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1

Gender Difference and Gender Disadvantage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the theoretical foundations of American sex discrimination law. Traditional legal frameworks have analyzed gender issues in terms of gender difference. Yet, inder this approach, sex-based differences have been both overlooked and overvalued. In some instances, such as occupational restrictions and military service, courts have transformed biological distinctions into cultural imperatives. In other cases, such as those involving

Deborah L. Rhode

1990-01-01

2

Gender Differences in Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

2000-01-01

3

Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.  

PubMed

Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

2014-01-01

4

Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials  

PubMed Central

Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

2014-01-01

5

Gender similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

Hyde, Janet Shibley

2014-01-01

6

Gender Differences in Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE TOPIC OF GENDER DIFFERENCES in leadership style has been of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology, management, and sociology, especially in recent years, as women have begun to assume more leadership positions. This article presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects

Barbara B. Moran

1992-01-01

7

Gender and Gender Identity Differences in Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, extensive research on gender and learning styles has produced a multitude of findings: gender differences in learning styles are small on average, but across studies quite different results are observed. In the present study, this heterogeneity is the central focus of our attention. Two possible interpretations concerning the educational context and the concept of gender identity

Sabine Severiens; Geert Ten Dam

1997-01-01

8

Gender differences in young children’s temperament traits: Comparisons across observational and parent-report methods  

PubMed Central

Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Methods Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826

Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.

2012-01-01

9

Gender differences in pain.  

PubMed

A review of the literature on gender and clinical pain reveals a disproportionate representation of women receiving treatment for many pain conditions and suggests that women report more severe pain, more frequent pain, and pain of longer duration than do men. Gender differences in pain perception have also been extensively studied in the laboratory, and ratings of experimentally induced pain also show some sex disparity, with females generally reporting lower pain thresholds and tolerance than males. However, there is little consensus on whether these apparent differences reflect the way men and women respond to pain, differing social rules for the expression of pain, or biologic differences in the way noxious stimuli are processed. In this paper, our working hypothesis is that the higher prevalence of chronic orofacial pain in women is a result of sex differences in generic pain mechanisms and of as-yet unidentified factors unique to the craniofacial system. We will review the evidence concerning gender differences in the prevalence of pain conditions, with a focus on orofacial pain conditions. Evidence and hypotheses concerning biologic and psychosocial factors that could influence prevalence rates will also be discussed. PMID:11203754

Dao, T T; LeResche, L

2000-01-01

10

Gender differences in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because estrogen has numerous effects on dopamine neurotransmission, many researchers are interested in its possible use to either slow the progression or reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The incidence of PD is greater in men than in women. Gender differences in neurotoxicity have been observed, and basic research in experimental animals indicates that estrogen protects neurons from various

Lisa M. Shulman

2007-01-01

11

Gender Differences in Completed Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report extends the present range of observed gender differences insuicide as demonstrated by a prospective study of 2,756 depressed and\\/orsuicidal inpatients followed for four years. Each of twelve demographiccategories was examined for its relationship to fifteen variablessignificantly associated with suicidal outcome in the total sample. The oddsratios for males and females in each category were determined and comparedto identify

Jerome a. Motto; Alan Bostrom; Susan Cox

1997-01-01

12

Gender differences in completed suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report extends the present range of observed gender differences in suicide as demonstrated by a prospective study of 2,756 depressed and\\/or suicidal inpatients followed for four years. Each of twelve demographic categories was examined for its relationship to fifteen variables significantly associated with suicidal outcome in the total sample. The odds ratios for males and females in each category

Jerome A. Motto; Alan Bostrom

1997-01-01

13

[Laughter: gender differences].  

PubMed

Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. PMID:21489520

Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

2011-01-01

14

[Depression--gender differences].  

PubMed

Unipolar depression is twice as frequent among women in fertile years compared to men. Current biological theories are that stages of life with declining levels of oestrogen could be a trigger of depression. Psychological theories are low self-esteem, sensitivity to lack of social support, comorbidity with anxiety, aggression turned inwards in women, outwards in men, whose comorbidity is alcohol abuse. Social theories are the preponderance of women in poverty and economic dependence. Symptoms and outcome are equal for men and women. Suicide is a greater risk for men, and increases with age; suicide attempts are a greater risk for women, and decline with age. During life span the rates of depression and anxiety and gender differences decline. PMID:17594834

Garde, Karin

2007-06-18

15

Gender Differences in Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence points to gender-based differences in incidence, risk, histology, and pathogen- esis of certain lung diseases in women as compared with men. Gender influences not only physiologi- cal differences, but also the social, economic, and cultural context in which men and women coexist. Central to these differences is the role of sex hormones, which may contribute to the pathogenesis

CYNTHIA F. C ARACTA

2003-01-01

16

Gender differences in smoking cessation.  

PubMed

Gender differences in smoking quit rates are frequently reported and are the subject of much speculation. This study examined the generalizability of gender differences in abstinence across study sites, treatments, and time of relapse, as well as potential mediators and moderators of gender effects. Participants were smokers who participated in 3 randomized clinical trials of the nicotine patch (N = 632). Men had higher cessation rates than women at all follow-ups. The impact of gender on abstinence was unaffected by controlling for study site, treatment, or time of relapse. There was little evidence for mediation or moderation of this relation by any of a host of predictor variables. The magnitude and consistency of the gender differential, coupled with an inability to account for it, highlights a compelling need for additional research specifically aimed at elucidating the relation between gender and abstinence. PMID:10450626

Wetter, D W; Kenford, S L; Smith, S S; Fiore, M C; Jorenby, D E; Baker, T B

1999-08-01

17

Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

2012-01-01

18

Gender differences in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We investigated the influence of gender and oestrogen status on: (1) age at onset, (2) presenting symptom, (3) severity and

C. A. Haaxma; B. R. Bloem; G. F. Borm; W. J. G. Oyen; K. L. Leenders; S. Eshuis; J. Booij; D. E. Dluzen; M. W. I. M. Horstink

2007-01-01

19

Is MIT an Exception? Gender Pay Differences in Academic Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate gender differences in salaries for academic scientists. Over time gender salary differences can partly be explained by differences in observable characteristics for faculty at the assistant and associate ranks. Substantial gender salary differences for full professors are not explained by observable characteristics. Between 1973 and 1997, very little

Donna K. Ginther

2003-01-01

20

Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE  

E-print Network

Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE Gender Differences in Preschool Children's Declared and Behavioral Compliance with Pedestrian Rules ABSTRACT The study examined gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules among preschool

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

21

Gender differences in familiar voice identification.  

PubMed

We investigated gender differences in the identification of personally familiar voices in a gender-balanced sample of 40 listeners. From various types of utterances, listeners had to identify by name 20 speakers (10 female) among a set of 70 possible classmates who were all 12th grade pupils from the same local secondary school. Mean identification rates were 67% from sentences, and around 35% for an isolated /Hello/ or a VCV syllable. Even from non-verbal harrumphs, speakers were identified with an accuracy of 18%, i.e. highly above chance levels. Substantial individual differences were observed between listeners. Importantly, superior overall performance of female listeners was qualified by an interaction between voice gender and listener gender. Male listeners exhibited an own-gender bias (i.e. better identification for male than female voices), whereas female listeners identified voices of both genders at similar levels. Individual own-gender identification biases were correlated with differences in reported contact to a speaker's voice and voice distinctiveness. Overall, the present study establishes a number of factors that account for substantial individual differences in personal voice identification. PMID:23168357

Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

2013-02-01

22

Addressing Gender Differences in Young Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current interest in identifying gender differences in young adolescents suggests a need to focus on how gender differences affect teaching and learning situations and on how middle level school educators can address these differences. This book explains what gender differences are, how gender differences affect learning, how both girls and…

Butler, Deborah A.; Manning, M. Lee

23

Gender Differences in Moral Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

2007-01-01

24

Gender Differences and High Attainment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines factors related to high attainment (using data from Scottish School Leavers Survey) and asks whether these differ for males and females. Establishes a strong relationship between social advantage/high attainment within genders. Found girls took school more seriously than males, supporting theories girls and boys experience different peer…

Tinklin, Teresa

2003-01-01

25

Interruptions and nonverbal gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in selected nonverbal behaviors associated with interruptions. Six graduate student groups involving 18 female and 17 male subjects were videotaped. The data for the study were 140 cross-sex interruption sequences and a matched, randomly selected sample of noninterruption sequences. A category system using self-related activity, gestures, body lean, facial expression

Carol W. Kennedy; Carl Camden

1983-01-01

26

Gender Differences in Teenage Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the patterns and correlates of gender differences in cigarette smoking in a national sample of white high school seniors in 1985. More females than males were smokers, because females had higher rates for the early stages of smoking adoption. Specifically, females were more likely to have tried smoking at least once and, among those who had tried

Ingrid Waldron; Diane Lye; Anastasia Brandon

1991-01-01

27

Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in mathematics and science have received substantial attention in the education research since the early 1980s when strong evidence for a male advantage was found in various studies. Given that mathematics is required for a variety of careers, the potential cause(s) of this disparity have generated much research, much of it…

You, Zhixia

2010-01-01

28

Gender Difference and Student Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

Flynn, Elizabeth A.

29

Gender differences in parental grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in grief of parents who lost their child were examined using the Grief Experience Inventory. Participants were 35 bereaved couples who ranged in age from 27 to 73. Results showed that the mothers' scares were signihantly higher than those of fathers on the following scales: Atypical Responses, Despair, Anger\\/Hostility, Guilt, Loss of Control, Rumination, Deper-sonalization, Somatization, Loss of

Reiko Schwab

1996-01-01

30

Gender Role Ideology and the Gender Based Differences in Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on gender differences in occupational earnings still focuses on human capital and the structure of the labor market. However, these variables rarely explain even half of the gender gap in earnings. Most research has examined the impact of gender role ideology as it impacts occupational choice, which indirectly can impact earnings. Using data from the National

Juanita M. Firestone; Richard J. Harris; Linda C. Lambert

1999-01-01

31

Gender and gender role differences in smiling and communication consistency  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates gender and gender role differences in smiling and in communication consistency across verbal and facial channels. College students' conversations about their emotional experiences were analyzed for smiling frequency and duration, and verbal transcripts were rated for degree of positivity. Students also filled out a gender role questionnaire. Women smiled more than men, especially where discussing happy\\/positive topics

Amy G. Halberstadt; Cynthia W. Hayes; Kathleen M. Pike

1988-01-01

32

Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In

Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak

2000-01-01

33

[Gender differences in vascular medicine].  

PubMed

In vascular medicine only a few studies concerning gender differences in vascular diseases, course of the disease and therapy exist. Risk factors are allocated differently between men and women with different influences on cardiovascular diseases. Diabetic women do have a particular high risk. The proportion of women smokers with a risk for aggravation of the other risk factors is increased. In young female smokers the hypoplastic aortoiliac syndrome is a special course of peripheral arterial disease associated with a bad prognosis. The benefit of hormone replacement therapy in vascular diseases of postmenopausal women has not yet been demonstrated. On the other hand testosterone seems to have a favourable effect on vascular diameter and endothelium of coronaries. Women with peripheral arterial disease represent high risk patients with a particular risk for cardiovascular letality. Periprocedural complications of the analysed operations or interventions are found more frequent in women. Furthermore the disease is in an advanced stage when treated. Especially men with asymptomatic high grade carotid stenosis benefit more from an operation than women because of the higher risk for ischemic stroke. Unfortunately the benefit of the operation in women is neutralized by the higher rate of periprocedural complications. Some studies demonstrate the gender bias in treatment: women seldom receive revascularisation and guideline therapy as frequently as men. The same is true with thromboembolic prophylaxis concerning in hospital patients. In pharmacotherapy women have in result of metabolism more side effects. Additionally women are underrepresented in drug admission studies compared to their percentage of population and gender prevalence of diseases. Further studies concerning gender differences in vascular medicine are definitely needed. PMID:17323292

Hinrichs, A

2007-02-01

34

Gender Differences in Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years researchers have paid particularly close attention to factors that might differentially influence smoking cessation outcomes in men and women. The present paper reviews empirical findings on gender differences in smoking cessation with focus on 1) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), 2) depression and anxiety factors, 3) post-cessation weight gain and body-shape concerns, 4) post-cessation withdrawal, and 5) the

Jose Reynoso; Agnes Susabda; Antonio Cepeda-Benito

2005-01-01

35

Gender Differences in Living with Diabetes  

E-print Network

The aim of this review is to discuss the gender difference among diabetic population. Metabolic control, age and gender significantly affect their psychosocial responses to disease. Psychosocial problems may also occur secondary to negative diabetes related experiences including diagnosis, increased stress and onset of complications. Although significant problems do not occur in all diabetic population, they occur in few patients. More work is needed in the area of identifying those patients having adjustment difficulties to diabetic related challenges. This review indicates that male diabetics are observed to be living more effectively with diabetes, lesser depression and anxiety but more energy and better positive wellbeing

Muhammad A Siddiqui; Mannan F Khan; Thomas E Carline

2012-01-01

36

Gender differences in parental grief.  

PubMed

Gender differences in grief of parents who lost their child were examined using the Grief Experience Inventory. Participants were 35 bereaved couples who ranged in age from 27 to 73. Results showed that the mothers' scores were significantly higher than those of fathers on the following scales: Atypical Responses, Despair, Anger/Hostility, Guilt, Loss of Control, Rumination, Depersonalization, Somatization, Loss of Vigor, Physical Symptoms, and Optimism/Despair. No significant differences were found on the scales of Denial, Social Desirability, Social Isolation, Death Anxiety, and Loss of Appetite. The potential usefulness of the GEI in helping the bereaved is discussed. PMID:10160537

Schwab, R

1996-01-01

37

Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

2008-01-01

38

Gender differences in substance use disorders.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that the rate of substance abuse and dependence is higher among men than it is among women, the prevalence rates, especially the more recent ones, indicate that a diagnosis of substance abuse is not gender specific. From the emerging literature on gender differences over the past 25 years, male and female substance abusers are clearly not the same. Women typically begin using substances later than do men, are strongly influenced by spouses or boyfriends to use, report different reasons for maintaining the use of the substances, and enter treatment earlier in the course of their illnesses than do men. Importantly, women also have a significantly higher prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, than do men, and these disorders typically predate the onset of substance-abuse problems. For women, substances such as alcohol may be used to self-medicate mood disturbances, whereas for men, this may not be true. Although these comorbid disorders might complicate treatment for women, women are, in fact, responsive to treatment and do as well as men in follow-up. Gender differences and similarities have significant treatment implications. This is especially true for the telescoping phenomenon, in which the window for intervention between progressive landmarks is shorter for women than for men. This is also true for the gender differences in physical and sexual abuse, as well as other psychiatric comorbidity that is evident in female substance abusers seeking treatment. The barriers to treatment for women are being addressed in many treatment settings to encourage more women to enter treatment, and family and couples therapy are standard therapeutic interventions. Negative consequences associated with substance abuse are different for men and women, and gender-sensitive rating instruments must be used to measure not only the severity of the problem but also to evaluate treatment efficacy. To determine whether gender differences observed over the past 25 years become less demarcated in comparisons of younger cohorts of substance abusers in the future will be interesting. Changing societal roles and attitudes toward women, the increase in women entering the workplace, in general, and into previously male-dominated sports and professions, in particular, may influence not only opportunities to drink but also drinking culture. Some gender differences likely will remain, but other gender differences will probably also emerge. The comparison of male and female substance abusers promises to be a fruitful one for researchers. The translation if the research findings to the treatment community to improve treatment outcome for both sexes will be an equally exciting challenge for the field. PMID:10385931

Brady, K T; Randall, C L

1999-06-01

39

Scientific literacy: Factor structure and gender differences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of scientific literacy and to document any gender differences with respect to each factor. Participants included 1139 students (574 females, 565 males) in grades 9 through 12 who were taking a science class at one of four Midwestern high schools. Based on National Science Education Standards, a 100 item multiple-choice test was constructed to assess scientific literacy. Confirmatory factor analysis of item parcels suggested a three factor model was the best way to explain the data resulting from the administration of this test. The factors were labeled constructs of science, abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, and social aspects of science. Gender differences with respect to these factors were examined using analysis of variance procedures. Because differential enrollment in science classes could cause gender differences in grades 11 and 12, parallel analyses were conducted on the grades 9 and 10 subsample and the grades 11 and 12 subsample. However, the results of the two analyses were similar. The most consistent gender difference observed was that females performed better than males on the social aspects of science factor. Males tended to perform better than females on the constructs of science factor, although no consistent gender difference was noted for items dealing with life science. With respect to the abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry factor, females tended to perform better than males in grades 9 and 10, while no consistent gender difference was observed in grades 11 and 12. Gender differences were also examined using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure to flag individual items that functioned differently for females and males of the same ability. Twelve items were flagged for grades 9 and 10 (8 in favor of females, 4 in favor of males). Fourteen items were flagged for grades 11 and 12 (7 in favor of females, 7 in favor of males). All of the flagged items exhibited only small to moderate differential item functioning (DIF). Only three items were similarly flagged in both subsamples, one item from each factor.

Manhart, James Joseph

40

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Possible Selves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in global self-esteem at adolescence by investigating the content of and gender differences within high school students' possible selves. Students completed questionnaires on hoped for and feared possible selves and on self-perception. Students were able to access and report a vast array of possible selves. Gender

Knox, Michele; Funk, Jeanne; Elliott, Robert; Bush Ellen Greene

2000-01-01

41

Gender Differences in Wikipedia Editing Yahoo! Research  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Wikipedia Editing Judd Antin Yahoo! Research Santa Clara, VA 95054 jantin UNU-MERIT survey found evidence of a significant gender skew: fewer than 13% of Wikipedia contributors are women. However, the number of contributors is just one way to ex- amine gender differences

Militzer, Burkhard

42

Gender differences in localGender differences in local residents' relationships withresidents' relationships with  

E-print Network

Gender differences in localGender differences in local residents' relationships withresidents that gender can play in park-people relationships and demonstrates the need to explicitly recognize and analyze gender in human-environment relationships. Using social role theory, we discuss the different ways

Srinivasan, N.

43

Gender Differences in Children's Internet Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses comparative empirical data from across Europe on gender differences in children's Internet use, and through a new interpretive framework on young people's experiences, seeks to add new findings to this growing international knowledge base. Linking feminist theory on gender and technology with theories of youth gender identity construction, four key areas are investigated. Firstly, the impact of

Helen McQuillan; Brian O' Neill

2009-01-01

44

Gender and Achievement--Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary objective of this study was to investigate overall patterns of gender differences and similarities of test performance in mathematics. To achieve that objective, observed test scores on the Delaware standards-based assessment were analyzed to examine: (1) gender differences and similarities across grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 over 2 years;…

Zhang, Liru; Manon, Jon

45

Gender differences in adolescent substance abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidities, and treatment responses of substance abuse have been described in adults.\\u000a However, a growing body of data suggests that gender differences also exist in adolescents with substance abuse. Unfortunately,\\u000a research is still limited in this age group. This article reviews gender differences in the diagnosis, presentation, course\\u000a of illness, and treatment response of substance

Angelica Kloos; Ronald A. Weller; Rebecca Chan; Elizabeth B. Weller

2009-01-01

46

Gender Differences in Neurodevelopment and Epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727

Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.

2013-01-01

47

Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.  

PubMed

A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses. PMID:24934011

Schredl, Michael

2014-01-01

48

Gender wage gap in West Germany: how far do gender differences in human capital matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the extent to which gender differences in human capital contribute to explaining the observable wage differential in favour of men and its reduction since the mid-eighties among West German full-time employees in the private sector. Based on a simple analytical framework, the analysis shows that if a large part of the gender wage gap can be attributed

Charlotte Lauer

2000-01-01

49

Interest in Dream Interpretation: A Gender Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several studies reported a significant effect with regard to the gender difference in an interest in dreams, the generalizability of these studies is limited because mainly students were recruited as participants. In this study, gender differences with regard to interest in dream interpretation as an indicator of interest in dreams in general have been demonstrated in a representative sample.

Michael Schredl; Edgar Piel

2008-01-01

50

Age and gender differences in adolescent worry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to explore gender and age differences in adolescent worry. High school students filled out measures of worry, negative problem orientation, intolerance of uncertainty, and general mental health. Girls and boys of different ages were then compared and the relationships between gender, beliefs about worry, intolerance of uncertainty, negative problem orientation and mental health

Usha Barahmand

2008-01-01

51

Cognitive Gender Differences among Israeli Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in spatial, verbal, and mathematical ability in 11,000 Israeli elementary school children. In each test the variance for boys exceeded girls by 10% to 20%. Consistent cross-grade differences in mean achievement were found only for mathematical ability. These results contradict American findings that show no gender

Cahan, Sorel; Ganor, Yael

1995-01-01

52

Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

2008-01-01

53

Gender Differences in Ischemic Heart Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in most developed countries. Gender-related differences have been found in the presentation, prevalence, and clinical outcomes of CAD in many studies. Compared to women, men present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction more often and have a higher prevalence of CAD. These findings indicate that gender may have an

Ryotaro Wake; Minoru Yoshiyama

2009-01-01

54

Gender differences, physical activity and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of physical activity on bodyweight and the gender differences in such effects, following the copula approach to endogenous switching regression. Using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we find differentiated effects of socio-demographic variables on exercise and on Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), and differentiated effects of exercise on BMI, between genders. Regular

Steven T. Yen

2012-01-01

55

Gender differences, physical activity and body weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of physical activity on bodyweight and the gender differences in such effects, following the copula approach to endogenous switching regression. Using data from the 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), we find differentiated effects of socio-demographic variables on exercise and on Body Mass Indexes (BMIs), and differentiated effects of exercise on BMI, between genders. Regular

Steven T. Yen

2011-01-01

56

Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

2014-01-01

57

Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow  

SciTech Connect

Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-01-01

58

Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences  

PubMed Central

Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n?=?785; f: n?=?358, m: n?=?427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p?=?0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p?=?0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p?=?0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

2013-01-01

59

Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis.  

PubMed

Despite the common lay assumption that males and females are profoundly different, Hyde (2005) used data from 46 meta-analyses to demonstrate that males and females are highly similar. Nonetheless, the gender similarities hypothesis has remained controversial. Since Hyde's provocative report, there has been an explosion of meta-analytic interest in psychological gender differences. We utilized this enormous collection of 106 meta-analyses and 386 individual meta-analytic effects to reevaluate the gender similarities hypothesis. Furthermore, we employed a novel data-analytic approach called metasynthesis (Zell & Krizan, 2014) to estimate the average difference between males and females and to explore moderators of gender differences. The average, absolute difference between males and females across domains was relatively small (d = 0.21, SD = 0.14), with the majority of effects being either small (46%) or very small (39%). Magnitude of differences fluctuated somewhat as a function of the psychological domain (e.g., cognitive variables, social and personality variables, well-being), but remained largely constant across age, culture, and generations. These findings provide compelling support for the gender similarities hypothesis, but also underscore conditions under which gender differences are most pronounced. PMID:25581005

Zell, Ethan; Krizan, Zlatan; Teeter, Sabrina R

2015-01-01

60

Familiality of major depressive disorder and gender differences in comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Gender differences exist in the prevalence and psychiatric comorbidity of major depressive disorder (MDD). This study investigates whether familiality of MDD contributes to observed gender differences in comorbidity. METHOD: Familial (f-MDD) and non-familial (nf-MDD) MDD cases from a population sample were assessed for comorbid dysthymia, anxiety disorders and alcohol-related disorders using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Logistic regression

M. Verhagen; A. van der Meij; B. Franke; W. Vollebergh; R van de Graaf; J. K. Buitelaar; J. G. E. Janzing

2008-01-01

61

Gender Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity Density  

PubMed Central

The neural bases of gender differences in emotional, cognitive, and socials behaviors are largely unknown. Here, magnetic resonance imaging data from 336 women and 225 men revealed a gender dimorphism in the functional organization of the brain. Consistently across five research sites, women had 14% higher local functional connectivity density (lFCD) and up to 5% higher gray matter density than men in cortical and subcortical regions. The negative power scaling of the lFCD was steeper for men than for women, suggesting that the balance between strongly and weakly connected nodes in the brain is different across genders. The more distributed organization of the male brain than that of the female brain could help explain the gender differences in cognitive style and behaviors and in the prevalence of neuropsychiatric diseases (i.e., autism spectrum disorder). PMID:21425398

Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D.

