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1

Gender differences in young children's temperament traits: comparisons across observational and parent-report methods.  

PubMed

Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826

Olino, Thomas M; Durbin, C Emily; Klein, Daniel N; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Dyson, Margaret W

2013-01-11

2

Gender Differences in Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

2000-01-01

3

Postures, typing strategies, and gender differences in mobile device usage: an observational study.  

PubMed

Mobile device text messaging and other typing is rapidly increasing worldwide. A checklist was utilized to characterize joint postures and typing styles in individuals appearing to be of college age (n = 859) while typing on their mobile devices in public. Gender differences were also ascertained. Almost universally, observed subjects had a flexed neck (91.0%, n = 782), and a non-neutral typing-side wrist (90.3%, n = 776). A greater proportion of males had protracted shoulders (p < 0.01, ?(2) test), while a greater proportion of females had a typing-side inner elbow angle of <90°, particularly while standing (p = 0.03, ?(2) test). 46.1% of subjects typed with both thumbs (two hands holding the mobile device). Just over one-third typed with their right thumb (right hand holding the mobile device). No difference in typing styles between genders was found. Future research should determine whether the non-neutral postures identified may be associated with musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:21764031

Gold, J E; Driban, J B; Thomas, N; Chakravarty, T; Channell, V; Komaroff, E

2011-07-20

4

Gender Differences in Leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE TOPIC OF GENDER DIFFERENCES in leadership style has been of great interest to researchers in the fields of psychology, management, and sociology, especially in recent years, as women have begun to assume more leadership positions. This article presents an overview of the research on gender differences in leadership, examines the impact of sex stereotyping, looks at the organizational effects

Barbara B. Moran

1992-01-01

5

Gender Differences in Overtime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among full-time workers, differences in the amount ofpaid overtime worked by men and women make a major contribution to the overall gender gap in earnings. This article argues that direct discrimination in the allocation of overtime would appear to be responsible for only a small part of this differential. Rather, the gender gap in overtime is primarily due to the

David Brereton

1990-01-01

6

Gender Differences in Careers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine gender differences in careers using a large linked employer-employee dataset on Finnish white-collar manufacturing workers over the period of 1981–2006. Our focus is on labour market entrants whom we follow over time. We find that men start their careers from higher ranks of the hierarchy than women do, although gender differences in education explain much of this gap.

Antti Kauhanen; Sami Napari

2011-01-01

7

Gender and Gender Identity Differences in Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past decade, extensive research on gender and learning styles has produced a multitude of findings: gender differences in learning styles are small on average, but across studies quite different results are observed. In the present study, this heterogeneity is the central focus of our attention. Two possible interpretations concerning the educational context and the concept of gender identity

Sabine Severiens; Geert Ten Dam

1997-01-01

8

Gender differences in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in schizophrenia can be caused by the disease process itself, by genetic and hormonal differences, by differences in the maturation and morphology of the brain and in age- and gender-specific behavioural patterns. These hypotheses will be tested on the major results reported in the literature as well as on different levels (epidemiology, risk factors, animal experiments, a controlled

H Häfner

2003-01-01

9

Gender Differences in Preschool Aggression During Free Play and Structured Interactions: An Observational Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We observed 48 children from rural preschools (M = 64 months old) in two different social contexts to test hypotheses about the type (relational, physical, verbal, nonver- bal), contextual independence, and sociometry of girls' and boys' aggressive tactics. We predicted and generally found that (1) girls displayed more relational aggression than boys while boys displayed more physical and verbal aggression

Jamie M. Ostrov; Caroline F. Keating

2004-01-01

10

Gender Differences in Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)|

Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

1986-01-01

11

Gender Differences in Strength.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

1986-01-01

12

Gender differences and pain medication.  

PubMed

Subtle genetic and psychological variations are increasingly recognized to contribute to pain and analgesic efficacy and safety. The influence of sex on this relationship remains poorly understood, particularly in humans. The issue is complicated by the overlay of gender onto physical sex, and its associated stereotypes and expectations. Women appear to use more pain-relieving medications than men; however, it remains unclear whether these observations represent true differences in analgesic usage patterns, or reporting bias. Differences in analgesic efficacy relating to body composition, metabolism and hormonal profiles have been demonstrated. Psychological and social elements of gender have also been associated with altered pain experiences and analgesic use profiles, albeit with significant individual variations. Intra-group differences may ultimately prove more important than sex differences. Further research may unravel the various threads linking gender and sex effects on analgesia with the aim of individualizing analgesia to optimize pain relief. PMID:19102644

Richardson, Jen; Holdcroft, Anita

2009-01-01

13

Risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder following an industrial disaster in a residential area: A note on the origin of observed gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies indicate that differences in trait anxiety and trauma-related distress may mediate the gender differences observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Objective: We examined the contributions of gender, trait anxiety, and trauma-related distress to the development of PTSD after an industrial disaster.Methods: Three months after a massive explosion in a fireworks factory in Kolding, Denmark, in November 2004, residents in

Helle Spindler; Ask Elklit; Dorte Christiansen

2010-01-01

14

Gender Differences in Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in smoking quit rates are frequently reported and are the subject of much speculation. This study examined the generalizability of gender differences in abstinence across study sites, treatments, and time of relapse, as well as potential mediators and moderators of gender effects. Participants were smokers who participated in 3 randomized clinical trials of the nicotine patch ( N

David W. Wetter; Susan L. Kenford; Stevens S. Smith; Michael C. Fiore; Douglas E. Jorenby; Timothy B. Baker

