Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments\\u000a or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the\\u000a causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described\\u000a in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of

James H. Geer; Gloria G. Robertson

2005-01-01

192

Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2012-03-01

193

Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue  

PubMed Central

The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

2012-01-01

194

Brain oscillations are highly influenced by gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few studies describing gender differences in event related oscillations (EROs). In the present report we demonstrate that gender differences are apparent in EROs even during simple visual stimulation, possibly activating very basic sensory networks. The data of 32 (16 males) healthy subjects were recorded from thirteen different scalp locations (F3, F4, Cz, C3, C4, T3, T4, T5, T6,

Bahar Güntekin; Erol Ba?ar

2007-01-01

195

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

196

The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

Drab, Deborah D.

197

Gender Differences in Gender-Role Perceptions Among Japanese College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated gender differences ingender role perceptions among contemporary Japanesecollege students. Originally, a total of 309 students(111 men and 198 women) rated the desirability of 60 items of the Japanese version of Bem SexRole Inventory for both men and women. One hundredfifty-nine students' desirability ratings for men and150 students' desirability ratings for women wererandomly selected. A significant gender difference

Emiko Katsurada; Yoko Sugihara

1999-01-01

198

Gender differences in the neurotoxicity of metals in children.  

PubMed

Gender-related differences in susceptibility to chemical exposure to neurotoxicants have not received sufficient attention. Although a significant number of epidemiological studies on the neurodevelopmental effects of metal exposure has been published in the last twenty years, not many of them have considered the possible gender-specific effects of such exposure. This review is focused on studies where the gender differences in pre- and/or postnatal exposure/s to five metals (mercury, lead, manganese, cadmium, and arsenic) and neurodevelopment were evaluated. We conducted a PubMed search in December 2012 and retrieved 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria. A large body of literature on potential neurodevelopment effects in children due to mercury exposure is available, but, a clear pattern regarding gender differences in neurotoxicity is not elucidated. There is also abundant available information on the gender-specific health effects of lead, and exposure to this metal seems to affect boys more than girls. Information regarding gender differences in susceptibility of manganese, cadmium, and arsenic is still too scarce to draw any definite conclusion. More research is highly warranted about this matter. Environmental epidemiological studies should be designed to quantify differential gender-based exposures and outcomes, and this may provide new insights into prevention strategies. PMID:23632092

Llop, Sabrina; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

2013-09-01

199

Racial Attitudes on Campus: Are There Gender Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated existence of gender differences in racial attitudes among 490 undergraduate college students. Found that college women were less prejudiced than college men. Additional findings revealed that racism was related to prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuals and women. (Author/NB)

Qualls, R. Christopher; And Others

1992-01-01

200

Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.  

PubMed

Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men. PMID:10396890

Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

1999-06-01

201

An experimental test for gender differences in beneficent behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine data from a laboratory test in which each subject is given the task of dividing a sum of money between him-or-herself and one other. We find no evidence for gender differences in generosity.

Gary E. Bolton; Elena Katok

1995-01-01

202

Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are striking differences between boys' andgirls' art during the elementary school years, but it isunknown whether such artistic gender differences emergeearlier in childhood. We tested 20 preschoolers (12 boys, 8 girls) and 29 kindergartners (15boys, 14 girls), most White and middle-class, on threetasks to assess gender-stereotypicality in theirdrawings and preferences for pictures. As predicted, in a production task, boys

Chris J. Boyatzis; Julie Eades

1999-01-01

203

Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to gender differences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter–word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an objective direct measure (N = 268; Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task) and, for a subsample of children, a

J. S. Matthews; Claire Cameron Ponitz; Frederick J. Morrison

2009-01-01

204

Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?  

SciTech Connect

Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

Dimich-Ward, Helen [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada)]. E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G. [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); James Hogg iCapture Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6 (Canada); Kennedy, Susan M. [School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

2006-06-15

205

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN CAREER ATTITUDES OF ACCOUNTANTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON CAREER PROGRESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The literature on women’s,career progression in the professions has suggested a number ofcategories,of factors ,that are variously considered to explain ,the observed ,gender differences. The aim of this study is to investigate empirically the particular view that the socialisation of success ,and ,the requirements ,for career advancement ,in terms ,of masculine,stereotypes are significant factors in explaining ,gender ,differences in

Clive Morley; Sheila Bellamy; Margaret Jackson; Marcia O'Neill

206

Exercise intensity and gender difference of 3 different salsa dancing conditions.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to estimate the difference in exercise intensity (METs), energy cost (EE) and gender difference between a typical salsa lesson (TSL), rueda de casino lesson (RCL), and salsa dancing at a night club (SDN). Subjects performed 1 pre-testing session and 3 testing conditions. During the pre-testing session height, weight and V?O2max were assessed. During the testing conditions all subjects performed 3 different kinds of salsa dance. Heart rate was assessed during each dance condition. The exercise intensity of the 3 salsa dancing conditions was moderate ranging from 3.9 to 5.5 METs. A significant difference between genders for HRpeak (P=0.01), max%HRR (P=0.006) and mean EE (P=0.02) were observed. Significant gender×condition interactions for HRpeak (P=0.03), mean %HRR (P=0.02), mean METs (P=0.02) and mean EE (P=0.02) were found. In addition, a significant main effect for each condition was found in all variables (P<0.01). Our results showed that the exercise intensities of all 3 salsa dancing conditions were moderate. Findings showed some significant differences in exercise intensity between males and females and within conditions. Salsa dancing could be useful in achieving a significant training effect in people who have a low level of fitness. PMID:23041966

Emerenziani, G P; Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Franciosi, E; Buzzachera, C F; Baldari, C

2013-04-01

207

The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

2011-01-01

208

Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: effects on children's gender attitudes and intergroup bias.  

PubMed

Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed gender attitude, intergroup bias, and personal preference measures at the beginning and end of a 2-week period during which teachers either did or did not make gender salient. Observations of peer play were also made at both times. After 2 weeks, children in the high- (but not low-) salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers. Children's own activity and occupational preferences, however, remained unaffected. PMID:21077864

Hilliard, Lacey J; Liben, Lynn S

2010-01-01

209

Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness  

PubMed Central

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:17615903

2007-01-01

210

Gender differences in asthma inhaler compliance.  

PubMed

Physicians routinely prescribe short-acting inhalers for asthmatic patients and also strive to help patients understand the necessity of carrying their inhalers at all times as a measure against asthmatic episodes. However, the actual rate of compliance among patients remains unclear. In order to gain a better understanding of adult inhaler compliance, this study utilized a questionnaire in which asthmatic patients in an allergy practice answered questions pertaining to their inhaler usage. For instance, while some queries addressed the patient's age and gender, others asked about the inhaler carrying rate, and severity of asthma. As a result of the study and subsequent statistical analysis, a few interesting findings were concluded: women were much more likely to carry an inhaler with them than men (61% vs 30%, P < 0.0001), the severity of asthma directly correlated to an increase in patient inhaler compliance, and a large percentage of patients indicated that they did not feel the need to carry their inhalers even though their physician had specified otherwise. The results of this study bear implications for patient education regarding inhaler usage and can serve to guide manufacturers in the development of better delivery systems for short-acting bronchodilators. PMID:24830116

Lindner, Paul S; Lindner, Andrew J

2014-04-01

211

Clinical Gender Differences Among Adult Pathological Gamblers Seeking Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning,\\u000a and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite\\u000a study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression\\u000a was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical

Enrique Echeburúa; Itxaso González-Ortega; Paz de Corral; Rocío Polo-López

2011-01-01

212

Gender Differences in Spiritual Development During the College Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in spirituality and related traits are an assumed reality despite the lack of empirical information that\\u000a directly compares women and men. I used a national and longitudinal sample of 3,680 college students surveyed with the Cooperative\\u000a Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey (2000) and later with the College Students’ Beliefs and Values (CSBV)\\u000a Survey (2003) to examine gender

Alyssa N. Bryant

2007-01-01

213

Gender and race differences in young adults’ body dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences by gender and race (White or Black) in two aspects of college students’ body dissatisfaction—dissatisfaction with specific body parts and physique anxiety—were examined. Four hundred and ninety-one students completed surveys assessing both aspects of body dissatisfaction and eight risk factors for body dissatisfaction from biological, psychological, and sociocultural domains. Mean levels of dissatisfaction with body parts varied by gender,

Jessica Lynn Penkal; Lawrence A. Kurdek

2007-01-01

214

Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores differ between genders in a sepsis cohort: Cause or effect?  

PubMed Central

Background. Controversy exists regarding the influence of gender on sepsis events and outcome. Epidemiological data from other countries may not always apply to local circumstances. The aim of this study was to identify gender differences in patient characteristics, treatment, and outcome related to the occurrence of sepsis at admission to the ICU. Methods. A prospective observational cohort study on patients admitted to the ICU over a 3-year period fulfilling sepsis criteria during the first 24 hours. Demographic data, APACHE II score, SOFA score, TISS 76, aetiology, length of stay (LOS), mortality rate, and aspects of treatment were collected and then analysed with respect to gender differences. Results. There were no gender-related differences in mortality or length of stay. Early organ dysfunction assessed as SOFA score at admission was a stronger risk factor for hospital mortality for women than for men. This discrepancy was mainly associated with the coagulation sub-score. CRP levels differed between genders in relation to hospital mortality. Infection from the abdominopelvic region was more common among women, whereas infection from skin or skin structures were more common in men. Conclusion. In this cohort, gender was not associated with increased mortality during a 2-year follow-up period. SOFA score at ICU admission was a stronger risk factor for hospital mortality for women than for men. The discrepancy was mainly related to the coagulation SOFA sub-score. Together with differences in CRP levels this may suggest differences in inflammatory response patterns between genders. PMID:22793786

Liedgren, Eva; Johansson, Goran; Ferm, Martin; Winso, Ola

2012-01-01

215

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review  

NSF Publications Database

... Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review Special ... Hypertext Format Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A ...

216

A Gender Comparison of Lower ExtremityA Gender Comparison of Lower Extremity Landing Biomechanics Utilizing Different Tasks  

E-print Network

Purpose of This Study · Examine gender differences in leg biomechanics during different landingbiomechanics duringA Gender Comparison of Lower ExtremityA Gender Comparison of Lower Extremity Landing Biomechanics Utilizing Different Tasks: Implications in ACL Injury Researchp j y Adam Hernandez Erik Swartz, PhD ATCS

New Hampshire, University of

217

Mothering and Fathering: The Gender Differences in Child Rearing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both parents have unique contributions to make in the development of a child. Mothers and fathers think and act differently from one another, and children thrive on these differences. This book examines gender differences in child rearing, focusing on the conflict between male experts' advice promoting early independence and women's desire for…

Thevenin, Tine

218

Gender differences in stress reactivity among cocaine-dependent individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Recent investigations suggest that stress reactivity may play an important role in the rela- tionship between stress and substance use. Important gen- der differences, such as reasons for using substances, have been well documented, and it is likely that men and women also differ in their stress response. Objectives: In this study, gender differences in stress reactivity to two

Sudie E. Back; Kathleen T. Brady; Joan L. Jackson; Seoka Salstrom; Heidi Zinzow

2005-01-01

219

Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power

1987-01-01

220

Gender Differences in Educational Achievement to Age 25  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…

Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

2008-01-01

221

Gender Differences in Parent Child Communication Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to explore differences in the ways that males and females communicate,and possible reasons for these differences. One possible rea- son that was explored in depth is differences in the ways parents communicate,with sons versus daughters. These communication,patterns were measured,using the Revised Family Communication,Pattern Instrument developed by David Ritchie. Results found some,significant differences between,males

Jessica Mcnaughton

222

Gender differences revealed in the right posterior temporal areas during Navon letter identification tasks.  

PubMed

Gender differences in temporo-spectral EEG patterns during verbal cognitive performance are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the event-related dynamics of EEG differ between genders during the performance of Navon letter identification tasks (NLITs). To this end, the EEG patterns of 40 subjects were recorded during the NLIT performance. We compared behavioral outcomes, event-related temporo-spectral dynamics, and source distribution of neural oscillations within cortical regions of male and female subjects. We found that male subjects exhibited greater induced neural activities than female subjects in right temporo-parietal areas at theta and alpha frequency bands. Source imaging for the time ranges at which maximal gender differences were observed revealed gender-dependent estimated current densities in the right posterior temporal regions. These gender differences can be explained by the existence of distinct, gender-specific hemispheric specialization. Thus, gender differences should be considered during behavioral tasks and electrophysiological measurements. PMID:22370912

Lee, Jaewon; Chung, Dongil; Chang, Sumin; Kim, Sungyo; Kim, Sang-woo; Park, Hyunsang; Ryu, Shinho; Jeong, Jaeseung

2012-09-01

223

Gender Differences Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Differential Symptom Patterns  

PubMed Central

The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

Milivojevich, Andrew

2013-01-01

224

Gender differences among children with autism spectrum disorder: differential symptom patterns.  

PubMed

The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

Baker, Sidney M; Milivojevich, Andrew

2013-11-01

225

Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359)\\u000a using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals\\u000a that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged\\u000a in direct contact, collective types

Hilde Coffé; Catherine Bolzendahl

2010-01-01

226

Gender and Assessment: Differences, Similarities and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent changes in higher education in the UK have led to much discussion about the performance of men and women students with different methods of assessment. Aim: To see whether or not there were differences between the marks awarded to men and women final-year psychology students as a function of the modes of assessment used. Method:…

Hartley, James; Betts, Lucy; Murray, Wayne

2007-01-01

227

Gender Differences in Genetic Risk Profiles for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR?=?1.31 (1.08–1.60) for CVD, uncorrected p?=?0.006 multiplicative model). Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p?=?0.00005) in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values). Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction)?=?0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. Conclusions/Significance A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported findings for combined gender analysis to be true positives, while at least third of the reported genotype-gender interaction results are true positives. The asymmetry in positive findings between the genders could imply that genetic risk loci for CVD are more readily detectable in women, while for men they are more confounded by environmental/lifestyle risk factors. The possible differences in genetic risk profiles between the genders should be addressed in more detail in genetic studies of CVD, and more focus on female CVD risk is also warranted in genome-wide association studies. PMID:18974842

Silander, Kaisa; Saarela, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Auro, Kirsi; Karvanen, Juha; Kulathinal, Sangita; Niemela, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarela, Janna; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Evans, Alun; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena

2008-01-01

228

Gender differences in mathematics: Does the story need to be rewritten?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on the corresponding measures. The nested-factor model assumes interindividual differences in mathematical ability to be

Martin Brunner; Stefan Krauss; Mareike Kunter

2008-01-01

229

Gender differences in cooperation: experimental evidence on high school students.  

PubMed

The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

Molina, J Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J Ignacio; Cuesta, José A; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

2013-01-01

230

Gender Differences in Cooperation: Experimental Evidence on High School Students  

PubMed Central

The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

Molina, J. Alberto; Gimenez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, Jose A.; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

2013-01-01

231

Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

232

Gender Differences in Affective, Schizoaffective, and Schizophrenic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender differences in the clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of chronic DSM-III Axis I psychotic inpatients from the Chestnut Lodge followup study. Diagnostic groups include schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis, and unipolar affective disorder. Sex differences were frequent, especially in schizophrenia. Females with schizophrenia, for example, had superior premorbid social, sexual, and marital adjustments. They presented at index hospitalization

Thomas H. McGlashan; Karen K. Bardenstein

1990-01-01

233

ORIGINAL PAPER Gender differences in activity patterns of American mink  

E-print Network

- riality, sexual dimorphism in body size and different environmental factors. Keywords Mustela visonORIGINAL PAPER Gender differences in activity patterns of American mink Neovison vison in Germany and circadian activity patterns of American mink Neovison vison were studied in a fishpond area in northern

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Gender Differences in the Relationship of Drinking Motivations and Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaire data were used to test the hypothesis that stated motivations for drinking would be more directly related to drinking outcomes among adolescent girls than among adolescent boys. Evidence in support of this hypothesis was found, and we suggest that this gender difference might be due to different norms and role expectations in regard to drinking by boys and men

Roderick S. Carman; Charles Holmgren

1986-01-01

235

Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

1996-01-01

236

Gender Differences in Temperament: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mean level and variability of 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament in children ages 3 months to 13 years. Effortful control showed a large difference favoring girls and the dimensions within that factor (e.g., inhibitory control: d = -0.41,…

Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Van Hulle, Carol A.