2011-01-01

62

He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in Mother-Adolescent Conversations about Sexuality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexual issues. Gender differences (more mother-daughter than mother-son) were found in the extent of sexual communication based on adolescents' reports, but no gender differences were found based on mothers' reports, or on observations of conversations. (Author)

Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Boone, Tanya L.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong

2002-01-01

63

Gender differences in network relationships in academia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examines gender differences in networking characteristics and benefits in a sample of university faculty. Generates hypotheses from Ibarra?s theoretical framework for explaining differences between women?s and men?s interpersonal networks. Finds significant differences between women and men, but, contrary to Ibarra?s theory of interpersonal networks, some of these differences favour women.

Mitchell G. Rothstein; Liane M. Davey

1995-01-01

64

Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

Beyer, Sylvia

2008-01-01

65

[Sex and gender differences in pharmacotherapy].  

PubMed

Many drugs have act differently in women and men. Biological differences between women and men lead to sex differences in pharmacokinetics, i.e., in drug absorption, distribution in tissues, metabolism by liver enzymes, and excretion via the kidney and intestine. In addition there are sex differences in pharmacodynamics, leading to a different efficacy of drugs in women and men. The biological differences between women and men may be caused by sex-specific gene expression, by sex-specific epigenetic modifications, and finally by the effect of sex hormones. In addition, gender plays a role in drug efficacy as a sociocultural dimension that may lead to differences between women and men. Frequently drugs are only tested on animals of one sex and thereby optimized for one sex. This is based on the notion that sex differences are not important for clinical drug effects. Furthermore, to date, sex and gender differences have been underestimated in clinical studies, and phase III studies were not prospectively designed to assess sex differences in drug effects. In addition, women and men use drugs differently with respect to compliance, adherence, and self-medication with over-the-counter drugs. Further, it is known that male and female physicians treat women and men as patients differently. In conclusion, drug therapy is not yet optimized for both genders. However, there is increasing awareness that differences between women and men should be respected in order to provide optimal drugs in optimal doses for both genders. PMID:25030233

Regitz-Zagrosek, V

2014-09-01

66

Gender performance differences in biochemistry.  

PubMed

This study examined the historical performance of students at Michigan State University in a two-part biochemistry series Biochem I (n = 5,900) and Biochem II (n = 5,214) for students enrolled from 1997 to 2009. Multiple linear regressions predicted 54.9-87.5% of the variance in student from Biochem I grade and 53.8-76.1% of the variance in student from Biochem II grade. Overall, the student's cumulative GPA has the primary influence on their biochemistry grade in Biochem I for all models whereas either cumulative GPA or Biochem I performance has the primary influence on Biochem II grade. These factors were far more influential than any other predictors as their ? values were larger (5-10 times larger depending on the model). However, the gender of the student was also statistically significant for Biochem I and more than half of our Biochem II models with female students always predicted lower than their equivalent male counterparts. Biochemistry majors were also found to perform better in Biochem I. Interestingly, grades earned in prerequisite courses such as introductory biology, chemistry, or organic chemistry and ethnicity provided no additional predictive ability about students' performance in biochemistry. Enrollment in an honors college or science residential college had little direct impact on performance in biochemistry. PMID:21567866

Rauschenberger, Matthew M; Sweeder, Ryan D

2010-11-01

67

Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

2011-01-01

68

Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

69

Gender differences in coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease in women is associated with higher morbidity and mortality than in men. The purpose of this article is to summarize recent literature concerning gender-based differences. Specific differences in pathophysiology, traditional and psychosocial risk factors, symptom presentation, treatments, and outcomes between women and men will be reviewed. PMID:16141779

Eastwood, Jo-Ann; Doering, Lynn V

2005-01-01

70

Gender differences in the intravenous self-administration of mu opiate agonists  

E-print Network

Gender differences in the intravenous self-administration of mu opiate agonists Theodore J. Cicero Gender differences have been observed in a number of aspects of the pharmacology of opiates, including gender differences exist in the intravenous (IV) self-administration of opiates in an operant

Steinbach, Joe Henry

71

Gender differences in narcissism: A meta-analytic review.  

PubMed

Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender stereotypes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25546498

Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

2015-03-01

72

Gender Differences in Behçet's Disease Associated Uveitis  

PubMed Central

Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, characterized by oral and genital ulceration, skin lesions, and uveitis as well as vascular, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system involvement. It is prevalent in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the gender differences in clinical manifestations of Behçet's disease, treatment responses, mortality, and morbidity. Behçet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in males from certain geographic regions and particular ethnic groups; however, recent reports indicate more even gender distribution across the world. There are gender differences in clinical manifestations and severity of the disease. Ocular manifestations, vascular involvement, and neurologic symptoms are more frequently reported in male patients whereas oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and arthritis occur more frequently in female patients. The disease can have a more severe course in males, and overall mortality rate is significantly higher among young male patients. PMID:24864195

Ucar-Comlekoglu, Didar; Sen, H. Nida

2014-01-01

73

Gender Differences in Rape Reporting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares male and female rape reporting behavior using data from the National Crime and Victimization Survey for 897 rape victims. Data indicate that the situational characteristics of rape and factors that influence reporting a rape differ by sex. Women reported victimization more frequently than did men. (SLD)

Pino, Nathan W.; Meier, Robert F.

1999-01-01

74

Gender Differences in Geographical Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among college undergraduates, males consistently outperform females on tests of geographical knowledge. That difference may be caused by the fact that women have had less active control over distances and directions traveled in their lives, and thus less interest in learning about them. This may change as women's roles in society change. (PS)

Beatty, William W.; Troster, Alexander I.

1987-01-01

75

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sex differences on Perry's stages of epistemological development were investigated in a study of 100 freshmen (50 men and 50 women) at a large midwestern university. A semi-structured interview probed six domains related to Perry's theory, including the role of the learner, instructor, and peers in the learning situation, the question of…

Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

76

Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

2013-01-01

77

Assessing Gender Differences in College Cigarette Smoking Intenders and Nonintenders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Significant gender differences were observed regarding college students' beliefs about the consequences of smoking, their normative beliefs concerning smoking, and their willingness to comply with advice from authority figures. Educational and treatment programs should address males and females differently. (Author/PP)

Page, Randy M.; Gold, Robert S.

1983-01-01

78

Gender differences in the temporal voice areas  

PubMed Central

There is not only evidence for behavioral differences in voice perception between female and male listeners, but also recent suggestions for differences in neural correlates between genders. The fMRI functional voice localizer (comprising a univariate analysis contrasting stimulation with vocal vs. non-vocal sounds) is known to give robust estimates of the temporal voice areas (TVAs). However, there is growing interest in employing multivariate analysis approaches to fMRI data (e.g., multivariate pattern analysis; MVPA). The aim of the current study was to localize voice-related areas in both female and male listeners and to investigate whether brain maps may differ depending on the gender of the listener. After a univariate analysis, a random effects analysis was performed on female (n = 149) and male (n = 123) listeners and contrasts between them were computed. In addition, MVPA with a whole-brain searchlight approach was implemented and classification maps were entered into a second-level permutation based random effects models using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM; Nichols and Holmes, 2002). Gender differences were found only in the MVPA. Identified regions were located in the middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (bilateral) and the middle superior temporal gyrus (right hemisphere). Our results suggest differences in classifier performance between genders in response to the voice localizer with higher classification accuracy from local BOLD signal patterns in several temporal-lobe regions in female listeners. PMID:25126055

Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Giordano, Bruno L.; Belin, Pascal

2014-01-01

79

Family Change and Gender Differences: Implications for Theory and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines theories of gender differences. Discusses alpha bias, exaggeration of gender opposition, as characteristic of psychodynamic and sex role theories; and beta bias, denial of gender differences, as evident in systems theories. Calls for new model of gender differences which recognizes asymmetry in women's and men's roles and…

Hare-Mustin, Rachel T.

1988-01-01

80

Brain Development: Evidence of Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain development may be one of the most exciting frontiers of the neurosciences, where neuroimaging, genomics, neurobehavioral, longitudinal, and animal research are converging for remarkable discoveries. New medical technologies allowing for structural and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) and success in mapping the human genome have advanced our understanding of typical and atypical neurodevelopment, including gender differences from infancy into adolescence

Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison; Amy Nelson

81

Gender differences in adolescent interpersonal identity formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in adolescent interpersonal identity formation were investigated in 41 male and 42 female high school juniors and seniors. Subjects were interviewed and assessed on progress toward interpersonal identity achievement in friendship and dating relationships. Differential patterns of correlation for each sex were examined for measures of vocational identity, psychological masculinity and femininity, and achievement motivation. Results indicated that

William Thorbecke I; Harold D. Grotevant

1982-01-01

82

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

2012-01-01

83

Gender Differences in Interface Type Task Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three pillars of usability are efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction. Today’s human-computer interface (HCI), used in cellular phone, software, Internet, personal digital assistants and others should be designed to meet these three pillars. This research investigates the influence of two different interfaces on usability as they relate to gender. An experiment was conducted such that objective data were first captured

Dennis Kira; Camille Alexandre Otrakji

2012-01-01

84

Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

Momsen, Janet Henshall

2000-01-01

85

Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

Thompson, Michael D.

2012-01-01

86

The Effects of Schooling on Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in educational achievements based on a longitudinal sample of 45,000+ Hong Kong secondary school students who took a public examination in 1997. Reports results coincided with findings from recent British studies that boys did less well than girls in all areas of school curriculum. (BT)

Wong, Kam Cheung; Lam, Y. Raymond; Ho, Lai Ming

2002-01-01

87

Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

88

Gender Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of our investigation was to study gender differences in proactive and reactive aggression in a sample of 323 clinically referred children and adolescents (68 females and 255 males). Proactive aggression and reactive aggression were assessed using the Proactive\\/Reactive Aggression Scale. Demographic, historical, family, diagnostic, and treatment variables were entered into stepwise regression analyses to determine correlates of proactive

Daniel F. Connor; Ronald J. Steingard; Jennifer J. Anderson; Richard H. Melloni

2003-01-01

89

Gender differences in implicit weight identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study examined gender differences in explicit and implicit atti- tudes toward overweight and explicit and implicit weight identity. Method: Normal weight women (n ¼22) and men (n ¼20) and overweight women (n ¼20) and men (n ¼21) com- pleted the Implicit Association Test and portions of the Eating Disorders Questionnaire. Results: Although explicit and implicit anti-fat attitudes were

Vishal P. Grover; Pamela K. Keel; Jason P. Mitchell

2003-01-01

90

Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions given by athletes for performance can influence performance satisfaction, expectation of future success, and persistence in training and competition. Young and inexperienced athletes often show gender differences in sport attribution, with males attributing success to controllable or stable factors like ability and effort, and females attributing success to uncontrollable or unstable factors like luck and social support. Would

Helen M. Hendy; Bonnie J. Boyer

1993-01-01

91

Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender

Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

2012-01-01

92

Gender differences in seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a 146 women and 44 men (out- and inpatients; treatment sample) with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD; winter type) were tested\\u000a for gender differences in demographic, clinical and seasonal characteristics. Sex ratio in prevalence was (women : men) 3.6\\u000a : 1 in unipolar depressives and 2.4 : 1 in bipolars (I and II). Sex ratios varied also between different birth cohorts

M. J. Lucht; S. Kasper

1999-01-01

93

Investigating Differences in Earnings Based on Gender  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, will focus on frequencies and percentages as well as corresponding bar charts and pie graphs. It will examine how variables such as race, age, gender, and education are related to differences in income earnings within the United States. The module features different aspects such as: learning objectives, key concepts, a learner's pre-assessment, introduction to the topic, critical thinking questions and a learner's post assessment.

Rowell, Kathy

94

Gender and age differences in facial expressions.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to determine a reliable method for quantitatively evaluating the facial expressions of children and adults in order to assess their dependence on age and gender. This study evaluated 80 healthy subjects divided into four groups: 20 girls (mean age 10.6 years), 20 boys (mean age 10.8 years), 20 females (average age 25.6 years), and 20 males (average age 27.0 years). A video was used to record each individual executing three facial expressions: a rest pose, a lip pucker, and a posed smile. Representative video frames were chosen for each individual's expressions; they were digitized and then analysed with software that extracted a set of horizontal and vertical distances of the face. All distances measured in the posed smile and lip pucker were expressed as a percentage change from the rest pose. Statistical analysis with a two-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed, with gender and age as the independent variables. It was evident that the ability to produce certain facial expressions differs between groups of individuals due to gender and age. Males had a greater upward vertical movement capacity in the studied facial expressions than females. Females had a more pronounced horizontal component in the posed smile. There was a trend from childhood to adulthood showing an increase in the percentage change in most vertical movements. This trend was present in both genders, though more pronounced in males. Using a robust quantitative method for collecting and analysing facial expressions, gender differences in adults were detected as well as differences between adults and children. The trend toward increasing vertical movements in adults compared with children suggests the possibility that the mimic musculature is developmentally regulated. PMID:19541798

Houstis, Odyssia; Kiliaridis, Stavros

2009-10-01

95

Gender Differences in Child Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

2013-01-01

96

Gender differences in adolescents' reports of self-control problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences among adolescents in patterns of endorsement of self-control problems were examined. Eleven potential problem areas were assessed. In six areas, significant departures from expected frequencies were observed. Proportionally more females than males reported difficulty in controlling their behavior in five out of six of the endorsed problem areas.

Paul Karoly; Linda S. Ruehlman

1982-01-01

97

Does PTSD Differ According to Gender Among Military Veterans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a study involving systematic random samples of 225 male and 232 female military veterans respectively that had received services at a VAMC in the South. The purpose was to examine what ecological factors predict a diagnosis of PTSD among those veterans. As expected, gender differences in relevant predictors of PTSD were observed: Generally, interpersonal factors, depression and fearfulness

Brent B. Benda; Holly A. House

2003-01-01

98

An Examination of Gender Differences in Adolescent Adjustment: The Effect of Competence on Gender Role Differences in Symptoms of Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have documented gender differences in psychopathology; girls generally report more internalizing symptoms and boys generally report more externalizing symptoms. These gender differences are partially accounted for by the gender-typed personality characteristics of boys and girls. This study was designed to investigate how gender roles influence symptoms of psychopathology by examining the mediating effects of self- and peer-rated competencies.

Melissa L. Hoffmann; Kimberly K. Powlishta; Karen J. White

2004-01-01

99

Gender differences in Chinese journalists' blogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The explosion of Internet users and j-bloggers in mainland China makes Chinese j-blogs an area worthy of examination. This study focused on the gender differences in Chinese journalists' blogs. The study found that female j-bloggers were more likely to write about lifestyle issues and use the diary-like and rumor-mill formats, while male j-bloggers were more likely to discuss hard news

Fangfang Gao; Renee Martin-Kratzer

2011-01-01

100

Short communication Gender differences in cocaine dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study examined gender differences among treatment-seeking cocaine-dependent outpatients (e.g., on demographics, psychopathology, and substance abuse). Participants: Participants were 2376 adults with cocaine dependence entering a multisite randomized controlled trial of psychosocial therapies. Findings: Women, compared to men, had less severe lifetime substance use problems but a higher pattern of psychiatric, medical, social\\/family, and employment problems; they also had

Lisa M. Najavits; Kristin M. Lester

101

Different, Not Better: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on gender differences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…

Geist, Eugene A.; King, Margaret

2008-01-01

102

Gender differences in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

Inequalities in features and severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been noticed between men and women, suggesting a possible influence of gender on disease phenotypes. Comparing disease features and characterization of gender differences in clinical features and medications could help elucidate the potential influence of gender on the severity of AS in patients. This study aims to assess the influence of gender on disease patterns in Iranian patients with AS. Three hundred and twenty patients diagnosed with primary AS were assessed for demographic variables, clinical manifestations, HLA status, disease severity, functional capacities, quality of life, and treatment status. Sixty-seven women and 253 men were included corresponding to a male to female ratio of 3.78:1. Both groups were similar regarding ethnicity, positive family history, and juvenile onset AS. HLA-B27 was more frequent among males (78.3 vs. 55.2%; p?genders. No difference in gender-associated diagnostic delays was observed. Female disease was at least as severe as male disease, and in some aspects, females presented with more severe disease. Despite a relatively similar disease profile, we observed a higher rate of enthesitis among women. Together with the equally high rate of disease activity indices in both genders, these findings indicate an overall longer delay to diagnosis in our country. Early detection and specialized care would be of great practical importance. PMID:24288047

Shahlaee, Abtin; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Farhadi, Elham; Fallahi, Sasan; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza

2015-02-01

103

The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

104

Is the gender difference in mental rotation disappearing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigators have used meta-analysis to compare the results of studies of gender differences on various spatial tests and have concluded that the magnitude of the gender difference in spatial ability is decreasing over time. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to compare the effect size (d) of the gender difference in 14 studies published from 1975 to 1992 which

Mary Soares Masters; Barbara Sanders

1993-01-01

105

Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender

Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

2015-01-01

106

Gender differences in injuries among rural youth.  

PubMed Central

GOAL: This paper presents injury data from the first year of a three year longitudinal study of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. SAMPLE: Study subjects were a cohort of 758 rural students from Maryland's Eastern Shore who were in the eighth grade in 1987. METHODS: Students completed a 45 minute, self administered survey in which they reported numbers of injuries experienced in the past year, risk taking behaviors, anger expression, delinquency, alcohol and drug use, physical exercise, work experience, and level of parental supervision. In addition, students had their height and weight measurements taken by trained research staff and completed a self rating of pubertal development using Tanner drawings. RESULTS: Slightly more than half (53.2%) of the boys and over one third (37.7%) of the girls reported experiencing one or more medically attended injuries during the last year. Poisson regression analyses were conducted to estimate the extent to which gender differences in injuries could be accounted for by adolescent behaviors. Gender effects became non-significant when adjustments were made for risk taking, school discipline problems, and exercise frequency. Gender differences in injuries were reduced but remained significant when substance use, employment, and anger were controlled. Poisson regression analyses were conducted separately for males and females to assess whether factors associated with injuries were similar across genders. For boys, risk taking, anger, and school discipline problems were significantly related to number of injuries. Boys with a low body mass index and late pubertal development (mean ratio 3.09), as well as those with high body mass index and early pubertal development (mean ratio 2.16), reported greater numbers of injuries than average boys. For girls, substance use, cruising, risk taking, anger, and exercise frequency were significantly associated with injuries. Girls with an early onset of menses reported, on average, twice the number of injuries than those who were on time. Girls with high body mass index who were late in their pubertal development reported, on average, five times more injuries than other girls. CONCLUSIONS: Although gender is a significant risk factor for injuries, certain behaviors like risk taking, school related delinquency, and physical exercise partially explain the higher number of injuries among adolescent males in this study. For both males and females, indicators of pubertal and physical development are important factors to consider in studies of injuries during early adolescence. PMID:9345987

Alexander, C. S.; Somerfield, M. R.; Ensminger, M. E.; Kim, Y. J.; Johnson, K. E.

1995-01-01

107

Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

2014-01-01

108

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

2013-01-01

109

Gender differences in ocular blood flow.  

PubMed

Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919

Schmidl, Doreen; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina

2015-02-01

110

Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms Christophe J. NORDMAN (*) François;Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms#### Christophe J. Nordman * François countries, we present comparative evidence on the magnitude of the gender wage gap in African manufacturing

Boyer, Edmond

111

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

112

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

2004-01-01

113

Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

2008-01-01

114

Gender differences in dreams: do they reflect gender differences in waking life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article briefly reviews the literature on gender differences in dream content. The results confirm earlier findings that men dream more often about men, physical aggression and sexuality than women. Women's dreams, on the other hand, contain an equal proportion of male and female characters, more aggression turned inwardly and themes of depression. In regard to formal features, e.g.,

Michael Schredl; Vural Sahin; Gerard Schäfer

1998-01-01

115

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial uni- versity. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as demonstrated on multiple-choice test items; and to what extent are there gender differences in the

K. Shane Goodwin; Lee Ostrom; Karen Wilson Scott

116

Gender and Gender Role Differences in Self- and Other-Estimates of Multiple Intelligences  

PubMed Central

This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

Szymanowicz, Agata

2013-01-01

117

Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

2012-01-01

118

Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

2012-01-01

119

Gender Differences in Chronic Kidney Disease: Underpinnings and Therapeutic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nephrology, gender differences exist with regard to the epidemiology, evolution and prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In some cases, these differences run contrary to the general population trends. This review discusses such gender and sex disparities, including differing impact of traditional and novel risk factors, prescription patterns, differences in the responses to therapies, as well as hormonal factors,

Juan Jesús Carrero

2010-01-01

120

Vive La Difference? Genetic Explanations for Perceived Gender Differences in Nurturance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated genetic explanations for perceived gender differences in nurturance, a gender intensified prescriptive trait,\\u000a compared to other gendered traits. Based on a nationally representative telephone survey of Black and White Americans (N?=?1200), we found perceived gender differences in nurturance were more often attributed to genetics than perceived gender\\u000a differences math ability or violence. Men were more likely than women to

Elizabeth R. Cole; Toby Epstein Jayaratne; Laura A. Cecchi; Merle Feldbaum; Elizabeth M. Petty

2007-01-01

121

Prescription Opioid Aberrant Behaviors: A Pilot Study of Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Objectives Patients prescribed opioids often display one or more aberrant prescription use behaviors (e.g., requesting early refills, borrowing medication from family), which raise concern among health care professionals. Little is known about gender differences in specific types of aberrant behaviors or gender-specific predictors of such behaviors. The current study aimed to begin addressing this gap in the literature Methods A battery of anonymous, self-report assessments was administered to 121 (49 men, 72 women) chronic pain patients enrolled in an outpatient pain management clinic. The majority of participants were Caucasian women with an average age of 51.6 years (SD = 13.2). Results Significantly more men than women were taking a prescribed opioid (91.7% vs. 77.8%, p = .05). Women were significantly more likely than men to hoard unused medication (67.6% vs. 47.7%, p = .04) and to use additional medications to enhance the effectiveness of pain medication (38.8% vs. 20.0%, p = .04). A trend towards men using alternative routes of administration (e.g., crushing and snorting pills) more often than women was observed (8.9% vs. 1.5%, p = .08). Among men, high rates of aberrant prescription use behaviors were associated with current alcohol use and the use of oxycodone and morphine. Among women, use of hydrocodone was associated with high rates of aberrant prescription use behaviors. Discussion Some aberrant prescription use behaviors are common among chronic pain patients and may be gender-specific. Predictors of aberrant prescription use behaviors may also differ by gender. Additional research is needed to help identify aberrant prescription use behaviors that best predict gender-specific risk for developing opioid abuse or dependence. PMID:19542794

Back, Sudie E.; Payne, Rebecca; Waldrop, Angela E.; Smith, Arthur; Reeves, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

2009-01-01

122

Gender Differences in Postinfarction Left Ventricular Remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous studies suggest that gender affects the adaptive responses of the heart to some forms of cardiac overload. It is unknown whether gender influences left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: We performed transthoracic echocardiographic-Doppler examinations in age-matched male (n = 17) and female (n = 16) rats before, and 1 and 6 weeks after transmural MI

Sheldon E. Litwin; Sarah E. Katz; Christine M. Litwin; James P. Morgan; Pamela S. Douglas

1999-01-01

123

Gender Differences in Lipoprotein Responses to Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender and dietary saturated fat remain two strong predictors of coronary heart disease susceptibility. In a retrospective meta-analysis of five studies, we analyzed the impact of gender and diet composition on lipoprotein change, or ‘response’ (?) in 63 normolipidemic subjects fed two contrasting, metabolically controlled diets. One diet had a low polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (low P:S) and

Margaret Cobb; Joshua Greenspan; Margaret Timmons; Howard Teitelbaum

1993-01-01

124

The Emergence of Gender Difference in Depressed Mood During Adolescence: The Role of Intensified Gender Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of depressive mood was examined in a representative and nationwide sample of approximately 12,000 Norwegian adolescents. From the age of 14, girls scored 0.5 SD above boys in depressed mood, a difference that was stable throughout the adolescent period. At the age of 12, no gender difference was found. The gender difference was due to girls becoming more

Lars Wichstrøm

1999-01-01

125

Sex appeal advertising: gender differences in Chinese consumers’ responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research was designed in order to explore the gender differences in Chinese consumers’ responses to sex appeal advertising. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Experiments were conducted at a university in South China with a total of 157 commerce students. Four advertisements, designed for the same fictional brand but featuring different genders and different levels of sex appeal, were tested in

Fang Liu; Jianyao Li; Hong Cheng

2006-01-01

126

Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

2012-01-01

127

Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

2012-01-01

128

Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes  

PubMed Central

To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all ?2 p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle (“t-bone”) crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training – for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

2012-01-01

129

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role Inventory) and demographic information also were obtained. Factor analysis of the COPE revealed 4

Jill M. Washburn-Ormachea; Stephen B. Hillman; Shlomo S. Sawilowsky

2004-01-01

130

Gender Differences in Current Received during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Low current transcranial electrical stimulation (tCS) is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, and proton density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female) were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20?mm round and 50?mm?×?45?mm were examined at 0.5, 1, and 2?mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a 1-cm sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a 10-fold difference in the amount of current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P?differences in current levels that the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancelous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (P?differences should be considered when planning tCS studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences. PMID:25177301

Russell, Michael; Goodman, Theodore; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Lyeth, Bruce G.