2000-01-01

15

The effects of acupuncture on the brain networks for emotion and cognition: An observation of gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture modulates brain activity at the limbic–paralimbic–neocortical network (LPNN) and the default mode network (DMN). Since these brain networks show gender differences when mediating emotional and cognitive tasks, we thus hypothesize that women and men may also respond differently to acupuncture procedure at these brain regions. In order to test this hypothesis, we retrieved the data of 38 subjects, 19

Wei Qiao Qiu; Joshua Claunch; Jian Kong; Erika E. Nixon; Jiliang Fang; Ming Li; Mark Vangel; Kathleen Kin-Sang Hui

16

Investigating gender differences in reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the following different aspects of reading: differences in behavioural and

Sarah Logan; Rhona Johnston

2010-01-01

17

Gender differences in stalking behaviour among juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is emerging recognition that stalking is a problem behaviour among juveniles. As gender differences in the nature of stalking have been observed to exist in adult stalkers, it is important to ascertain whether gender differences are also apparent in juvenile perpetrators. This study compared the characteristics and motivations of stalking behaviour in an Australian sample of juvenile perpetrators (n = 299),

Rosemary Purcell; Michele Pathé; Paul Mullen

2010-01-01

18

Few differences in diet and health behaviors and perceptions were observed in adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping.  

PubMed

Diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians in a large Midwestern city were evaluated for differences by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. The hypothesis was that human behavior is influenced by tribal association, gender, and age grouping in the subject population. The subjects included 33 men and 32 women, with 26 being Sioux; 22 Omaha; and 17 a combination of other tribes. The descriptive survey included two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. The majority of subjects were overweight or obese. Significant differences (P< .05) were observed in vitamin A and calcium intakes by tribal association. Men reported consuming significantly more (P< .05) kilocalories, vitamin C, and sodium. Over half the subjects consumed more than the recommended 20% to 35% kcal from fat, >or=10% kcal from saturated fat, and >or=300 mg cholesterol/d. Less than Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron were consumed by 31%, 59%, and 6%, respectively; 79% consumed less than Adequate Intakes for calcium. Ninety-two percent consumed more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium. Few differences were observed in the kilocalorie, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and sodium intakes of these Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, or age grouping. Significant differences in percentages consuming alcohol were observed by gender (P< .05) and by age grouping (P< .01). A significant difference (P< .01) was observed by gender regarding the subjects' perceptions of their being alcoholics. Overall, few differences were observed in diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. PMID:19083496

Carter, Tina L; Morse, Kristin L; Giraud, David W; Driskell, Judy A

2008-12-01

19

The effects of acupuncture on the brain networks for emotion and cognition: an observation of gender differences.  

PubMed

Acupuncture modulates brain activity at the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) and the default mode network (DMN). Since these brain networks show gender differences when mediating emotional and cognitive tasks, we thus hypothesize that women and men may also respond differently to acupuncture procedure at these brain regions. In order to test this hypothesis, we retrieved the data of 38 subjects, 19 females and 19 males, who had brain fMRI during acupuncture from previous studies and reanalyzed them based on sex status. Deactivation at the LPNN/DMN during needle manipulation of acupuncture was more extensive in females than in males, particularly in the posterior cingulate (BA31), precuneus (BA7m) and angular gyrus (BA39). The functional correlations between the right BA31 and pregenual cingulate (BA32), hippocampus or contralateral BA31 were significantly stronger in females than in males. The angular gyrus (BA39) was functionally correlated with BA31 in females; in contrast, it was anticorrelated with BA31 in males. Soreness, a major component of the psychophysical responses to needle manipulation, deqi, was correlated in intensity with deactivation of the angular gyrus in females; no such relationships were observed in males. In contrast to lesser deactivation at the LPNN/DMN networks, needle manipulation during acupuncture induced greater activation at the secondary somatosensory cortex and stronger functional connectivity with the anterior-middle cingulate (BA32/24) in males than in females. Our study suggests that brains with sex dimorphism may process the acupuncture stimulation differently between women and men. PMID:20851113

Qiu, Wei Qiao; Claunch, Joshua; Kong, Jian; Nixon, Erika E; Fang, Jiliang; Li, Ming; Vangel, Mark; Hui, Kathleen Kin-Sang

2010-09-17

20

The effects of acupuncture on the brain networks for emotion and cognition: An observation of gender differences  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture modulates brain activity at the limbic–paralimbic–neocortical network (LPNN) and the default mode network (DMN). Since these brain networks show gender differences when mediating emotional and cognitive tasks, we thus hypothesize that women and men may also respond differently to acupuncture procedure at these brain regions. In order to test this hypothesis, we retrieved the data of 38 subjects, 19 females and 19 males, who had brain fMRI during acupuncture from previous studies and reanalyzed them based on sex status. Deactivation at the LPNN/DMN during needle manipulation of acupuncture was more extensive in females than in males, particularly in the posterior cingulate (BA31), precuneus (BA7m) and angular gyrus (BA39). The functional correlations between the right BA31 and pregenual cingulate (BA32), hippocampus or contralateral BA31 were significantly stronger in females than in males. The angular gyrus (BA39) was functionally correlated with BA31 in females; in contrast, it was anticorrelated with BA31 in males. Soreness, a major component of the psychophysical responses to needle manipulation, deqi, was correlated in intensity with deactivation of the angular gyrus in females; no such relationships were observed in males. In contrast to lesser deactivation at the LPNN/DMN networks, needle manipulation during acupuncture induced greater activation at the secondary somatosensory cortex and stronger functional connectivity with the anterior-middle cingulate (BA32/24) in males than in females. Our study suggests that brains with sex dimorphism may process the acupuncture stimulation differently between women and men.