2006-01-01

237

Gender Differences in Resistance to Temptation: Theories and Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used meta analysis to test predictions from psychoanalytic, parental investment, and differential socialization theories regarding gender differences in ability to resist temptation. Found that although females showed more restraint than males with a very small effect size, there were appreciable differences on forbidden-object tasks and very…

Silverman, Irwin W.

2003-01-01

238

Gender differences in cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

th century. More recently this has expanded to include cardiac electrophysiology. The mechanisms responsible for the disparities are being elucidated. Contributing factors may include: differing amounts of sex and gonadal steroids, differences in autonomic tone, and gender specific hemodynamic variables. Women have a longer corrected QT interval and men have a lower intrinsic heart rate. Atrial fibrillation is more common

RAMESH M. GOWDA; SABRINA L. WILBUR; PAUL SCHWEITZER

2007-01-01

239

Gender differences in game behaviour in invasion games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game performance in invasion games. There also exist different participation and learning patterns.

David Gutierrez; Luis M. García-López

2012-01-01

240

Cognitive emotion regulation strategies: Gender differences and associations to worry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research generally supports differences in the prevalence of GAD and reports of excessive worry between men and women. Psychosocial theories espouse individual vulnerability factors as correlates of anxiety and in turn related to gender differences. Emotion regulation is one vulnerability factor that has shown involvement in the development, exacerbation, and\\/or maintenance of anxiety, although there is insufficient evidence of this

Kimberly R. Zlomke; Kathryn S. Hahn

2010-01-01

241

Gender differences in young Asian Americans' educational attainments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, data from the 1986 follow-up of a national probability sample of 1980 high school seniors are examined: (a) to determine whether gender differences exist in the educational attainment of Asian-American youth and compare these differences with those found among other groups (Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Whites), (b) to confirm that immigrant status and ethnicity account for

Paul R. Brandon

1991-01-01

242

Gender differences regarding perceived difficulties at work with age  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse gender differences in the subjective assessment of one's own work and to verify if the perceived difficulties of bearing certain job strains with age are related to the same work conditions for men and women. A number of 1195 workers (297 women, 898 men) in different productive sectors, divided into 5 age

Norma Barbini; Rosa Squadroni; Monia Andreani

2005-01-01

243

From difference to sameness: Gender ideology in sexual science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexological ideas about gender similarity and difference have changed dramatically over the course of the last one hundred years. In the nineteenth century, sexologists, like other scientists, focused on the differences between women and men. This perspective is typified by researchers like Havelock Ellis, who considered female sexuality to be weaker, less fulfilling, and more passive than that of the

Janice M. Irvine

1990-01-01

244

Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence, treatment, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the management of and outcome of surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).Methods: Hospital discharge data from all acute care hospitals in Michigan, as compiled in the Michigan Inpatient Data Base, were retrospectively analyzed to assess sex differences in regard to AAA prevalence, treatment, and surgical outcome from 1980

Dolores J. Katz; James C. Stanley; Gerald B. Zelenock

1997-01-01

245

Gender Differences in the Reporting of Physical and Somatoform Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Women have consistently been shown to report greater numbers of physical symptoms. Our aim in this study was to assess gender differences for specific symptoms and to assess how much of these differences were attributable to psychiatric comorbidity. Method: Data from the PRIME-MD 1000 study (1000 patients from four primary care sites evaluated with the Primary Care Evaluation of

KURT KROENKE; ROBERT L. SPITZER

246

Gender Differences in Children's Experiences of the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from three projects were analyzed with two questions in mind: Do boys and girls attend and respond to different aspects of family life? and, do children in general experience the family as sex-differentiated? Results were expected to add to understanding of the sources of gender differences in adults' orientations to marriage and parenting.…

Stewart, Abigail J.; Copeland, Anne P.

247

Gender difference in ethical abilities of dental students.  

PubMed

Walker's comprehensive review of claims of gender difference and gender bias in moral cognition concluded 1) that gender explains a negligible amount of the variability in moral reasoning development, 2) that accumulated evidence does not support claims of gender polarity in moral orientations (i.e., an ethic of care and an ethic of justice), and 3) that future research should focus on the range of psychological processes that engender moral maturity. This study examined whether male and female predoctoral dental students who completed an ethics curriculum grounded in Rest's comprehensive model of moral functioning differed on measures of four capacities: moral sensitivity, moral reasoning, moral motivation, and moral implementation. From archival data at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, data on sixty females and sixty males were randomly selected from five cohorts (n=386) who completed an ethics curriculum and outcome measures of the four capacities between 1996 and 2000. Gender differences were not apparent for a measure of moral sensitivity, but were evident for one of the moral reasoning indices, for the responsibility dimension of moral motivation, and for the measure of moral implementation. Implications are drawn for future research and for professional ethics education. PMID:22942409

You, Di; Bebeau, Muriel J

2012-09-01

248

Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Performance Following Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared the performance of 141 males and 94 females with lateralized brain damage, consistent etiology of brain injury (stroke) and consistent length of time since onset of injury on individual measures of cognitive abilities across five different domains. The cognitive domains included attention and working memory, language, verbal learning and memory, visuospatial leaming and memory, and visuospatial

Jan M. Deroest

2006-01-01

249

Gender and Ability Differences in Children's Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed whether girls and boys write differently in their reader response journals for the classes of one sixth-grade teacher over 2 years. A literature-based reading program was used, and the students kept reader response journals. Journals from 9 girls and 11 boys from the first year and 8 girls and 8 boys from the second year were…

Gormley, Kathleen A.; And Others

250

Economic Growth, Comparative Advantage, and Gender Differences in Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from the Birthweight Differences of Chinese Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from two surveys of twins in China are used to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of economic development in affecting gender differences in the trends in, levels of, and returns to schooling observed in China and in many developing countries in recent decades. In particular, we explore the hypothesis that these phenomena reflect differences in comparative

Mark Rosenzweig; Junsen Zhang

2012-01-01

251

Ethnic, gender, and age differences in adolescent nonfatal suicidal behaviors.  

PubMed

This study examined ethnic differences in adolescent nonfatal suicidal behaviors as well as age and gender variation both across and within ethnic groups. Using a large (n = 14, 346) sample of adolescents in Grades 7 through 12, African Americans reported relatively high rates of suicidal thoughts and attempts and Southeast Asians reported high rates of suicidal thoughts. Hispanic Americans, European Americans, and Asian Americans were similar in their reports of nonfatal suicidal behaviors. Gender differences also varied across ethnicity as Southeast Asian boys (particularly older boys) reported more suicidal thoughts and attempts than Southeast Asian girls. PMID:24517593

Supple, Andrew J; Graves, Kelly; Daniel, Stephanie; Kiang, Lisa; Su, Jinni; Cavanaugh, Alyson M

2013-10-01

252

Developmental gender differences for overhand throwing in Aboriginal Australian children.  

PubMed

In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES > 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and kinematics were recorded in 30 female and male Aboriginal Australian children 6-10 years old. Results indicated the Aboriginal girls and boys were more similar in horizontal ball velocities than U.S. girls and boys. Throwing kinematics between girls and boys were also more similar in Australian Aborigines than U.S. children. Aboriginal girls threw with greater velocities than U.S., German, Japanese, and Thai girls, while the boys were similar across cultures. PMID:21268467

Thomas, Jerry R; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Thomas, Katherine T; Campbell, Amity C; Elliott, Bruce C

2010-12-01

253

Gender Differences in Beh?et's Disease Associated Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, characterized by oral and genital ulceration, skin lesions, and uveitis as well as vascular, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system involvement. It is prevalent in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the gender differences in clinical manifestations of Behçet's disease, treatment responses, mortality, and morbidity. Behçet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in males from certain geographic regions and particular ethnic groups; however, recent reports indicate more even gender distribution across the world. There are gender differences in clinical manifestations and severity of the disease. Ocular manifestations, vascular involvement, and neurologic symptoms are more frequently reported in male patients whereas oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and arthritis occur more frequently in female patients. The disease can have a more severe course in males, and overall mortality rate is significantly higher among young male patients. PMID:24864195

Ucar-Comlekoglu, Didar; Sen, H. Nida

2014-01-01

254

Gender Differences in the Object-Oriented Play of Preschoolers with Cognitive Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the play of preschool children with cognitive delays were investigated. Twelve dependent variables representing categorical and sequential play were coded from observations of 18 boys and 12 girls playing during an independent-play session at home. Boys and girls were observed to play differentially with three toy sets (mixed, doll, and vehicle) with which they were presented. Overall,

D. MICHAEL MALONE; JOHN LANGONE

1995-01-01

255

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-05-15

256

Males' and females' conversational behavior in cross-sex dyads: From gender differences to gender similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender differences in conversational behavior in an experimental setting. Twenty men and 20 women were randomly paired in 20 dyads and were asked to discuss a given topic. We examined the transcripts through a varied range of behavioral variables. First we analyzed the sequential ordering of utterances in order to establish the way male and female speakers take

Agnesa Pillon; Catherine Degauquier; François Duquesne

1992-01-01

257

Gender differences in the clinical manifestation of obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been historically described as a disease primarily of men. However, it is now widely recognized that OSA in women is not as rare as was originally believed. The alarming degree to which OSA is clinically underdiagnosed in women raises the critical concern that women manifest OSA differently. The purpose of this review is to examine the issue of clinically significant gender differences in OSA disease manifestation, which pose unique challenges to diagnosis and management. Within this review, current findings regarding gender differences in OSA polysomnographic features and demographic factors, symptom presentation, functional status, comorbidities, health care utilization, and therapeutic management have been reviewed. Further research in this field is proposed to examine the impact of gender on functional status in individuals with OSA, and the potential gender differences in therapeutic management, particularly the response to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. Additional studies describing the clinical manifestations in men and women at different levels of OSA severity may substantially contribute to the ability to identify and treat OSA in women across a wide spectrum of disease severity. PMID:19403333

Ye, Lichuan; Pien, Grace W; Weaver, Terri E

2009-12-01

258

Gender differences amongst adult arsonists at psychiatric assessment.  

PubMed

Reports of gender differences amongst arsonists at psychiatric assessment are not uncommon, however some are based on relatively small samples. A new retrospective study highlighting gender differences could help to confirm or refute the current state of knowledge. The aim of the current study was to examine gender differences amongst a sample of 167 adult arsonists (129 males and 38 females). Information was collected from clinical records on sociodemographic, family background and childhood factors; adult adjustment; fire setting history; motives; features of pyromania and other offending, from the case notes of a group of arsonists referred to the West Midlands Psychiatry Service over a 24-year period. Female arsonists were older than males and more likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis. Women more frequently had a history of sexual abuse, while men had a more varied criminal background and more substance abuse problems. Our findings largely support previous research, and are discussed in this context, whilst also bringing attention to a more recently developed theory (Action System Model). Significant gender differences amongst arsonists indicates that different emphases in the treatment of male and female arsonists may be advisable, though a reliable evidence base for treatment has yet to be established. PMID:17725237

Dickens, Geoff; Sugarman, Philip; Ahmad, Farooq; Edgar, Simon; Hofberg, Kristina; Tewari, Sidharta

2007-07-01

259

Gender differences in game responses during badminton match play.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences in match play activity pattern [rally duration, rest time between rallies, effective playing time, and strokes performed during a rally] and exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], blood lactate [La], and subjective ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) during 9 simulated badminton matches in male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) elite junior (16.0 ± 1.4 years) players. Results showed significant differences (all p < 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.80-1.56) between male and female players in the activity pattern of match play, with male players engaged in longer rallies (6.8 ± 4.8 vs. 5.7 ± 3.1 seconds), executing more strokes per rally (6.4 ± 4.8 vs. 4.7 ± 2.8) and resting more between rallies (10.5 ± 8.8 vs. 8.8 ± 7.2 seconds) than female players. No clear differences (all p > 0.05; ES = -0.33 to 0.08) were observed between female or male players in average HR (174 ± 7 vs. 170 ± 9 b·min(-1)), %HRmax (89.2 ± 4.0% vs. 85.9 ± 4.3%), La (2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)), and RPE values (14.2 ± 1.9 vs. 14.6 ± 1.8) during match play, although male players spent more time (moderate effect sizes) at intensities between 81 and 90% HRmax (35.3 ± 17.9 vs. 25.3 ± 13.6; p < 0.05; ES = 0.64) in the second game. There seemed to be a trend toward an increased playing intensity (i.e., higher HR, La, and RPE) from the first to the second game, highlighting the higher exercise intensity experienced during the last part of the match. The clear between-gender differences in activity patterns induced only slightly different physiological responses. PMID:23238094

Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose G; Moya-Ramon, Manuel; Cabello-Manrique, David; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

2013-09-01

260

Gender Differences in Mathematics: Does the Story Need to Be Rewritten?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on…

Brunner, Martin; Krauss, Stefan; Kunter, Mareike

2008-01-01

261

Gender differences in activity participation, time-of-day and duration choices: new evidence from Calgary  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date only limited research has quantified differences between female and male activity patterns, and analyses at an individual activity level are scarce. Past research has focused on investigating gender differences in mobility levels based on observed travel patterns, especially those related to commuting. This article reports new evidence based on analyses of a household activity survey data-set collected from

Ming Zhong; Chaozhong Wu; John Douglas Hunt

2012-01-01

262

Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress  

E-print Network

Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress Nichole R. Lighthall,*1 Michiko Sakaki,1 Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn,1,2 Lin nichole.lighthall@usc.edu phone: (213) 740-9078 fax: (213) 740-9403 #12;STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION

Mather, Mara

263

Gender Differences in Affective, Schizoaffective, and Schizophrenic Disorders 319  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender dif- ferences in the clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of chronic DSM-III Axis I psychotic inpatients from the Chestnut Lodge followup study. Diagnostic groups include schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis, and unipolar affective disorder. Sex differences were fre- quent, especially in schizophrenia. Females with schizophrenia, for ex- ample, had superior premorbid social, sexual, and marital adjust- ments. They

Thomas H. McGlashan; Karen K. Bardenstein

264

Gender Differences in Emotional Language in Children's Picture Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in emotional language in children's picture books, using 178 books read to or by preschool children. Males had higher representations on titles, pictures, and central roles, but males and females were associated with equal amounts of emotional language and similar types of emotional words. (SLD)

Tepper, Clary A.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright

1999-01-01

265

Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software. PMID:18689104

Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

2008-01-01

266

Gender Differences in Performance of Script Analysis by Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical…

Helmes, E.; Bush, J. D.; Pike, D. L.; Drake, D. G.

2006-01-01

267

Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

Closson, Leanna M.