2014-01-01

131

Gender Differences in a Clinical Trial for Prescription Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Although gender differences in substance use disorders have been identified, few studies have examined gender differences in prescription drug dependence. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large clinical trial for prescription opioid dependence. Despite no pre-treatment differences in opioid dependence severity, women reported significantly greater functional impairment, greater psychiatric severity, and higher likelihood of using opioids to cope with negative affect and pain than men. Women were also more likely than men to have first obtained opioids via a legitimate prescription and to use opioids via the intended route of administration. Men reported significantly more alcohol problems than women. There were no significant gender differences in medication dose, treatment retention, or opioid outcomes. Thus, despite the presence of pre-treatment gender differences in this population, once the study treatment was initiated, women and men exhibited similar opioid use outcomes. PMID:23313145

McHugh, R. Kathryn; DeVito, Elise E.; Dodd, Dorian; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Connery, Hilary Smith; Weiss, Roger D.

2012-01-01

132

Gender Differences in Wage Rates, Work Histories, and Occupational Segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Social Change and Economic Life Initiative, an attempt is made to gauge the extent of gender differences in wages that are due to discrimination. Allowance is made for gender differences in occupational attainment. It is estimated that discrimination in the range of 11 to 24 per cent of female wages can be found.

Brian G. M. Main

1991-01-01

133

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

2010-01-01

134

Gender differences in adolescents' adjustment in remarried and recoupled families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to examine potential gender differences in adolescent adjustment to parental remarriage and recoupling, and in the quality of their relationships within the stepfamily. Additionally, gender differences in the salience of family relationships for adjustment were examined as well. The variables included the adolescent's self-reported family happiness, the adolescent's report of the quality of

Lauren L. Singleton-Winston

2003-01-01

135

The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no gender differences in depression rates in prepubescent children, but, after the age of 15, girls and women are about twice as likely to be depressed as boys and men. In this article, three models for how gender differences in depression might develop in early adolescence are described and evaluated. According to Model 1, the causes of depression

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema; Joan S. Girgus

1994-01-01

136

Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

2008-01-01

137

Gender Differences in Severity of Writing and Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

2008-01-01

138

Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

2013-01-01

139

Gender differences in occupational wage mobility in the 1958 cohort  

E-print Network

1 Gender differences in occupational wage mobility in the 1958 cohort Shirley Dex, Kelly Ward of pay and male occupational gender segregation. In addition, men were more likely than women, Women and Work Commission, 2006). The difference between rates of pay remains between women in part

de Gispert, Adrià

140

Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to gender differences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter-word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an…

Matthews, J. S.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Morrison, Frederick J.

2009-01-01

141

Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2012-01-01

142

Gender differences in the circadian rhythms of rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies investigating gender differences in human circadian rhythms report equivocal results. In addition, many of these studies have been limited to examination of one circadian variable. This study examined gender differences in circadian rhythms of multiple physiological variables of rhesus monkeys under highly controlled conditions. Under general anesthesia, eight female and seven male rhesus were implanted with a biotelemetry transmitter

Laura K. Barger; Tana M. Hoban-Higgins; Charles A. Fuller

2010-01-01

143

Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…

Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

2004-01-01

144

Gender Differences in Functioning for Older Adults in Rural Bangladesh. The Impact of Differential Reporting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in functional ability among older adults in rural Bangladesh in terms of both self-reported activities of daily living and observed physical performance and to evaluate the extent to which differential reporting by gender contributes to disparities between the two measures. Methods. In 1996, the Matlab Health and Socio-Economic Survey

M. Omar Rahman; Ji-hong Liu

2000-01-01

145

Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children.  

PubMed

The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge-behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

2009-06-01

146

Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children  

PubMed Central

The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

147

Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression: Gender-Typed Characteristics or Problem-Solving Skills Deficits?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…

Marcotte, Diane; Alain, Michel; Gosselin, Marie-Josee

1999-01-01

148

Gender Differences in Drinking and Alcohol Expectancies as Modified by Gender Stereotypes and Living Arrangements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students' drinking, gender stereotypes, and alcohol expectancies were examined in relation to three living arrangements: living either at home, on-campus, or independently. The results highlight the importance of gender stereotypes and living arrangements as influences on drinking behavior and sex differences within the student population. (EMK)

Ricciardelli, Lina A.; Williams, Robert J.

1997-01-01

149

Gender bias in the observation of experimental pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine how men and women observe experimentally induced pain in male and female participants and to specifically determine the accuracy of observed pain ratings, the possible interactions between the sex of the viewer and the sex of the individual being observed, and the influence of gender role expectations on observed pain ratings. The

Michael E Robinson; Emily A Wise

2003-01-01

150

Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

2006-01-01

151

Measuring Gender Differences in Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate relationships between gender, A-level scores and scores on the learning and study strategies inventory (LASSI) of undergraduate students. Design/methodology/approach: The participants for this study were selected at random from the overall LASSI sampling exercise and males and females were…

Downing, Kevin; Chan, Sui-Wah; Downing, Woo-Kyung; Kwong, Theresa; Lam, Tsz-Fung

2008-01-01

152

Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-com- municable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illus- trates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to

Carol Vlassoff

2007-01-01

153

Gender Differences in Computer Education: A Costa Rican Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a time allocation study that was designed to determine how two types of teachers spent their time regarding gender differences in a primary school computer laboratory in Costa Rica. Topics include the sociocultural context of gender roles in Costa Rica, hypothesis testing, and the domination of boys in computer labs. Contains 101…

Huber, Brad R.; Scaglion, Richard

1995-01-01

154

Gender differences in adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of adults report inconsistent findings as to whether males or females are more likely to use violent behaviors toward their partner. Although partner violence frequently begins during adolescence, few dating violence studies involve adolescents and even fewer report findings by gender. This study examines gender differences in adolescent dating violence. Data are from self-administered questionnaires com- pleted by 81%

Vangie A. Foshee

1996-01-01

155

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data  

E-print Network

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data Jonce Dimov1 , Inge.huitinga@nin.knaw.nl, c.van.eden@nin.knaw.nl Abstract. Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) brain lesions is here con associations between brain lesions and gender in MS patients. 1 Introduction Multiple sclerosis is a chronic

Marchiori, Elena

156

Gender differences in the perceptions for the ideal sex partner  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the current study was to investigate the gender differences in preferences for particular characteristics of an ideal sexual partner, and also to investigate the degree men and women accurately estimate the preferences of the other gender. A sample of 289 men and 137 women, who were serving in the army, completed a questionnaire about what they believed

Orestis Giotakos

2004-01-01

157

Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

1996-01-01

158

Gender and Hospital Resource UseUnexpected Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several recent studies have explored gender differences in medical care that are not attributable to clinical characteristics. At an 880bed teaching hospital between July 1987 and June 1990, we studied the importance of gender on two measures of hospital care: length of stay and ancillary service use. The latter was measured on a relative value unit (RVU) scale, based on

Annette M. Bernard; Rodney A. Hayward; Judith S. Rosevear; Laurence F. McMahon

1993-01-01

159

Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

1993-01-01

160

Gender Wage Differences in West Germany: A Cohort Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive descriptive analysis of gender wage differences over a long time period does not exist for West Germany. Using an empirical approach which explicitly takes into account changes of wage distributions for both males and females as well as life-cycle and birth cohort effects, we go beyond conventional decomposition techniques of the average gender wage gap. The paper provides

Bernd Fitzenberger; Gaby Wunderlich

2002-01-01

161

Gender Differences of Electrophysiological Characteristics in Focal Atrial Tachycardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences of supraventricular tachycardias such as atrioventricular nodal re- entry, atrioventricular re-entry, and atrial fibrillation have been reported. There is little evidence of the effect of gender on focal atrial tachycardia (FAT). The study consisted of 298 patients who were referred to this institution for radiofrequency catheter ablation of FAT from October 1992 to April 2008 and included 156

Yu-Feng Hu; Jin-Long Huang; Tsu-Juey Wu; Satoshi Higa; Chun-Ming Shih; Ching-Tai Tai; Yenn-Jiang Lin; Shih-Lin Chang; Li-Wei Lo; Tuan Ta-Chuan; Chien-Jong Chang; Wen-Chin Tsai; Pi-Chang Lee; Hsuan-Ming Tsao; Sugako Ishigaki; Asuka Oyakawa; Shih-Ann Chen

2009-01-01

162

Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

2011-01-01

163

Gender Differences in Poor Outcome Patients With Lifelong Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender effects have been reported quite consistently in schizophrenia, with male patients having an earlier age of onset, poorer functional outcome, greater negative symptoms and cognitive impairment, and less severe positive symptoms. Because age of onset, cognitive impairments, and negative symptoms are all correlated with poorer functional status, it is not clear if previously reported gender differences in symptoms are

Patrick J. Moriarty; Dana Lieber; Ashley Bennett; Leonard White; Michael Parrella; Philip D. Harvey; Kenneth L. Davis

2001-01-01

164

Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

Major, Brenda

1989-01-01

165

Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

Pollard, K. Michael

2011-01-01

166

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

167

Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes’ Coping with Interpersonal Stressors in Sport: More Similarities than Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in the types of coping strategies adolescent athletes use to manage sport-related interpersonal stress. To explain gender coping differences, the dispositional and situational gender coping hypotheses were explored (Tamres, Janicki, & Helgenson, 2002). Adolescent athletes from Western Canada (N = 524) completed measures of stress appraisal and coping-strategy use in response to a self-selected interpersonal

Sharleen D. Hoar; Peter R. E. Crocker; Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen

2010-01-01

168

Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2012-03-01

169

[Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].  

PubMed

Perfectionism is a dimension which has been studied very little as a separate entity. It is not even considered as a nosological factor. No classification of the medical sciences underlines its importance other than to speak of a personality trait, of an aspect, or of a parameter. Nevertheless, perfectionism is related to multiple disorders such as depression (18, 20, 36), suicide (8, 16, 55), nutritional problems (11, 28), anxiety (3), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (53), social phobia (2), as well as insomnia (46). Certain authors stress the possible role of perfectionism in the development or the persistence of a substantial number of these disorders (7, 22, 38). Given these facts, it is all the easier to understand the interest shown by clinicians and researchers in the subject. Better detection and evaluation of its impact on behaviour is important in putting therapies in place (6, 53). Relationships between perfectionism and fear of failure have been approached (21, 51, 54). Correlations between perfectionism and high levels of state and trait anxiety have been demonstrated (23). The evaluation of perfectionism has been dealt with very little. Some questionnaires devote a sub-category to it, such as the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Irrational Beliefs Test. However, recently, it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct. Two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation. Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate defined perfectionism as the setting of excessively high standards for performance associated with critical self-evaluation. Six dimensions are described: concern over making mistakes, high personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubt about quality of performance and organization. Internal consistency and validity have been established (25, 26). Hewitt and Flett (30, 31, 33, 35) have developed another approach where three dimensions of perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality trait, but it can be used also in taking into account stress and its impact, for instance

Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

2003-01-01

170

Depression in children and adolescents: Does gender make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of depression is higher in females after puberty, suggesting a gender-related difference. This article reviews\\u000a studies that have examined gender differences in the presentation and treatment of depression in adults and discusses how\\u000a this information applies to depressed children and adolescents. The adult literature suggests that men and women vary in presentation\\u000a of depression. In addition, differences exist

Elizabeth B. Weller; Angelica Kloos; Joon Kang; Ronald A. Weller

2006-01-01

171

Gender differences in survival following hospitalisation for COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Gender differences in the clinical expression of COPD are increasingly recognised, but outcome differences have not been systematically examined. Gender differences in survival and rate of rehospitalisation were investigated in a large cohort of elderly patients with chronic airflow obstruction hospitalised for COPD.MethodsThe databases from the

Anne V Gonzalez; Samy Suissa; Pierre Ernst

2010-01-01

172

The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

Drab, Deborah D.

173

Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red-backed salamanders  

E-print Network

Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red online 27 October 2004; MS. number: A9684) Most studies of animal behaviour are based on direct animals by men and women observers (`gender identification bias') for any of the behaviours examined

Marsh, David

174

The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe  

PubMed Central

Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women’s cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

2014-01-01

175

The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe.  

PubMed

Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women's cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

2014-08-12

176

I Hear Something Different: Differences in Gender Messages from Parent-Child Communication about Sex with Late Adolescents  

E-print Network

S.W. (2006). Gender differences in adolescent perceptions ofwith gender differences in parent-adolescent relationshipsGender differences in sex-related communication among urban African-American adolescents.

Allen, Evette L

2012-01-01

177

Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.  

PubMed

Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men. PMID:10396890

Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

1999-06-01

178

Gender Differences in Diastolic Function Among Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Youth were studied to determine the influence of gender on diastolic function, which has been shown to express abnormalities\\u000a early in the course of congestive heart failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study participants were 121 normotensive individuals (53 girls, 68 boys) ages 14 to 18 years. Demographics, hemodynamics,\\u000a and Doppler-derived indices of diastolic function were collected. Dependent measures of diastolic function were the

G. K. Kapuku; H. C. Davis; N. Shah; A. M. McMillan; G. A. Harshfield

2008-01-01

179

Gender differences in children's arithmetic performance are accounted for by gender differences in language abilities.  

PubMed

Studies have shown that female children, on average, consistently outperform male children in arithmetic. In the research reported here, 1,556 pupils (8 to 11 years of age) from urban and rural regions in the greater Beijing area completed 10 cognitive tasks. Results showed that girls outperformed boys in arithmetic tasks (i.e., simple subtraction, complex multiplication), as well as in numerosity-comparison, number-comparison, number-series-completion, choice reaction time, and word-rhyming tasks. Boys outperformed girls in a mental rotation task. Controlling for scores on the word-rhyming task eliminated gender differences in arithmetic, whereas controlling for scores on numerical-processing tasks (number comparison, numerosity estimation, numerosity comparison, and number-series completion) and general cognitive tasks (choice reaction time, Raven's Progressive Matrices, and mental rotation) did not. These results suggest that girls' advantage in arithmetic is likely due to their advantage in language processing. PMID:22344448

Wei, Wei; Lu, Hao; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-03-01

180

A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences in ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined gender differences in ADHD through a meta-analysis. Effect size estimates for the primary symptoms and correlates of ADHD were calculated in an attempt to replicate and extend a previous meta-analysis on gender differences in the disorder. Relatively lenient inclusion criteria were used in order to maximize the number of studies included in the effect sizes.The results

J. Gershon

2002-01-01

181

Gender differences in social support in the decision to volunteer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of a study that examines gender differences relating to social influences and norms when individuals\\u000a are making the decision to volunteer. Specifically, this paper examines gender differences in reciprocity and collaboration\\u000a in initiating volunteer service. An online questionnaire was used to collect data (N?=?742). The results were significant and supported the hypotheses. Females are more

Walter Wymer

182

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

SciTech Connect

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

Atreya, Kishor [Alternative Development and Research Center (ADRC), GPO BOX 20078, Kathmandu (Nepal)]. E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

2007-06-15

183

Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-does occupation matter?  

PubMed

Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by chi(2) analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes. PMID:16709472

Dimich-Ward, Helen; Camp, Patricia G; Kennedy, Susan M

2006-06-01

184

Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?  

SciTech Connect

Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

Dimich-Ward, Helen [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada)]. E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G. [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); James Hogg iCapture Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6 (Canada); Kennedy, Susan M. [School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

2006-06-15

185

Exercise intensity and gender difference of 3 different salsa dancing conditions.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to estimate the difference in exercise intensity (METs), energy cost (EE) and gender difference between a typical salsa lesson (TSL), rueda de casino lesson (RCL), and salsa dancing at a night club (SDN). Subjects performed 1 pre-testing session and 3 testing conditions. During the pre-testing session height, weight and V?O2max were assessed. During the testing conditions all subjects performed 3 different kinds of salsa dance. Heart rate was assessed during each dance condition. The exercise intensity of the 3 salsa dancing conditions was moderate ranging from 3.9 to 5.5 METs. A significant difference between genders for HRpeak (P=0.01), max%HRR (P=0.006) and mean EE (P=0.02) were observed. Significant gender×condition interactions for HRpeak (P=0.03), mean %HRR (P=0.02), mean METs (P=0.02) and mean EE (P=0.02) were found. In addition, a significant main effect for each condition was found in all variables (P<0.01). Our results showed that the exercise intensities of all 3 salsa dancing conditions were moderate. Findings showed some significant differences in exercise intensity between males and females and within conditions. Salsa dancing could be useful in achieving a significant training effect in people who have a low level of fitness. PMID:23041966

Emerenziani, G P; Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Franciosi, E; Buzzachera, C F; Baldari, C

2013-04-01

186

Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: effects on children's gender attitudes and intergroup bias.  

PubMed

Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed gender attitude, intergroup bias, and personal preference measures at the beginning and end of a 2-week period during which teachers either did or did not make gender salient. Observations of peer play were also made at both times. After 2 weeks, children in the high- (but not low-) salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers. Children's own activity and occupational preferences, however, remained unaffected. PMID:21077864

Hilliard, Lacey J; Liben, Lynn S

2010-01-01

187

Religion and education gender gap: Are Muslims different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses individual-level data and a differences in differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and that there is no difference

Hajj Mandana; Ugo Panizza

2006-01-01

188

Gender Differences in Risk Perception: Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of risk research indicates that women and men differ in their perceptions of risk. This paper discusses how they differ and why. A review of a number of existing empirical studies of risk perception points at several problems, regarding what gender differences are found in such studies, and how these differences are accounted for. Firstly, quantitative approaches,

Per E. Gustafson

1998-01-01

189

Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness  

PubMed Central

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:17615903

2007-01-01

190

Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

1990-12-01

191

Observing Different Microbes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a microscope to examine three different microbes: bacteria, yeast and paramecia. Educator will need to prepare the yeast solution one day before the activity. This lesson guide includes background information, educator resources and Slide Preparation Cards. A yogurt recipe is included as an extension to this activity.

Nancy P. Moreno

2008-01-01

192

Gender Differences in Spiritual Development During the College Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in spirituality and related traits are an assumed reality despite the lack of empirical information that\\u000a directly compares women and men. I used a national and longitudinal sample of 3,680 college students surveyed with the Cooperative\\u000a Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey (2000) and later with the College Students’ Beliefs and Values (CSBV)\\u000a Survey (2003) to examine gender

Alyssa N. Bryant

2007-01-01

193

Clinical Gender Differences Among Adult Pathological Gamblers Seeking Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning,\\u000a and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite\\u000a study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression\\u000a was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical

Enrique Echeburúa; Itxaso González-Ortega; Paz de Corral; Rocío Polo-López

2011-01-01

194

Gender-based expectancies and observer judgments of smiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs about gender differences in smiling were measured by asking college students to rate how much they believed hypothetical women and men smile. Women were believed to smile more than men. Individual differences in this belief did not affect subsequent scoring of smiles, whether scored by counting the number of smiles exhibited by videotaped male and female targets or by

Nancy J. Briton; Judith A. Hall

1995-01-01

195

Gender differences among children with autism spectrum disorder: differential symptom patterns.  

PubMed

The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

Baker, Sidney M; Milivojevich, Andrew

2013-11-01

196

Gender Differences Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Differential Symptom Patterns  

PubMed Central

The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

Milivojevich, Andrew

2013-01-01

197

Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

2009-01-01

198

Gender differences in the sexual rating of words.  