Qiu, Wei Qiao; Claunch, Joshua; Kong, Jian; Nixon, Erika E.; Fang, Jiliang; Li, Ming; Vangel, Mark; Hui, Kathleen Kin-Sang

2013-01-01

21

Investigating Gender Differences in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within…

Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

2010-01-01

22

Gender Differences in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys the trends in gender gaps in education, their causes and potential policy implications. I show that female educational attainment has surpassed, or is about to surpass, male educational attainment in most industrialized countries. These gaps reflect male overrepresentation among secondary school drop-outs and female overrepresentation among tertiary education students and graduates. Existing evidence suggests that this pattern

Tuomas Pekkarinen

2012-01-01

23

Gender Differences and High Attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent emphasis on raising attainment has focused attention onto the 'gender gap' in school attainment levels. Using data from the Scottish School Leavers Survey, the article examines factors related to high attainment and asks whether these differ for males and females. A strong relationship is established between social advantage and high attainment within each gender. There is no evidence of

TERESA TINKLIN

2003-01-01

24

Gender Differences: Society, Culture, Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates various aspects of gender differences in the areas of males' and females' functioning in society, culture, language and learning. The research analyses the influence of the Gender Factor on students' social behaviour, implementing language, their preferences in pattern of knowledge in various aspects - cognitive, emotional abilities, their learning styles, and achievements.

Anna Tatarinceva; Nina Blumenau

25

Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since the 1960s, gender differences in mathematics performance have been a major topic in educational and mathematical research. This study entails a gender comparative analysis of students' mathematics performance as determined by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and by the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency. In a public school system in rural…

Porter, Rhonda C.

26

Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

Abramo, Joseph Michael

2011-01-01

27

Gender Differences in Absenteeism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Employee characteristics and attitudes of 466 secondary school teachers were examined to determine whether men and women had different reasons for being absent. Although women had different perceptions of some work-related factors and took substantially more days off, their absence occurrences were not significantly different. (JOW)

Scott, K. Dow; McClellan, Elizabeth L.

1990-01-01

28

Gender Differences in Moral Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly developed rating procedure based on participants’ open-ended responses

Gertrud Nunner-Winkler; Marion Meyer-Nikele; Doris Wohlrab

2007-01-01

29

Gender Differences in Sexual Interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common gender stereotype is that males are more interested than females in sex for purely physical reasons. Sociobiologists claim that this difference is biologically determined. In contrast, many sociologists and anthropologists claim that the difference is cultural. The debate about nature versus nurture regarding sexual interest has been long-standing without resolution. We propose a biosocial model that integrates data

John D. Baldwin; Janice I. Baldwin

1997-01-01

30

Gender Differences in Moral Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

2007-01-01

31

Gender differences in suicide methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Gender differences in suicide completion rates have been attributed to the differences in lethality of suicide methods chosen\\u000a by men and women, but few empirical studies have investigated factors other than demographic characteristics that might explain\\u000a this differential.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data from the 621 suicides in Summit County, Ohio during 1997–2006 were disaggregated by gender to compare known correlates\\u000a of suicide risk

Valerie J. Callanan; Mark S. Davis

32

Cognitive gender differences: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the developmental literature on cognitive gender differences and compares past and present trends in gender differences, by age, from the standardizations of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (1949–1981) and the California Achievement Tests (CAT; 1956–1985). Consistent with prior research, decreases in gender differences were found for adolescents. For children, gender differences were small or nonexistent in the Wechsler

Alan Feingold

1993-01-01

33

Gender differences in parental grief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in grief of parents who lost their child were examined using the Grief Experience Inventory. Participants were 35 bereaved couples who ranged in age from 27 to 73. Results showed that the mothers' scares were signihantly higher than those of fathers on the following scales: Atypical Responses, Despair, Anger\\/Hostility, Guilt, Loss of Control, Rumination, Deper-sonalization, Somatization, Loss of

Reiko Schwab

1996-01-01

34

Gender Difference and Student Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

Flynn, Elizabeth A.

35

Gender Differences in Teenage Smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the patterns and correlates of gender differences in cigarette smoking in a national sample of white high school seniors in 1985. More females than males were smokers, because females had higher rates for the early stages of smoking adoption. Specifically, females were more likely to have tried smoking at least once and, among those who had tried

Ingrid Waldron; Diane Lye; Anastasia Brandon

1991-01-01

36

Gender differences in lifting technique.  

PubMed

The importance of different motion patterns in the assessment of work technique is rarely addressed in the literature and even less information can be found regarding gender differences. In this study the possible gender differences in lifting technique from lifting experiments on 12 female and 10 male participants were examined. The participants performed squat and stoop lifts of a box. Movements were measured by means of opto-electronic measurement systems. Kinematic data derived from the measurements revealed some differences between the men and the women, e.g. in trunk motion and knee angle ranges. The hip-knee interjoint coordination was more synchronized for women than for men in terms of the relative phase angle. It is concluded that so far gender differences in motion patterns have not been sufficiently explored and that men and women need to be considered separately in the evaluation of work technique in manual handling tasks. Advantages and disadvantages of different coordination patterns need to be further investigated. PMID:11209877