2009-01-01

268

Gender differences in memory for object and word locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesized that gender differences in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) are larger in tasks requiring active elaboration of the material. In the present study we explored this issue by using an object relocation task, with both verbal and visual stimuli. The involvement of active processes was manipulated through the type of transformation required on the stimulus and through

Zaira Cattaneo; Albert Postma; Tomaso Vecchi

2006-01-01

269

Gender differences in memory test performance among children and adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences among children and adolescents were examined on 14 separate measures of short-term memory. A nationally stratified sample of 1,279 children and adolescents, 637 males and 642 females, ranging in age between 5 and 19 years, were assessed on the 14 subtests of the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Factor structure of the TOMAL was determined to be

Patricia A Lowe; Joan W Mayfield; Cecil R Reynolds

2003-01-01

270

Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

2014-01-01

271

Age and gender differences in children's food preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to examine the developmental patterning of food preferences in a large sample of British schoolchildren and to investigate possible gender differences. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the study was carried out in three primary and three secondary schools in West London, UK. A total of 1291 children aged from 4 to 16 years completed a

Lucy J. Cooke; Jane Wardle

2005-01-01

272

Gender Differences in Evaluations of Tobacco and Alcohol Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between gender and reactions to different styles of advertising tobacco and alcohol products was examined in a sample of adolescents (average age of fourteen years) and their parents. Self-monitoring was also examined as a possible correlate of preferences for types of advertisements. Respondents were asked to rate magazine advertisements which were oriented toward the product's image or the

KATHERINE COVELL; KENNETH L. DION; KAREN K. DION

1994-01-01

273

Further results on gender and cognitive differences in help effectiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the effectiveness of help for 350 students of different genders and cognitive developments, in an arithmetic intelligent tutoring system. We conclude that girls were more sensitive to the amounts of help fitting their needs than to the level of abstraction. On the other hand, boys were affected by the abstraction level, and ignored help more. Past research suggests

Ivon Arroyo; Tom Murray; Beverly P. Woolf; Carole R. Beal

274

Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

2012-01-01

275

The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

Hubbard, William H. J.

2011-01-01

276

Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

2010-01-01

277

Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

2011-01-01

278

Gender Differences in the Academic Ethic and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates gender differences in the academic ethic and academic achievement among college students. The authors used the survey data collected from students attending Georgia Southern University, a unit of the University System of Georgia and one of two regional universities in the state. Results from the analysis indicate that…

Chee, Kyong Hee; Pino, Nathan W.; Smith, William L.

2005-01-01

279

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

2012-01-01

280

Gender Differences in Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions (TEOAEs) of Newborns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study explored gender differences in neonatal transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) by comparing the reproducibility and amplitude of TEOAEs in 392 female and 435 male newborns. Results indicate female newborns had significantly higher response reproducibility and response amplitude. (Contains references.) (CR)

Yellin, M. Wende; Culbertson, William R.; Tanner, Dennis C.; Adams, Tracy

2000-01-01

281

Gender differences in factors influencing students towards computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines students' pre-college experience with computers. It finds significant gender differences in how students develop interest in computers; exposure to computers at home; availability of computers in high schools; and high-school preparations for college study in a computing field. The paper has a number of implications to improve the digital divide for women. It is based on 150

Roli Varma

2009-01-01

282

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

283

Gender Differences in High?school Students’ Views about Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in 79 high?school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even

Patricia H. Miller; Jennifer Slawinski Blessing; Stephanie Schwartz

2006-01-01

284

Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

Madden, David

2010-01-01

285

Gender Differences in Children's Experience of Musical Performance Anxiety  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine musical performance anxiety in children, with a focus on potential gender differences. Twenty-six sixth-grade students performing in a piano recital were monitored continuously on measures of heart rate and behaviour. Participants were interviewed in the months prior to the recital and they completed the…

Ryan, Charlene

2004-01-01

286

Gender Differences in Organizational Values among Recent College Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand gender differences in career expectations, a survey of 232 recent college graduates' attitudes toward job factors (such as promotion and salary) was conducted. Findings suggest that women's career aspirations are quite similar to men's, especially for women who majored in traditionally "male" subjects. (KH)

Morgan, Carolyn Stout; Carney, Myrna L.

1985-01-01

287

Gender Differences in Science Preferences on Starting Secondary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students in their first weeks of secondary school were asked to select from a list those topics they would be interested in studying in science. Gender differences were found in that boys predominately selected topics with a mechanical connection, whereas girls predominantly selected topics related to human biology. (Author)

Taber, Keith S.

1991-01-01

288

Gender Differences in Interpersonal Complementarity Within Roommate Dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementarity theory proposes specific hypotheses regarding interpersonal styles that will result in success- ful relationships. The present study sought to extend previous research on gender differences in complemen- tarity through the examination of same-sex peer dyads and the use of informant reports of interpersonal style. One hundred twenty participants (30 male and 30 female roommate dyads) completed interpersonal cir- cumplex

Emily B. Ansell; J. E. Kurtz; Patrick M. Markey

2008-01-01

289

Perceptual Mechanisms That Characterize Gender Differences in Decoding Women's Sexual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men and women often disagree about the meaning of women's nonverbal cues, particularly those conveying dating-relevant information. Men perceive more sexual intent in women's behavior than women perceive or report intending to convey. Although this finding has been attributed to gender differences in the threshold for labeling ambiguous cues as sexual in nature, little research has been conducted to determine

Intent Coreen Farris; Teresa A. Treat; Richard J. Viken; Richard M. McFall

2008-01-01

290

Poles apart? Gender differences in proposals for sexuality education content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are young women and men’s preferences for sexuality education content poles apart? This article explores gender differences in senior school students’ suggestions for issues sexuality education should cover. Findings are analysed in relation to debate about mixed and single sex classrooms and boys’ perceived disinterest in lessons. It is argued that young women and men’s content preferences were largely similar

Louisa Allen

2008-01-01

291

Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Literature Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This analysis of literature explores gender differences in leadership style. As greater numbers of women enter the ranks of leadership and more research is conducted, contradictory findings emerged. Using the qualitative software program Nvivo version 1.2, 36 pieces of qualitative, quantitative, and popular culture literature were summarized,…

Clisbee, Mary

2005-01-01

292

Gender Differences in the Recall of Performance Feedback.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether gender differences in recall of performance feedback exist. Participants were 88 female and 68 male undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. They were presented with eight comments each (evaluative feedback) for both an English paper and a computer…

Beyer, Sylvia; Langenfeld, Kelly

293

Gender differences in health related behaviour: Some unanswered questions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, no single explanation has accounted for discrepancies between male and female morbidity rates and health care utilization patterns. The sociomedical approach to sex\\/gender differences in health related behaviour has generated a variety of hypotheses. However, despite extensive study, many unanswered questions remain. The findings of this study fall short of offering conclusive evidence as to the causes of

Mary-Anne Kandrack; Karen R. Grant; Alexander Segall

1991-01-01

294

College Student Views of the Elderly: Some Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four hundred and forty-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 38-item questionnaire designed to assess student attitudes toward the elderly. The data revealed several significant gender differences including the age at which a person becomes "old" (men select a younger age), strength (men see less…

Knox, David; Kimuna, Sitawa; Zusman, Marty

2005-01-01

295

Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

2009-01-01

296

Gender Differences in Attitudes toward and Confidence in Computer Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined gender and student group differences in stereotypes and confidence for first-year and more advanced computer science (CS) students. In the spring of 2001, 18-page questionnaires were distributed to first-year students (n=30: 21 females, 9 males) and students enrolled in an introductory CS course (n=32: 11 females, 21 males)…

Beyer, Sylvia; Chavez, Michelle; Rynes, Kristina

297

Confidence and gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in favor of men were obtained. Results also indicated a

Amanda Cooke-Simpson; Daniel Voyer

2007-01-01

298

Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

2007-01-01

299

Gender Differences in Attributions of Blame for Male Rape Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on blaming the victim has virtually ignored male victimization while concentrating on the female victim. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether or not gender differences exist in blaming a male rape victim and whether or not any theories of victim blame could be applied to this domain. Subjects were given the Belief in a

MARK A. WHATLEY; RONALD E. RIGGIO

1993-01-01

300

Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

2012-01-01

301

Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

2007-01-01

302

Gender differences in lower limb frontal plane kinematics during landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in knee valgus angle and inter-knee and inter-ankle distances in university volleyball players when performing opposed block jump landings. Six female and six male university volleyball players performed three dynamic trials each for which they were instructed to jump up and block a volleyball suspended above a net set at

Gerwyn Hughes; James Watkins; Nick Owen

2008-01-01

303

Gender Differences in Family Communication About Organ Donation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated gender differences in willingness to donate organs and conversations with family members about organ donation. Results from a snowball sample of 353 men and 488 women (average age = 41–50) indicated that men are less willing to donate and less likely to have conversations about organ donation. When such conversations do occur, men are less

Teresa L. Thompson; James D. Robinson; R. Wade Kenny

2003-01-01

304

College attendance and the college wage premium: Differences by gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines gender differences in the decision of whether or not to attend college. We use a human capital model of the decision to attend college, positing that this decision is a function of family background characteristics and the expected future earnings differential between college and high school graduates (the college wage premium). Using data from the NLSY, we

Susan L. Averett; Mark L. Burton

1996-01-01

305

Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

2010-01-01

306

Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

2014-01-01

307

Solving graphics tasks: Gender differences in middle-school students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual–spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined gender differences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in Mathematics (GLIM) instrument that included number lines, graphs, maps and diagrams. The participants

Tom Lowrie; Carmel M. Diezmann

2011-01-01

308

Gender differences in Taiwan high school students' computer game playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences among adolescents who play computer games: key areas of study include hours played, motivation, enjoyment experienced, and the impacts on the students’ lives. The data were obtained from 535 Taiwan high school students. Results indicated that males spent more time playing computer games than did females and also enjoyed it

Chien Chou; Meng-Jung Tsai

2007-01-01

309

Gender Differences in High-school Students' Views about Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students' attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females' low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even

Patricia H. Miller; Jennifer Slawinski Blessing; Stephanie Schwartz

2006-01-01

310

Gender Differences in High-School Students' Views about Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students' attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females' low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four…

Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

2006-01-01

311

Gender differences in processing speed: A review of recent research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and finger tapping. Females also

Eka Roivainen

2011-01-01

312

Poles Apart? Gender Differences in Proposals for Sexuality Education Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Are young women and men's preferences for sexuality education content poles apart? This article explores gender differences in senior school students' suggestions for issues sexuality education should cover. Findings are analysed in relation to debate about mixed and single sex classrooms and boys' perceived disinterest in lessons. It is argued…

Allen, Louisa

2008-01-01

313

Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

2010-01-01

314

Beliefs About Gender Differences in Methods and Causes of Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty undergraduate students (20 Males, 20 females) made judgments about the relationship between an individual's gender and the method of suicide most likely to be chosen by that individual. The perceived relationship between different precipitating events for suicide and the method of suicide were also examined, as were the participants' judgments about the moral justifiability of suicide in response to

Francis T. McAndrew; Andrew J. Garrison

2007-01-01

315

Gender and the Course of Schizophrenia: Differences in Treated Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the literature suggests that women tend to exhibit a more favorable course of schizophrenia than men. This seems to be true for a range of outcome measures, such as hospital treatment, psychopathology, and social adaptation. Due to methodological limitations, however, the empirical evidence for gender differences in outcome is not wholly consistent. In 1983, a study of

Matthias C. Angermeyer; Ludwig Kühn; Jill M. Goldstein

1990-01-01

316

Gender Differences in Keeping Secrets from Parents in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current longitudinal study examined adolescent gender differences in the developmental changes and relational correlates of secrecy from parents. For 4 successive years, starting in the second year of junior high (mean age at Time 1 = 13.2 years, SD = 0.51), 149 male and 160 female Dutch adolescents reported on secrecy from their parents and…

Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Meeus, Wim

2010-01-01

317

Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

Roivainen, Eka

2011-01-01

318

Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed microenterprises in…

Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

319

Are Gender Differences in Basic Human Values a Generational Phenomenon?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) was administered to 979 Canadian knowledge workers to determine whether differences in value\\u000a priorities between men and women differed significantly between members of the Baby Boomer generation and members of Generation\\u000a X. Multivariate analysis of covariance controlling for education, income, and scale use revealed a significant gender-by-generation\\u000a interaction, which signifies that the patterns of differences

Sean Lyons; Linda Duxbury; Christopher Higgins

2005-01-01

320

Observed Classroom Behavior of Children with ADHD: Relationship to Gender and Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7–10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15\\/16

Howard B. Abikoff; Peter S. Jensen; L. L. Eugene Arnold; Betsy Hoza; Lily Hechtman; Simcha Pollack; Diane Martin; Jose Alvir; John S. March; Stephen Hinshaw; Benedetto Vitiello; Jeffrey Newcorn; Andrew Greiner; Dennis P. Cantwell; C. Keith Conners; Glen Elliott; Laurence L. Greenhill; Helena Kraemer; William E. Pelham Jr; Joanne B. Severe; James M. Swanson; Karen Wells; Tim Wigal

2002-01-01

321

A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We analyzed gender differences in 30 reported sexual behaviors and attitudes for 834 individual samples

Jennifer L. Petersen; Janet Shibley Hyde

2010-01-01

322

Smoking among Individuals with Schizophrenia in Korea: Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status. Method An anonymous self-report survey was conducted with psychiatric inpatients. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to be current smokers (p < 0.001) and more likely to be former smokers (p < 0.01). Females were also less likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001). Having more years of education (p < 0.05) and higher nicotine dependence scores (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased odds of intending to quit smoking, whereas having more previous quit attempts (p < 0.01) was associated with increased odds. These findings were significant even after adjusting for gender. Smokers were more likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001) than their non-smoking counterparts. Conclusion Nurses in Korea should play an active role in tobacco control for patients with schizophrenia by providing cessation counseling and educating the effect of caffeine use on cigarette consumption, while tailoring the service to gender differences found in this study. PMID:24070993

Kim, Sun S.; Chung, Sangkeun; Park, Jong-Il; Jung, Ae-Ja; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

323

Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

324

Gender differences in the incentive salience of adult and infant faces.  

PubMed

Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces--heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been observed in sensitivity to infant cuteness, infant faces appear to hold equal incentive salience among men and women. In the present study, we investigated the incentive salience of attractiveness and cuteness in adult and infant faces, respectively. We predicted that, given alternative viewing options, gender differences would emerge for motivation to view infant faces. Heterosexual participants completed a "pay-per-view" key-press task, which allowed them to control stimulus duration. Gender differences were found such that infants held greater incentive salience among women, although both sexes differentiated infant faces based on cuteness. Among adult faces, men exerted more effort than women to view opposite-sex faces. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous reports, gender differences do exist in the incentive salience of infant faces as well as opposite-sex faces. PMID:22928658

Hahn, Amanda C; Xiao, Dengke; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Perrett, David I

2013-01-01

325

Skin picking in Turkish students: prevalence, characteristics, and gender differences.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students reported engaging in SP, and 2.04% of the students had pathological SP. There was no statistically significant difference between female and male students regarding the frequency of SP and the estimated daily SP time. The SP episodes began earlier in men than in women. Women were found to pick their chins, whereas men were found to pick their legs more frequently. SP is prevalent among Turkish students. Triggers, characteristics, and consequences of SP in Turkish students are similar to the results reported in studies conducted on different cultures. Large-scale studies are needed to further investigate gender differences in SP. PMID:21937566

Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Özlem; Bestepe, Emrem

2012-01-01

326

Gender differences in self-esteem: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed. PMID:10414226

Kling, K C; Hyde, J S; Showers, C J; Buswell, B N

1999-07-01

327

Coping strategies: gender differences and development throughout life span.  