PubMed

The present study investigated whether gender-based differences in the rating of sexual words still exist in the late 1990s. Men and women evaluated 400 English-language words on the characteristics of sexual charge and sexual ambiguity. Data gathered from these ratings were compared with other factors such as religious involvement, sexual experience, sex guilt, and social desirability. Men and women did not differ in their sexual ratings of the list. However, because the list contained a large number of words that had no sexual content at all, gender differences were examined for ratings of a sample of 30 sexually ambiguous words. As hypothesized, men rated these words as significantly more sexual than women. Significant gender differences were found on a number of sexuality and personality measures. Women were more religious than men, and religiosity was significantly correlated with most of the other measures. Women also had higher social desirability scores, which implies that they may have been responding in a socially desirable manner and were not completely honest. Overall, gender differences followed gender-oriented stereotypes: (a) Women have greater sexual guilt than men, (b) women are less sexually arousable or more "erotophobic," and (c) women are less comfortable answering questions about their sexuality and rating words. PMID:9509376

Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A

1998-01-01

199

A Multivariate Model of Gender Differences in Adolescents' Internalizing and Externalizing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences observed in interpersonal and self-critical vulnerabilities, reactivity to stressful life events, quality of relationships, and self-concepts inform a multivariate theoretical model of the moderating effects of gender on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. To test this model, data were collected in a 1-year prospective study from an ethnically diverse sample of 460 middle school students. Increases in

Bonnie J. Leadbeater; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Sidney J. Blatt; Christopher Hertzog

1999-01-01

200

How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

2014-01-01

201

Gender Differences in Genetic Risk Profiles for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR?=?1.31 (1.08–1.60) for CVD, uncorrected p?=?0.006 multiplicative model). Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p?=?0.00005) in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values). Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction)?=?0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. Conclusions/Significance A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported findings for combined gender analysis to be true positives, while at least third of the reported genotype-gender interaction results are true positives. The asymmetry in positive findings between the genders could imply that genetic risk loci for CVD are more readily detectable in women, while for men they are more confounded by environmental/lifestyle risk factors. The possible differences in genetic risk profiles between the genders should be addressed in more detail in genetic studies of CVD, and more focus on female CVD risk is also warranted in genome-wide association studies. PMID:18974842

Silander, Kaisa; Saarela, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Auro, Kirsi; Karvanen, Juha; Kulathinal, Sangita; Niemelä, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarela, Janna; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Evans, Alun; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena

2008-01-01

202

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice  

PubMed Central

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed. PMID:20191095

Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

2010-01-01

203

Gender Differences in Cooperation: Experimental Evidence on High School Students  

PubMed Central

The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

Molina, J. Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, José A.; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

2013-01-01

204

Gender differences in the cardiovascular effect of sex hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in men than in women of similar age, and the menopause-associated increase in cardiovascular disease in women, has led to speculation that gender-related differences in sex hormones have a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease. Compelling data have indicated that sex differences in vascular biology are determined not only by

Cristiana Vitale; Michael E. Mendelsohn; Giuseppe M. C. Rosano

2009-01-01

205

Gender Differences in Health and Nutrition in Southern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper examines the health and nutritional status of Ethiopian families with a particular aim of investigating the differences between males and females and identifying the sources of these differences. In our sample of Enset-growing communities, gender roles seem to be quite separate. While both males and females engage in the cultivation and processing of Enset, males do most

Ayal Kimhi

206

Gender differences in young Asian Americans' educational attainments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, data from the 1986 follow-up of a national probability sample of 1980 high school seniors are examined: (a) to determine whether gender differences exist in the educational attainment of Asian-American youth and compare these differences with those found among other groups (Blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans, and Whites), (b) to confirm that immigrant status and ethnicity account for

Paul R. Brandon

1991-01-01

207

Gender Differences in the Reporting of Physical and Somatoform Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Women have consistently been shown to report greater numbers of physical symptoms. Our aim in this study was to assess gender differences for specific symptoms and to assess how much of these differences were attributable to psychiatric comorbidity. Method: Data from the PRIME-MD 1000 study (1000 patients from four primary care sites evaluated with the Primary Care Evaluation of

KURT KROENKE; ROBERT L. SPITZER

208

Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

Morris, Jill B.

2013-01-01

209

Situational Influences on Gender Differences in Agency and Communion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences were examined in the context of situational effects. Participants monitored interpersonal behavior for 20 days, using an event-sampling strategy. The monitored behaviors reflected dominance and submissiveness (components of agency) and agreeableness and quarrelsomeness (components of communion). The situations reflected differences in the status of work roles: interactions with boss, co-worker, and supervisee. Status influenced agency. Individuals were most

D. S. Moskowitz; Eun Jung Suh; Julie Desaulniers

1994-01-01

210

Age and gender differences in adolescents' homework experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest, positive affect and stress while doing homework. Regarding age differences, middle school students reported more positive experiences

Hayal Z. Kackar; Lee Shumow; Jennifer A. Schmidt; Janel Grzetich

2011-01-01

211

Ethnic and gender differences in parental expectations and life stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents ethnic and gender differences in reported stressful life events (SLE) in a sample of 70 Southeast Asian (SEA) adolescents. The ranking of five SLEs with the highest percentage reportingSome orA Lot of stress showed differences in qualitative life events among Cambodian, Hmong, and Vietnamese adolescents. Cambodians rankedstrict discipline in social life by parents as most stressful. Hmong

Quang DuongTran; Serge Lee; Sokley Khoi

1996-01-01

212

Gender differences in game behaviour in invasion games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game performance in invasion games. There also exist different participation and learning patterns.

David Gutierrez; Luis M. García-López

2012-01-01

213

Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

2010-01-01

214

Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence, treatment, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the management of and outcome of surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).Methods: Hospital discharge data from all acute care hospitals in Michigan, as compiled in the Michigan Inpatient Data Base, were retrospectively analyzed to assess sex differences in regard to AAA prevalence, treatment, and surgical outcome from 1980

Dolores J. Katz; James C. Stanley; Gerald B. Zelenock

1997-01-01

215

Molecular and Cellular Basis of Cardiovascular Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the major cause of morbidity and mortality for both men and women, occur uncommonly in premenopausal women, but their incidence rises sharply after the menopausal transition. Cardiovascular gender differences are apparent long before CVDs appear in men and women, and improved understanding of the biology underlying these differences has the potential to advance the diagnosis and treatment

Michael E. Mendelsohn; Richard H. Karas

2005-01-01

216

Gender Differences in the Negative Affective Priming of Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative affective priming of aggression was examined across different aversive contexts (general stress exposure and frustration) with a laboratory aggression paradigm that measured the intensity of shocks participants delivered to a putative employee. Participants' emotional responses were gauged via startle eyeblink reactions and self-report mood ratings. Aside from gender differences in overall aggression, men but not women exposed to

Edelyn Verona; John J. Curtin

2006-01-01

217

Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

218

Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare men and women for differences in affective and cognitive processes associated with impulse buying behavior and to identify gender differences in terms of impulsive purchases made from a variety of product categories. A total of 277 students served as the sample. Using analysis of variance tests, males and females were found to

Amanda Coley; Brigitte Burgess

2003-01-01

219

Ethnic and Gender Differences in Cough Reflex Sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although recent studies have suggested that the cough reflex is more sensitive in women than in men, ethnic differences in cough reflex sensitivity have not previously been investigated. Objectives: To evaluate ethnic and gender differences in cough reflex sensitivity. Methods: We performed capsaicin cough challenge testing in 182 healthy volunteers of three distinct ethnic groups: Caucasian (white, non-Hispanic, of

Peter V. Dicpinigaitis; Valerie R. C. Allusson; Annmarie Baldanti; Jhansi R. Nalamati

2001-01-01

220

Gender Differences in Eating Behavior and Body Weight Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in food intake and selection first appear in adolescence. Men consume more calories than women, and the sexes have different eating styles, which indicate that women have been socialized to eat in a more feminine manner. Women experience more food-related conflict than men do, in that they like fattening foods but perceive that they should not eat them.

Barbara J. Rolls; Ingrid C. Fedoroff; Joanne F. Guthrie

1991-01-01

221

Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

1996-01-01

222

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LENIENCY TOWARDS POLICE MISCONDUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the differences in leniency between male and female partici- pants on a sample of 95 police officers and 247 students in Slovenia. The partici- pants read eleven hypothetical scenarios of police misconduct and answered the questions measuring their moral judgments, attitudes, and behavioral intentions regarding the described behaviors. The results showed that at least some differ- ences

MILAN PAGON; BRANKO LOBNIKAR; DARKO ANELJ

223

Gender differences in anaerobic power tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in anaerobic power between males and females could be accounted for by differences in body composition, strength, and neuromuscular function. A total of 82 untrained men and 99 women took part in the study. Body composition, somatotype, isometric strength, neuromuscular function were measured, and four anaerobic power tests performed.

J. L. Mayhew; Pamela C. Salm

1990-01-01

224

Gender differences in perceived intimacy with different members of adolescents' social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has clearly established important gender differences in how intimacy is viewed within a narrow set of relationships, primarily those with same-sex peers. This article presents a new social pressures model that delineates a set of diverse forces believed to influence gender differences in intimacy across a much wider set of social relationships during early adolescence. Although it was

Dale A. Blyth; Frederick S. Foster-Clark

1987-01-01

225

Estradiol Inhibits Leukocyte Adhesion and Transendothelial Migration in Rabbits In Vivo Possible Mechanisms for Gender Differences in Atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism by which estrogens protect against atherosclerosis is not known. We evaluated in vivo whether there is a gender difference in monocyte adhesion and subendothelial migration in hypercholesterolemic rabbits and whether any gender differences observed are due to estradiol. Monocyte adhesion and subendothelial migration were assessed in a blinded fashion by analyzing a standardized segment of aorta using a

Lauren Nathan; Shehla Pervin; Rajan Singh; Michael Rosenfeld; Gautam Chaudhuri

226

Religion and education gender gap: Are Muslims different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and that there is no difference between the

Mandana Hajj; Ugo Panizza

2009-01-01

227

A Structural Social Psychological View of Gender Differences in Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze differences in cooperation between men and women in social dilemma settings. Using a structural social psychological\\u000a framework, we examine how the actor, the encounter, the microstructure, and the macrostructure might influence when gender\\u000a differences emerge in cooperation. Many of the interaction differences, often linked to innate differences between men and\\u000a women, are modified when the context is modified.

Jane Sell; Kathy J. Kuipers

2009-01-01

228

Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.  

PubMed

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

2014-12-22

229

Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress  

E-print Network

Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress Nichole R. Lighthall,*1 Michiko Sakaki,1 Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn,1,2 Lin nichole.lighthall@usc.edu phone: (213) 740-9078 fax: (213) 740-9403 #12;STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION

Mather, Mara

230

Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

2007-01-01

231

Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

Harper, Vernon, Jr.

2007-01-01

232

Gender Differences in Using Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…

Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

2011-01-01

233

Gender differences in mathematics strategy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences in first grade girls' and boys' strategy use could be predicted by their temperament characteristics. Eighty-four first grade students, 42 boys and 42 girls, from two suburban elementary schools participated in this study. Children were asked to solve addition and subtraction problems using any strategy they preferred. Attempted and correct

Heather Davis; Martha Carr

2001-01-01

234

Gender differences in cross-generation networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In later life, cross-generational networks are primarily among kin; friends are considered to be of the same cohort. Kin networks are likely to have an integrity of their own, independent of any of their members. Members are likely to share basic values or to avoid issues that might cause conflict or estrangement. Sex differences are profound. Mother-daughter bonds are both

Lillian E. Troll

1987-01-01

235

Males' and females' conversational behavior in cross-sex dyads: From gender differences to gender similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender differences in conversational behavior in an experimental setting. Twenty men and 20 women were randomly paired in 20 dyads and were asked to discuss a given topic. We examined the transcripts through a varied range of behavioral variables. First we analyzed the sequential ordering of utterances in order to establish the way male and female speakers take

Agnesa Pillon; Catherine Degauquier; François Duquesne

1992-01-01

236

Spanning the gender gap: gender differences in delinquency among inner-city adolescents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between gender and delinquency among inner-city adolescents participating in a court diversion program. Official and self-report records of 64 adolescents were analyzed to determine the influence of gender on program referrals, arrest rates, drug use, delinquency, and gang involvement. Gender differences emerged in both the referral source and behavioral patterns of the adolescents. Overall, males were more likely to be referred to the program for violations of the law, to have been arrested, and to have engaged in aggressive offenses and selling drugs. Females were more likely to be referred because of status offenses. Gang membership had an intensifying effect on the delinquent behaviors of all youths. Male gang members were far more likely than nonmembers to have been arrested, and female gang members were more likely than nonmembers to carry weapons. PMID:8266841

Rhodes, J E; Fischer, K

1993-01-01

237

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-05-15

238

Gender differences in activity participation, time-of-day and duration choices: new evidence from Calgary  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date only limited research has quantified differences between female and male activity patterns, and analyses at an individual activity level are scarce. Past research has focused on investigating gender differences in mobility levels based on observed travel patterns, especially those related to commuting. This article reports new evidence based on analyses of a household activity survey data-set collected from

Ming Zhong; Chaozhong Wu; John Douglas Hunt

2012-01-01

239

Methamphetamine use behaviors and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis describes methamphetamine (MA) use behaviors in a broad cross-section of (N=350) former clients from a large publicly funded treatment system and examines differences between males and females in drug use history, MA initiation and motivators, MA-related problems, acquisition, distribution, manufacture, and treatment characteristics. Results show polydrug use, prolonged MA use before treatment, initiation primarily through friends, common sensation-seeking

Mary-Lynn Brecht; Ann O'Brien; Christina von Mayrhauser; M. Douglas Anglin

2004-01-01

240

Gender differences in game responses during badminton match play.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences in match play activity pattern [rally duration, rest time between rallies, effective playing time, and strokes performed during a rally] and exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], blood lactate [La], and subjective ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) during 9 simulated badminton matches in male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) elite junior (16.0 ± 1.4 years) players. Results showed significant differences (all p < 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.80-1.56) between male and female players in the activity pattern of match play, with male players engaged in longer rallies (6.8 ± 4.8 vs. 5.7 ± 3.1 seconds), executing more strokes per rally (6.4 ± 4.8 vs. 4.7 ± 2.8) and resting more between rallies (10.5 ± 8.8 vs. 8.8 ± 7.2 seconds) than female players. No clear differences (all p > 0.05; ES = -0.33 to 0.08) were observed between female or male players in average HR (174 ± 7 vs. 170 ± 9 b·min(-1)), %HRmax (89.2 ± 4.0% vs. 85.9 ± 4.3%), La (2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)), and RPE values (14.2 ± 1.9 vs. 14.6 ± 1.8) during match play, although male players spent more time (moderate effect sizes) at intensities between 81 and 90% HRmax (35.3 ± 17.9 vs. 25.3 ± 13.6; p < 0.05; ES = 0.64) in the second game. There seemed to be a trend toward an increased playing intensity (i.e., higher HR, La, and RPE) from the first to the second game, highlighting the higher exercise intensity experienced during the last part of the match. The clear between-gender differences in activity patterns induced only slightly different physiological responses. PMID:23238094

Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose G; Moya-Ramon, Manuel; Cabello-Manrique, David; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

2013-09-01

241

Psychological Gender Differences in Bariatric Surgery Candidates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Over 177,000 bariatric surgeries were performed in 2006. Most patients are required to receive presurgical psychological clearance,\\u000a although there are no empirically validated psycho-surgical risk factors. In an effort to establish normative data on suspected\\u000a risk factors, the present study was conducted to determine if males and females differ on psycho-surgical risk factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Subjects consisted of 361 consecutive bariatric surgery

David Mahony

2008-01-01

242

Gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Lepr(fa) rats.  

PubMed

The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Lepr(fa) (SDT fatty) rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity. PMID:24892034

Ohta, Takeshi; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Sasase, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shuichi; Tong, Bin; Yamada, Takahisa

2014-01-01

243

Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

2010-01-01

244

Gender Differences in the Perception of Administrative Role Demands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Efforts to understand the relationship between gender and school administration have usually focused on explaining the limited numbers of women administrators. Explanations of leadership style differences have stressed sex-role socialization theory, though some researchers suggest that the structure of power, opportunity, and social proportions in…

Estler, Suzanne E.

245

Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

2009-01-01

246

Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

2013-01-01

247

Gender Differences of Gifted and Talented Students on Mathematics Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences of gifted and talented students in mathematics performance were examined using the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) of 1995. The LEAP test is a statewide criterion-referenced test administered to all Louisiana public school children in Grades 3, 5, 7, 10, and 11. In this study, the database was restricted to…

Park, Hae-Seong; Norton, Scott M.

248

Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher rates of reported morbidity among women are sometimes attributed to lower thresholds among women for experiencing and reporting symptoms. Gender differences in the perception of signs and symptoms of minor illness were examined on data from the MRC Common Cold Unit. Volunteers assessed the presence and severity of colds at the end of their stay in the Unit, using

Sally Macintyre

1993-01-01

249

Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

2012-01-01

250

Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software. PMID:18689104

Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

2008-01-01

251

Gender differences in factors influencing students towards computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines students' pre-college experience with computers. It finds significant gender differences in how students develop interest in computers; exposure to computers at home; availability of computers in high schools; and high-school preparations for college study in a computing field. The paper has a number of implications to improve the digital divide for women. It is based on 150

Roli Varma

2009-01-01

252

Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

2014-01-01

253

Computer Experience and Gender Differences in Undergraduate Mental Rotation Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study surveyed undergraduates (27 men, 83 women) to investigate gender differences in mental rotation. It compared pretesting on the Vandenberg Test of Mental Rotation (VTMR) and posttesting after two sessions of computer games. Men typically scored higher on pretest VTMR. After playing a game requiring mental rotation of figures, women…

De Lisi, Richard; Cammarano, Diane M.

1996-01-01

254

The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

Hubbard, William H. J.

2011-01-01

255

Gender Differences in Judgments of Multiple Emotions From Facial Expressions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors tested gender differences in emotion judgments by utilizing a new judgment task (Studies 1 and 2) and presenting stimuli at the edge of conscious awareness (Study 2). Women were more accurate than men even under conditions of minimal stimulus information. Women's ratings were more variable across scales, and they rated correct target emotions higher than did men.

Judith A. Hall; David Matsumoto

2004-01-01

256

Gender differences in awareness of courtship initiation tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two phases of the initiation of courtship behavior are distinguished, namely the first move of making the contact, and the self-presentation after the contact has been established. Gender differences with respect to cognitions and expectations of courtship behavior were analyzed through self-report in a Dutch Caucasian student population. Our goal was to assess male and female roles

Carolina de Weerth; Akko Kalma

1995-01-01

257

Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

2014-01-01

258

Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

Closson, Leanna M.

2009-01-01

259

Gender Differences in Keeping Secrets from Parents in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current longitudinal study examined adolescent gender differences in the developmental changes and relational correlates of secrecy from parents. For 4 successive years, starting in the second year of junior high (mean age at Time 1 = 13.2 years, SD = 0.51), 149 male and 160 female Dutch adolescents reported on secrecy from their parents and…

Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Meeus, Wim

2010-01-01

260

Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

2011-01-01

261

Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

2012-01-01

262

Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

2012-01-01

263

Gender Differences in Victim and Crime Characteristics of Sexual Assaults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines gender differences in victim and crime characteristics in an effort to determine the extent to which sexual assault is a similar experience for men and for women. Data from a routine structured interview was obtained from medical charts of 842 women and 128 men seen at an urban hospital-based rape treatment center. Demographic characteristics were similar,

Rachel Kimerling; Alessandra Rellini; Vanessa Kelly; Patricia L. Judson; Lee A. Learman

2002-01-01

264

Beliefs About Smoking Among Adolescents–Gender and Ethnic Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consistent 20-year trend in adolescent tobacco use is that African American youth smoke cigarettes at a lower rate than other ethnic groups. To better understand this difference, our study identified gender and ethnic beliefs about cigarette smoking and abstention from smoking. In a multiethnic sample of adolescents, based on qualitative analysis of 63 in depth interviews with African American,

Wendell C. Taylor; Candace L. Ayars; Alicia P. Gladney; Ron J. Peters Jr; Jacqulin R. Roy; Alexander V. Prokhorov; Robert M. Chamberlain; Ellen R. Gritz

1999-01-01

265

RESEARCH Open Access Gender difference and sex hormone production  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Gender difference and sex hormone production in rodent renal ischemia a protective effect of female sex hormones in several organs subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of the study was to investigate sex hormone production in male rats after a renal ischemia-reperfusion sequence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

266

College Student Views of the Elderly: Some Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four hundred and forty-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 38-item questionnaire designed to assess student attitudes toward the elderly. The data revealed several significant gender differences including the age at which a person becomes "old" (men select a younger age), strength (men see less…

Knox, David; Kimuna, Sitawa; Zusman, Marty

2005-01-01

267

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

2012-01-01

268

Solving Graphics Tasks: Gender Differences in Middle-School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual-spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined gender differences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in…

Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.

2011-01-01

269

Gender Differences in Suicide Attempters in Hungary: Retrospective Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. Methods In the framework of the WHO\\/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pécs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. Results A

Sandor Fekete; Viktor Voros; Peter Osvath

270

Gender Differences in the Academic Ethic and Academic Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates gender differences in the academic ethic and academic achievement among college students. The authors used the survey data collected from students attending Georgia Southern University, a unit of the University System of Georgia and one of two regional universities in the state. Results from the analysis indicate that…

Chee, Kyong Hee; Pino, Nathan W.; Smith, William L.

2005-01-01

271

Eating Sweet Snacks: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet

SARAH C. GROGAN; RUSSELL BELL; MARK CONNER

1997-01-01

272

Gender Differences in Competition: The Role of Socialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses an experimental task to explore whether there are gender differences in selecting into competitive environments across two distinct societies: the Maasai in Tanzania and the Khasi in India. One unique aspect of these civilizations is that the Maasai represent a textbook example of a patriarchal society whereas the Khasi are matrilineal. Similar to the extant evidence drawn

Uri Gneezy; Kenneth L. Leonard; John A. List

273

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

274

Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

Barbezat, Debra A.

2006-01-01

275

Clinical gender differences among adult pathological gamblers seeking treatment.  

PubMed

This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning, and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical and continuous independent variables. Female gamblers were older than men and more likely to be divorced or widowed and to have a lower annual income. Women became more dependent on bingo and men on slot machines. Gambling motivation and the course of illness for both sexes were also different. Female gamblers were more anxious and with a poorer self-esteem than male gamblers and more affected by depressive symptoms; in turn, men were more impulsive and higher sensation seekers than women and more affected by drug/alcohol abuse. The 68.6% of female gamblers reported being victims of intimate partner violence. There were no gender differences about the motivation for treatment. Future research should examine gambling behaviors and psychological functioning and suggest treatment approaches to address specific goals according to these gender-related differences. PMID:20532964

Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

2011-06-01

276

Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

2005-01-01

277

Impact of Rehabilitation on Psychological Distress: Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of data (n=11,739) from a Social Security Survey (1978) examined rehabilitation and mental health characteristics of people with various disabilities or health problems. Correlates of psychological distress included nature of the disability, race, education, gender. Men and women also responded differently to rehabilitation with men…

Altman, Barbara M.; Smith, Richard T.

1992-01-01

278

Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed microenterprises in…

Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

279

Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

2007-01-01

280

Street Children in Nairobi: Gender Differences in Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences among street children in Nairobi suggest familial function, and development and mental-health outcomes. Male children are taught coping skills by their mothers early on to take up street life to support their family. Female children, expected to remain at home and learn to become women, turn to street life as the result of…

Aptekar, Lewis; Ciano-Federoff, Lynda M.