Lindbeck, L; Kjellberg, K

2001-02-10

37

Games Strategies: Gender Differences vs. Motivational Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapoport and Chammah's (1965) Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game research and Vinacke's (1959) parchisi board game research revealed that players used various strategies to reach their desired outcomes. The researchers ascribed the strategy variations to gender differences. A study was conducted which replicated Vinacke's parchisi board game and…

Gower, Linda A.; And Others

38

Games Strategies: Gender Differences vs. Motivational Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rapoport and Chammah's (1965) Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game research and Vinacke's (1959) parchisi board game research revealed that players used various strategies to reach their desired outcomes. The researchers ascribed the strategy variations to gender differences. A study was conducted which replicated Vinacke's parchisi board game and…

Gower, Linda A.; And Others

39

Gender Role Ideology and the Gender Based Differences in Earnings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the research on gender differences in occupational earnings still focuses on human capital and the structure of the labor market. However, these variables rarely explain even half of the gender gap in earnings. Most research has examined the impact of gender role ideology as it impacts occupational choice, which indirectly can impact earnings. Using data from the National

Juanita M. Firestone; Richard J. Harris; Linda C. Lambert

1999-01-01

40

Gender Differences in Smoking Cessation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years researchers have paid particularly close attention to factors that might differentially influence smoking cessation outcomes in men and women. The present paper reviews empirical findings on gender differences in smoking cessation with focus on 1) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), 2) depression and anxiety factors, 3) post-cessation weight gain and body-shape concerns, 4) post-cessation withdrawal, and 5) the

Jose Reynoso; Agnes Susabda; Antonio Cepeda-Benito

2005-01-01

41

Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In

Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak

2000-01-01

42

Few differences in diet and health behaviors and perceptions were observed in adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians in a large Midwestern city were evaluated for differences by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. The hypothesis was that human behavior is influenced by tribal association, gender, and age grouping in the subject population. The subjects included 33 men and 32 women, with 26 being Sioux; 22

Tina L. Carter; Kristin L. Morse; David W. Giraud; Judy A. Driskell

2008-01-01

43

Gender Differences Among Older Heroin Users  

PubMed Central

Objectives This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Methods Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Results Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Discussion Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health.

HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.

2009-01-01

44

Gender Differences in Implicit Theories of Wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies are reported that investigated different aspects of gender differences in implicit theories. In Study 1, participants rated characteristics and possible sources of wisdom concerning their importance for wisdom. Gender differences are small, but suggest a slightly more cognition-oriented view of wisdom in men. Study 2 showed gender differences in participants' reports of an event in which they were

Judith Glück; Irene Strasser; Susan Bluck

2009-01-01

45

Gender Differences in Living with Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Conflict of interest: none declared. The aim of this review is to discuss the gender difference among diabetic population. Metabolic control, age and gender significantly affect their psychosocial responses to disease. Psychosocial problems may also occur secondary to negative diabetes related experiences including diagnosis, increased stress and onset of complications. Although significant problems do not occur in all diabetic population, they occur in few patients. More work is needed in the area of identifying those patients having adjustment difficulties to diabetic related challenges. This review indicates that male diabetics are observed to be living more effectively with diabetes, lesser depression and anxiety but more energy and better positive wellbeing

Siddiqui, Muhammad A; Khan, Mannan F; Carline, Thomas E

2013-01-01

46

Gender differences in adolescent substance abuse.  

PubMed

Gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidities, and treatment responses of substance abuse have been described in adults. However, a growing body of data suggests that gender differences also exist in adolescents with substance abuse. Unfortunately, research is still limited in this age group. This article reviews gender differences in the diagnosis, presentation, course of illness, and treatment response of substance abuse in adults and adolescents. Adolescent substance abuse treatments that take into account these gender differences are also discussed. PMID:19302765

Kloos, Angelica; Weller, Ronald A; Chan, Rebecca; Weller, Elizabeth B

2009-04-01

47

Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature…

Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

2008-01-01

48

Structural gender differences in perceived social support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender is an important influence on support-relevant social interactions, however findings of studies on gender differences in social support are not definitive. Although differences between men and women in the various social support measures have been found in numerous studies, neither the cause nor the explanatory process is known. This study examines gender differences in the dimensionality of social support.

Mar??a Pilar Matud; Ignacio Ibáñez; Juan Manuel Bethencourt; Rosario Marrero; Mónica Carballeira

2003-01-01

49

Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.  

PubMed

Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159

Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

2011-08-29

50

How Large Are Cognitive Gender Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study applied meta-analysis techniques to the gender studies cited by Maccoby and Jacklin and assessed the magnitude of cognitive gender differences. Results indicated that gender differences in verbal, quantitative, and visual-spatial ability were very small. (Author/APM)|

Hyde, Janet Shibley

1981-01-01

51

Gender Differences in Children's Internet Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses comparative empirical data from across Europe on gender differences in children's Internet use, and through a new interpretive framework on young people's experiences, seeks to add new findings to this growing international knowledge base. Linking feminist theory on gender and technology with theories of youth gender identity construction, four key areas are investigated. Firstly, the impact of

Helen McQuillan; Brian O' Neill

2009-01-01

52

The Early Development of Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews findings from anthropology, psychology, and other disciplines about the role of biological factors in the development of sex differences in human behavior, including biological theories, the developmental course of sex differences, and the interaction of biological and cultural gendering processes at different ages. Current evidence suggests that major biological influences on individual differences in human gender, to

Matthew H. McIntyre; Carolyn Pope Edwards

2009-01-01

53

Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on\\u000a expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation\\u000a in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of expertise is