PubMed

Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender. PMID:23156917

Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel

2012-11-01

328

Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In Analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II,

Kristen C. Kling; Janet Shibley Hyde; Carolin J. Showers; Brenda N. Buswell

1999-01-01

329

Economic Growth, Comparative Advantage, and Gender Differences in Schooling Outcomes: Evidence from the Birthweight Differences of Chinese Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from two surveys of twins in China are used to contribute to an improved understanding of the role of economic development in affecting gender differences in the trends in, levels of, and returns to schooling observed in China and in many developing countries in recent decades. [BREAD Working Paper No. 323]. URL:[http:\\/\\/ipl.econ.duke.edu\\/bread\\/papers\\/working\\/323.pdf].

Mark Rosenzweig; Junsen Zhang

2012-01-01

330

Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

Y?lmaz, Serkan; Ery?lmaz, Ali

2010-08-01

331

Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

Sonnert, Gerhard

2004-03-01

332

Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender stratification hypothesis maintains that such gender differences are closely related to cultural variations

Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet Shibley Hyde; Marcia C. Linn

2010-01-01

333

Little Big Difference: Gender Aspects and Gender-Based Adaptation in Educational Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer games are tremendously successful and this is why the potential of using this medium for educational purposes is\\u000a increasingly recognized and researched. However, as new learning technologies need to be appropriate for all students and\\u000a ensure equal learning opportunities, it is important to take into account evidences on gender differences in the context of\\u000a computer games. This paper reviews

Christina M. Steiner; Michael D. Kickmeier-rust; Dietrich Albert

2009-01-01

334

Differences Between and Within Genders in Gender Role Orientation According to Age and Level of Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the masculinity and femininity in a Spanish sample made up of 164 adult workers (88 men and 76 women).\\u000a To be specific, the objective was to demonstrate whether age and level of education were related to differences in masculinity\\u000a and femininity, both when comparing between the two genders and when the comparisons are made within the same

Antonia Calvo-Salguero; José Miguel Ángel García-Martínez; Adelaida Monteoliva

2008-01-01

335

Fertility Decisions and Gender Differences in Labor Turnover, Employment, and Wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

A striking observation of the U.S. and other labor markets is the weak position of women in terms of job attachment, employment, and earnings relative to men. We develop a model of fertility and labor market decisions to study the impact of fertility on gender differences in labor turnover, employment, and wages. In our framework, individuals search for jobs and

Luisa Fuster; Diego Restuccia

2002-01-01

336

Phenotypical evidence for a gender difference in cardiac norepinephrine transporter function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Norepinephrine transporter (NET) function has a central ,role in the ,regulation of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations. Clinical observations in orthostatic intolerance patients suggest a gender difference in NET function. We compared the cardiovascular response to selective NET inhibition with reboxetine between ,12 healthy men and 12 age-matched women. Finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured. The

Christoph Schroeder; Frauke Adams; Michael Boschmann; Jens Tank; Sebastian Haertter; Andre Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Friedrich C. Luft; Jens Jordan

2004-01-01

337

Sex Differences in Referral Rates of Children with Gender Identity Disorder: Some Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1978 through 1995, a sex ratio of 6.6:1 of boys to girls (N = 275) was observed for children referred to a specialty clinic for gender identity disorder. This article attempts to evaluate several hypotheses regarding the marked sex disparity in referral rates. The sexes did not differ on four demographic variables (age at referral, IQ, and parent's social

Kenneth J. Zucker; Susan J. Bradley; Mohammad Sanikhani

1997-01-01

338

Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

2009-01-01

339

Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

2006-09-01

340

Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.  

PubMed

In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

2013-11-01

341

Chronic fatigue syndrome: gender differences in the search for legitimacy.  

PubMed

This study employs qualitative research methods to describe and compare the experiences of men and women with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), focusing on respondents' self-perceived illness experience and relationship with medical practitioners. Data were collected from 59 respondents (18 male, 41 female) in telephone interviews using an open-ended focus interview schedule. While respondents explained the causes of the disease in ways that were largely gender appropriate, they did not experience the disease itself in gender different ways. The evidence of the study points to a clear dichotomy between ways in which men and women experience the disease and differences in the ways in which they are treated by the medical profession. PMID:10855087

Clarke, J N

1999-12-01

342

Gender differences in mate selection preferences: a test of the parental investment model.  

PubMed

Evolutionary-related hypotheses about gender differences in mate selection preferences were derived from Triver's parental investment model, which contends that women are more likely than men to seek a mate who possesses nonphysical characteristics that maximize the survival or reproductive prospects of their offspring, and were examined in a meta-analysis of mate selection research (questionnaire studies, analyses of personal advertisements). As predicted, women accorded more weight than men to socioeconomic status, ambitiousness, character, and intelligence, and the largest gender differences were observed for cues to resource acquisition (status, ambitiousness). Also as predicted, gender differences were not found in preferences for characteristics unrelated to progeny survival (sense of humor, "personality"). Where valid comparisons could be made, the findings were generally invariant across generations, cultures, and research paradigms. PMID:1388281

Feingold, A

1992-07-01

343

Gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity to competitive stress: The impact of gender of competitor and competition outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a broad literature indicating gender differences in cardiovascular heart disease (CHD), with higher risks among men.\\u000a One possible explanation offered has been gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity. However, this gender gap in morbidity\\u000a and mortality has been decreasing and attributed by some to the increasing competitive pressure placed on women in the workplace.\\u000a As a result, it is

Julianne Holt-Lunstad; Claudia J. Clayton; Bert N. Uchino

2001-01-01

344

Gender Differences in Integration of Images in Visuospatial Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined gender differences in mental integration of images in visuospatial short-term memory. College students were asked\\u000a to imagine the combined abstract shape that would be formed by integrating two separate shapes briefly shown on a computer\\u000a screen. The shapes were presented in four conditions: (1) simultaneously at the center of the screen, (2) simultaneously side-by-side,\\u000a (3) sequentially at the

Carol A. Lawton; David W. Hatcher

2005-01-01

345

Electrophysiological Evidence of Gender differences in Chinese words recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Event-related potentials were recorded in order to study gender difference in the brain processes of verbal recognition memory. 15 male and 15 female healthy volunteers received a Chinese words recognition task. Both males and females showed a positive-going parietal old\\/new effect, but females demonstrated larger P500 amplitudes and shorter P500 latency than males. Furthermore, the parietal old\\/new effect of males

Wang Xiang; Yao Shu-qiao; Liu Ding; Wang Xiao-yan; Chen Bin; Wu Da-xing; Cheng Zao-huo

2005-01-01

346

Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesStudies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards.MethodsWe examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims

Jane E Clougherty; Ellen A Eisen; Martin D Slade; Ichiro Kawachi; Mark R Cullen

2010-01-01

347

Gender Differences in Playful Aggression During Courtship in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored gender differences in college students' definitions and enjoyment of playful force and aggression.\\u000a Ninety-six female and 55 male college students who were predominantly White (96%) and heterosexual (97%) answered questions\\u000a about playful force during sex and playful aggression at other times. A content analysis showed that the current definitions\\u000a were very similar to those for children's

Kathryn M. Ryan; Sharon Mohr

2005-01-01

348

Gender role and empathy within different orientations of counselling psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Person-centred and cognitive-behavioural therapies are two divergent theoretical orientations and students of each may offer systematically different personality traits. In this study, potential variations in empathy and gender roles between postgraduate student groups (person-centred, cognitive-behavioural and social sciences) were examined. Seventy participants from UK educational institutions completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and two subscales of Davis’ Interpersonal Reactivity Index. Results

Itai Ivtzan; Emily Redman; Hannah E. Gardner

2012-01-01

349

Exploring gender differences in leaders' occupational self-efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study focuses on gender differences in the relationship between transformational leadership and leader's occupational self-efficacy. The aim is to explain how female and male leaders develop their self-efficacy. This knowledge is important for leaders as well as organizations (e.g. human resources departments). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 58 leaders were asked to indicate their transformational leadership as

Birgit Schyns; Karin Sanders

2005-01-01

350

Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewers have consistently concluded that males perform better on mathematics tests than females do. To make a refined assessment of the magnitude of gender differences in mathematics performance, we performed a meta-analysis of 100 studies. They yielded 254 independent effect sizes, representing the testing of 3,175,188 Ss. Averaged over all effect sizes based on samples of the general population, d

Janet Shibley Hyde; Elizabeth Fennema; Susan J. Lamon

1990-01-01

351

Gender differences in object location memory: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of gender differences in object location memory tasks. A total\\u000a of 123 effect sizes (d ) drawn from 36 studies were included in a meta-analysis using a hierarchical approach. Object identity memory (37 effect\\u000a sizes) and object location memory (86 effect sizes) tasks were analyzed separately. Object identity memory

Daniel Voyer; Albert Postma; Brandy Brake; Julianne Imperato-McGinley

2007-01-01

352

Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.  

PubMed

Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process. PMID:22651549

Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

2012-10-01

353

Investigation of gender difference in thermal comfort for Chinese people.  

PubMed

Gender difference in thermal comfort for Chinese people was investigated through two laboratory experiments. Both subjective assessment and objective measurement were taken during the experiment. Skin temperature (17 points) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured in one of the experiment. Our results show that there are gender differences in thermal comfort for Chinese people. Correlation of thermal sensation votes and air temperature and vapor pressure shows that females are more sensitive to temperature and less sensitive to humidity than males. Subjective assessment, skin temperature and HRV analysis suggest that females prefer neutral or slightly warmer condition, due to their constantly lower skin temperature and the fact that mean skin temperature is a good predictor of sensation and discomfort below neutrality. Female comfortable operative temperature (26.3 degrees C) is higher than male comfortable operative temperature (25.3 degrees C), although males and females have almost the same neutral temperature and that there is no gender difference in thermal sensation near neutral conditions. PMID:17994246

Lan, Li; Lian, Zhiwei; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuanmou

2008-03-01

354

Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.  

PubMed

Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects. PMID:11234250

Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

1998-03-01

355

The Gender Gap in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality: Is There a Difference between Blacks and Whites?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Background: The gender difference (gender gap) in mortality due to coronary heart disease (CHD) decreases with age. This relationship has not been well characterized in diverse pop- ulations. Methods: To examine the gender gap in CHD mortality across age groups and to compare the age dependency of the gender gap between blacks and whites, we conducted a prospec- tive

Jennifer E. Ho; Furcy Paultre; Lori Mosca

2005-01-01

356

Development of gender differences in depression: description and possible explanations.  

PubMed

This article reviews the description and possible explanations for the development of gender differences in depression in children and adolescents. The emerging gender difference (more girls depressed than boys) in depressed mood and depressive disorders appears after the age of 13 years or midpuberty. Currently, little evidence supports that biological factors are an explanation. Genetic factors are associated more strongly with depression among pubertal girls than boys. Regarding cognitive factors, ruminative response style, but not dysfunctional attitudes or attributional style, has been supported to be a possible explanation. Studies on childhood adversities and gender role have provided evidence explaining why more girls are depressed than boys. Girls are more likely to experience negative events in the family than boys, and these adversities are in turn associated with elevated depression. Girls identify more strongly with a feminine stereotype of needing to appear thin and consequently become more dissatisfied with their body shape and physical appearance, which in turn is associated with increased depression. PMID:10680851

Hankin, B L; Abramson, L Y

1999-12-01

357

Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences  

PubMed Central

Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

Perez-Lopez, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

2011-01-01

358

Differential judgements about disfigurement: the role of location, age and gender in decisions made by observers.  

PubMed

Psychological distress associated with disfiguring facial lesions is common. However, whilst the intrusive behaviour of observers is commonly reported, for example, staring, comments and questions, these factors which may influence the judgements of observers have not been well described. This is important as it may influence a subject's perception of how their appearance is viewed by the external world. This study is the first to investigate age and gender differences when measuring the importance of location in judgements about facial disfigurement. Observers were asked to rank the impact of simulated lesions in different positions on the face of Caucasian subjects. Age and gender varied in both groups. Our results show that lesions on the young and female subjects are ranked as having a greater impact than those on the old and male subjects. Lesions on central facial features have a higher impact than those located more peripherally. Both of these findings were not significantly influenced by observer age or gender. These results are discussed in terms of culturally derived attributions about appearance. It is also suggested that there is a scope to use feedback on how disfigurement is viewed by others as a therapeutic tool in clinical settings. PMID:19084486

Gardiner, Matthew D; Topps, Ashley; Richardson, George; Sacker, Amanda; Clarke, Alex; Butler, Peter E M

2010-01-01

359

Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe  

E-print Network

socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men in different European populations1 Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three

Boyer, Edmond

360

Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use of either nest or song perch sites in vegetation analyses can result in misleading, or at least incomplete, descriptions of a species' habitat. Habitat interpretations for Willow Flycatchers (and perhaps for many passerines) are a function of the gender-specific behavior of the birds observed and the scale of vegetation measurement.

Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

1992-01-01

361

Gender Differences in Factors Associated with Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To identify gender differences in social and behavioral factors associated with antiretroviral adherence. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Methadone maintenance program. PARTICIPANTS One hundred thirteen HIV-seropositive current or former opioid users. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Participants were surveyed at baseline about social and behavioral characteristics and at monthly research visits about drug and alcohol use and medication side effects. Electronic monitors (MEMS) were used to measure antiretroviral adherence. Median adherence among women was 27% lower than among men (46% vs. 73%; P < .05). In gender-stratified multivariate models, factors associated with worse adherence in men included not belonging to an HIV support group (P < .0001), crack/cocaine use (P < .005), and medication side effects (P = .01). Among women, alcohol use (P = .005), heroin use (P < .05), and significant medication side effects (P < .005) were independently associated with worse adherence. In a model including both men and women, worse adherence was associated with lack of long-term housing (P < .005), not belonging to any HIV support groups (P < .0005), crack or cocaine use (P < .01), and medication side effects (P < .0005). In addition, worse adherence was associated with the interaction between female gender and alcohol use (P ? .05). CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of current and former opioid users, gender-stratified analysis demonstrated that different social and behavioral factors are associated with adherence in men and women. Among both men and women, worse adherence was associated with lack of long-term housing, not belonging to an HIV support group, crack/cocaine use, and medication side effects. Among women only, alcohol use was associated with worse adherence. PMID:15566440

Berg, Karina M; Demas, Penelope A; Howard, Andrea A; Schoenbaum, Ellie E; Gourevitch, Marc N; Arnsten, Julia H

2004-01-01

362

Gender differences in preattentive processing of facial expressions: an ERP study.  

PubMed

To investigate gender differences in pre-attentive processing of facial expressions we recorded the expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) in the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm. For female participants, sad faces elicited larger EMMN than happy faces, but this difference disappeared in the left hemisphere. For male participants, EMMN was not modulated by facial expressions, regardless of in the left or right hemispheres. While the source analysis indicated that for both genders prefrontal activations were observed for sad EMMN, more sources were involved for male than female participants. For happy EMMN, the current sources were located in the occipital lobe and parietal lobe for females and the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe for males. The present findings emphasized the importance of considering gender as a factor in the study of the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. PMID:23371479

Xu, Qiang; Yang, Yaping; Wang, Pei; Sun, Gang; Zhao, Lun

2013-07-01

363

An Examination of Gender Differences in Today's Mathematics Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research identifies a gender gap in mathematics, and some research points to single-gender math classrooms as a solution to the math gender divide. The author conducted a seven week study in which she divided fifty fifth grade students into singlegender mathematics classes. She wanted to examine if single-gender math classes affected the math achievement and attitudes of her female

Celeste E Dunlap

2002-01-01

364

Gender differences in juvenile gang members: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

Over the past two decades, gang membership within the United States has continued to rise and has spread from urban centers to suburban and rural areas. Juvenile gang membership is of particular concern because of the relationship between early gang involvement and later adolescent and adult criminal behavior and incarceration. Female gang membership and affiliation are receiving increased attention as female crime and incarceration rates outpace those of their male counterparts. This study explores gender differences between male and female juveniles who have verified gang membership in one suburban jurisdiction. Findings suggest important differences between males and females, and implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25105331

Hayward, R Anna; Honegger, Laura

2014-01-01

365

An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women, including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance, resulted in comparable final course performance for women and men. These findings are discussed in light of participation rates of women in mathematics.