1999-01-01

281

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP A Large Sample Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate possible gender differences in organizational leadership behavior, a diverse sample of North American male and female managers (n=1,800) matched for organization, management level, job function, and management experience were com- pared on 22 leadership behaviors and 3 effectiveness measures. Outcome measures were assessed using a 360-degree strategy in which each manager was evaluated by self, boss,

Robert I. Kabacoff

2010-01-01

282

Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

2004-01-01

283

Gender differences in kindergarteners' robotics and programming achievement  

E-print Network

Gender differences in kindergarteners' robotics and programming achievement Amanda Sullivan in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and programming tasks. The TangibleK Program consisted of a six lesson robotics and pro- gramming curriculum

Bers, Marina Umaschi

284

Age and gender differences in children's food preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to examine the developmental patterning of food preferences in a large sample of British schoolchildren and to investigate possible gender differences. Using a cross-sectional survey design, the study was carried out in three primary and three secondary schools in West London, UK. A total of 1291 children aged from 4 to 16 years completed a

Lucy J. Cooke; Jane Wardle

2005-01-01

285

Gender differences in the psychopathology of depressed inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years there has been increased scientific effort to describe the gender–specific psychopathological features of depression. Until now these studies have not been entirely conclusive, which could be the result of methodological difficulties. This report investigates sex differences in the symptom presentation in an inpatient population: 104 female and 113 male patients suffering from a depressive episode

Dietmar Winkler; Edda Pjrek; Angela Heiden; Georg Wiesegger; Nikolas Klein; Anastasios Konstantinidis; Siegfried Kasper

2004-01-01

286

Gender Differences in Opinions and Practices with Regard to a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-cultural theories about gender differences with regard to food and health constitute the point of departure for this paper, which is based on data from two representative surveys in the Norwegian population. Both were carried out in the autumn of 1994; the first with 1050, the second with 13 200 respondents above 15 years of age. The surveys included questions

R. Aa. FAGERLI; M. WANDEL

1999-01-01

287

Gender Differences in Correlates of Substance Use: Implications for Prevention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to determine whether gender differences exist on a number of psychosocial variables that are correlated with the use of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana. Subjects were 1,465 students from 22 schools in three regions of New York State who were in the seventh grade during the 1985-1986 school year. Students completed…

Tortu, Stephanie; And Others

288

Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

2010-01-01

289

Gender Differences in the Perception and Acceptance of Online Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the gender differences in the acceptance of…

Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Shun

2008-01-01

290

Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

2014-01-01

291

Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

2005-01-01

292

Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

Madden, David

2010-01-01

293

Gender differences in giving blood: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background An overview of European blood donors shows that the distribution of men and women donors is similar in many countries, with Italy being an exception in that women account for only 30% of donors. Gender medicine is a key issue in this context, even though gender studies are very limited in the transfusion field, whether considered broadly or with specific regards to the selection, management and retention of donors. It, therefore, seemed important to compare the presence of women among blood donors in different European countries and examine the roles that gender is reported to play in the donation of blood in order to identify possible implications for communication with and management of the donor. Methods To determine the proportion of women among donors in European countries, data were collected from annual reports or documents available on the websites of national associations; furthermore, all papers related to giving blood published in the five main journals in the sector (Transfusion, Vox Sanguinis, Transfusion and Apheresis Science, Transfusion Medicine, Blood Transfusion) were considered; about 80 publications were selected and the gender variable was examined. Results The published studies showed that gender plays key roles in the motivation to give blood (women being more altruistic, men being more individualistic) and in adverse reactions, which was a particularly critical problem leading to fewer women become regular donors. A few aspects specific to the management of donors in Italy also emerged. Discussion Gender seems to play an important role in the aspects studied and does, therefore, merit further consideration in relation to strategies to recruit donors and the management of critical events during donation. PMID:20967170

Bani, Marco; Giussani, Barbara

2010-01-01

294

Gender Differences in Colorectal Cancer Incidence in the United States, 1975–2006  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Gender differences have been documented among patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC). It is still not clear, however, how these differences have changed over the past 30 years and if these differences vary by geographic areas. We examined trends in CRC incidence between 1975 and 2006. Methods The study population consisted of 373,956 patients ?40 years diagnosed with malignant CRC between 1975 and 2006 who resided in one of the nine Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) regions of the United States. Age-adjusted incidence rates over time were reported by gender, race, CRC subsite, stage, and SEER region. Results Overall, CRC was diagnosed in roughly equal numbers of men (187,973) and women (185,983). Men had significantly higher age-adjusted CRC incidence rates across all categories of age, race, tumor subsite, stage, and SEER region. Gender differences in CRC age-adjusted incidence rates widened slightly from 1975 to 1988, reached a peak in 1985–1988, and have narrowed over time since 1990. The largest gap and decline in CRC incidence rates between men and women were observed among those ?80 years (p<0.001), followed by those 70–79 and then 60–69 years. Gender differences in CRC incidence rates for the 40–49 and 50–59 age categories were small and increased only slightly over time (p=0.003). Conclusions Higher CRC age-adjusted incidence among men than among women has persisted over the past 30 years. Although gender differences narrowed in the population ?60 years, especially from 1990 to 2006, gender gaps, albeit small ones, in those younger than 60 increased over time. Future studies may need to examine the factors associated with these differences and explore ways to narrow the gender gap. PMID:22149014

Abotchie, Peter N.; Vernon, Sally W.

2012-01-01

295

Gender differences in zebrafish responses to cocaine withdrawal  

PubMed Central

The acute responses to cocaine and its withdrawal contribute to cocaine dependence and potentiate relapse, with gender being one of the genetic factors affecting the outcome. Here we report that in both male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio, AB strain), an initial low-dose cocaine treatment (1.5?M, immersion) does not acutely change their behavior. The cocaine withdrawal, however, is associated with an anxiety-like state that develops earlier in female zebrafish but is more robust and persistent in males, and can be acutely attenuated by cocaine administration. This is not a result of gender differences in the expression of anxiety-like state, since behavioral responses to an anxiogenic drug, FG-7142, are similar in male and female zebrafish. The basal brain dopamine (DA) levels and the expression of dopamine transporter mRNA (zDAT) show no significant sexual dimorphism. Acute cocaine exposure does not significantly change DA or zDAT. Withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration results in an overall reduction in zDAT, as well as an increase in DA levels. Neither treatment leads to significant gender differences in brain DA or zDAT. The common and gender-specific effects of cocaine on zebrafish, a well-characterized model of vertebrate development and genetics, should help in understanding the mechanisms involved in the anxiety associated with cocaine withdrawal and provide new opportunities in search for therapeutic solutions. PMID:18499199

López Patiño, Marcos A.; Yu, Lili; Yamamoto, Bryan K.; Zhdanova, Irina V.

2015-01-01

296

An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables\\u000a associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence,\\u000a self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women,\\u000a including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance,

Jane M. Watson

1989-01-01

297

Gender and situational differences in children's smiles, touch, and proxemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that gender differences in nonverbal behaviors which are often considered to be affiliative may represent systematic differences between males and females in self-presentation. Smiling, touching, and interpersonal distance were studied with 256 White adolescents and preadolescents, who were randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs. Self-presentation was made more salient by asking each subject pair to pose for

Phyllis W. Berman; Vicki L. Smith

1984-01-01

298

Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In Analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II,

Kristen C. Kling; Janet Shibley Hyde; Carolin J. Showers; Brenda N. Buswell

1999-01-01

299

Metacognition and Reading Comprehension: Age and Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter presents an overview of the authors’ work on age differences in children’s metacognition and reading comprehension\\u000a during upper elementary and high school (9–17-years old) in Croatia, with an emphasis on gender differences. The focus was\\u000a placed on upper elementary school as a crucial period for the development of metacognition in the domain of reading comprehension.\\u000a In the first

Svjetlana Koli?-Vehovec; Igor Bajšanski; Barbara Ron?evi? Zubkovi?

300

Gender Differences in Personality: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958–1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940–1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety,

Alan Feingold

1994-01-01

301

Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

Y?lmaz, Serkan; Ery?lmaz, Ali

2010-08-01

302

Gender differences in sleep disordered breathing: implications for therapy.  

PubMed

There are gender differences in the upper airway function and respiratory stability in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Hormones are implicated in some gender-related differences, and these differences between men and women appear to mitigate as age increases. In addition, changes in the airway and lung function during pregnancy can contribute to snoring and OSA that might have an adverse effect on the mother and fetus. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women, the consequences of the disease are similar, if not worse. Women with OSA may have greater risk for hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, be more likely to develop comorbid conditions such as anxiety and depression and have increased mortality. Therefore, treatment options specifically targeting female presentations and pathophysiology of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are expected to result in improved outcomes in women. PMID:25739831

Won, Christine; Guilleminault, Christian

2015-04-01

303

Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.  

PubMed

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (P<0.001). We identified that deprived nocturnal sleep, an irregular sleep-wake schedule and depression were the risk factors of EDS for both genders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women). PMID:12560020

Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

2003-02-01

304

Phenotypical evidence for a gender difference in cardiac norepinephrine transporter function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Norepinephrine transporter (NET) function has a central ,role in the ,regulation of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations. Clinical observations in orthostatic intolerance patients suggest a gender difference in NET function. We compared the cardiovascular response to selective NET inhibition with reboxetine between ,12 healthy men and 12 age-matched women. Finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured. The

Christoph Schroeder; Frauke Adams; Michael Boschmann; Jens Tank; Sebastian Haertter; Andre Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Friedrich C. Luft; Jens Jordan

2004-01-01

305

Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression: Gender-Typed Characteristics or Problem-Solving Skills Deficits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored gender differences indepressive symptoms during adolescence in relation withgender-typed characteristics, problem-solving abilities,and stressful life events. Participants were 306 white French-speaking adolescents (142 men and164 women) from upper middle-class families enrolled ina high school in the Trois-Rivières area ofQuebec. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 17 years, with a mean age of 15.3 years (SD = .95).

Diane Marcotte; Michel Alain; Marie-Josee Gosselin

1999-01-01

306

Gender Differences in Leg Stiffness and Stiffness Recruitment Strategy During Two-Legged Hopping  

PubMed Central

The authors compared leg stiffness (KVERT), muscle activation, and joint movement patterns between 11 men and 10 women during hopping. Physically active and healthy men and women performed continuous 2-legged hopping at their preferred rate and at 3.0 Hz. Compared with men, women demonstrated decreased KVERT; however, after the authors normalized for body mass, gender differences in KVERT were eliminated. In comparison with men, women also demonstrated increased quadriceps and soleus activity, as well as greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratios. There were no significant gender differences for joint movement patterns (p > .05). The relationship between the observed gender differences in muscle recruitment and the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women requires further study. PMID:15730945

Padua, Darin A.; Arnold, Brent L.; Carcia, Christopher R.; Granata, Kevin P.

2006-01-01

307

Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

2006-09-01

308

Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.  

PubMed

In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

2013-11-01

309

Gender differences in leadership – believing is seeing: implications for managing diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Are there “really” gender differences in leadership? Do beliefs regarding gender differences in leadership differ across cultures? And how do these beliefs influence diversity management? This article aims to demonstrate how different beliefs regarding gender differences and leadership can influence company diversity policies and initiatives. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – First, the authors review the research evidence on the relationship between

Karsten Jonsen; Martha L. Maznevski; Susan C. Schneider

2010-01-01

310

Gender differences and hormonal Modulation in Visceral Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women seek healthcare and are diagnosed more frequently with chronic somatic and visceral pain conditions relative to men.\\u000a These conditions tend not to be life-threatening disorders, but rather ones that decrease people’s quality of life, impinge\\u000a on work and recreational activities, and increase healthcare resource utilization. With increased awareness of basic gender\\u000a differences in biology and responsiveness to therapies, there

Margaret M. Heitkemper; Monica Jarrett

2001-01-01

311

Developmental changes and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of friendships  

Microsoft Academic Search

This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys) participated. A multigroup multivariate accelerated growth curve showed an

Irene H. A. De Goede; Susan J. T. Branje; Wim H. J. Meeus

2009-01-01

312

Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes' Beliefs and Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to examine gender differences in adolescent athletes' expectancy-related beliefs and task values as well as the relationship between the two constructs within the expectancy-value model of achievement choice. The participants were 349 males and 283 females (N = 632) participating in the 34 th Sarawak School Sports Inter-Division Athletic Meet. They were divided into

Chin Ngien Siong

313

Gender Differences among Adolescents with Gambling-Related Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from five recent studies using self-reports were merged to explore gender differences in the characteristics of adolescent\\u000a problem gambling, including comorbidity with other youth problems. The sample consisted of 2,750 male and 2,563 female participants.\\u000a Male problem gamblers were more likely than females to report signs of psychological difficulties while females were more\\u000a likely to note behavioural problems as

Stephen Ellenbogen; Jeffrey Derevensky; Rina Gupta

2007-01-01

314

Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

2014-01-01

315

Gender Differences in Integration of Images in Visuospatial Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined gender differences in mental integration of images in visuospatial short-term memory. College students were asked\\u000a to imagine the combined abstract shape that would be formed by integrating two separate shapes briefly shown on a computer\\u000a screen. The shapes were presented in four conditions: (1) simultaneously at the center of the screen, (2) simultaneously side-by-side,\\u000a (3) sequentially at the

Carol A. Lawton; David W. Hatcher

2005-01-01

316

Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age and gender differences in social problem-solving ability were examined using the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (D'Zurilla et al., 1998). In general, the results suggest that social problem-solving ability increases from young adulthood (ages 17–20) to middle-age (ages 40–55) and then decreases in older age (ages 60–80). Specifically, compared to younger adults, middle-aged individuals scored higher on positive problem orientation and

Thomas J. D'Zurilla; Albert Maydeu-Olivares; Gail L. Kant

1998-01-01

317

Gender Differences in Nutritional Risk Among Older Rural Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Older adults are vulnerable to nutrition-related health problems due to health and psychosocial changes that accompany aging. Those in rural communities face additional problems. This study characterizes the nutritional risk of rural older adults using the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), paying particular attention to gender differences in risk. Data come from face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 638 White

Sara A. Quandt; Dinnie Chao

2000-01-01

318

Gender Differences in the EEG of Abstinent Cocaine Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the EEG were explored in cocaine-abusing individuals not seeking treatment. Twenty currently abstinent cocaine-abusing females aged 21–41 were studied. Their cocaine use history was matched to 20 currently abstinent cocaine-abusing males. Twelve female and 20 male non-drug-abusing individuals served as a control group. Resting eyes closed EEG was recorded from 8 leads. The males who used cocaine

Deborah E. King; Ronald I. Herning; David A. Gorelick; Jean L. Cadet

2000-01-01

319

Gender Differences in the Functional and Structural Neuroanatomy of Mathematical Cognition  

PubMed Central

Despite ongoing debate about the nature of gender differences in mathematics achievement, little is known about gender similarities and differences in mathematical cognition at the neural level. We used fMRI to compare brain responses in 25 females and 24 males during a mental arithmetic task involving 3-operand addition and subtraction. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gender differences in brain structure. Although females and males did not differ in accuracy or response times (effect size d < 0.3), significant gender differences in functional brain activation were observed in the right dorsal and ventral visuo-spatial information processing streams (d > 1.1). Males showed greater dorsal stream activation in right intra-parietal sulcus areas important for numerical cognition, and angular gyrus regions of the default mode network that are typically deactivated during complex cognitive tasks, as well as greater ventral stream activation in the right lingual and parahippocampal gyri. VBM revealed an opposite pattern of gender differences – compared to males, females had greater regional density and greater regional volume in dorsal and ventral stream regions where males showed greater fMRI activation. There were no brain areas where females showed greater functional activation than males, and no brain areas where males showed greater structural density or volume than females. Our findings provide evidence for gender differences in the functional and structural organization of right hemisphere brain areas involved in mathematical cognition. Together with the lack of behavioral differences, our results point to more efficient use of neural processing resources in females. PMID:19376239

Keller, Katherine; Menon, Vinod

2010-01-01

320

Gender differences in outcomes from prison-based residential treatment.  

PubMed

This study examines gender similarities and differences in background characteristics, the effectiveness of treatment, and the predictors of post-release outcomes among incarcerated drug-using offenders. The sample of 1,842 male and 473 female treatment and comparison subjects came from a multi-site evaluation of prison-based substance abuse treatment programs. Three-year follow-up data for recidivism and post-release drug use were analyzed using survival analysis methods. Despite the greater number of life problems among women than men, women had lower three-year recidivism rates and rates of post-release drug use than did men. For both men and women, treated subjects had longer survival times than those who were not treated. There were both similarities and differences with respect to gender and the other predictors of the two post-release outcomes. Differences in background characteristics and in factors related to post-release outcomes for men and women suggest the plausibility of gender-specific paths in the recovery process. PMID:12745032

Pelissier, Bernadette M M; Camp, Scott D; Gaes, Gerald G; Saylor, William G; Rhodes, William

2003-03-01

321

Gender differences in factors influencing electrocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy in severe aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

We investigated gender differences in factors influencing the electrocardiographic (ECG) findings of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). The functional and geometric responses of the left ventricle to chronic pressure overload, such as hypertension and AS, have been reported to be different between men and women. However, gender differences in the factors influencing the ECG findings of LVH in pressure overload remain unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study in consecutive patients with severe AS (aortic valve area (AVA) assessed by cardiac catheterization <1.0 cm(2)) without concomitant significant aortic regurgitation, mitral stenosis and/or regurgitation, conduction disturbance, or myocardial infarction (n = 35 males, 68 females). The ECG criteria were classified into three categories: (1) high voltage by the Sokolow-Lyon index associated with ST-T wave changes (with no digitalis therapy); (2) high voltage alone; and (3) normal. Groups 1 and 2 were defined as LVH on ECG. We compared the ECG findings in relation to the AS severity between genders. Women were older, but there were no significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, AVA index (AVAI), mean pressure gradient or peak velocity across the AV, LV mass index (LVMI) derived from echocardiography or the distribution of ECG categories between genders. A multiple logistic regression analysis including age, gender, hypertension, AVAI, mean pressure gradient, and LVMI revealed that the LVMI (P = 0.001) and AVAI (P = 0.0434) were significantly related to the distribution of ECG categories. LVMI significantly predicted LVH on ECG in both genders, but AVAI was a predictive factor in only women. ECG LVH in patients with severe AS may be mainly reflected by LVMI in men and by both LVMI and AVAI in women. Factors other than AVA, such as end-stage disease and/or complicating factors such as hypertension, may underlie the observed differences in ECG findings of LVH between men and women. PMID:23979264

Satoh, Shinji; Omura, Soichiro; Inoue, Hiroko; Ejima, Emiko; Shimozono, Koutatsu; Hayashi, Makiko; Mori, Takahiro; Takenaka, Katsuhiko; Kawamura, Natsumi; Numaguchi, Kotaro; Mori, Etsuo; Asoh, Akemi; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Hiyamuta, Koji

2014-09-01

322

Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

1991-01-01

323

Gender Schemas and the Salience of Gender: Individual Differences in Nonreversal Discrimination Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-four boys and 23 girls aged 3 to 6 years attending preschools serving mostly middle class populations participated in a nonreversal discrimination task with gender typing and size of stimulus the relevant target dimensions. Results support predictions based on gender schema theory regarding salience of gender-to-gender schematic and…

Carter, D. Bruce; Levy, Gary D.

1991-01-01

324

Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.  

PubMed

It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items. PMID:23863971

Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

2014-08-01

325

Free Alcohol Use and Consequences: Gender Differences Among Undergraduates  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine gender differences in obtaining free alcohol, high-risk drinking, and consequences. Methods Web-based surveys were administered annually (2003–2005) to random samples of undergraduates (N=10,729). Results Gender, race, age under 21, sorority/fraternity membership, lower disposable income, and relationship status were significant predictors of obtaining free alcohol. Frequent obtainers had greater odds of heavy episodic drinking and consequences compared to infrequent obtainers. Females were less likely to report heavy episodic drinking; however, frequently obtaining females were more likely to report heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions Approximately 25% of undergraduates frequently obtained free alcohol. Females obtained more often, had higher odds of high-risk drinking, and experienced fewer consequences compared to males. PMID:22488395

Blocker, Jill; McCoy, Thomas P.; Sutfin, Erin; Champion, Heather; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

326

Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use of either nest or song perch sites in vegetation analyses can result in misleading, or at least incomplete, descriptions of a species' habitat. Habitat interpretations for Willow Flycatchers (and perhaps for many passerines) are a function of the gender-specific behavior of the birds observed and the scale of vegetation measurement.

Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

1992-01-01

327

Gender differences in pedestrian rule compliance and visual search at signalized and unsignalized crossroads.  

PubMed

Male pedestrians are over-represented in road crashes. Among pedestrians, males violate more rules than females do. For now, it is not known whether gender differences in pedestrian behaviors only concern rule compliance. The objective of this study was to explore gender differences in pedestrian rule compliance and in gaze targets before and during crossing. 400 adult pedestrians were observed at two signalized and two unsignalized crossroads, using a taxonomic observation grid which detailed 13 behavioral categories before, during and after crossing. The results show that the temporal crossing compliance rate is lower among male pedestrians but spatial crossing compliance does not differ between genders. Furthermore, different gaze patterns emerge between genders before and during crossing, notably as women particularly focus on other pedestrians during these two periods whereas men focus on vehicles. Moreover, females' gazes vary with the type of crossroads, but males' gazes do not. Spatial crossing compliance and gaze targets are furthermore modulated by the crossroad configuration. These results are discussed in terms of pedestrian visual strategy and compliance. PMID:21658507

Tom, Ariane; Granié, Marie-Axelle

2011-09-01

328

Gender Differences in Confidence Levels, Group Interactions, and Feelings about Competition in an Introductory Robotics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom environment influences each student's educational experience. The aim of this classroom evaluation was to gain a better understanding of how each gender functions in an introductory robotics class, where LEGOs and ROBOLAB were used as a tool to teach engineering principles and basic robotics concepts. A better understanding of how each gender performs in reaction to the classroom setup will hopefully lead to the development of a learning environment that is mutually beneficial to each gender. The course, a general freshman introduction to engineering, targeted for this evaluation required students to complete robotic challenges while working within groups and participating in design competitions. The present evaluation explored gender differences in self-confidence levels related to robotic tasks, feelings toward competitions as a component of the course, and differences in the way males and females interact within groups. Assessment was conducted through interviews, observations, and written questionnaires. Competency in robotics activities was found to be similar although males were found to be more confident of their own abilities. Both genders felt the competitions were enjoyable and integral to the atmosphere of the class. Males in the class took the competitions more seriously than did the females. Building and programming robots were thought to be their greatest areas of learning by the women. Males, on the other hand, cited working in groups and learning to compromise as the areas where they made the greatest improvements.

Milto, Elissa

329

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

330

Gender differences in physical activity in older children and adolescents: the central role of organized sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have generally had limited success in accounting for gender differences in leisure time physical activity. Based on a representative national survey of 3270 Icelandic 6th, 8th and 10th grade students, the study found that girls’ lower enrollment in organized sport clubs fully accounts for gender differences in frequency of overall physical activity, and largely accounts for gender differences

Runar Vilhjalmsson; Gudrun Kristjansdottir

2003-01-01

331

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few

Mark Weiser; Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Zeev Kaplan; Mordechai Mark; Daniella Nahon; Michael Davidson

2000-01-01

332

Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas

Antonio Terracciano; Robert R. McCrae

2001-01-01

333

Gender differences in relationships between urban green space and health in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

Natural environments, or 'green spaces', have been associated with a wide range of health benefits. Gender differences in neighbourhood effects on health have been found in a number of studies, although these have not been explored in relation to green space. We conducted the first UK-wide study of the relationship between urban green space and health, and the first such study to investigate gender differences in this relationship. An ecological approach was used. Two land use datasets were used to create a proportional green space measure (% by area) at the UK Census Area Statistic ward scale. Our sample consisted of 6432 urban wards, with a total population of 28.6 million adults aged 16-64 years in 2001. We selected health outcomes that were plausibly related to green space (cardiovascular disease mortality, respiratory disease mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness) and another that was expected to be unrelated (lung cancer mortality). Negative binomial regression models examined associations between urban green space and these health outcomes, after controlling for relevant confounders. Gender differences in these associations were observed and tested. Male cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease mortality rates decreased with increasing green space, but no significant associations were found for women. No protective associations were observed between green space and lung cancer mortality or self-reported limiting long-term illness for either men or women. Possible explanations for the observed gender differences in the green space and health relationship are gender differences in perceptions and usage of urban green spaces. We conclude that it is important not to assume uniform health benefits of urban green space for all population subgroups. Additionally, urban green space measures that capture quality as well as quantity could be more suited to studying green space and health relationships for women. PMID:20621750

Richardson, Elizabeth A; Mitchell, Richard

2010-08-01

334

Gender Differences in Cognitive Control: an Extended Investigation of the Stop Signal Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men and women show important differences in clinical conditions in which deficits in cognitive control are implicated. We\\u000a used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine gender differences in the neural processes of cognitive control during\\u000a a stop-signal task. We observed greater activation in men, compared to women, in a wide array of cortical and sub-cortical\\u000a areas, during stop success (SS)

Chiang-shan Ray Li; Sheng Zhang; Jeng-Ren Duann; Peisi Yan; Rajita Sinha; Carolyn M. Mazure

2009-01-01

335

EB 2006 Refresher Course - Gender Differences in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology, and in the pathophysiology of disease. This refresher course will provide an overview of this new information, with the goal of providing teachers of medical students with the background necessary to include the most important aspects of sex-based differences in their medical student curricula. The presentations will discuss both male and female physiology, and will address sex-based differences due to the actions of both androgens and the ovarian steroid hormones. The presentation topics include gender differences in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, the musculoskeletal system, the central nervous system, and the immune system.