Gita Taasoobshirazi; Martha Carr

2008-01-01

54

Gender differences in smoking behavior in a university workplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral approaches to smoking intervention benefit from an understanding of smoking behavior. We investigated gender differences in smoking behavior by observing 292 men and 648 women smoking in a university workplace. Although men smoked more cigarettes in longer break times than women, there were no gender differences in the time individual cigarettes were lit or time in the mouth. However,

J. Burger; M. Gochfeld

1989-01-01

55

Gender-related differences in moral judgments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related\\u000a neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development,\\u000a whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role\\u000a of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious

M. Fumagalli; R. Ferrucci; F. Mameli; S. Marceglia; S. Mrakic-Sposta; S. Zago; C. Lucchiari; D. Consonni; F. Nordio; G. Pravettoni; S. Cappa; A. Priori

2010-01-01

56

Transnational stability of gender differences in schizophrenia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Gender-specific analyses of the multinational WHO-Determinants of Outcome-Study (including 1,292 cases from 10 countries) demonstrate the transnational stability of major findings on gender differences in schizophrenia: Male patients have an earlier mean age at onset in all countries. In female patients, the distribution of the age at onset shows a second peak after age 40 years. No gender differences

M. Hambrecht; K. Maurer; H. Häfner; N. Sartorius

1992-01-01

57

Gender differences in peace education programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to reveal gender differences regarding peace and peace pedagogy.

Yaacov Boaz Yablon

2009-01-01

58

Gender differences in depression in college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is much evidence indicating that females report more depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) relative to males, virtually no research has examined or reported gender differences on several other measures tapping negative affect—namely, the Expanded Attributional Styles Questionnaire (EASQ) and the Selves Questionnaire. Our first study examined gender differences on both the BDI and EASQ, and

Ann K. Boggiano; Marty Barrett

1991-01-01

59

Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sex stereotyping attitudes and behaviors of educators have been cited as particularly important influences on the development of gender differences in childhood and adolescence. Because teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of gender differences may impact the formation of students' confidence in academic subjects and school in general,…

Parker-Price, Susan; Claxton, Amy F.

60

Gender differences in computer science students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined gender differences and differences in Computer Science (CS) majors vs. non-majors in ability in quantitative areas, educational goals and interests, experience with computers, stereotypes and knowledge about CS, confidence, personality, support and encouragement, stress and financial issues, gender discrimination, and attitudes toward the academic environment in CS. What is unique to this investigation is its multivariate nature. While

Sylvia Beyer; Kristina Rynes; Julie Perrault; Kelly Hay; Susan M. Haller

2003-01-01

61

Challenging experiences: gender differences in task choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine: gender differences in the choice to perform challenging tasks, gender differences in the actual performance of challenging tasks, and the impact of challenging experiences on supervisors' evaluations of individuals' potential for career advancement. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In study 1, a sample of 158 students participated in a laboratory study that examined

Pater de I. E; Vianen van A. E. M; A. H. Fischer; Ginkel van W. P

2009-01-01

62

Gender differences in irritable bowel syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States and other Western cultures, a greater number of women seek health care services for symptoms of functional pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, than men. Recent clinical trials indicate that gender differences in responsiveness to drug therapy also occur. Several lines of inquiry have focused on explaining this gender-related difference due to the higher prevalence of

Lin Chang; Margaret M. Heitkemper

2002-01-01

63

Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses gender differences in fixed term contracts in 19 European countries, using micro data from the European Social Survey. Our estimates show that temporary employment appears to be more feminized and that gender differences in temporary employment can arise from a female specific behaviour where young women often appear more concerned with atypical jobs. Moreover, the marital status

Frederic Salladarre; Boubaker Hlaimi

2007-01-01

64

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE MOTIVATION TO LEARN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper analyzed the relationship between motivation and learning, as well as gender’s impact on motivation to learn. The history of society’s belief’s about women’s thinking, of educational opportunities for women, and of research regarding gender differences in academics revealed a consistent trend toward equality of potential for thinking, schooling, and achievement of men and women. Thirty research articles

Joshua C. Parker

2007-01-01

65

Gender differences in education in a dynamic household bargaining model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret observed gender differences in education as the equilibrium outcome of a two-sex overlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children conditional on gender. This model represents a new framework for the analysis of the process of intrahousehold decision making in an intergenerational setting.

Cristina Echevarria; Antonio Merlo

1995-01-01

66

Gender Differences in Education in a Dynamic Household Bargaining Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We interpret observed gender differences in education as the equilibrium outcome of a two-sex overlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children ...

C. Echevarria A. Merlo

1995-01-01

67

Gender Differences in Smoking Behavior in a University Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates gender differences in smoking behavior by observing 292 men and 648 women smoking in a university workplace. Finds that men take longer breaks, smoke more cigarettes, and inhale more often than women. (MW)|

Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

1989-01-01

68

Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion for Faculty in the Humanities 1977–95  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study uses data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate gender differences in salaries and promotion for academics in the humanities. Over time, gender salary differences can largely be explained by academic rank. Substantial gender differences in promotion to tenure exist after controlling for productivity and demographic characteristics. However, we observe a slight decline in the gender promotion

Donna K. Ginther; Kathy J. Hayes

2003-01-01

69

Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

2009-01-01

70

Gender differences in musical instrument choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music Services in England as part of a

Susan Hallam; Lynne Rogers; Andrea Creech

2008-01-01

71

Demographics and leadership philosophy: exploring gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadership philosophy is explored through gender and other demographic characteristics in the Australian Public Service (APS), at the federal government level. Leadership philosophy is conceptualised as the leader’s attitudes, values and behaviour. Gender differences in characteristics of leaders (executives and middle managers) are examined in terms of strategic behaviour, management style, work-related values, adoption of information technology, perceived organisational morale,

Andrew Korac-Kakabadse; Nada Korac-Kakabadse; Andrew Myers

1998-01-01

72

[Gender differences in the elderly].  