Watson, Jane M.

1989-02-01

366

Gender differences in science misconceptions in eighth grade astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon. It remains a serious problem in science education that girls are being inadequately trained to question and reflect on their science understandings. It has been suggested that girls may have more problems with misconceptions than do boys. In keeping with the constructivist ideas as to what constitutes an effective way to teach science (Burke, 1995; Lorsbach & Tobin, 2000) this study explored the ability of students to understand theoretical and conceptual principles of science. The data for this study was obtained using the methodology of a multiple choice survey which contains common misconceptions and the correct answers as choices. This survey was administered to eighth grade students in a large suburban school district by their science teachers. Interviews of a randomly selected sample group of 20 (10 boys and 10 girls) were conducted by the researcher. The results of the study used a t-test to compare boys and girls to see if there was a significant difference in types and/or number of science misconceptions. A matrix of possible answers to the survey was used to analyze the results of the interviews. There was a statistically significant difference between the means for the two groups, indicating a gender difference in knowledge of astronomy concepts. The results of the interviews also showed a difference in astronomy knowledge and background information. In addition the interviews showed that girls were very unsure of their answers while boys defended their answers even when they were incorrect.

Gray, Pamela A.

367

Trust in cooperation or ability? An experimental study on gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine gender differences in trust in another party's cooperation (CC) or its ability (AC). While men and women do not differ concerning trust in cooperation, gender has a strong influence when trust in another subject's ability is required.

Christiane Schwieren; Matthias Sutter

2008-01-01

368

Gender difference in association of cognition with BDNF in chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

While numerous studies have reported that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, very few studies have explored its association with cognitive impairment or gender differences in schizophrenia which we explored. We compared gender differences in 248 chronic schizophrenic patients (male/female=185/63) to 188 healthy controls (male/female=98/90) on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and serum BDNF. Schizophrenic symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Our results showed that schizophrenic patients performed worse than normals on most of the cognitive tasks, and male patients had significantly lower immediate memory and delayed memory scores than female patients. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients than controls, and male patients had significantly lower BDNF levels than female patients. For the patients, BDNF was positively associated with immediate memory and the RBANS total score. Furthermore, these associations were only observed in female not male patients. Among healthy controls, no gender difference was observed in cognitive domains and BDNF levels, or in the association between BDNF and cognition. Our results suggest gender differences in cognitive impairments, BDNF levels and their association in chronic patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings should be regarded as preliminary due to the cross-sectional design and our chronic patients, which need replication in a first-episode and drug naïve patients using a longitudinal study. PMID:24999831

Zhang, Xiang Yang; Chen, Da-Chun; Tan, Yun-Long; Tan, Shu-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Ren; Yang, Fu-De; Xiu, Mei-Hong; Hui, Li; Lv, Meng-Han; Zunta-Soares, Giovana B; Soares, Jair C

2014-10-01

369

Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice  

PubMed Central

Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association). 58% of these students responded (N?=?2397). Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%). For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation). Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a partner influence both choices, but they are not interacting, so living with a partner is similarly important for male and female students in choosing their preferences. Moreover, external and intrinsic motives mediate this relationship to a greater of lesser degree. First stage students are influenced by life-style and intrinsic motives in their choice of general practice. For second stage students, the results show influences of life-style motives next to profession-related motives on both moments of choice. PMID:22913471

2012-01-01

370

Gender differences in relationships between urban green space and health in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Natural environments, or 'green spaces', have been associated with a wide range of health benefits. Gender differences in neighbourhood effects on health have been found in a number of studies, although these have not been explored in relation to green space. We conducted the first UK-wide study of the relationship between urban green space and health, and the first such study to investigate gender differences in this relationship. An ecological approach was used. Two land use datasets were used to create a proportional green space measure (% by area) at the UK Census Area Statistic ward scale. Our sample consisted of 6432 urban wards, with a total population of 28.6 million adults aged 16-64 years in 2001. We selected health outcomes that were plausibly related to green space (cardiovascular disease mortality, respiratory disease mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness) and another that was expected to be unrelated (lung cancer mortality). Negative binomial regression models examined associations between urban green space and these health outcomes, after controlling for relevant confounders. Gender differences in these associations were observed and tested. Male cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease mortality rates decreased with increasing green space, but no significant associations were found for women. No protective associations were observed between green space and lung cancer mortality or self-reported limiting long-term illness for either men or women. Possible explanations for the observed gender differences in the green space and health relationship are gender differences in perceptions and usage of urban green spaces. We conclude that it is important not to assume uniform health benefits of urban green space for all population subgroups. Additionally, urban green space measures that capture quality as well as quantity could be more suited to studying green space and health relationships for women. PMID:20621750

Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard

2010-08-01

371

Gender differences in factors related to diabetes management in chinese american immigrants.  

PubMed

Chinese American women with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are more vulnerable to poor diabetes outcomes than men because immigrant status, ethnicity, and economics intersect with gender to diminish disease management opportunities. We explored gender differences in factors associated with diabetes management at intake and after treatment with a behavioral intervention in first-generation Chinese American immigrants. A sample of 178 Chinese Americans with T2DM was enrolled in a single-cohort, repeated-measures delayed-treatment trial. Data were collected at baseline, 8, 16, 24, and 32 weeks with 6-week treatment provided after 16 weeks. Gender differences at baseline and gender by treatment interactions were noted. Women at baseline reported significantly worse depressive symptoms and general health. Significant gender by treatment interactions were observed for diabetes self-efficacy, bicultural efficacy, family instrumental support, and diabetes quality of life-satisfaction. Only women showed improvement, suggesting women benefited more from the intervention in psychosocial factors related to diabetes management. PMID:24558055

Chesla, Catherine A; Kwan, Christine M L; Chun, Kevin M; Stryker, Lisa

2014-10-01

372

Gender differences in stem cell population are induced by pregnancy.  

PubMed

Gender differences in stem cell population have recently been identified. Blood and tissue samples from women showed consistent elevation of hematopoietic stem cell populations, mesenchymal stem cell populations and endothelial progenitor cells compared to men of similar ages. We and others have shown an increase in hematopoietic stem cell population in pregnant and multiparous women compared to nulliparous women. We propose that pregnancy exposes women to increased levels of stem cells from many sources not available for nulliparous women or for men. During pregnancy, maternal fetal microchimerism results from trafficking of fetal and maternal blood across the placenta. Physiological changes in the maternal blood cellular milieu are also recognized during pregnancy and in the early post partum due to the presence of unique pregnancy associated tissues and hormones. These include the placenta, the amniotic fluid and cord blood. These tissues are highly enriched for different populations of stem cells including hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Recent studies showed accelerated healing in women affected by cardiovascular insults and stroke, in part due to faster tissue regeneration and stem cell activity. We propose that gender differences in stem cell population are caused in part due to maternal exposure to fetal and unique pregnancy associated tissues, which are significantly enriched in different stem cell populations. PMID:22832210

El-Badri, Nagwa S; Groer, Maureen

2012-10-01

373

Androcentric Reporting of Gender Differences in APA Journals: 1965–2004  

Microsoft Academic Search

Androcentric thinking assumes maleness to be normative and attributes gender differences to females. A content analysis of articles reporting gender differences published between 1965 and 2004 in four American Psychological Association journals examined androcentric pronouns, explanations, and tables and graphs. Few articles used generic masculine pronouns to refer to both women and men. However, explanations of gender differences within articles

Peter Hegarty; Carmen Buechel

2006-01-01

374

Behavioral and Physiological Findings of Gender Differences in Global-Local Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are gender differences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies gender differences in cognition, the literature on gender differences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during…

Roalf, David; Lowery, Natasha; Turetsky, Bruce I.

2006-01-01

375

Gender Differences in End-User Debugging, Revisited: What the Miners Found  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in End-User Debugging, Revisited: What the Miners Found Valentina Grigoreanu to uncover gender differences in the ways males and females problem solve in end-user programming situations Although there has been a fairly wide interest in gender differences in computing professions and education

Fern, Xiaoli Zhang

376

RESEARCH Open Access Age and gender difference in non-drafting  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient availability  

E-print Network

Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient photosynthetic rates across treatments. · Our results suggest that genders invest N surplus in different al., 2006). However, reproductive costs are often not detected because genders might have different

Villar-Salvador, Pedro

378

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

379

Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas

Antonio Terracciano; Robert R. McCrae

2001-01-01

380

Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we meta-analytically examine experimental studies to assess the moderating effect of provocation on gender differences in aggression, Convergent evidence shows that, whereas unpro- voked men are more aggressive than women, provocation markedly attenuates this gender difference. Gender differences in appraisals of provocation intensity and fear of danger from retaliation (but not negative affect) partially mediate the attenuating

B. Ann Bettencourt; Norman Miller

1996-01-01

381

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few

Mark Weiser; Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Zeev Kaplan; Mordechai Mark; Daniella Nahon; Michael Davidson

2000-01-01

382

Gender differences in the anatomy of the distal femur.  

PubMed

Recently, gender-specific designs of total knee replacement have been developed to accommodate anatomical differences between males and females. We examined a group of male and female distal femora matched for age and height, to determine if there was a difference in the aspect ratio (mediolateral distance versus anteroposterior distance) and the height of the anterior flange between the genders. The Hamann-Todd Collection provided 1207 skeletally mature cadaver femora. The femoral length, the anteroposterior height, height of the lateral and medial flanges and the mediolateral width were measured in all the specimens. The mechanical axis of the femur, the cut articular width and the aspect ratio were assessed. Statistical analysis of the effect of gender upon the aspect ratio and the lateral and medial flanges was undertaken, controlling for age, height and race. The mean aspect ratio of male femora was 1.21 (SD 0.07) and of female femora it was 1.16 (SD 0.06) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between male and female specimens in the mean size of the lateral flange (6.57 mm (SD 2.57) and 7.02 mm (SD 2.36), respectively; p = 0.099) or of the medial flange (3.03 mm (SD 2.47) and 3.56 mm (SD 2.32), respectively; p = 0.67). Future work in the design of knee prostheses should take into account the overall variability of the anatomy of the distal femur. PMID:21357958

Gillespie, R J; Levine, A; Fitzgerald, S J; Kolaczko, J; DeMaio, M; Marcus, R E; Cooperman, D R

2011-03-01

383

Different Ways of ‘Seeing’: How Gender Differences in Information Processing Influence the Content Analysis of Narrative Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript examines the potential of bias in qualitative research due to coder gender. It reports a study of gender differences in coding by males and females based on a coding assignment involving written narratives completed by 18 males and 17 females. The study found gender differences in their coding the presence\\/absence of 10 themes related to gift exchanges and

Pamela Kiecker; Kay M. Palan; Charles S. Areni

2000-01-01

384

Depression and gender differences: focus on Taiwanese American older adults.  

PubMed

Secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was used to examine gender differences and depression in elderly Taiwanese Americans. There is a paucity of health-related research focused on Asian Americans. This is especially true in the area of mental health. Depression, the most common psychiatric illness in older adults, is under-diagnosed in Asian Americans. A convenience sample of 100 elderly Taiwanese Americans, 47 women and 53 men, was used. Women were older, had higher depressions cores, more physical illness, poorer sleep scores, and less physical activity. Regression analysis indicated that 25% of the variance in depression scores was explained by sleep quality and physical activity. PMID:16615710

Suen, Lee-jen W; Morris, Diana Lynn

2006-04-01

385

Adolescents’ attachment style and early experiences: a gender difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We examined gender differences in perceived rearing and adult attachment style in adolescents. A total of 3,912 senior college\\u000a students (1,149 men and 2,763 women) ages 18-23 (men’s M = 20.1 years, women’s M = 20.0 years) were administered a set of\\u000a questionnaires including Relationship Questionnaire (to measure adult attachment), the Parental Bonding Instrument (perceived\\u000a rearing), and a list of

N. Matsuoka; M. Uji; H. Hiramura; Z. Chen; N. Shikai; Y. Kishida; T. Kitamura

2006-01-01

386

EB 2006 Refresher Course - Gender Differences in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology, and in the pathophysiology of disease. This refresher course will provide an overview of this new information, with the goal of providing teachers of medical students with the background necessary to include the most important aspects of sex-based differences in their medical student curricula. The presentations will discuss both male and female physiology, and will address sex-based differences due to the actions of both androgens and the ovarian steroid hormones. The presentation topics include gender differences in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, the musculoskeletal system, the central nervous system, and the immune system.

PhD Martha L. Blair (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Department of Pharmacology and Physiology); Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center); PhD Virginia H. Huxley (University of Missouri School of Medicine Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology); PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2006-04-01

387

Gender and ethics committees: where's the 'different voice'?  

PubMed

Prominent international and national ethics commissions such as the UNESCO International Bioethics Committee rarely achieve anything remotely resembling gender equality, although local research and ethics committees are somewhat more egalitarian. Under-representation of women is particularly troubling when the subject matter of modern bioethics so disproportionately concerns women's bodies, and when such committees claim to derive 'universal' standards. Are women missing from many ethics committees because of relatively straightforward, if discriminatory, demographic factors? Or are the methods of analysis and styles of ethics to which these bodies are committed somehow 'anti-female'? It has been argued, for example, that there is a 'different voice' in ethical reasoning, not confined to women but more representative of female experience. Similarly, some feminist writers, such as Evelyn Fox Keller and Donna Haraway, have asked difficult epistemological questions about the dominant 'masculine paradigm' in science. Perhaps the dominant paradigm in ethics committee deliberation is similarly gendered? This article provides a preliminary survey of women's representation on ethics committees in eastern and western Europe, a critical analysis of the supposed 'masculinism' of the principlist approach, and a case example in which a 'different voice' did indeed make a difference. PMID:17039630

Dickenson, Donna

2006-06-01

388

Gender differences in neural mechanisms underlying moral sensitivity.  