PhD Martha L. Blair (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Department of Pharmacology and Physiology)

2006-04-01

336

Gender Differences in Self-Attributions: Relationship of Gender to Attributional Consistency, Style, and Expectations for Performance in a College Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for a study of collegestudents that examined gender differences in theconsistency of attributions over time, in generalattributional style, and in specific explanations forperformance in a course. Both genders demonstratedconsistency over time. There was no difference ingeneral attributional style by gender, and there was nodifference in specific attributions for courseperformance by gender combined with accuracy in predictingperformance. However,

Constance R. Campbell; John W. Henry

1999-01-01

337

Gender differences in response to antipsychotic treatment in outpatients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to evaluate gender differences in schizophrenia in response to typical and atypical antipsychotics. The SOHO (Schizophrenia Outpatient Health Outcomes) study is a 3-year, prospective, observational study of health outcomes associated with antipsychotic treatment in 10 European countries that included over 10,000 outpatients initiating or changing their antipsychotic medication. The analyzed sample included 4529 men (56.68%) and 3461 women (43.32%). Findings showed that gender was a significant predictor for response based on the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale and for improvement in quality of life measured with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-VAS) scale, with women having a better response. The highest gender differences were found in typical antipsychotics and clozapine. Olanzapine only showed differences in quality of life, and no differences were found for risperidone. In conclusion, in this group of outpatients with schizophrenia, gender is a predictor of clinical response to antipsychotic treatment, but its influence is not the same for all antipsychotics. PMID:17681611

Usall, Judith; Suarez, David; Haro, Josep Maria

2007-12-01

338

Gender differences and equality issues in Europe: critical aspects of gender mainstreaming policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender mainstreaming is the major global strategy for the promotion of gender equality. Clear intergovernmental mandates for gender mainstreaming have been developed for all the major areas of work of the United Nations and the European Commission, including disarmament, poverty reduction, macro-economics, health, education and trade. The evaluation of equal opportunities mainly focuses on qualification measures for unemployed women and

Isabella Crespi

2009-01-01

339

Gender Diagnosticity: A New Bayesian Approach to Gender-Related Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender diagnosticity refers to the Bayesian probability that an individual is predicted to be male or female on the basis of some set of gender-related diagnostic indicators. We computed gender diagnostic probabilities from occupational preference ratings made by 117 male and 110 female subjects. Subjects also completed the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and were assessed on

Richard Lippa; Sharon Connelly

1990-01-01

340

Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

2006-01-01

341

Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

2010-01-01

342

Gender Differences in Large-Scale Math Assessments: PISA Trend 2000 and 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many efforts have been made to determine and explain differential gender performance on large-scale mathematics assessments. A well-agreed-on conclusion is that gender differences are contextualized and vary across math domains. This study investigated the pattern of gender differences by item domain (e.g., Space and Shape, Quantity) and item type…

Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark

2009-01-01

343

Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2014-01-01

344

A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2010-01-01

345

Gender Differences in Verbal Communication between Popular and Unpopular Children during an Interactive Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in communication effectiveness between popular and unpopular 5- to 7-year-old children. Because previous research suggests that there may be gender differences in how popular and unpopular children communicate with each other, 24 same-gender pairs (each containing a popular and an unpopular child) were…

Murphy, Suzanne M.; Faulkner, Dorothy

2006-01-01

346

Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

2008-01-01

347

Gender differences in health: a Canadian study of the psychosocial, structural and behavioural determinants of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender-based inequalities in health have been frequently documented. This paper examines the extent to which these inequalities reflect the different social experiences and conditions of men's and women's lives. We address four specific questions. Are there gender differences in mental and physical health? What is the relative importance of the structural, behavioural and psychosocial determinants of health? Are the gender

Margaret Denton; Steven Prus; Vivienne Walters

2004-01-01

348

WORKING PAPER N 2009 -36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER N° 2009 - 36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs: Females trapped: Gender, discrimination, wages, quantiles, job assignment model, glass ceiling PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES SUP�RIEURE halshs-00575011,version1-9Mar2011 #12;Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs: Females

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

349

Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

2010-01-01

350

Gender differences in consumer evaluations of service quality: self-service kiosks in retail  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the effect of consumer characteristics on service quality for self-service kiosks, which, in turn, leads to the actual use of self-service kiosks. In addition, the authors attempt to explore gender differences in two aspects. First, it is investigated if the evaluation process of service quality differs by gender. Second, the moderating effect of gender on the relationships

Hyun-Joo Lee; Ann Fairhurst; Hyeon Jeong Cho

2011-01-01

351

Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

2014-07-01

352

Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use  

PubMed Central

Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

2008-01-01

353

Gender differences in the occurrence of farm related injuries  

PubMed Central

Aims: To use national surveillance data in Canada to describe gender differences in the pattern of farm fatalities and severe injuries (those requiring hospitalisation). Methods: Data from the Canadian Agricultural Injury Surveillance Program (CAISP) included farm work related fatalities from 1990 to 1996 for all Canadian provinces and abstracted information from hospital discharge records from eight provinces for the five fiscal years of 1990 to 1994. Gender differences in fatalities and injuries were examined by comparison of proportions and stratified by sex, injury class (machinery, non-machinery), and age group. Results: Over the six year period of 1990 to 1996 there were approximately 11 times as many agriculture related fatalities for males compared to females (655 and 61, respectively). The most common machinery mechanisms of fatal injuries were roll-over (32%) for males and run-over (45%) for females. Agricultural machinery injuries requiring hospitalisation showed similar patterns, with proportionally more males over age 60 injured. The male:female ratio for non-machinery hospitalisations averaged 3:1. A greater percentage of males were struck by or caught against an object, whereas for females, animal related injuries predominated. Conclusions: Gender is an important factor to consider in the interpretation of fatal and non-fatal farm injuries. A greater number of males were injured, regardless of how the occurrence of injury was categorised, particularly when farm machinery was involved. As women increasingly participate in all aspects of agricultural production, there is a need to collect, interpret, and disseminate information on agricultural injury that is relevant for both sexes. PMID:14691273

Dimich-Ward, H; Guernsey, J; Pickett, W; Rennie, D; Hartling, L; Brison, R

2004-01-01

354

Gender Differences in Paediatric Patients of the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gender differences in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently reported as a secondary outcome and the results are divergent. To assess gender differences by analysing data collected within the Swiss IBD cohort study database since 2008, related to children with IBD, using the Montreal classification for a systematic approach. Methods Data on gender, age, anthropometrics, disease location at diagnosis, disease behaviour, and therapy of 196 patients, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 91 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) were retrieved and analysed. Results The crude gender ratio (male : female) of patients with CD diagnosed at <10 years of age was 2.57, the adjusted ratio was 2.42, and in patients with UC/IC it was 0.68 and 0.64 respectively. The non-adjusted gender ratio of patients diagnosed at ?10 years was 1.58 for CD and 0.88 for UC/IC. Boys with UC/IC diagnosed <10 years of age had a longer diagnostic delay, and in girls diagnosed with UC/IC >10 years a more important use of azathioprine was observed. No other gender difference was found after analysis of age, disease location and behaviour at diagnosis, duration of disease, familial occurrence of IBD, prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations, complications, and requirement for surgery. Conclusion CD in children <10 years affects predominantly boys with a sex ratio of 2.57; the impact of sex-hormones on the development of CD in pre-pubertal male patients should be investigated. PMID:25349830

Herzog, Denise; Buehr, Patrick; Koller, Rebekka; Rueger, Vanessa; Heyland, Klaas; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes; Schibli, Susanne

2014-01-01

355

Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (p<0.001). Pre BR males were modeled by a linear RR response to SBP (p=0.000) while females had a quadratic response which saturated at high SBP (p=0.019). By day 30, both genders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (p<0.001) when compared to pre BR. Females had a higher SBS than males pre BR (p=0.006). Females exhibited saturating SBS at higher SBP (p=0.016) on day 30, while males were modeled by a linear SBS response to SBP (p=0.035). NE: Females had different NE response to diastolic BP than males pre BR (p=0.035) and on day 30 (p=0.005). CONCLUSION: NE, RR and SBS responses to BP are affected by gender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.

Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

2009-01-01

356

Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

Moe, Angelica

2012-01-01

357

Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender role attitudes were more likely to exercise a double standard with respect to male as opposed to female premarital sex (OR=1.18). This relationship also applied to attitudes of both girls and boys in Taipei (OR=1.20 and OR=1.22, respectively). Conclusions Although with variation across sites, gender differences in premarital sexual permissiveness and attitudes to gender roles among adolescents were very significant in each of the three Asian cities influenced by Confucian-based values. Traditional gender norms may still be deeply rooted in the three cities, especially among females, while it is important to advocate gender equity in adolescent reproductive health programs, the pathway of traditional gender norms in influencing adolescent reproductive health outcomes must be understood, as must differences and similarities across regions. PMID:22340852

Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

2014-01-01

358

Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).

Baxter, R.K.

1987-01-01

359

Gender differences in mesenteric vasoconstrictor reactivity following chronic hypoxia.  

PubMed

Male rats demonstrate persistent endothelium-dependent attenuation of vasoconstrictor reactivity following chronic hypoxia (CH). Since estrogen may interfere with hypoxia-induced gene expression, we hypothesized that gender differences exist in this response to CH. However, in conscious, instrumented rats, we found that CH resulted in a similar persistent reduction of pressor/total peripheral resistance responses to phenylephrine (PE) in rats of both genders. In contrast, although previous studies show mesenteric vascular responses to PE are reduced in CH males, we found that mesenteric reactivity was maintained in CH females. Since normoxic females demonstrate greater nitric oxide (NO) production, we hypothesized that the failure of CH to further diminish mesenteric reactivity in females was due to the inhibition of NO-dependent vasodilation. To test this hypothesis, constrictor reactivity of mesenteric arteries from male and female rats was examined. NO synthase (NOS) inhibition augmented constrictor responses to PE in arteries from both normoxic and CH males and normoxic females. In contrast, NOS inhibition had no effect in CH female vessels. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) levels were not different in arteries from control and CH females. Endothelial [Ca2+]i was greater in arterioles from CH females. Thus, CH reduces NO-dependent mesenteric dilation in females; this effect is not due to altered eNOS levels or diminished endothelial [Ca2+]i. PMID:19086257

Gonzales, Rayna J; Bryant, Jessica M; Naik, Jay S; Resta, Thomas C; Walker, Benjimen R

2008-08-01

360

Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.  

PubMed

Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

1994-01-01

361

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

362

Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students  

PubMed Central

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-01-01

363

Gender differences in perception of romance in Chinese college students.  

PubMed

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-01-01

364

Gender and age differences in parent-child emotion talk.  

PubMed

This study examined gender differences in emotion word use during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Emotion talk was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Mothers mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers. During the play-related storytelling task, mothers of 4-year-old daughters mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did mothers of 4-year-old sons, whereas fathers of 4-year-old daughters directed a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers of 4-year-old sons during the reminiscence task. No gender differences were found with parents of 6-year-old children. During the reminiscence task daughters mentioned more emotion words with their fathers than with their mothers. Finally, mothers' use of emotion talk was related to whether children used emotion talk in both tasks. Fathers' use of emotion talk was only related to children's emotion talk during the reminiscence task. PMID:25387786

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

2015-03-01

365

When does the Gender Difference in Rumination Begin? Gender and Age Differences in the Use of Rumination by Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional non-clinical sample of 1,218 adolescents, aged 10–17 years, completed measures of stress, rumination, and\\u000a depression to allow tests of the response style theory of S. Nolen-Hoeksema [J Res Adolesc 4:519–534, 1994] in adolescents,\\u000a in particular whether increasing levels of stress and rumination in early adolescence are predictive of the onset of the gender\\u000a difference in depression. Overall, females

Paul E. Jose; Isobel Brown

2008-01-01

366

Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

2011-01-01

367

Gender differences in outcomes of acute mania: a 12-month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess short-term (12 weeks) and long-term (12 months) gender differences in the outcomes of patients\\u000a experiencing an episode of mania in the course of bipolar disorder. European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication\\u000a was a 2-year, prospective, observational study of the outcomes of patients with a manic or mixed episode conducted in 14 European\\u000a countries. Data were

Laia Miquel; Judith Usall; Catherine Reed; Jordan Bertsch; Eduard Vieta; Ana González-Pinto; Jules Angst; Willem Nolen; Inge van Rossum; Josep Maria Haro

2011-01-01

368

SVM Method used to Study Gender Differences Based on Microelement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[objective] Intelligent Algorithm of SVM is used for studying gender differences based on microelement data, which provide reference For the application of Microelement in healthy people, such as providing technical support for the investigation of cases.[Method] Our Long-term test results on hair microelement of health people were consolidated. Support vector machine (SVM) is used to classified model of male and female based on microelement data. The radical basis function (RBF) is adopted as a kernel function of SVM, and the model adjusts C and ? to build the optimization classifier, [Result] Healthy population of men and women of manganese, cadmium and nickel are quite different, The classified model of Microelement based on SVM can classifies the male and female, the correct classification ratio set to be 81.71% and 66.47% by SVM based on 7 test date and 3 test data selection. [conclusion] The classified model of microelement data based on SVM can classifies male and female.

Chun, Yang; Yuan, Liu; Jun, Du; Bin, Tang

369

Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

2015-01-01

370

Gender differences in how retirees perceive factors influencing unretirement.  

PubMed

Returning to paid employment after retirement is occurring in many developed countries and can be expected to increase in the future. This study compared how women (n = 202) and men (n = 347) who had retired from a managerial or professional career occupation perceived factors associated with unretirement. Retired professional women perceived reasons to unretire, age-friendly human resource practices, and re-entry barriers to have greater influence on retirees' decision to unretire than retired managerial women and retired men. Both groups of retired women perceived training and development opportunities to have more influence than retired men. A major contribution of this study is the identification of pre-retirement career occupation as having an important effect on how female, but not male, retirees perceived the various factors. The findings suggest that researchers and employers need to consider the diversity that exists among retirees, not only gender differences but also differences among retired career women. PMID:23115913

Armstrong-Stassen, Marjorie; Staats, Sara

2012-01-01

371

Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.  

PubMed

This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

2015-01-01

372

Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.  

PubMed

This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors. PMID:25112219

Lam, Desmond

2014-08-12

373

More than Just Biological Sex Differences: Examining the Structural Relationship Between Gender Identity and Information Search Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of gender on travelers’ information search behavior continues to attract the attention of researchers. However, most scholars have studied gender differences from a biological perspective, treating gender as a unitary theoretical concept. This article challenges such an approach and argues for a more differentiated perspective to the study of gender differences in information search behavior. It approaches gender

Haywantee Ramkissoon; Robin Nunkoo

2012-01-01

374

Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety Among Atopic Dermatitis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background: Dermatological patients invariably suffer one or the other psychological problems which may escalate to the extent of a mental disorder. One of the most common dermatological disorders is atopic dermatitis (AD), but the literature has limited data on gender differences for psychiatric morbidity in such patients. Aims: To evaluate and compare gender differences in the prevalence of depression and anxiety in AD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was done in an outpatient clinic of Dermatology at a Tertiary Care Center. AD subjects giving informed consent were evaluated on a brief semi-structured performa for collecting demographic and clinical information. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used to assess the presence of psychiatric symptoms in these patients. Descriptive analysis was done for the socio-demographic profile and independent sample t-test, Chi-square and Cramer's V test was carried out to find in-between group differences for males and females. Results: A total of 81 patients were included in the final analysis (males = 36, females = 45) with no significant difference in mean age between male and female subjects (36.14 ± 17.62 and 33.98 ± 14.49 years, respectively; P = 0.54). When including moderate to severe grade of depression or anxiety, the current study found prevalence rates of 15% and 12% respectively. Females had significantly more anxiety and depression scores than males (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). Conclusions: There is a female preponderance of depression and anxiety disorder in AD patients.

Mina, Shaily; Jabeen, Masarat; Singh, Shalini; Verma, Rohit

2015-01-01

375

Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

2008-01-01

376

Absence of Gender Differences in the Fatigability of the Forearm Muscles During Intermittent Isometric Handgrip Exercise  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have reported women to have a greater resistance to fatigue than men during sustained handgrip exercise, however, observed gender differences in fatigue has been shown to be a function of contraction type. The purpose of the present study was to determine if gender differences exist in forearm muscle fatigue during intermittent handgrip contractions. Women [n = 11, 23.5 ± 1.5 (SE) yr] and men (n = 11, 24.1 ± 1.5 yr) performed intermittent isometric handgrip contractions at a target force of 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 5 s followed by 5 s rest until task failure. Rate of fatigue was calculated from MVCs taken every 2 min during exercise, and recovery of muscle strength was measured in 5 min increments until 45 min post-task failure. Forearm muscle strength was less for women than men (W: 341.5 ± 11.9 N; M: 480.2 ± 28.0 N; p ? 0.05). No gender difference was present in time to task failure (W: 793.3 ± 92.5 s; M: 684.8 ± 76.3 s) or in the decrease in muscle force generating capacity at task failure (W: -47.6 ± 1.0%; M: -49.9 ± 1.3%). Rate of muscle fatigue was found to be similar between women and men (W: -3.6 ± 0.5 %·min-1; M: -4.3 ± 0.6 %·min-1) and no gender difference was found in the recovery of muscle strength following task failure. In summary, no gender difference was found in the fatigability of the forearm muscles during intermittent submaximal handgrip contractions, independent of muscle strength. Key pointsThe aim of the present study was to determine if gender differences exist in forearm muscle fatigue during intermittent isometric handgrip contractions.Both unmatched and matched for strength gender comparisons found women and men to exhibit a similar exercise tolerance, rate of fatigue, and recov-ery of handgrip force following repeated forearm muscle contractions.These results indicate that maximal handgrip strength is not a key determinant of exercise toler-ance during intermittent isometric forearm exercise performed at a moderate relative contraction inten-sity. PMID:24149231

Gonzales, Joaquin U.; Scheuermann, Barry W.

2007-01-01

377

The benefits and drawbacks of gender typing: how different dimensions are related to psychological adjustment.  

PubMed

The benefits versus costs of gender typing are not clear: Is adjustment optimal when people identify and act in strongly gendered ways or when they embrace characteristics of both sexes? Previous findings are inconsistent, in part because they are derived from different conceptualizations of gender typing. A comprehensive understanding of the mental health consequences of gender typing requires recognition of the multidimensionality of gender typing and simultaneous consideration of these dimensions. On the basis of previous work on individual measures, we hypothesized that adjustment would be differentially associated with different aspects of gender typing: positively with sex-congruent gender identity and male-typed personality traits, negatively with rigid gender attitudes, and minimally with female-typed personality traits and gender-typed activity interests. Structural equation models were used to enable testing of all associations simultaneously. Results from a sample of 401 undergraduate students supported our hypotheses. For both women and men, adjustment was positively associated with gender-congruent identity, instrumentality, and flexible gender attitudes, and minimally related to activity interests and expressivity. These findings clarify the mental health benefits and costs of gender typing and highlight the multidimensionality of gender typing. PMID:20364305

DiDonato, Matthew D; Berenbaum, Sheri A

2011-04-01

378

Gender differences in the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and in the development of pediatric PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Despite an extensive literature on the links between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), our knowledge on the effects of gender in relation to the risks for sexual victimization and subsequent PTSD is limited. We review current knowledge of gender differences in prevalence of CSA and the role of gender in subsequent development of child and

J. L. Walker; P. D. Carey; N. Mohr; D. J. Stein; S. Seedat

2004-01-01

379

The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences in  

E-print Network

The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences States of America Abstract Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias (STEM). We investigated field-dependent, gender-specific effects of the selective pressures individuals

Radicchi, Filippo

380

‘Men are leavers alone and women are worriers’: Gender differences in discourses of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores gender differences in health talk, how such talk is informed by discourses at a societal level and the extent to which talking about health is a way of ‘doing gender.’ It draws on in-depth interviews with 48 women and men in their twenties and thirties showing that gender influences both the way people talk about health and

Nickie Charles; Vivienne Walters

2008-01-01

381

Gender differences in loss of psychological resources following experimentally-induced vicarious stress.  

PubMed

The present research focuses on gender differences in resource loss, perceived threat, and negative affective reactions induced by experimental manipulation of vicarious stress. Israeli students (54.7% women) were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: (1) Threat Condition (n=98), in which participants were exposed to a video film depicting terror attacks and (2) Control Condition (n=30), in which participants viewed a video film depicting a series of non-emotive news broadcasts. Participants also completed measures of mastery, optimism, and self-esteem. The data indicated that whereas under the Threat Condition women scored lower on psychological resources and higher on perceived threat than men, no significant gender differences were observed under the Control Condition. A path analysis revealed that gender was directly related to perceived threat and resource loss, which, in turn, were related to negative affect. In addition, a greater sense of mastery was related to lower resource loss. Overall, these experimental findings suggest that gender and mastery bear prominent effects on cognitive and emotional reactions to vicarious life threat. PMID:21988457

Ben-Zur, Hasida; Zeidner, Moshe

2012-07-01

382

Gender-related differences in the burden of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Differences in the expression of non-motor symptoms (NMS) by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may have important implications for their management and prognosis. Gender is a basic epidemiological variable that could influence such expression. The present study evaluated the prevalence and severity of NMS by gender in an international sample of 951 PD patients, 62.63% males, using the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS). Assessments for motor impairment and complications, global severity, and health state were also applied. All disease stages were included. No significant gender differences were found for demographic and clinical characteristics. For the entire sample, the most prevalent symptoms were Nocturia (64.88%) and Fatigue (62.78%) and the most prevalent affected domains were Sleep/Fatigue (84.02%) and Miscellaneous (82.44%). Fatigue, feelings of nervousness, feelings of sadness, constipation, restless legs, and pain were more common and severe in women. On the contrary, daytime sleepiness, dribbling saliva, interest in sex, and problems having sex were more prevalent and severe in men. Regarding the NMSS domains, Mood/Apathy and Miscellaneous problems (pain, loss of taste or smell, weight change, and excessive sweating) were predominantly affected in women and Sexual dysfunction in men. No other significant differences by gender were observed. To conclude, in this study significant differences between men and women in prevalence and severity of fatigue, mood, sexual and digestive problems, pain, restless legs, and daytime sleepiness were found. Gender-related patterns of NMS involvement may be relevant for clinical trials in PD. PMID:22237822

Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Falup Pecurariu, Cristian; Odin, Per; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Antonini, Angelo; Rojo-Abuin, Jose M; Borges, Vanderci; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Aarsland, Dag; Brooks, David J; Ray Chaudhuri, Kallol

2012-08-01

383

The body-as-object versus the body-as-process: Gender differences and gender considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study analyzed the influence that gender and gender concepts have on predominantly white young adults' attitudes toward their body parts (body-as-object) and body functions (body-as-process). Results indicated that, regardless of gender, participants held more positive attitudes toward their body functions than toward body parts. Masculinity was positively related to body-as-object attitudes, yet this relationship was true only for

Stephen L. Franzoi

1995-01-01

384

Gender schemas and the salience of gender: Individual differences in nonreversal discrimination learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty-seven 3–6-year-old children, identified as gender schematic and aschematic, completed a nonreversal discrimination learning task. This task permits examination of children's abilities to attend selectively to particular dimensions of a multidimensional stimulus. Gender typing and size of stimulus were the relevant target dimensions. Gender schematic children required significantly more trials to criterion when the shift was from sex type to

D. Bruce Carter; Gary D. Levy

1991-01-01

385

Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and…

Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

2015-01-01

386

Gender differences in adolescent depression: Do symptoms differ for boys and girls?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLimited prior research suggests that depressed women are more likely to experience certain symptoms of depression than are depressed men. The purpose of this study was to examine whether such gender differences in depressive symptoms are present during adolescence.