PubMed

Qualitative study that aimed at investigating present and decisive gender subjects of health and elder people's life quality. The subjects were 20 (twenty) seniors of the Programa Terceira Idade em Ação-PTIA. The semi-structured interview was used as data collection technique. From the speeches, information that answered the investigation inquietudes emerged and they made possible the formulation of three analysis categories. In the first, it stood out the low self-esteem lived by the men when they age, otherwise in the second one it was evidenced the autonomy and the freedom conquered by the senior women, and in the third category the learning happened among the old ladies who participated of PTIA. Concluding that there is influence of the gender subjects in health and life quality in aging. PMID:18041526

Figueiredo, Maria do Livramento Fortes; Tyrrel, Maria Antonieta Rubio; de Carvalho, Cecília Maria R Gonçalves; Luz, Maria Helena Barros Araújo; Amorim, Fernanda Claúdia Miranda; Loiola, Nay Leite de Araújo

73

Gender Differences in Conceptualizing Sexual Harassment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to identify gender differences in interpreting behaviors as sexually harassing and to investigate variables that Navy enlisted personnel consider when making such judgments. Three hundred and forty-seven enlisted men and wome...

M. D. Thomas

1995-01-01

74

Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Violence Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This paper proposes a conceptual model for gender differences in outcomes of intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization, broadly conceived as including physical, sexual, emotional, and coercive control forms of abuse, as well as stalking. Method: Literature review of PsycInfo and PubMed databases. Results: The literature reviewed suggests these negative effects are not equally distributed by gender—studies indicate that women

Jennifer E. Caldwell; Suzanne C. Swan; V. Diane Woodbrown

2012-01-01

75

Gender and Culture Differences in Emotion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors report a secondary analysis on a cross-cultural dataset on gender differences in 6 emotions, collected in 37 countries all over the world. The aim was to test the universality of the gender-specific pattern found in studies with Western respondents, namely that men report more powerful emotions (e.g., anger), whereas women report more powerless emotions (e.g.,

Agneta H. Fischer; Patricia M. Rodriguez Mosquera; Annelies E. M. van Vianen; Antony S. R. Manstead

2004-01-01

76

COPD and gender differences: an update.  

PubMed

Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is one of the most prevalent health conditions, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality around the globe. Once thought of primarily as a disease of men, COPD is now known to be increasingly prevalent among women. Although increasing tobacco consumption among women during the past several decades might explain some of this increase, the relationship may be more complex, including factors such as differential susceptibility to tobacco, anatomic and hormonal differences, behavioral differences, and differences in response to available therapeutic modalities. Moreover, women with COPD may present differently, may have a different pattern of comorbidities, and may have a better survival after acute exacerbations. Care providers continue to have a gender bias that may affect both diagnosis and treatment. Future work should focus on factors that lead to gender differences in COPD as well as gender-specific treatment strategies. PMID:23684710

Aryal, Shambhu; Diaz-Guzman, Enrique; Mannino, David M

2013-05-15

77

Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

Beyer, Sylvia

2008-01-01

78

Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.  

PubMed

Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability. PMID:23462757

Mäntylä, Timo

2013-03-05

79

Gender differences in mathematics education in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses whether gender differences in mathematics education exist in Zambia, and if so, what are their possible causes. Differences are found to be present both in terms of access, and in terms of performance. Possible reasons for such differences are examined, in the light of empirical data consisting of responses to an attitude questionnaire.

Roy Sayers

1994-01-01

80

Gender and self-concept: A reexamination of stereotypic differences and the role of gender attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in overall self-evaluation and in specific dimensions of self-concept were examined in primarily White Caucasian college and high school students. The role of gender attitudes in the relationship between gender and self-concept was also examined. Findings indicated gender differences in overall self-evaluation that favored males, and gender differences in specific self-concept dimensions that were consistent with gender stereotypes.

Linda A. Jackson; Carole N. Hodge; Julie M. Ingram

1994-01-01

81

Gender differences in mental rotation across adulthood.  

PubMed

Although gender differences in mental rotation in younger adults are prominent in paper-pencil tests as well as in chronometric tests with polygons as stimuli, less is known about this topic in the older age ranges. Therefore, performance was assessed with the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) paper-pencil test as well as with a computer-based two-stimulus same-different task with polygons in a sample of 150 adults divided into three age groups, 20-30, 40-50, and 60-70 years. Performance decreased with age, and men outperformed women in all age groups. The gender effect decreased with age in the MRT, possibly due to a floor effect. Gender differences remained constant across age, however, in the error rates of the computer-based task. PMID:20054729

Jansen, Petra; Heil, Martin

82

Gender Differences in Lateralized Semantic Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature suggests that women evidence more bilateral cerebral organization, particularly in language processing, whereas men show greater left hemisphere dominance for language. This study examined the magnitude of these gender differences in a lateralized lexical decision task and the implications of such differences to semantic processing and cerebral organization. As predicted, women, as compared to men, recruited greater bilateral