PubMed

Researchers have proposed that females and males differ in the structure of their moral attitudes, such that females tend to adopt care-based moral evaluations and males tend to adopt justice-based moral evaluations. The existence of these gender differences remains a controversial issue, as behavioral studies have reported mixed findings. The current study investigated the neural correlates of moral sensitivity in females and males, to test the hypothesis that females would show increased activity in brain regions associated with care-based processing (posterior and anterior cingulate, anterior insula) relative to males when evaluating moral stimuli, and males would show increased activity in regions associated with justice-based processing (superior temporal sulcus) relative to females. Twenty-eight participants (14 females) were scanned using fMRI while viewing unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations, and rated each picture on the degree of moral violation that they judged to be present. As predicted, females showed a stronger modulatory relationship between posterior cingulate and insula activity during picture viewing and subsequent moral ratings relative to males. Males showed a stronger modulatory relationship between inferior parietal activity and moral ratings relative to females. These results are suggestive of gender differences in strategies utilized in moral appraisals. PMID:19015084

Harenski, Carla L; Antonenko, Olga; Shane, Matthew S; Kiehl, Kent A

2008-12-01

389

Gender differences in neural mechanisms underlying moral sensitivity  

PubMed Central

Researchers have proposed that females and males differ in the structure of their moral attitudes, such that females tend to adopt care-based moral evaluations and males tend to adopt justice-based moral evaluations. The existence of these gender differences remains a controversial issue, as behavioral studies have reported mixed findings. The current study investigated the neural correlates of moral sensitivity in females and males, to test the hypothesis that females would show increased activity in brain regions associated with care-based processing (posterior and anterior cingulate, anterior insula) relative to males when evaluating moral stimuli, and males would show increased activity in regions associated with justice-based processing (superior temporal sulcus) relative to females. Twenty-eight participants (14 females) were scanned using fMRI while viewing unpleasant pictures, half of which depicted moral violations, and rated each picture on the degree of moral violation that they judged to be present. As predicted, females showed a stronger modulatory relationship between posterior cingulate and insula activity during picture viewing and subsequent moral ratings relative to males. Males showed a stronger modulatory relationship between inferior parietal activity and moral ratings relative to females. These results are suggestive of gender differences in strategies utilized in moral appraisals. PMID:19015084

Antonenko, Olga; Shane, Matthew S.; Kiehl, Kent A.

2008-01-01

390

Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

2014-07-01

391

Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

2006-01-01

392

Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

2010-01-01

393

Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

Moe, Angelica

2012-01-01

394

Gender differences in depression in an employment setting.  

PubMed

This study extends the literature on sex differences in depression to an employment setting, using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI; T and raw scores) and Depression (D) 30 measures. In contrast to previous findings, no gender differences remained on any of the measures after the effects of salary, age, education, and job classification had been taken into account. Findings replicated earlier results showing depressed males to have greater difficulty with concentration and motivation than depressed females. Data suggest that MMPI sex-based T-scores may overcorrect for sex differences in raw scores. Possible explanations for the findings are discussed, including a general improvement in women's well-being associated with changes in social conditions such as employment, or the possibility of a self-selection bias in our sample. PMID:2231245

Maffeo, P A; Ford, T W; Lavin, P F

1990-01-01

395

Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).

Baxter, R.K.

1987-01-01

396

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

397

Gender Differences in Fat Distribution and Inflammatory Markers among Arabs  

PubMed Central

Recent studies from the Gulf region suggest that compared to men, women have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MeS). Objective. To investigate gender differences in body composition, adipokines, inflammatory markers, and aerobic fitness in a cohort of healthy Qatari adults. Participants. Healthy Qatari (n = 58) were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Methods. Body composition and regional fat distribution were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerized tomography. Laboratory assessments included serum levels of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid profile analysis, adipokines, and inflammatory markers. Subjects were also evaluated for aerobic fitness. Results. Women had more adipose tissue in the total abdominal (P = 0.04) and abdominal subcutaneous (P = 0.07) regions compared to men. Waist circumference and indices of insulin sensitivity were similar; however, women had a more favourable lipid profile than men. Serum adiponectin and leptin levels were significantly higher in women, whereas inflammatory profiles were not different between men and women. Aerobic fitness was lower in women and was associated with abdominal fat accumulation. Conclusion. In premenopausal women, higher levels of adiponectin may support maintenance of insulin sensitivity and normolipidemia despite greater adiposity. However, poor aerobic fitness combined with abdominal fat accumulation may explain their greater future risk of MeS compared with men. PMID:24227909

Farooq, Abdulaziz; Knez, Wade L.; Knez, Kelly; Al-Noaimi, Asma; Grantham, Justin; Mohamed-Ali, Vidya

2013-01-01

398

Gender differences in perception of romance in Chinese college students.  

PubMed

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-01-01

399

Gender and racial differences in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver injury ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Individuals with NAFLD, especially those with metabolic syndrome, have higher overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and liver-related mortality compared with the general population. According to the population-based studies, NAFLD and NASH are more prevalent in males and in Hispanics. Both the gender and racial ethnic differences in NAFLD and NASH are likely attributed to interaction between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. Using genome-wide association studies, several genetic variants have been identified to be associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, these variants account for only a small amount of variation in hepatic steatosis among ethnic groups and may serve as modifiers of the natural history of NAFLD. Alternatively, these variants may not be the causative variants but simply markers representing a larger body of genetic variations. In this article, we provide a concise review of the gender and racial differences in the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in adults. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for these disparities. PMID:24868321

Pan, Jen-Jung; Fallon, Michael B

2014-05-27

400

Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students  

PubMed Central

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-01-01

401

Gender differences in financial hardships of medical debt.  

PubMed

Women are more likely than men to forgo, delay, and ration medical care because of medical debt. Using 2003-04 Community Tracking Study Household Survey data, this study examined gender differences in five financial hardships associated with medical debt. Regression analyses accounting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors of health services use indicated women were less likely to report being contacted by a collection agency (b=-0.15, p<.05), using savings (b=-0.23, p<.005), or having any financial hardships associated with medical debt (b=-0.24, p<.05). There were no significant gender differences in putting off major purchases, borrowing money, and problems paying for necessities. Similarly, there were positive and negative relationships between medical debt financial hardships and income, insurance, and health status. Findings suggest that making health care affordable and equitable is critically important for both men and women. Research is needed to understand the differential impact of medical debt, especially among disadvantaged populations. PMID:21317529

Wiltshire, Jacqueline C; Dark, Tyra; Brown, Roger L; Person, Sharina D

2011-02-01

402

Gender Difference in Patients with Recurrent Neurally Mediated Syncope  

E-print Network

?The authors have no financial conflicts of interest. Purpose: The gender difference of neurally mediated syncope is not well defined in a large patient population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender difference of clinical manifestations in patients with neurally mediated syncope who underwent head-up tilt test. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 1,051 consecutive patients with two or more episodes of syncope, who were diagnosed as having neurally mediated syncope by head-up tilt test, were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Of 1,051 patients, 497 (47.3%) patients were male and 554 (52.7%) patients were female. Female patients were experiencing syncopal episodes for longer periods of their lives (8.2 ± 9.5 years vs. 6.8 ± 9.2 years, p = 0.002) and more episodes of syncope prior to head-up tilt test (HUT) (7.2 ± 9.4 vs. 5.0 ± 6.4, p = 0.001) than male patients. Micturition syncope (20.0 % vs. 5.2%, p syncope (16.3 % vs. 9.3%, p

Jungwae Park; Shin Yi Jang; Hye Ran Yim; Young Keun On; June Huh; Dae-hee Shin; Jun Hyung Kim; June Soo Kim

2008-01-01

403

Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES) of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation. PMID:19358702

Amelina, Hanna; Cristobal, Susana

2009-01-01

404

Gender Differences in Paediatric Patients of the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gender differences in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently reported as a secondary outcome and the results are divergent. To assess gender differences by analysing data collected within the Swiss IBD cohort study database since 2008, related to children with IBD, using the Montreal classification for a systematic approach. Methods Data on gender, age, anthropometrics, disease location at diagnosis, disease behaviour, and therapy of 196 patients, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 91 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) were retrieved and analysed. Results The crude gender ratio (male : female) of patients with CD diagnosed at <10 years of age was 2.57, the adjusted ratio was 2.42, and in patients with UC/IC it was 0.68 and 0.64 respectively. The non-adjusted gender ratio of patients diagnosed at ?10 years was 1.58 for CD and 0.88 for UC/IC. Boys with UC/IC diagnosed <10 years of age had a longer diagnostic delay, and in girls diagnosed with UC/IC >10 years a more important use of azathioprine was observed. No other gender difference was found after analysis of age, disease location and behaviour at diagnosis, duration of disease, familial occurrence of IBD, prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations, complications, and requirement for surgery. Conclusion CD in children <10 years affects predominantly boys with a sex ratio of 2.57; the impact of sex-hormones on the development of CD in pre-pubertal male patients should be investigated.

Herzog, Denise; Buehr, Patrick; Koller, Rebekka; Rueger, Vanessa; Heyland, Klaas; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes; Schibli, Susanne

2014-01-01

405

Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

2011-01-01

406

Social Comparison, Self-Stereotyping, and Gender Differences in Self-Construals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies examined gender differences in self-construals and the role of social comparison in generating these differences. Consistent with previous research, Study 1 (N = 461) showed that women define themselves as higher in relational interdependence than men, and men define themselves as higher in independence\\/agency than women. Study 2 (N = 301) showed that within-gender social comparison decreases gender

Serge Guimond; Armand Chatard; Delphine Martinot; Richard J. Crisp; Sandrine Redersdorff

2006-01-01

407

Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional sensitivity  

E-print Network

Memory for emotional and neutral information: Gender and individual differences in emotional. A measure of emotional sensitivity mediated the gender difference in emotional recall suggesting that memory in the relation between gender and memory. A number of studies demonstrate that men and women's memories

Johnson, Marcia K.

408

Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

2005-01-01

409

Children's perceptions of gender differences in social approval for playing electronic games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences characterize children's commitment to playing electronic games. These gender differences are consistent with common stereotypes that may be triggered by the context and content of electronic games. If conforming to gender stereotypes in electronic game playing maintains social approval, then those children who choose alternate playing patterns risk social sanction. The present study was designed to characterize children's

Jeanne B. Funk; Debra D. Buchman

1996-01-01

410

Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

2008-01-01

411

Gender Differences in Verbal Communication between Popular and Unpopular Children during an Interactive Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in communication effectiveness between popular and unpopular 5- to 7-year-old children. Because previous research suggests that there may be gender differences in how popular and unpopular children communicate with each other, 24 same-gender pairs (each containing a popular and an unpopular child) were…

Murphy, Suzanne M.; Faulkner, Dorothy

2006-01-01

412

Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2014-01-01

413

A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2010-01-01

414

Gender differences in instrumental learning among secondary school students in Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7–13) within Western and non?Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender differences in the learning of Chinese and Western

2009-01-01

415

WORKING PAPER N 2009 -36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER N° 2009 - 36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs: Females trapped: Gender, discrimination, wages, quantiles, job assignment model, glass ceiling PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES SUP�RIEURE halshs-00575011,version1-9Mar2011 #12;Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs: Females

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

416

Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

2014-01-01

417

Replicating a Self-Affirmation Intervention to Address Gender Differences: Successes and Challenges  

E-print Network

. Keywords: gender, stereotype threat, self-affirmation, conceptual learning, introductory physics PACS: 01Replicating a Self-Affirmation Intervention to Address Gender Differences: Successes and Challenges School of Education and Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 USA

Colorado at Boulder, University of

418

Cross-national differences in the gender gap in subjective health in Europe: does country-level gender equality matter?  

PubMed

Multiple studies have found that women report being in worse health despite living longer. Gender gaps vary cross-nationally, but relatively little is known about the causes of comparative differences. Existing literature is inconclusive as to whether gender gaps in health are smaller in more gender equal societies. We analyze gender gaps in self-rated health (SRH) and limiting longstanding illness (LLI) with five waves of European Social Survey data for 191,104 respondents from 28 countries. We use means, odds ratios, logistic regressions, and multilevel random slopes logistic regressions. Gender gaps in subjective health vary visibly across Europe. In many countries (especially in Eastern and Southern Europe), women report distinctly worse health, while in others (such as Estonia, Finland, and Great Britain) there are small or no differences. Logistic regressions ran separately for each country revealed that individual-level socioeconomic and demographic variables explain a majority of these gaps in some countries, but contribute little to their understanding in most countries. In yet other countries, men had worse health when these variables were controlled for. Cross-national variation in the gender gaps exists after accounting for individual-level factors. Against expectations, the remaining gaps are not systematically related to societal-level gender inequality in the multilevel analyses. Our findings stress persistent cross-national variability in gender gaps in health and call for further analysis. PMID:24331878

Dahlin, Johanna; Härkönen, Juho

2013-12-01

419

Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender role attitudes were more likely to exercise a double standard with respect to male as opposed to female premarital sex (OR=1.18). This relationship also applied to attitudes of both girls and boys in Taipei (OR=1.20 and OR=1.22, respectively). Conclusions Although with variation across sites, gender differences in premarital sexual permissiveness and attitudes to gender roles among adolescents were very significant in each of the three Asian cities influenced by Confucian-based values. Traditional gender norms may still be deeply rooted in the three cities, especially among females, while it is important to advocate gender equity in adolescent reproductive health programs, the pathway of traditional gender norms in influencing adolescent reproductive health outcomes must be understood, as must differences and similarities across regions. PMID:22340852

Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

2014-01-01

420

Gender differences in how retirees perceive factors influencing unretirement.  

PubMed

Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived reasons to unretire, age-friendly human resource practices, and re-entry barriers to have greater influence on retirees' decision to unretire than retired managerial women and retired men. Both groups of retired women perceived training and development opportunities to have more influence than retired men. A major contribution of this study is the identification of pre-retirement career occupation as having an important effect on how female, but not male, retirees perceived the various factors. The findings suggest that researchers and employers need to consider the diversity that exists among retirees, not only gender differences but also differences among retired career women. PMID:23115913

Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

2012-01-01

421

SVM Method used to Study Gender Differences Based on Microelement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[objective] Intelligent Algorithm of SVM is used for studying gender differences based on microelement data, which provide reference For the application of Microelement in healthy people, such as providing technical support for the investigation of cases.[Method] Our Long-term test results on hair microelement of health people were consolidated. Support vector machine (SVM) is used to classified model of male and female based on microelement data. The radical basis function (RBF) is adopted as a kernel function of SVM, and the model adjusts C and ? to build the optimization classifier, [Result] Healthy population of men and women of manganese, cadmium and nickel are quite different, The classified model of Microelement based on SVM can classifies the male and female, the correct classification ratio set to be 81.71% and 66.47% by SVM based on 7 test date and 3 test data selection. [conclusion] The classified model of microelement data based on SVM can classifies male and female.

Chun, Yang; Yuan, Liu; Jun, Du; Bin, Tang

422

Gender differences in HIV-related stigma in Kenya.  