David S. Bennett; Paul J. Ambrosini; Diana Kudes; Claudia Metz; Harris Rabinovich

2005-01-01

387

The Development of Students' Mathematics Self-Concept in Relation to Gender: Different Countries, Different Trajectories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in the development of children's and adolescents' academic self-perceptions have received increasing attention in recent years. This study extends previous research by examining the development of mathematics self-concept across grades 7-12 in three cultural settings: Australia (Sydney; N = 1,333), the United States (Michigan; N…

Nagy, Gabriel; Watt, Helen M. G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

2010-01-01

388

Gender differences in the presence of drugs in violent deaths  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate differences in the presence of drugs, by gender, when considering deaths attributable to homicides and suicides. Design Logistic regression analysis of mortality data collected by the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System. Participants and setting A total of 5791 Colorado decedents who died of violent causes from 2004 to 2009. Measurement Forensic pathologist autopsy data on drug presence at time of death, coded as present, not present or missing. Findings Postmortem presence of drugs is associated strongly with the specific cause of violent death. Compared with suicide decedents, homicide decedents are significantly more likely to test positive for amphetamines [odds ratio (OR): 1.79; confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 2.39], marijuana (OR: 2.03; CI: 1.60, 2.58) and cocaine (OR: 2.60; CI: 2.04, 3.31), and are less likely to test positive for opiates (OR: 0.27; CI: 0.18, 0.39) and antidepressants (OR: 0.17; CI: 0.10, 0.28). When other drugs are controlled for the influence of alcohol is abated dramatically. The patterns of drug prevalence associated with homicide (particularly marijuana) are stronger among males; the patterns of drug prevalence associated with suicide are stronger among females. Conclusions Suicide and homicide decedents are characterized by varying patterns of licit and illicit drug use that differ by gender. Drugs associated with homicide (marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines) are stronger among males, while drugs associated with suicide are stronger among females (antidepressants and opiates). Taking these differences into consideration may allow for targeted interventions to reduce violent deaths. PMID:23017242

Sheehan, Connor M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Williams, George W.; Boardman, Jason D.

2014-01-01

389

An observational study of delivered and received aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment in preschool: “This White Crayon Doesn’t Work …”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-structured observational study investigated gender differences in delivered and received relational, physical, verbal, and nonverbal aggression in a young preschool sample (N=60). Findings revealed that gender differences in subtypes of aggression may be apparent as early as 3 years of age. Specifically, girls were found to deliver and receive more relational aggression than males, whereas boys tended, although not

Jamie M. Ostrov; Kathleen E. Woods; Elizabeth A. Jansen; Juan F. Casas; Nicki R. Crick

2004-01-01

390

The Changing Gender Differences in Life Expectancy in Chinese Cities 2005-2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives To analyze the gender difference in life expectancy in Chinese urban people and explore the age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing gender differences in life expectancy. Methods Data of life expectancy and mortality were obtained from “Annual statistics of public health in China.” The gender difference was analyzed by decomposition method, including age-specific decomposition and cause-specific decomposition. Results Women lived much longer than men in Chinese urban areas, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005, respectively. The gender difference reached a peak in 2007. Mortality difference between men and women in the 60–79 age group made the largest contributions to the gender gap in life expectancy in all 6 years. Among causes of death, cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33–38% of the gender gap were caused by cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years of the overall gap. The contribution of cancers to the gender gap reduced over time, mostly influenced by the narrowing effect of liver cancer on gender gap. Traffic accidents and suicide were the external causes influencing the gender gap, contributing 10–16% of the overall difference. Conclusion Public health efforts to reduce excess mortalities for cancers, circulatory disease, respiratory diseases, and suicide among men in particular might further narrow the gender gap in life expectancy in Chinese cities. PMID:25875494

Shen, Jie; Li, Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Feng

2015-01-01

391

Gender Differences in Carbohydrate Metabolism and Carbohydrate Loading  

PubMed Central

Prior to endurance competition, many endurance athletes participate in a carbohydrate loading regimen in order to help delay the onset of fatigue. The "classic" regimen generally includes an intense glycogen depleting training period of approximately two days followed by a glycogen loading period for 3–4 days, ingesting approximately 60–70% of total energy intake as carbohydrates, while the newer method does not consist of an intense glycogen depletion protocol. However, recent evidence has indicated that glycogen loading does not occur in the same manner for males and females, thus affecting performance. The scope of this literature review will include a brief description of the role of estradiol in relation to metabolism and gender differences seen in carbohydrate metabolism and loading. PMID:18500960

Wismann, Jennifer; Willoughby, Darryn

2006-01-01

392

Gender differences in keeping secrets from parents in adolescence.  

PubMed

The current longitudinal study examined adolescent gender differences in the developmental changes and relational correlates of secrecy from parents. For 4 successive years, starting in the second year of junior high (mean age at Time 1 = 13.2 years, SD = 0.51), 149 male and 160 female Dutch adolescents reported on secrecy from their parents and the quality of the parent-child relationship. Latent growth curve modeling revealed a linear increase in secrecy, which was significantly faster for boys than for girls. Moreover, cross-lagged panel analyses showed clear concurrent and longitudinal linkages between secrecy from parents and poorer parent-child relationship quality in girls. In boys, much less strong linkages were found between poorer relationships and secrecy from parents. PMID:20053026

Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J T; Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Meeus, Wim

2010-01-01

393

Gender Differences in High-school Students' Views about Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even when females planned to major in science, they were more interested than males in the people-oriented aspects of their planned majors. Second, biology was the one exception to females’ low interest in science. Third, females often planned a science major mainly because they needed a science background in order to enter a health profession such as medicine or physical therapy. Fourth, females generally found science uninteresting and the scientific lifestyle (as perceived by them) unattractive. Implications for teaching science were discussed.

Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

2006-03-01

394

Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

2014-12-01

395

Gender differences in clinical correlates of suicidality among young adults.  

PubMed

Gender differences were examined in risk factors for suicidality among young adult friends of suicide victims. Data were derived from a follow-up community survey of 76 members of the social network of 23 consecutive adolescent suicide victims 6 years after the friend's death. The Beck-Kovacs Scale for Suicidal Ideation was the outcome measure. Multiple regression analyses revealed aggression to have the only significant effect on suicidality among men, whereas depression and posttraumatic stress disorder had significant independent effects on suicidality among women. Results suggest that young adult men who are aggressive and female subjects with elevated symptoms of depression and/or posttraumatic stress disorder may be at increased risk of suicidality. PMID:9952250

Prigerson, H G; Slimack, M J

1999-01-01

396

Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. PMID:25180581

Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

2014-01-01

397

Race and Gender Differences in Self-efficacy: Assessing the Role of Gender Role Attitudes and Family Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research suggests race is associated with unique family structures and gender attitudes. Yet, extant research fails to examine\\u000a how different gender role attitudes and family structures related to race impact other aspects of life. Self-efficacy refers\\u000a to one’s belief in his or her abilities to achieve certain outcomes (Bandura, Self-efficacy: The exercise of control, Freeman, New York, p. 3, 1997).

Tom Buchanan; Nikesha Selmon

2008-01-01

398

Tolerance of Sexual Harassment: An Examination of Gender Differences, Ambivalent Sexism, Social Dominance, and Gender Roles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the effects of gender, gender roles (masculinity and femininity), ambivalent sexism, and social dominance orientation with regard to tolerance of sexual harassment. It was predicted that women would be less tolerant than men of sexual harassment, however, men and women who were tolerant of sexual harassment would share ambivalence and hostility toward women, and they

Brenda L. Russell; Kristin Y. Trigg

2004-01-01

399

Gender Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Review of Meta-Analytic Results and Large Datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors are typically believed to be large, yet recent evidence suggests that some gender differences in sexuality are much smaller than common knowledge would suggest. This article reviews gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors as reported by major meta-analyses and large datasets. In particular, this article reviews gender differences in heterosexual intercourse, masturbation,

Jennifer L. Petersen; Janet Shibley Hyde

2011-01-01

400

Sexual Harassment: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Gender Differences Assessed by Three Different Estimation Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates gender differences in prevalence and effects of sexual harassment using three different estimation methods. In a representative sample of 2,349 Norwegian employees, 1.1% self-labeled as targets of sexual harassment, whereas 18.4% reported exposure to sexually harassing behaviors during the last six months. When employing latent class cluster analysis as a method for estimating prevalence of sexual harassment,

Morten Birkeland Nielsen; Brita Bjørkelo; Guy Notelaers; Ståle Einarsen

2010-01-01

401

Gender differences in child\\/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children\\/ adolescents (2 to 15

Helena R. Slobodskaya; Gennady G. Knyazev

2008-01-01

402

Gender difference of androgen actions on skeletal muscle transcriptome.  

PubMed

Sarcopenia is related to metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Hormone replacement therapies with androgens improve muscle functions by molecular mechanisms that are still unknown, at least partly because the skeletal muscle transcriptome has been less characterized in females. We performed the serial analysis of gene expression method in six experimental groups, intact (male and female), ovariectomy (OVX), OVX+dihydrotestosterone (DHT) injection 1, 3, or 24 h before kill in mice. The 438 transcript species differentially expressed between gender showed that females had higher expression levels of mRNA related to cytoskeleton/contractile apparatus and mitochondrial processes as well as protein, lipid, and amino acid metabolisms. In females, OVX and DHT modulated 109 and 128 transcript species respectively. OVX repressed transcripts of fast/glycolytic fiber, glycolysis, and glucose transport, whereas all these effects were reversed 3 h after the DHT injection. Moreover, DHT treatment induced transcripts which reduce intracellular Ca(2+) level at early time points. These results may suggest that DHT treatment in OVX mice increases muscle contractility by affecting fiber distribution and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration as well as improving glucose metabolism. On the other hand, transcripts of fast/oxidative fiber, oxidative phosphorylation, and ATP production were repressed 24 h after DHT administration. In our previous study using male mice, transcripts in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production were induced 24 h after DHT injection (Yoshioka M, Boivin A, Ye P, Labrie F & St-Amand J 2006 Effects of dihydrotestosterone on skeletal muscle transcriptome in mice measured by serial analysis of gene expression. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 36 247-259 ). These results demonstrate gender differences in DHT actions on skeletal muscle, and contribute to a precise understanding of the molecular mechanisms of androgen actions in the female skeletal muscle. PMID:17693611

Yoshioka, Mayumi; Boivin, André; Bolduc, Carl; St-Amand, Jonny

2007-08-01

403

A Construct-Driven Investigation of Gender Differences in a Leadership-Role Assessment Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in a large-scale assessment center for officer entry in the British Army. Subgroup differences were investigated for a sample of 1,857 candidates: 1,594 men and 263 women. A construct-driven approach was chosen (a) by examining gender differences at the construct level, (b) by formulating a priori hypotheses about which constructs would be susceptible to gender

Neil Anderson; Filip Lievens; Karen van Dam; Marise Born

2006-01-01

404

Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

2004-01-01

405

National and Gender Differences in Adolescents' War Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attitudes toward warfare were compared between samples of Canadian and US adolescents. Political attitudes in general have been attributed variously to influences of sociopolitical context, nationhood, media, and gender. Adolescents' responses to open-ended questions, and statements presented with a Likert-type rating scale suggested that whereas gender and sociopolitical context, for example contemporary attitudes toward political leaders, do influence attitudes toward

Katherine Covell

1996-01-01

406

Gender Differences in Therapist Responses to Client Sexual Material.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sexual feelings between therapist and client have been a source of theoretical controversy since the beginnings of modern psychotherapy. Psychotherapists' (N=72) verbal behavior, affective reactions, and clinical judgments in response to audiotapes of client sexual material were investigated. Therapist gender, client gender, and type of sexual…

Schover, Leslie R.

407

Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender

Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

2010-01-01

408

Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using microdata for 22 countries over the 198594 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap, with an especially large effect for wage structures. Reduced-form specifications indicate that the extent of collective bargaining coverage is also significantly negatively related to the gender pay gap. Together,

2003-01-01

409

Understanding International Differences in the Gender Pay Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper tests the hypotheses that overall wage compression and low female supply relative to demand reduce a country's gender pay gap. Using micro-data for 22 countries over the 1985-94 period, we find that more compressed male wage structures and lower female net supply are both associated with a lower gender pay gap. Since it is likely that labor market

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

2001-01-01

410

Choosing Health—Does Gender Make a Difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last few years the literature on the relationship between sex, gender and health has grown considerably. To some extent this represents a maturing of the field, as writers have sought to integrate a gender analysis of health inequalities with evidence from medical disciplines revealing the importance of sex-linked or biological factors in the health of men and women.

Sarah Payne

2009-01-01

411

Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

North, Connie E.

2010-01-01

412

Gender differences in the employment expectations of final year undergraduates in a university in Central China   

E-print Network

This study investigates the gender differences in final year undergraduates’ employment expectations, broken down by salary expectations, occupational expectations and working region expectations, in a university in ...

Zhu, Jian

2011-11-24

413

Gender Differences in Murine Airway Responsiveness and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation1  

PubMed Central

The roles of gender and sex hormones in lung function and disease are complex and not completely understood. The present study examined the influence of gender on lung function and respiratory mechanics in naive mice and on acute airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness induced by intratracheal LPS administration. Basal lung function characteristics did not differ between naive males and females, but males demonstrated significantly greater airway responsiveness than females following aerosolized methacholine challenge as evidenced by increased respiratory system resistance and elastance (p < 0.05). Following LPS administration, males developed more severe hypothermia and greater airway hyperresponsiveness than females (p < 0.05). Inflammatory indices including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cells, neutrophils, and TNF-? content were greater in males than in females 6 h following LPS administration (p < 0.05), whereas whole-lung TLR-4 protein levels did not differ among treatment groups, suggesting that differential expression of TLR-4 before or after LPS exposure did not underlie the observed inflammatory outcomes. Gonadectomy decreased airway inflammation in males but did not alter inflammation in females, whereas administration of exogenous testosterone to intact females increased their inflammatory responses to levels observed in intact males. LPS-induced airway hyperresponsiveness was also decreased in castrated males and was increased in females administered exogenous testosterone. Collectively, these data indicate that airway responsiveness in naive mice is influenced by gender, and that male mice have exaggerated airway inflammatory and functional responses to LPS compared with females. These gender differences are mediated, at least in part, by effects of androgens. PMID:16785560

Card, Jeffrey W.; Carey, Michelle A.; Bradbury, J. Alyce; DeGraff, Laura M.; Morgan, Daniel L.; Moorman, Michael P.; Flake, Gordon P.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

2007-01-01

414

Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

2014-05-01

415

Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences  

SciTech Connect

The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the S TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images requires gender-matched normal files.

Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.; Shonkoff, D.; Oates, J.A.; Gober, A.M.; Dunn, D.W.; Malko, J.A.; Churchwell, A.L.; Patterson, R.E.

1988-12-01

416

Gender Differences in Motivational-Cognitive Patterns of Self-Regulated Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many of the reasons offered for the difference between boys and girls in certain kinds of cognitive tasks have been attributed to biology. However, other factors need to be considered, and so the role that motivation and learning play in gender differences is addressed in this paper. The focus rests on gender differences, both in the individual…

Niemivirta, Markku

417

Gender differences in depression: an ethological study of nonverbal behavior during interviews.  

PubMed

Previous studies of gender differences in the phenomenology of depression have focused mostly on symptoms as measured by self-report questionnaires or clinician-rated scales. In this study, we examined gender differences in the interpersonal behavior of depressed patients by using ethological techniques which involve direct observation of behavior. The nonverbal behavior of 72 nondepressed volunteers and 68 patients with a DSM-III-R diagnosis of nonpsychotic unipolar depression was videorecorded during clinical interviews and scored according to an ethological scoring system including 37 behavior patterns, mostly facial expressions and hand movements. Both male and female depressed patients showed a global restriction of nonverbal expressiveness reflecting a tendency towards social withdrawal. Nonverbal expression of hostility was the only behavioral category on which depressed patients scored higher than nondepressed volunteers. Even though clinical status exerted marked effects on the ethological profile, depression did not obscure some important differences in the nonverbal behavior of males and females. As a group, depressed women showed more socially interactive behaviors than depressed men. Their modality of interacting included higher levels both of nonverbal hostility and of submissive and affiliative behaviors. These results are discussed in view of clinical data indicating a relationship between gender, style of social interaction and response to antidepressant drugs. PMID:10367990

Troisi, A; Moles, A

1999-01-01

418

GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...

419

Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms in St. Petersburg, Russia  

PubMed Central

Background Gender differences in the relationship between alcohol use and depressive symptoms are inconsistent, and few studies have addressed this issue in Russia. Because this finding may have important implications for interventions to reduce alcohol misuse or alcohol related problems in Russia, we conducted a study to investigate whether the association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differs by gender at high risk for HIV. Methods We used the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale to measure alcohol use and depressive symptoms among 307 patients who attended a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Logistic regression models were applied for the analysis. Results The comparison of data between men and women revealed a significant quadratic term of alcohol use and significant interactions between alcohol use and gender on depressive symptoms. Men with an AUDIT score in the first and fourth quartiles were more likely to report depressive symptoms in comparison to men in the second quartile. Their odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 7.54 (2.00–28.51) and 5.06 (1.31–19.63), respectively. Among women, a linear trend was observed such that those who misused alcohol were three times more likely to have depressive symptoms than those who did not misuse alcohol (OR = 3.03, 95% CI, 1.05–8.80). Conclusion The association between alcohol use and depressive symptoms differed by gender. Additional research is needed to investigate this relationship in Russia. Strategies to reduce alcohol-related problems in Russia may need to consider these differences. PMID:23240098

Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

2012-01-01

420

A new methodology, an old story? Gender differences in the “draw-a-computer-user” test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in computer-related attitudes have been reported in school children of all ages. Females express more negative\\u000a attitudes than males when asked to explicitly endorse attitude statements. This gender difference may be compounded by females\\u000a expressing attitudes consistent with their psychological gender. This study uses an art-based methodology to assess the computer-related\\u000a attitudes of 395 primary school children (aged

Mark Jeremy Brosnan

1999-01-01

421

Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a previously unknown gender difference in the distribution of spatial attention, a basic capacitythatsupportshigher-levelspatialcognition.More remarkably, we found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender dispar- ity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition. After only 10 hr of training with an ac-

Jing Feng; Ian Spence; Jay Pratt

2007-01-01

422

The Influence of Child Gender Role and Maternal Feedback to Child Stress on the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depressive Rumination in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents a gender-stereotyped coping style that is associated with a

Stephanie J. Cox; Amy H. Mezulis; Janet S. Hyde

2010-01-01

423

Gender differences in self-assessments at the application interface  

E-print Network

Past studies have shown that supply side sorting processes at the job application interface contribute to both vertical and horizontal gender job segregation. A prominent set of theories focused on the supply side stress ...

Campero Molina, Santiago

2013-01-01

424

Spatial Monopsony and Regional Differences in the Gender Pay Gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a While most of the empirical literature on the gender pay gap focusses on the variation of the gender pay gap between countries\\u000a and its evolution over time, an aspect that has attracted far less attention is the regional variation of the gap within the same country. Though many studies use regional information as control variables in the estimations, only few

Boris Hirsch

425

Gender Differences in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism and Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gender is an important factor to consider in understanding the clinical presentation, management, and developmental trajectory\\u000a of children with neuropsychiatric disorders. While much is known about the clinical and neurobehavioural profiles of boys\\u000a with neuropsychiatric disorders, surprisingly little is known about girls. The aim of this chapter was to review our understanding\\u000a of gender by considering the most prevalent childhood

Nicole J. Rinehart; Kim M. Cornish; Bruce J. Tonge

426

Gender Differences in Emotional Language in Children's Picture Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous examinations of children's picturebooks have found that they are gender biased againstfemales in terms of character prevalence in titles,pictures and central role, and in the type of activities engaged in by characters. This study examineda differentpotential area of gender stereotyping, genderdifferences in emotional language. Books that were readto\\/by a sample of primarily Caucasian preschool children during a one-week period

Clary A. Tepper; Kimberly Wright Cassidy

1999-01-01

427

Bullying in Spanish secondary schools: gender-based differences.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying in its various forms from the perspective of all of the individuals involved (victims, bullies, and witnesses) and to explore its distribution as a function of gender. The study had a correlational design and used a representative sample of 1500 Spanish students attending compulsory secondary education in the academic year 2007-2008. It applied an instrument measuring different types of bullying, taken from the studies conducted by Díaz-Aguado, Martínez, and Martín (2004) and the Defensor del Pueblo (Spanish Ombudsman's Office)-UNICEF (2007). The findings reveal that all the types of bullying considered take place at school and that there is an inverse relationship between the severity and the prevalence of bullying behaviors, with verbal abuse proving to be the most common type of abusive behavior. Boys are involved in all kinds of bullying incidents as bullies significantly more often than girls are, except in cases involving 'talking about someone behind their back'; in these situations, girls are involved significantly more often as bullies than boys are. As for victimization, boys are victims of direct physical abuse significantly more often than girls are, while girls are more often the subject of malicious gossip. PMID:23866215

Carrera Fernández, María Victoria; Fernández, María Lameiras; Castro, Yolanda Rodríguez; Failde Garrido, José María; Otero, María Calado

2013-01-01

428

Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving.  