Sarah A. Van Dyke; Virginia Zuverza; Laura A. Hill; Justin B. Miller; Lisa J. Rapport; R. Douglas Whitman

2009-01-01

83

Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

84

Gender Differences in Retirement Planning Among Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genger differences in amount of retirement financial planning were examined among 3,064 retirees from a major state retirement system. Significant gender differences were found in amount of personal financial planning, perceived adequacy of planning and attendance at retirement workshops with women planning less than men. Factors most important for retirement planning among women are identified and intervention strategies for practitioners

Virginia Richardson

1990-01-01

85

Strong Evidence for Gender Differences in Investment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are men more willing to take financial risks than women? The answer to this question has immediate relevance for many economic issues. We propose a novel approach in which we assemble the data from 10 sets of experiments with one simple underlying investment game. Most of these experiments were not designed to investigate gender differences and were conducted by different

Gary B Charness; Uri Gneezy

2007-01-01

86

Gender Differences in Demand for Schooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The comparison of human development indicators in Table 1 shows that Pakistan’s performance is below the average for South Asian countries and below the average for the developing countries. Furthermore, gender differences in human development are also significant within country and across countries. For example, in 1999, differences in male and female literacy rate was 24 points in Pakistan, higher

Shahnaz Hamid; Rehana Siddiqui

2001-01-01

87

Gender Differences in Investment Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this chapter are to identify significant personal and environmental factors that influence investment behavior\\u000a and to specify the investment decision-making process, particularly with respect to female investors. It is expected that\\u000a the results presented here will help readers to consider new approaches to investment education. Specifically, this chapter\\u000a aims to: (a) explore differences between men and women

Tahira K. Hira; Cäzilia Loibl

88

Gender differences in peak muscle performance during growth.  

PubMed

Gender-related differences in maximal leg muscle power were examined in 496 females and 426 males aged 8 to 20 years. Cycling peak power (CPP, including the force required to accelerate the flywheel of the cycle ergometer) was measured during three sprints. Optimal velocity (Vopt, velocity at CPP) was also determined. No gender-differences were observed in anthropometric characteristics and cycling performance between 8- and 14-year-old. From age 14, however, males showed a higher CPP than females, but also a higher lean leg volume (LLV, assessed by anthropometry). Allometric relationship between CPP and LLV (CPP = a . LLV ( b)) showed a clear gender-differentiation between 14- and 16-year-old: LLV exponent (b) was 1.05 in males vs. 0.74 in females. From 16 years onwards, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) showed that the slopes of the CPP-LLV relationship were similar in both genders, but the intercepts differed. In other words, for a similar LLV, males showed greater CPP than females. It was suggested that this sex-related difference was due to total body fat increase, and more specifically lower-limb fat increase during puberty in girls, whilst the boys experienced increased lean body mass. Considering that the same gender-related difference was observed for optimal velocity adjusted for leg length, other factors such as fibre type variability or (and) neuromuscular activation might also be partly responsible for the higher peak muscle performance observed in males. PMID:15795811

Doré, E; Martin, R; Ratel, S; Duché, P; Bedu, M; Van Praagh, E

2005-05-01

89

The different voices of helping: Gender differences in recounting dilemmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carol Gilligan (1977, 1982) has proposed fundamental gender differences. Women typically conceptualize interpersonal dilemmas\\u000a in terms of people and their relationships, whereas men often orient to dilemmas as practical problems. Although considerable\\u000a research has explored these gender differences, they have usually been treated as psychological traits or abstract moral orientations.\\u000a In this article we show how Gilligan’s theory accounts for

Nicholas H. Wolfinger; Jerome Rabow; Michael D. Newcomb

1999-01-01

90

Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003 a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2 motivation, that emphasizes learner

Scott Kissau

2006-01-01

91

Gender differences in adolescent interpersonal identity formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in adolescent interpersonal identity formation were investigated in 41 male and 42 female high school juniors and seniors. Subjects were interviewed and assessed on progress toward interpersonal identity achievement in friendship and dating relationships. Differential patterns of correlation for each sex were examined for measures of vocational identity, psychological masculinity and femininity, and achievement motivation. Results indicated that

William Thorbecke I; Harold D. Grotevant

1982-01-01

92

Gender Differences in Peace Education Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to…

Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

2009-01-01

93

Scientific literacy: Factor structure and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of scientific literacy and to document any gender differences with respect to each factor. Participants included 1139 students (574 females, 565 males) in grades 9 through 12 who were taking a science class at one of four Midwestern high schools. Based on National Science Education Standards, a 100 item

James Joseph Manhart

1997-01-01

94

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

2012-01-01

95

Gender Differences Among Prisoners in Drug Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to document special needs for females in the population of interest: prisoners in treatment. Methods: A comparison of gender differences among 1,326 male and 318 female federal prisoners who were enrolled in a substance abuse ...