PubMed

Stigma associated with HIV/AIDS directly and indirectly drives HIV transmission. We examined how factors associated with HIV-related stigma differed by gender, using data from the 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Descriptive, bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted on selected HIV-related stigma indicators for men and women. Bivariate analyses showed significant gender differences in the overall HIV Stigma index with a higher proportion of women than men presented at the highest stigma level (4.9% vs 2.7%, p < 0.01). Women were more likely to express higher stigmatic attitudes for all components of stigma measured than men. Multivariate analyses showed that HIV-related knowledge had significant inverse dose-response for both men and women. For instance, compared to women in the first HIV-related knowledge quartile, a 1 unit increase in HIV-related knowledge among women at the third HIV-related knowledge quartile was expected to lead to a 63.8% decrease in HIV-related stigma (95% CI [0.21, 0.63]) for women with high stigma, 57.8% decrease for similar women with medium stigma (95% CI [0.33, 0.55]) and 28.4% decrease for those with low stigma (95% CI [0.57, 0.90]). Acceptance with the statement "a husband is justified to hit or beat his wife if she refuses to have sex with him" was a significant risk factor for expression of stigmatising attitudes at all levels for women (High: OR = 1.49, 95% CI [1.02, 2.17]), Medium: OR = 1.47, 95% CI [1.18, 1.82], Low: OR = 1.38, 95% CI [1.10, 1.73]) and men at medium stigma (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.38, 2.95]). Other notable gender differences were found in employment, marital status, ethnicity, region of residence, wealth and media exposure. Our results showed that women in the general Kenyan population had higher stigmatic attitudes than men. This was associated with differences in risk factor profile and confirmed previous literature on complexity of social-cultural factors associated with HIV-related stigma. PMID:23795954

Mugoya, George C T; Ernst, Kacey

2014-02-01

423

Gender difference added? Institutional variations in the gender gap in first class degree awards in mathematical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how multilevel modelling can be used to study institutional variations in the gender differences in achievement. The results presented are from analyses of the degree classifications of 22,433 individuals who graduated in mathematical sciences, from universities in the UK, between 1994\\/95 and 1999\\/2000. The analyses were designed to measure gender differences in the achievement of first class

Vanessa Simonite

2005-01-01

424

Gender Differences in Reading Ability and Attitudes: Examining where These Differences Lie  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between reading ability, frequency of reading and attitudes and beliefs relating to reading and school. Two hundred and thirty-two 10-year-old children (117 male) completed a reading comprehension test and a questionnaire exploring the following areas: frequency of…

Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

2009-01-01

425

Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science

Deidra J. Young; Barry J. Fraser

1994-01-01

426

The body-as-object versus the body-as-process: Gender differences and gender considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyzed the influence that gender and gender concepts have on predominantly white young adults' attitudes toward their body parts (body-as-object) and body functions (body-as-process). Results indicated that, regardless of gender, participants held more positive attitudes toward their body functions than toward body parts. Masculinity was positively related to body-as-object attitudes, yet this relationship was true only for

Stephen L. Franzoi

1995-01-01

427

Developmental and individual differences in preschoolers' recognition memories: The influences of gender schematization and verbal labeling of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-three 37-92-month-old children's gender schematization and recognition memories for gender-typed content were assessed. Verbal labeling of stimuli and age were positively associated with children's memories. Highly gender schematic children displayed better memories for gender-role consistent information and committed more gender transformation errors than less gender schematic children. Interactions between children's gender schematization, age, and labeling condition were observed. Labeling of

Gary D. Levy

1989-01-01

428

Health Shocks in the Family: Gender Differences in Smoking Changes  

PubMed Central

Objective This study estimates the likelihood of starting and stopping smoking when respondents and their partners report new chronic illnesses. Method Analysis of longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study tests whether starting or stopping smoking is more likely when (a) the respondent, (b) their partner, (c) or both report a new chronic condition, and whether these patterns differ by gender. Results Both men and women are more likely to quit smoking when reporting a new chronic condition, relative to when reporting none. However only women are more likely to quit smoking when their partners fall ill. Women are also more likely than men to start smoking at this time. Discussion Among older couples, women's smoking changes are more sensitive to health shocks in the partnership. Interventions aimed at preventing unhealthy behaviors should pay attention to how each partner deals with the stress of health shocks. PMID:23860178

Margolis, Rachel

2013-01-01

429

Gender differences in BOLD activation to face photographs and video vignettes.  

PubMed

Few neuroimaging studies have reported gender differences in response to human emotions, and those that have examined such differences have utilized face photographs. This study presented not only human face photographs of positive and negative emotions, but also video vignettes of positive and negative social human interactions in an attempt to provide a more ecologically appropriate stimuli paradigm. Ten male and 10 female healthy right-handed young adults were shown positive and negative affective social human faces and video vignettes to elicit gender differences in social/emotional perception. Conservative ROI (region of interest) analysis indicated greater male than female activation to positive affective photos in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, all in the right hemisphere. No significant ROI gender differences were observed to negative affective photos. Male greater than female activation was seen in ROIs of the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus to positive social videos. Male greater than female activation occurred in only the left middle temporal ROI for negative social videos. Consistent with previous findings, males were more lateralized than females. Although more activation was observed overall to video compared to photo conditions, males and females appear to process social video stimuli more similarly to one another than they do for photos. This study is a step forward in understanding the social brain with more ecologically valid stimuli that more closely approximates the demands of real-time social and affective processing. PMID:19428627

Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Zhu, David C

2009-07-19

430

Gender Differences in Instrumental Learning among Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7-13) within Western and non-Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender

Ho, Wai-Chung

2009-01-01

431

Gender Differences in Self-Reports of Depression: The Response Bias Hypothesis Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to revisit the response bias hypothesis, which posits that gender differences in depression prevalence rates may reflect a tendency for men to underreport depressive symptoms. In this study, we examined aspects of gender role socialization (gender-related traits, socially desirable responding, beliefs about mental health and depression) that may contribute to a response bias in self-reports of

Sandra T. Sigmon; Jennifer J. Pells; Nina E. Boulard; Stacy Whitcomb-Smith; Teresa M. Edenfield; Barbara A. Hermann; Stephanie M. LaMattina; Janell G. Schartel; Elizabeth Kubik

2005-01-01

432

The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences in  

E-print Network

The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences States of America Abstract Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals

Radicchi, Filippo

433

Gender Differences in Perceived Work Demands, Family Demands, and Life Stress among Married Chinese Employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

abstract? Although gender-based division of labour and the identity theory of stress suggest that the relationship between work and family demands and life stress may vary as a function of gender, it is largely unknown whether these arguments are also valid in China. To address this gap in the existing literature, the current study investigates the gender differences in perceived

Jaepil Choi; Chao C. Chen

2006-01-01

434

Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. PMID:25180581

Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

2014-01-01

435

Differences in Gender Perceptions across Race and Gender: A Web-based Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This study compared gender stereotypes people have of Asian Americans and African Americans to baseline stereotypes of Whites and also to the actual gender self- perceptions of these racial groups. Our hypotheses included higher masculinity perceptions of African Americans and higher femininity perceptions of Asian Americans. We used an online survey with a modified Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) to

Sara Adibisedeh; Jaymievieve Ang; Austin Che; Monique Cho; Daniel Gandarilla

436

Tolerance of Sexual Harassment: An Examination of Gender Differences, Ambivalent Sexism, Social Dominance, and Gender Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the effects of gender, gender roles (masculinity and femininity), ambivalent sexism, and social dominance orientation with regard to tolerance of sexual harassment. It was predicted that women would be less tolerant than men of sexual harassment, however, men and women who were tolerant of sexual harassment would share ambivalence and hostility toward women, and they

Brenda L. Russell; Kristin Y. Trigg

2004-01-01

437

Family concordance and gender differences in parent-child structured interaction at 12 months.  

PubMed

This observational study examined family concordance and gender differences in early parent-child interaction in the family supportive sociopolitical context of Norway. Mothers and fathers from 39 Norwegian families were observed on separate occasions with their 12-month-old children (20 girls and 19 boys). Data were recorded from observations using microsocial coding methodology based on social interaction learning theory. We found no within-family concordance between mothers' and fathers' behaviors with their child. The children's negative engagement with each parent was moderately correlated. For parents with boys, fathers were overall more positively engaged than mothers. Moreover, fathers of boys displayed more positive engagement than those of girls, whereas mothers of girls and boys displayed similar levels of positive engagement. In contrast to previous findings, mothers did not verbalize more than fathers. Girls were overall more positively engaged during interaction with both mothers and fathers than boys. Thus, in a sociopolitical context that facilitates early parent-child relationships and gender equality, there were few but noteworthy gender differences in parent-child interaction at 12 months. PMID:24564247

Nordahl, Kristin Berg; Janson, Harald; Manger, Terje; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae

2014-04-01

438

Exploring gender differences with different gain calculations in astronomy and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate differences in learning gains by gender, we collected data in large introductory astronomy and biology courses. Male astronomy students had significantly higher pre- and post-test scores than female students on the astronomy diagnostic test. Male students also had significantly higher pretest and somewhat higher post-test scores than female students on a survey instrument designed for an introductory biology course. For both courses, males had higher learning gains than female students only when the normalized gain measure was utilized. No differences were found with any other measures, including other gain calculations, overall course grades, or individual exams. Implications for using different learning gain measures in science classrooms, as well as for research on learning differences by gender are discussed.

Willoughby, Shannon D.; Metz, Anneke

2009-07-01

439

Exploring gender differences with different gain calculations in astronomy and biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To investigate differences in learning gains by gender, we collected data in large introductory astronomy and biology courses. Male astronomy students had significantly higher pre- and post-test scores than female students on the astronomy diagnostic test. Male students also had significantly higher pretest and somewhat higher post-test scores than female students on a survey instrument designed for an introductory biology course. For both courses, males had higher learning gains than female students only when the normalized gain measure was utilized. No differences were found with any other measures, including other gain calculations, overall course grades, or individual exams. Implications for using different learning gain measures in science classrooms, as well as for research on learning differences by gender are discussed.

Willoughby, Shannon D.; Metz, Anneke

2012-05-21

440

Does Equal Education Generate Equal Attitudes? Gender Differences in Medical Students' Attitudes Toward the Ideal Physician  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Developing a patient-centered attitude is an important objective of medical education. Gender differences in students-patient-centered attitudes are also reported.Purposes: Our study aims to measure (a) do gender differences and age differences exist in 1st and 6th-year students' attitudes toward the ideal physician? and (b) what happens to gender differences in attitudes as students pass the medical curriculum?Methods: In 2004,

Petra Verdonk; Annalies Harting; Toine L. M. Lagro-Janssen

2007-01-01

441

Sexual Harassment: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Gender Differences Assessed by Three Different Estimation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates gender differences in prevalence and effects of sexual harassment using three different estimation methods. In a representative sample of 2,349 Norwegian employees, 1.1% self-labeled as targets of sexual harassment, whereas 18.4% reported exposure to sexually harassing behaviors during the last six months. When employing latent class cluster analysis as a method for estimating prevalence of sexual harassment,

Morten Birkeland Nielsen; Brita Bjørkelo; Guy Notelaers; Ståle Einarsen

2010-01-01

442

Race and Gender Differences in Self-efficacy: Assessing the Role of Gender Role Attitudes and Family Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests race is associated with unique family structures and gender attitudes. Yet, extant research fails to examine\\u000a how different gender role attitudes and family structures related to race impact other aspects of life. Self-efficacy refers\\u000a to one’s belief in his or her abilities to achieve certain outcomes (Bandura, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, Freeman, New York, p. 3, 1997).

Tom Buchanan; Nikesha Selmon

2008-01-01

443

Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

2011-01-01

444

Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

Richards, Gayle Patrice

445

Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

North, Connie E.

2010-01-01

446

Gender Differences in Persistence and Attributions in Stereotype Relevant Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research was designed to examine the effects of gender math stereotypes on performance attributions and persistence. Two experiments tested whether stereotypes guided men’s and women’s reactions to negative or positive feedback on an alleged test of verbal or math ability. In Study 1, attributions to ability were influenced by gender stereotypes: women were more sensitive to feedback on

Amy Kiefer; Margaret Shih

2006-01-01

447

Gender differences in risk behaviour: does nurture matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a controlled experiment, we investigate if individuals’ risk preferences are affected by (i) the gender composition of the group to which they are randomly assigned, and (ii) the gender mix of the school they attend. Our subjects, from eight publicly funded single?sex and coeducational schools, were asked to choose between a real?stakes lottery and a sure bet. We found

Alison L. Booth; Patrick J. Nolen

2012-01-01

448

Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender

Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

2010-01-01

449

Gender Differences in Therapist Responses to Client Sexual Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual feelings between therapist and client have been a source of theoretical controversy since the beginnings of modern psychotherapy. Psychotherapists' (N=72) verbal behavior, affective reactions, and clinical judgments in response to audiotapes of client sexual material were investigated. Therapist gender, client gender, and type of sexual…

Schover, Leslie R.

450

Use of Social Support: Gender and Personality Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed male and female adults to test several hypotheses about the relationship between sex, gender, personality, and social support. Overall, gender, but not sex, significantly correlated with patterns of social support. Femininity in both sexes associated with seeking and receiving emotional support, and with seeking and receiving support from…

Reevy, Gretchen M.; Maslach, Christina

2001-01-01

451

Sex differences in face gender recognition in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human faces are ecologically-salient stimuli. Face sex is particularly relevant for human interactions and face gender recognition is an extremely efficient cognitive process that is acquired early during childhood. To measure the minimum information required for correct gender classification, we have used a pixelation filter and reduced frontal pictures (28,672 pixels) of male and female faces to 7168, 1792, 448

Alessandro Cellerino; Davide Borghetti; Ferdinando Sartucci

2004-01-01

452

Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using microdata for 22 countries over the 198594 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap, with an especially large effect for wage structures. Reduced-form specifications indicate that the extent of collective bargaining coverage is also significantly negatively related to the gender pay gap. Together,

2003-01-01

453

What difference does gender make? Rethinking peasant studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that gender analysis has challenged and enriched many of the standard assumptions and concepts utilized in the analysis of Third World peasantries. Drawing primarily on the literature regarding Latin America, the impact of gender analysis on seven assumptions and concepts of peasant studies is illustrated: the family farm as the basic unit of production; the undifferentiated return

Carmen Diana Deere

1995-01-01

454

Gender differences: Let`s see them in writing  

SciTech Connect

Differences between males and females in the nature of their verbal communication have been documented. The findings of this study have provided a new dimensional to those of previous research. There is support for the idea that among college graduates with similar communication skills, females use written communication as a means of establishing rapport more than males. In a voluntary, relatively unstructured task, females tend to write longer responses and to express themselves by complete thoughts (sentences). Females are also more likely to use first person singular pronouns and first person singular possessive adjectives. There is no support in this situation for gender differences in offering solutions to described program weaknesses. The length of the open-ended responses describing weaknesses and strengths are more closely related to each other than they are to ratings of program satisfaction. This study was unique in that it was based on written communication of college graduates in a voluntary task. Differences in findings from of those of other studies may be due to experience and education of the participants. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Boser, J.A.; Wiley, P.D. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Clark, S.B. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1991-12-31

455

Heavy metals in laughing gulls: Gender, age and tissue differences  

SciTech Connect

The authors examined concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and chromium in feathers, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of known-aged laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) that hatched in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey and were collected at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York 1 to 7 years later. Concentrations differed significantly among tissues, and tissue entered all the regression models explaining the greatest variation in metal levels. Age of bird contributed significantly to the models for lead, cadmium, selenium, and chromium. Although there were significant gender differences in all body measurements except wing length, there were few differences in metal levels. Males had significantly higher lead levels in feathers, and females had significantly higher selenium levels in heart and muscle tissue. For lead, 3-year olds had the highest levels in the heart, liver, and kidney, and levels were lower thereafter. Mercury levels in feathers and heart decreased significantly with age. Cadmium levels increased significantly with age for feathers, heart, liver, and muscle, although there was a slight decrease in the 7-year olds. Selenium levels decreased significantly with age for all tissues. Chromium levels increased with age for liver and heart.

Gochfeld, M. [Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States). Robert Wood Johnson Medical School]|[Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Belant, J.L. [Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission, Duluth, MN (United States); Shukla, T.; Benson, T. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Burger, J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Inst., Piscataway, NJ (United States)]|[Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Nelson Biological Lab.