PubMed

A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1-5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men's data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men's or women's texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25463963

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Gaster, Samuel; Struckman-Johnson, Dave; Johnson, Melissa; May-Shinagle, Gabby

2015-01-01

429

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The typical postsecondary academic career follows a well-ordered path with several discrete milestones. The first of these is securing a tenure-track position at an academic institution, at which point the individual is usually assigned to a junior rank, such as assistant professor. Junior faculty members ordinarily are employed on probation and are given a specified number of years to earn tenure. The second milestone, the tenure decision, is perhaps the most critical point on the academic career path. Earning tenure usually means lifetime employment and arrival at another milestone, promotion to the rank of associate professor. Failing to earn tenure often results in termination of employment at the institution. Some doctorate holders, presumably those who establish distinguished records, reach a final milestone with promotion to the rank of full professor.1 This study uses data from a nationally representativesample of recipients of doctorates in science and engineering (S&E). With these data we examined gender differences for four critical outcomes that reflect successful movement along the postsecondary academic career path. These four critical outcomes are tenure track placement, earning tenure, promotion to the rank of associate professor, and promotion to the rank of full professor. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Scientists,Technicians

430

Gender \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

Jacqueline Lecarme

2002-01-01

431

Gender similarities and differences in sexual arousal, desire, and orgasmic pleasure in the laboratory.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about gender differences in the orgasm experience. The objectives of this study were to compare men's and women's patterns of sexual arousal and desire before and after orgasm, and the predictors of their orgasmic pleasure. Using their typical technique, where masturbation enjoyment was similar to that experienced at home, 38 men and 38 women masturbated to orgasm in the laboratory. Physiological sexual arousal (genital temperature) and subjective sexual arousal and desire measurements were taken at baseline, after masturbation almost to orgasm, and immediately and 15 minutes after orgasm. In both genders, all measures increased significantly during masturbation, with a greater buildup leading to a more pleasurable orgasm. After orgasm, however, sexual arousal and desire decreased more quickly and consistently in men than in women, thereby replicating Masters and Johnson's (1966) observations. More men than women exhibited resolution of subjective sexual arousal and sexual satiation; their genital temperature also decreased more than women's but did not return to baseline. Women's orgasmic pleasure was related to a postorgasmic decrease in genital temperature but, unexpectedly, the maintenance of subjective sexual arousal and desire. Future studies should explore whether this pattern explains gender differences in the pursuit of additional orgasms. PMID:24588445

Paterson, Laurel Q P; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

2014-01-01

432

Early childhood maltreatment and trajectories of behavioral problems: exploring gender and racial differences.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to examine the trajectory of child behavior problems over time as a function of early maltreatment. We anticipated that early alleged maltreatment would have a substantial impact on both internalizing and externalizing behaviors. The impact of gender and racial differences in the trajectories were also examined. Using the LONGSCAN archived data, a total of 484 children were selected for the study from varying sites. Two groups were formed: children with early allegations of maltreatment from birth to age 4 and children without any report. Children included did not have further allegations of maltreatment from ages 4 to 12. Additionally, they must have completed a behavioral assessment using the Child Behavior Checklist at the age 4 baseline interview. Multilevel modeling using the SAS PROC MIXED procedure was used to examine the effects of early allegations of maltreatment on the trajectories of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Although race was not significant, gender was found to differ in trajectory of behavioral problems among children with early allegations of maltreatment. For boys, the impact of early maltreatment was strongest at the most proximal assessment of behavioral outcomes and then decreased gradually over the course of subsequent periods. For girls, although no significant impact was observed at each measurement point, the impact of early maltreatment increased and became pronounced over time. Findings support the importance of early intervention/prevention to decrease the likelihood of presenting behavioral problems in later childhood years with consideration to gender. PMID:23993147

Godinet, Meripa T; Li, Fenfang; Berg, Teresa

2014-03-01

433

Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

Becker, Rolf

2014-01-01

434

Gender differences in tumor-induced anorectic feeding pattern in Fischer344 rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences of feeding pattern in normal male and female rats are well recognized. Differences in gender-related feeding patterns have also been established following a variety of experimental manipulations, such as hypothalamic lesions, nicotine infusion, and total parenteral nutrition administration. Anorexia is a common feature during tumor growth. The present study examined whether the feeding indices constituting the feeding patterns

Madhu Varma; Jia-Ke Chai; Michael M Meguid; Zhong-Jin Yang

2001-01-01

435

Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes and Ovaries following Embryonic  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes and Ovaries following, Debard C, et al. (2012) Gender Differences in Transcriptional Signature of Developing Rat Testes.pone.0040306 Editor: Dmitry I. Nurminsky, University of Maryland School of Medicine, United States of America

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

Understanding Gender Differences in Anxiety: The Mediating Effects of Instrumentality and Mastery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing a better understanding of modifiable psychological factors that account for gender differences in anxiety may provide insight into interventions that can be used to target these risk processes. The authors developed a mediational model to examine the degree to which gender differences in anxiety are explained by instrumentality and…

Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

2012-01-01

437

Gender Differences in Performance on Multiple-Choice and Constructed Response Mathematics Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in performance on multiple-choice and constructed-response items in mathematics were studied with 3592 11th graders taking a high school graduation examination. Results suggest that gender differences in mathematics may be linked to content and item format, thus supporting the usefulness of a many-faceted Rasch model for…

Garner, Mary; Engelhard, George, Jr.

1999-01-01

438

Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Genetic Testing, Risk Interpretation and Genetic Testing Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares gender differences in attitudes towards prenatal testing, testing in minors, Huntington testing and the creation of designer babies and identifies how risk of genetic disease is perceived by both genders. A questionnaire was developed to explore attitudes towards different types of genetic testing, interpreting risk of genetic disease and concerns relating to genetic testing. A total of

Verity Leach

2010-01-01

439

Computer-Mediated Communication and Gender Difference: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this review paper is to conduct an extensive meta-analysis of the empirical literature on gender difference in the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC). Specifically, the questions that this research addresses are: 1) Are there gender differences in people's behaviors in relation to CMC? If yes, to what extent? 2) What…

Li, Qing

2005-01-01

440

Differences in Worldwide Tobacco Use by Gender: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey to describe gender differences in rates of tobacco use among youth worldwide. Results found little difference between the genders in cigarette smoking or use of other tobacco products. There was a high use of other tobacco products compared to cigarette smoking. Findings suggest that programs should…

Global Youth Tobacco Survey Collaborating Group

2003-01-01

441

Gender Differences In Learning Style Specific To Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage features an article by Donna Milgram of IWITTS that explores the gender differences in teaching science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). There are gender differences in learning styles specific to science, math, engineering and technology (STEM) that teachers of these subjects should keep in mind when developing lesson plans and teaching in the classroom.

Milgram, Donna

442

Gender Differences in Measuring Adolescent Drug Abuse and Related Psychosocial Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although gender issues have been addressed in clinical drug abuse literature, very little research has focused on gender differences in terms of the psychometric properties of assessment instruments. If boys and girls interpret instruments differently, the accuracy of clinical evaluation, referral, and treatment decisions based on these measures…

Botzet, Andria, M.; Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy

2006-01-01

443

Does Type of Disease Matter? Gender Differences Among Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Spouse Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose of study: Mental health outcomes are widely re- ported among spouse caregivers, with wives generally faring worse than husbands. We hypothesized that gender differ- ences would not be as strong in a cognitively intact group be- cause caring for cognitively intact spouses may involve less severe reciprocity losses. We also examined gender differ- ences in coping strategies within each

Karen Hooker; Margaret Manoogian-O; Deborah J. Monahan; Leslie D. Frazier; Kim Shifren

2000-01-01

444

Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

2013-01-01

445

Gender Differences in Gifted Children's Spatial, Verbal, and Quantitative Reasoning Abilities in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…

Wang, Wen-Ling

2004-01-01

446

Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

2013-01-01

447

The Difference It Makes: A Resource Book on Gender for Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent flood of new information on structuring human experience along gender lines and on the female component of human experience has profound implications for education. The new scholarship shows that much of what people once assumed to be innate gender difference is in fact produced by adults' different behavior toward boys and girls, of…

Chapman, Anne

448

Gender differences in the work commitment of Chinese workers: An investigation of two alternative explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the differences in work commitment between Chinese male and female employees. We develop a model that specifies the major antecedents of job and organizational commitment in the Chinese workplace. We then examine whether the gender differences can be attributed to factors related to gender role ideology or unfavorable work conditions encountered by women. Several hypotheses are formulated

Kelly Z. Peng; Hang-Yue Ngo; Junqi Shi; Chi-Sum Wong

2009-01-01

449

Gender Differences in Stroke Risk Among the Elderly After Coronary Artery Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that women are at higher risk than men for stroke after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, but gender differ- ences in systemic atherosclerosis have not been studied adequately. We investi- gated gender differences in the incidence of craniocervical and ascending aortic atherosclerosis and other risk factors for stroke in elderly patients (age 60 yr)

Tomoko Goto; Tomoko Baba; Asuka Ito; Kengo Maekawa; Takaaki Koshiji

2007-01-01

450

Gender and motivational differences in approaches to learning by a cohort of open learning students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the relationship between gender, motivational differences and students' approaches to learning—using a revised version of Biggs' (1987) study process questionnaire. Responses from 246 business students studying via open learning Australia provide data to develop a structural equation model. The model was subsequently examined for differences across gender groups. In the primary analysis, results suggest the same model

Paul de Lange; Felix Mavondo

2004-01-01

451

Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

2012-01-01

452

Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

2006-01-01

453

Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

2005-01-01

454

Gender Differences in Adherence to the Sodium-Restricted Diet in Patients With Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundDespite the importance of the sodium-restricted diet (SRD) to heart failure (HF) management, patient adherence is poor. Little is known about gender differences in adherence or factors that affect patients' ability to follow SRD recommendations. The purposes of this study were to determine whether there were gender differences in (1) adherence to the SRD; (2) knowledge about SRD and HF

Misook L. Chung; Debra K. Moser; Terry A. Lennie; Linda Worrall-Carter; Brooke Bentley; Robin Trupp; Deborah S. Armentano

2006-01-01

455

Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

456

Conflict in the Classroom: Gender Differences in the Teacher-Child Relationship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Current research regarding gender differences in educational settings at all socioeconomic levels suggests that young males are at high risk for developing academic, social, and emotional difficulties, resulting in increased disconnection from self and society. This study examined gender differences in the teacher-child…

Koepke, Margy Fox; Harkins, Debra A.

2008-01-01

457

Gender Differences in Computer-Related Control Beliefs and Home Computer Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored gender differences in home computer use and control beliefs about computer use in 152 Norwegian eighth graders. In the group of students without computer training or use at school, males had greater perceived control and greater confidence. No gender differences were found for the group with computer training in school. (SLD)

Solvberg, Astrid M.

2002-01-01

458

Gender difference in accumulation of calcium and phosphorus in the left coronary arteries of Thais.  

PubMed

To examine whether there were gender differences in compositional changes of the coronary artery with aging, the authors investigated the gender difference in age-related changes of elements in the left coronary arteries of Thais by direct chemical analysis. After ordinary dissections by students at Chiang Mai University were finished, the left coronary arteries were resected from Thai subjects. The Thai subjects consisted of 69 men and 34 women. The ages of the male subjects ranged from 25 to 87 years (average age?=?62.6?±?11.4 years) and of the female subjects from 24 to 86 years (average age?=?59.4?±?14.6 years). After incinerating the arteries with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element content was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The Ca and P contents tended to increase in the left coronary arteries of men with age, but the increases were not statistically significant. In the left coronary arteries of women, the Ca and P contents increased significantly and progressively with aging. In addition, the Na content increased significantly in the left coronary arteries of both men and women with aging. The differences in the average contents of Ca and P by age group were observed between the left coronary arteries of men and women. With Student's t test, significant gender differences in the average contents of Ca and P were found in both the 40s and the 70s. The Ca and P contents of the left coronary arteries in the 40s were significantly higher in men than in women. In contrast, the Ca and P contents in the 70s were significantly higher in women than in men. These results indicated that the accumulation of Ca and P in the left coronary arteries of Thais occurred at least 10 years earlier in men than in women, but a higher accumulation of Ca and P in old age occurred in the left coronary arteries of women compared with those of men. The present study revealed that there were significant gender differences in the left coronary arteries with regard to the accumulation of Ca and P with aging. It is reasonable to presume that taking clinical findings into consideration, the gender differences in the left coronary arteries may result from hormonal and/or genetic factors rather than lifestyle factors. PMID:21547401

Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Minami, Takeshi; Sinthubua, Apichat; Suwannahoy, Patipath; Ongkana, Nutcharin; Laowatthanaphong, Sikrai; Azuma, Cho

2011-12-01

459

The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: A qualitative study?  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing interest in gender and health, ‘lay’ perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, ‘macho’ constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their ‘provider’ role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. ‘gender as structure’ versus ‘gender as performance’, ‘gender as difference’ versus ‘gender as diversity’. PMID:18558455

Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

2008-01-01

460

Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five  

PubMed Central

This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive gender differences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant gender differences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the gender differences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of gender differences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level. PMID:21866227

Weisberg, Yanna J.; DeYoung, Colin G.; Hirsh, Jacob B.

2011-01-01

461

Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Children: A Meta-Analytic Review  

PubMed Central

Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = ?.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = ?.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = ?.20) and adolescence (g = ?.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = ?.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia

2012-01-01

462

Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = -0.27) and shame (d = -0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = -0.08), authentic pride (d = -0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate. PMID:22468881

Else-Quest, Nicole M; Higgins, Ashley; Allison, Carlie; Morton, Lindsay C

2012-09-01

463

Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.  

PubMed

Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (p<.001) and significantly less likely to have a father (p=.025) or a mother (p=.048) with a gambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:18499125

Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

2009-01-01

464

Individual Differences in Experiences of and Responses to Guilt and Shame: Examining the Lenses of Gender and Gender Role  

Microsoft Academic Search

How are experiences of and reactions to guilt and shame a function of gendered views of the self? Individual differences in guilt and shame responses were explored in a sample of 104 young adults, most of whom were European American. Results indicated that, although women reported greater proneness to guilt and shame, men reported more trait guilt. Heightened levels of

Jessica Benetti-McQuoid; Krisanne Bursik

2005-01-01

465

Gender differences in depressive symptomatology: The role played by “anxious somatic depression” associated with gender-related achievement concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the studies reported here, females were more likely than males to report high levels of depression accompanied by anxiety and somatic symptomatology such as disordered eating and headache, but not more likely to report depression unaccompanied by these symptoms. This gender difference in depression prevalence and the symptomatology associated with depression was due to a subgroup of females who

Brett Silverstein; Joanne Caceres; Lauren Perdue; Verena Cimarolli

1995-01-01

466

Cheap Talk in the Classroom: How Biased Grading at School Explains Gender Differences in Achievements, Career Choices and Wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I provide a theoretical explanation for the gender differences in education and on the labour market that are observed empirically in most OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, including the US Within a cheap talk model of grading, I show that biased grading in schools results in (1) boys outperforming girls in maths and sciences,

LYDIA MECHTENBERG

2009-01-01

467

Gender differences, work stressors and musculoskeletal disorders in weaving industries.  

PubMed

A study was undertaken to identify the work stressors among male and female weavers (N=516) in powerloom and handloom and examine the association of work stressors with the prevalence of work related musculo-skeletal disorders (MSDs). Physical and psychosocial stresses of work, job diagnostics, hazards of workplace, working environment and MSDs prevalence were assessed. There is high prevalence of MSDs among weavers. Female weavers in powerloom and handloom were more prone to developing MSDs in upper back (OR 1.8; p<0.05 and OR 2.1; p<0.01) and lower back (OR 1.9; p<0.05 and OR 1.8; p<0.05). Male weavers were more prone to developing pain in the knee (OR 2.9; p<0.001), and hand (OR 2.2; p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that job duration >10 yr (OR 3.7, p<0.05), manual material handling (OR 3, p<0.05), and poor machinery safety (OR 11, p<0.05), contributed to occurrence of MSDs amongst powerloom weavers. Among the handloom weavers, age >25 yr (OR 3.2, p<0.05), poor machinery design (OR 2.2, p<0.01), mental overload (OR 5.7, p<0.001), skill requirement to perform jobs (OR 20.7, p<0.05) had significant influence in the occurrence of pain. Gender differences exist in the prevalence of MSDs and the perception of work and psycho-social stresses among the weavers. PMID:20562510

Nag, Anjali; Vyas, H; Nag, P K

2010-01-01

468

Origins of the Gender Wage: Gender Differences in Pay in the Adolescent Labor Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gender wage gap is among the most durable and most the most studied characteristics of the labor market. Yet, most studies focus on the adult labor market, excluding the substantial population of teenagers in the United States who work while still in school. This project focuses exclusively on the teenage labor force, particularly those between the ages of 12

Yasemin Besen-Cassino

2008-01-01

469

Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

2010-01-01

470

Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Tolerance to Short Arm Centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation for the NASA Artificial Gravity (AG) pilot study, the tolerability of the proposed AG parameters was tested in 11 ambulatory human subjects (6m, 5w) by exposing each to a short arm centrifuge trial. Subjects were oriented in the supine position (but inclined 6deg head down) on one arm of the centrifuge, and the rotation rate (30.6-33.4 rpm) and radial position of the feet were set to produce 2.5G of equivalent gravitational load at the force plate directly beneath the feet, 1G at the level of the mediastinum, and approximately 0.55G at the labyrinth. Amongst the 6 men participating in this preliminary study, 5 completed at least 60 minutes of the trial successfully with no adverse sequelae. However, amongst the female cohort the test was stopped by the medical monitor before 60 min in all but one case, with pre-syncope listed as the reason for termination in all cases. Mean time before abort of the centrifuge run amongst the women was 33.2 +/- 20.97 min. It is known that women have a greater predisposition to syncope during orthostatic stress, under normal tilt table conditions, during LBNP, and following space flight. The reasons for this difference are the subject of some debate, but anthropometric factors, the vasoactive effects of sex hormones, gender differences in susceptibility to motion sickness, catecholamine levels, ability to augment total peripheral resistance in response to orthostatic stress, and structural differences in cardiac anatomy and physiology have all been suggested. This finding led to the exclusion of women from the AG pilot study. Clearly if AG is to be employed as a multi-system countermeasure it must provide physiological protection at rotation rates within the tolerance limits of all potential astronauts. Further investigation of the responses of women to centrifugation will be necessary to determine how to adjust AG parameters for tolerance by female subjects before a more detailed investigation of the appropriate dose in terms of G load, rotation rate, exposure duration and frequency can be performed.

Fong, Kevin J.; Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H.

2007-01-01

471

Aging and Psychological Distress: Are There Gender Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is consensus in the mental health literature that women report more distress and depressive symptoms than men, it is not clear if this applies to all age groups. To examine the relationship of gender and distress among older adults, two methods were employed. First, a review was conducted of all random community surveys conducted…

Feinson, Marjorie Chary

472

Gender Differences in College of Business Educational Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors examine the effect of gender on the learning experiences of students majoring in business. The development of behaviors and attitudes, which will affect the professional practices of graduates, is crucial in the education of business majors. Given that the use of group work and other forms of innovative learning is…

Kaenzig, Rebecca; Hyatt, Eva; Anderson, Stella

2007-01-01

473

Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender

Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya

2009-01-01

474

Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

2012-01-01

475

Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

2007-01-01

476

Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

477

Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

2008-01-01

478

Gender differences in medical students' motives and career choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties.

P. J. M. Heiligers

2012-01-01

479

Gender differences in the motivational processing of facial beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial images, and (b) rating the attractiveness of

Boaz Levy; Dan Ariely; Nina Mazar; Won Chi; Scott Lukas; Igor Elman

2008-01-01

480

Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

2013-01-01

481

Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

2005-01-01

482

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

483

Biological Superiority in Math: Calvin or Susie? Spotlight: Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses recent research findings, which do not appear to support the idea that boys' superiority in mathematics is biological. Cerebral lateralization studies are discussed; meta-analysis showed that the gender gap has narrowed, casting doubt on the importance of innate ability determining mathematics performance. Discusses implications of…

Luckenbill, Louise M.

1995-01-01

484

Gender differences in the initiation and attribution of tactile intimacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural norms may restrict the demonstration of intimacy between men, such that male adults are relatively unlikely (in comparison to females) to display affection in public by hugging or putting hands around one another's waists. Study 1 examined via a role playing technique how the gender composition of a dyad and types of friendship influence tactile greetings. Males displayed less

Valerian J. Derlega; Robin J. Lewis; Scott Harrison; Barbara A. Winstead; Robert Costanza

1989-01-01

485

Gender Differences in Human–Animal Interactions: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,

Harold A. Herzog

2007-01-01

486

Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

2013-01-01

487

Schooling and Industrialization in China: Gender Differences in School Enrollment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid decrease in gender inequality in education over the past several decades in China has drawn significant attention in the existing literature. Several factors have been proposed or examined to explain this decrease. However, few studies have examined this topic from the perspective of the changing job structure and skill requirements in…

Lee, Ming-Hsuan

2014-01-01

488

Gender differences within 360-degree managerial performance appraisals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of gender on the performance assessments of managers arising from the 360-degree scheme operated within the UK headquarters of a large multi-international financial services organisation. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A questionnaire approach was used to collect data on 66 managers (33 males and 33 females) against four broad capabilities on

Mike Millmore; David Biggs; Laura Morse

2007-01-01

489

Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present study, men and women demonstrated significantly different strategies for regulating blood pressure and cerebral flow both at rest and during orthostatic stress on the day in which they had undergone exposure to AG. Since, in both men and women, a single, acute bout of AG exposure improved orthostatic tolerance, the feasibility of short exposures to AG during longer spaceflights or prior to entry into a gravitational (Earth or Mars) environment, should be explored. Given the known beneficial effects of AG on other organ systems, the present study indicates that the positive effect of artificial gravity on cardiac output make AG a likely candidate for sustaining cardiovascular conditioning upon return to gravity. Supported by KY NASA EPSCoR Grant #NNX07AT58A, KY State Matching Grants, NASA JSC Human Research Program and NASA Ames Research Center.

Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

490

Gender differences in emotionality and sociability in children with autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Four times as many males are diagnosed with high functioning autism compared to females. A growing body of research that focused on females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) questions the assumption of gender invariance in ASD. Clinical observations suggest that females with ASD superficially demonstrate better social and emotional skills than males with ASD, which may camouflage other diagnostic features. This may explain the under-diagnosis of females with ASD. Methods We hypothesised that females with ASD would display better social skills than males with ASD on a test of friendship and social function. One hundred and one 10- to 16-year-olds (ASD females, n?=?25; typically developing (TD) females, n?=?25; ASD males, n?=?25; TD males, n?=?26) were interviewed (using the friendship questionnaire (FQ)) with high scores indicating the child has close, empathetic and supportive relationships. One parent of each child completed the FQ to assess whether there are differences in perception of friendships between parents and children. Results It was found that, independent of diagnosis, females demonstrated higher scores on the FQ than males. Further, regardless of gender, children with ASD demonstrated lower scores than TD children. Moreover, the effect of ASD was independent of gender. Interestingly, females with ASD and TD males displayed similar scores on the FQ. Conclusions This finding is supported by clinical reports that females with ASD have more developed social skills than males with ASD. Further research is now required to examine the underlying causes for this phenomenon in order to develop gender-appropriate diagnostic criteria and interventions for ASD. PMID:24576331

2014-01-01

491

Acetaminophen Metabolism Does Not Contribute to Gender Difference in Its Hepatotoxicity in Mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender is an important factor in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. In the current study, gender difference in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity has been exam- ined. Male and female mice were injected with a toxic dose of APAP (500 mg\\/kg, ip). Female mice were resistant to the hepatotoxic effects of APAP, depicted by serum alanine amino- transferase and sorbital dehydrogenase activities and histological

Guoli Dai; Lin He; Nathan Chou

2006-01-01

492

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

2008-01-01

493

Implications of gender differences for human health risk assessment and toxicology  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper from The Human Health working group of SGOMSEC 16 examines a broad range of issues on gender effects in toxicology. Gender differences in toxicology begin at the gamete and embryo stage, continuing through development and maturation and into old age. Sex influences exp...

494

Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

2011-01-01

495

Gender and age-related differences in osteoclast formation from circulating precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of bone diseases characterised by excessive osteolysis (e.g. osteoporosis and Paget's disease) exhibit a marked gender difference in prevalence and are more common in the elderly population. Bone resorption is carried out by osteoclasts, which are formed by fusion of circulating mononuclear precursor cells of haematopoietic origin. In this study, we have determined whether there are gender- and

M Jevon; A Sabokbar; Y Fujikawa; T Hirayama; S D Neale; J Wass; N A Athanasou

2002-01-01

496

Racial and Gender Differences in Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Longitudinal Associations with Coital Debut  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeDelay of sexual debut is an important strategy in reducing the risk of negative adolescent health outcomes. Race and gender are known to be related to sexual behavior and outcomes, but little is known about how these characteristics affect sexual attitudes. This article examines differences in coital and pregnancy attitudes by gender and race, the influence of attitudes on transition

Juanita J. Cuffee; Denise D. Hallfors; Martha W. Waller

2007-01-01

497

Gender Differences in Adolescent Perceptions of Parent-Adolescent Openness in Communication and Adolescent Empathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine how the relationship between adolescent perceptions of openness in parent-adolescent communication and adolescent empathy may differ by gender of the respondent. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to test the possibility of an interaction between adolescent