1996-12-01

456

Gender differences in the functional and structural neuroanatomy of mathematical cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite ongoing debate about the nature of gender differences in mathematics achievement, little is known about gender similarities and differences in mathematical cognition at the neural level. We used fMRI to compare brain responses in 25 females and 24 males during a mental arithmetic task involving 3-operand addition and subtraction. We also used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gender differences

Katherine Keller; Vinod Menon

2009-01-01

457

Behavioral and physiological findings of gender differences in global-local visual processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are gender differences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies gender differences in cognition, the literature on gender differences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during performance of a global-local reaction time task to compare hemispheric asymmetries and processing biases in adult men (n=15)

David Roalf; Natasha Lowery; Bruce I. Turetsky

2006-01-01

458

Gender Differences in the Interpersonal Consequences of Early-Onset Depressive Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has identified gender differences in the interpersonal antecedents of depressive symptoms in youth, little is known about gender differences in the interpersonal consequences of depression. The goal of the present research was to examine gender differences in the influence of early-onset depressive symptoms on adolescent friendships and self-perceived peer acceptance. Third-graders (N = 382) participated in a multiwave

Karen D. Rudolph; Gary W. Ladd; Lisa. Dinella

2007-01-01

459

Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Self-Evaluations of Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that gender differences in self-perceptions exist. However, interpretational ambiguities make it impossible to determine whether these gender differences are due to the operation of biases. The present research investigated whether gender differences in biased self-perceptions exist by assessing the accuracy of posttask self-evaluations of performance. In accordance with self-consistency theory, it was hypothesized that Ss' expectancies affect

Sylvia Beyer; E. Bowden

1990-01-01

460

How large are cognitive gender differences? A meta-analysis using !w² and ^I d  

Microsoft Academic Search

E. E. Maccoby and C. N. Jacklin (1974) concluded that the following cognitive gender differences were well-established: verbal ability, quantitative ability, and visual–spatial ability. The present study applied meta-analysis techniques to studies cited by Maccoby and Jacklin, assessing the magnitude of gender differences using both |w–2 and d statistics. Results indicate that gender differences in all of these abilities were

Janet S. Hyde

1981-01-01

461

Gender Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Review of Meta-Analytic Results and Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors are typically believed to be large, yet recent evidence suggests that some gender differences in sexuality are much smaller than common knowledge would suggest. This article reviews gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors as reported by major meta-analyses and large datasets. In particular, this article reviews gender differences in heterosexual intercourse, masturbation,

Jennifer L. Petersen; Janet Shibley Hyde

2011-01-01

462

GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...

463

Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences  

SciTech Connect

The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the S TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images requires gender-matched normal files.

Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.; Shonkoff, D.; Oates, J.A.; Gober, A.M.; Dunn, D.W.; Malko, J.A.; Churchwell, A.L.; Patterson, R.E.

1988-12-01

464

This paper presents ethnographic research on the relationship between gender differences in the expression of traumatic stress and emic  

E-print Network

conditions of life in the refugee camp, in combination with underlying traditional gender roles and domestic decision-making, social support networks, traditional gender roles, subsistence, acculturativeAbstract This paper presents ethnographic research on the relationship between gender differences

465

Alcohol related vomiting in a New Zealand University sample: frequency, gender differences, and correlates.  

E-print Network

??The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship, frequency, gender differences, situations and motivations of self-induced vomiting after drinking alcohol with disordered eating,… (more)

Blackmore, Natalie Patricia Irene

2009-01-01

466

Gender differences in cardiovascular risk indicators and cardiovascular disease among veterans with PTSD.  

E-print Network

??Using the allostatic load model of disease processes, this study investigated gender differences on cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular disease among PTSD and MDD veterans. Cross-sectional… (more)

Frazier, Elizabeth C.

2008-01-01

467

Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective  

PubMed Central

According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14–15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents’ work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents’ risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed—girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent’s heavy alcohol use. PMID:20513655

Okulicz-Kozaryn, K.

2010-01-01

468

Gender differences in self-assessments at the application interface  

E-print Network

Past studies have shown that supply side sorting processes at the job application interface contribute to both vertical and horizontal gender job segregation. A prominent set of theories focused on the supply side stress ...

Campero Molina, Santiago

2013-01-01

469

Gender Differences in Holland Vocational Personality Types: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study in this article examined gender and ethnic differences in the development of Holland (1997) personality types among inner-city adolescents. Results showed gender but not ethnic differences in vocational personality types and their predictors, and suggest different pathways to the development of these types for boys and girls. Suggestions…

Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Starkey, Michael; Landgraf, Rachel; Lapan, Richard T.; Siewert, Jason J.; Reich, Allison; Trotter, Michelle J.; Neumaier, Eric R.; Huang, Ju-Ping

2008-01-01

470

Gender differences influence brain's beta oscillatory responses in recognition of facial expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are only few studies describing gender differences in recognition of facial expressions. Our study has the aim to analyze the effect of gender differences in oscillatory brain responses. Three sets of Ekman and Friesens's facial expressions (neutral, angry, and happy) were presented to 26 healthy subjects (13 men) while recording from 13 different scalp locations. Occipital beta response (15–24Hz)

Bahar Güntekin; Erol Ba?ar

2007-01-01

471

Self-Regulation Strategies in Achievement Settings: Culture and Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated culture and gender differences in a self-regulation task. College students in Singapore and Israel completed anagram-solving task that let them select levels of difficulty to maximize achievement. There were cultural differences in attained scores. Women preferred significantly easier tasks, though there was no gender difference in…

Kurman, Jenny

2001-01-01

472

Highly Confident but Wrong: Gender Differences and Similarities in Confidence Judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gender differences are fairly consistent when people report their general confidence, much less is known about such differences when individuals assess the degree of confidence they have in their ability to answer any particular test question. The objective of this research was to investigate gender differences in item-specific confidence judgments. Data were collected from three psychology courses containing 70

Mary A. Lundeberg; Paul W. Fox; Judith Pun?ocha?

1994-01-01

473

Gender Differences in Educational Achievement within Racial and Ethnic Groups. ERIC Digest Number 164.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational Testing Service (ETS) research highlights more similarities than variations in gender differences among student racial/groups, though variations exist in how the differences are manifested. This digest presents highlights from Richard Coley's findings in "Differences in the Gender Gap: Comparisons across Racial/Ethnic Groups in…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

474

Gender differences in the structure and support characteristics of black adolescents' social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores gender differences in the social network characteristics of 390 Black American adolescents with a mean age of 14.8 Each adolescent completed the Social Network Record (SNR), which yields scores representing the organizational\\/demographic structure and the quality of emotional support in the network. It was hypothesized that males and females would construct different network profiles. Gender differences in

Deborah L. Coates

1987-01-01

475

Gender differences in mathematics achievement: Exploring the early grades and the extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mathematics achievement have important implications for the underrepresentation of women in science. Typically, gender differences in mathematics achievement are thought to emerge at the end of middle school and beginning of high school, yet some studies find differences among younger children. This paper utilizes data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 to analyze

Andrew M. Penner; Marcel Paret

2008-01-01

476

Gender Differences in Middle School Students' Interests in a Statistical Literacy Context  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports gender differences in the types of interests that middle school students have towards statistical literacy. These differences are detected from the responses of a sample of 366 middle school students to items in a statistical literacy interest inventory. In particular, dominance statistics are calculated in order to detect evidence for gender differences in student responses. Results indicated

Colin Carmichael; Ian Hay

477

Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect\\u000a of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students’ misconceptions in Newton’s Third Law. Specifically, the authors\\u000a developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy.\\u000a Newton’s third law misconception

Serkan Yilmaz; Ali Eryilmaz

2010-01-01

478

Gender differences in postneonatal infant mortality in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have indicated that gender discrimination influencing child survival is widespread in Asia. Therefore, we have investigated gender and cause-specific postneonatal mortality in Taiwan. Mortality data derived from death certificates and demographic statistics in Taiwan between 1981 and 1990 were analyzed. Postneonatal mortality decreased from 9.4 per 1000 live births to 5.5 per 1000 live births for males, and

Wen-Shan Yang; Harald H. Knöbel; Chien-Jen Chen

1996-01-01

479

Gender Differences in Emotional Language in Children's Picture Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous examinations of children's picturebooks have found that they are gender biased againstfemales in terms of character prevalence in titles,pictures and central role, and in the type of activities engaged in by characters. This study examineda differentpotential area of gender stereotyping, genderdifferences in emotional language. Books that were readto\\/by a sample of primarily Caucasian preschool children during a one-week period

Clary A. Tepper; Kimberly Wright Cassidy

1999-01-01

480

Tolerance for depression: are there cultural and gender differences?  

PubMed

This study examined tolerance for depression among Jewish and Protestant men and women in the United Kingdom. A measure of tolerance for depression was developed, which examined willingness to admit to and seek help for depression. More specifically, the items in the measure (developed from extended interviews) covered empathy towards sufferers, potential virtues of the illness, hopes for treatment, seeing the illness as 'normal', and telling other people about it. Existing evidence suggested that tolerance for depression might be greater amongst Jews compared with Protestants, and women compared with men. Also, Jewish men were expected to be more tolerant than Protestant men, whereas Protestant and Jewish women were not expected to differ from each other. It was found that tolerance for depression was greater amongst Jews than Protestants, and this is consistent with the elevated levels of depression amongst Jewish men as compared with Protestant men. However, findings relating to gender were mixed and were not always consistent with our expectations. The findings suggest that there may be some cultural variations in willingness to admit to and seek help for depression, and this may be worth examining in other cultural-religious groups. Individual variations in tolerance for depression may be clinically significant. PMID:12472821

Loewenthal, K M; Macleod, A K; Lee, M; Cook, S; Goldblatt, V

2002-12-01

481

Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms in St. Petersburg, Russia  

PubMed Central

Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098

Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

2012-01-01

482

Mind the Gap: Gender Differences in Child Special Health Care Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gendered nature of special health care needs in childhood is an important yet understudied area. Although gendered differences\\u000a in the prevalence of special health care needs have been documented, there is less knowledge about the factors which contribute\\u000a to those differences. Two research questions guide this inquiry. First, is the gender gap consistent across child special\\u000a health care need

Valerie LeiterPatricia; Patricia P. Rieker

483

Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a previously unknown gender difference in the distribution of spatial attention, a basic capacitythatsupportshigher-levelspatialcognition.More remarkably, we found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender dispar- ity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition. After only 10 hr of training with an ac-

Jing Feng; Ian Spence; Jay Pratt

2007-01-01

484

Gender Differences in the Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Model of Depression in the Transition to Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether the cognitive vulnerability-stress model of depression may contribute to our understanding of\\u000a the gender difference in depression in adolescence. Specifically, we examined emergent gender differences in depressive symptoms,\\u000a cognitive style, and stress in the context of exposure, cognitive scar, and stress generation models. We also examined whether gender moderated the cognitive vulnerability-stress effects on depression. Participants

Amy H. MezulisKristyn; Kristyn S. Funasaki; Anna M. Charbonneau; Janet Shibley Hyde

2010-01-01

485

Body image across three generations of Americans: inter-family correlations, gender differences, and generation differences.  

PubMed

Three-hundred-and-eighty-one participants (undergraduates, their parents and grandparents) completed body image (BI; current minus ideal figure ratings) and dieting attitude measures. We found the usual gender gap in BI for the undergraduates (females' BI worse than males), but not for the parents and grandparents. This was due to males' worsening BI with age; females' BI did not differ across generations. The gender gap in dieting attitudes (females more likely to diet) also narrowed with increasing age (again due to males' changing attitudes), but remained significant across generations. In all three generations, females underestimated the size of the figure males found most attractive, whereas males overestimated the analogous figure for females. Finally, we found significant inter-family correlations for BI and dieting for all groups except undergraduate females. We discuss these results within cultural and evolutionary theoretical frameworks. PMID:15656012

Ostovich, J M; Rozin, P

2004-09-01

486

The Influence of Child Gender Role and Maternal Feedback to Child Stress on the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depressive Rumination in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents a gender-stereotyped coping style that is associated with a

Stephanie J. Cox; Amy H. Mezulis; Janet S. Hyde

2010-01-01

487

Gender roles as mediators of sex differences in adolescent alcohol use and abuse.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that internalized gender-role personality attributes and gender-role ideology mediate sex differences in alcohol use and drinking problems in a random sample of 1,077 adolescents aged 13 to 19. Results indicated that gender roles substantially, although not completely, mediated the effects of sex on drinking patterns. The relationships between gender roles and alcohol use were largely consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with conventional gender identities conform more closely to cultural norms that condone drinking among males but not among females. However, effects of the gender-linked attributes of expressivity, emotional control, and instrumentality on drinking also may be interpreted within a framework that views them as functional coping styles. Finally, differences between Black and White teens in the relationships between alcohol use and the masculine attributes of instrumentality and emotional control suggest possible race differences in the functional value of these attributes. PMID:1464719

Huselid, R F; Cooper, M L

1992-12-01

488

Gender similarities and differences in sexual arousal, desire, and orgasmic pleasure in the laboratory.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about gender differences in the orgasm experience. The objectives of this study were to compare men's and women's patterns of sexual arousal and desire before and after orgasm, and the predictors of their orgasmic pleasure. Using their typical technique, where masturbation enjoyment was similar to that experienced at home, 38 men and 38 women masturbated to orgasm in the laboratory. Physiological sexual arousal (genital temperature) and subjective sexual arousal and desire measurements were taken at baseline, after masturbation almost to orgasm, and immediately and 15 minutes after orgasm. In both genders, all measures increased significantly during masturbation, with a greater buildup leading to a more pleasurable orgasm. After orgasm, however, sexual arousal and desire decreased more quickly and consistently in men than in women, thereby replicating Masters and Johnson's (1966) observations. More men than women exhibited resolution of subjective sexual arousal and sexual satiation; their genital temperature also decreased more than women's but did not return to baseline. Women's orgasmic pleasure was related to a postorgasmic decrease in genital temperature but, unexpectedly, the maintenance of subjective sexual arousal and desire. Future studies should explore whether this pattern explains gender differences in the pursuit of additional orgasms. PMID:24588445

Paterson, Laurel Q P; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

2014-01-01

489

Late-Onset Pathological Gambling: Clinical Correlates and Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (p<.001) and significantly less likely to have a father (p=.025) or a mother (p=.048) with a gambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:18499125

Grant, Jon E.; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L.; Buchanan, Stephanie N.; Potenza, Marc N.

2009-01-01

490

Gender \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

Jacqueline Lecarme

2002-01-01

491

Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of religious beliefs and religious practices seem to be obvious to just about everyone except those whose research\\u000a and passion is linked to feminism or gender studies. We selected from our bookshelves five recent books discussing gender\\u000a issues or women’s lives.1 Even though thiswas not a random experiment, it revealed a stark and rather troubling finding: in not one

Nancy Nason-Clark; Barbara Fisher-Townsend

492

Gender differences on the MMPI across American and Korean adult and adolescent normative samples.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine whether gender differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A; Butcher et al., 1992) items are comparable across 2 distinctive cultural samples: Americans and Koreans. Using large, representative adult and adolescent samples from both cultures, we found that the American samples were associated with a higher proportion of items with gender differences than the Korean samples. The American adult sample produced gender differences on a higher proportion of items than did the American adolescent sample, but no such age difference was found between the Korean samples. Despite these differences between cultures and between age groups, content dimensions underlying items with gender differences were very similar across cultures and age groups, centering on stereotypical gender interests, behaviors, and emotions. PMID:23410238

Han, Kyunghee; Park, Hyung In; Weed, Nathan C; Lim, Jeeyoung; Johnson, Adam; Joles, Christopher

2013-01-01

493

Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Genetic Testing, Risk Interpretation and Genetic Testing Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares gender differences in attitudes towards prenatal testing, testing in minors, Huntington testing and the creation of designer babies and identifies how risk of genetic disease is perceived by both genders. A questionnaire was developed to explore attitudes towards different types of genetic testing, interpreting risk of genetic disease and concerns relating to genetic testing. A total of

Verity Leach

2010-01-01

494

Gender differences in outcome of eating disorders: A retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating disorders (EDs) are uncommon in males. The majority of outcome studies on ED have not presented gender-specific results, mostly because of small study samples or exclusion of males. Furthermore, psychometric tools and outcome criteria used in ED have mainly been validated for females only. The objective of this study was to evaluate gender differences in weight restoration in different