N. P. Langan B. M. M. Pelissier

2000-01-01

96

Gender Differences in Fear of Terrorism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have long been curious about the mismatch between women's fear of crime and their objective risk of victimization. The present research, which examines fear of terrorism, provides a unique opportunity to explore gender differences in reactions to a specific type of violent victimization, terrorism. The article analyzes data collected from a telephone survey of 532 inhabitants from New York

Ashley Marie Nellis

2009-01-01

97

Gender Differences in ADHD Subtype Comorbidity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To examine gender differences in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder ("ADHD") symptom comorbidity with "oppositional defiant disorder", "conduct disorder", "separation anxiety disorder", "generalized anxiety disorder", speech therapy, and remedial reading in children. Method: From 1994 to 1995, data from a large sample (N = 4,371)…

Levy, Florence; Hay, David A.; Bennett, Kellie S.; McStephen, Michael

2005-01-01

98

Gender and developmental differences in children's conversations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extending work on childhood gender differences by J. Block (“Assimilation, Accommodation and the Dynamics of Personality Development,” Child Development, 1982, 53, 281–295) and J. H. Block (“Differential Premises Arising from Differential Socialization of the Sexes: Some Conjunctures,” Child Development, 1983, 54, 1335–1354), the present research investigated assimilative and accommodative discourse devices in the speech of 24 preschool children (12 boys

Ann M. Berghout Austin; Mahshid Salehi; Ann Leffler

1987-01-01

99

Gender Differences in Bacterial STIs in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

HEALTH ISSUE: The incidence of bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is rising in Canada. If these curable infections were prevented and treated, serious long-term sequelae including infertility, and associated treatment costs, could be dramatically reduced. STIs pose a greater risk to women than men in many ways, and further gender differences exist in screening and diagnosis. KEY FINDINGS: Reported incidence

Thomas Wong; Ameeta Singh; Janice Mann; Lisa Hansen; Sharon McMahon

2004-01-01

100

Gender Differences in Early Retirement Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper we analyse early retirement for men and women,focusing on family characteristics such as marital status, spouse income and wealth, and spouses’ labour market status. The female participation rate is high in Norway, implying that the country is particularly suitable for the study of gender differences in the early retirement behaviour. At our disposal we have administrative

Svenn-Åge Dahl; Øivind Anti Nilsen; Kjell Vaage

2003-01-01

101

Gender Differences in the Response to Competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group, the author examines outcomes of the Mellon Foundation's Graduate Education Initiative, a competitive fellowship program instituted in 1991 that was aimed at increasing graduation rates and decreasing time to degree. Men's performance, as measured by time to candidacy,

Joseph Price

2008-01-01

102

Gender differences in violence risk profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

By contributing to the discussion concerning applicability of methods for assessing risk of violence to special groups, we studied the gender differences in violence risk profiles in 231 institutionalised adolescents. Initially, subjects were assessed for risk of violent behaviour according to the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Six months later, information regarding institutional violence was collected. Risk

Monica Gammelgård; Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2011-01-01

103

Gender differences in violence risk profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

By contributing to the discussion concerning applicability of methods for assessing risk of violence to special groups, we studied the gender differences in violence risk profiles in 231 institutionalised adolescents. Initially, subjects were assessed for risk of violent behaviour according to the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY). Six months later, information regarding institutional violence was collected. Risk

Monica Gammelgård; Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius; Anna-Maija Koivisto; Markku Eronen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

2012-01-01

104

Gender Differences in Social Security Disability Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes gender differences in Social Security disability awards. Logit analysis is used to identify significant determinants of receiving a Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) award. The results show that, even after controlling for applicant characteristics and nature of impairment, women receive Social Security disability awards at a significantly lower rate than do men.

Marjorie L. Baldwin

1997-01-01

105

Gender Differences in the Response to Competition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

Price, Joseph

2006-01-01

106

Gender differences in attributions for triathlon performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Causal attributions given by athletes for performance can influence performance satisfaction, expectation of future success, and persistence in training and competition. Young and inexperienced athletes often show gender differences in sport attribution, with males attributing success to controllable or stable factors like ability and effort, and females attributing success to uncontrollable or unstable factors like luck and social support. Would

Helen M. Hendy; Bonnie J. Boyer

1993-01-01

107

The Big Picture. Spotlight: Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the influence of prenatal sex hormones on later behavior and social learning that results from differential treatment of boys and girls by parents and peers. Also explores differences in academic achievement between boys and girls. Concludes that, contrary to the views of some parents and teachers in the 1970s and 1980s, inborn gender

Turner, Joy

1995-01-01

108

Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms.

Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

2010-01-01

109

Cognitive gender differences among Israeli children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated gender differences among 11,000 Israeli children in Grades 4–6 with respect to verbal, spatial, and mathematical ability, as measured by 12 intelligence tests. Consistent differences in score variance were found across grades for 11 of the 12 tests. In each of these tests the variance for boys exceeded that for girls by 10%–20%. With respect to mean

Sorel Cahan; Yael Ganor

1995-01-01

110

Gender Differences in White Matter Microstructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSexual dimorphism in human brain structure is well recognised, but little is known about gender differences in white matter microstructure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to explore differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural integrity.MethodsA whole brain analysis of 135 matched subjects (90 men and 45 women) using a 1.5 T scanner. A region of interest (ROI) analysis

Richard A. Kanaan; Matthew Allin; Marco Picchioni; Gareth J. Barker; Eileen Daly; Sukhwinder S. Shergill; James Woolley; Philip K. McGuire

2012-01-01

111

Investigating Differences in Earnings Based on Gender  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, will focus on frequencies and percentages as well as corresponding bar charts and pie graphs. It will examine how variables such as race, age, gender, and education are related to differences in income earnings within the United States. The module features different aspects such as: learning objectives, key concepts, a learner's pre-assessment, introduction to the topic, critical thinking questions and a learner's post assessment.

Rowell, Kathy

2009-02-19

112

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude

Kishor Atreya; Kishor

2007-01-01

113

Age Dependent Gender Differences in Hypertension Management  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite gender neutral guidelines, prior studies suggest that women have lower rates of hypertension control and these differences may vary with age. Accordingly, we compared rates of hypertension control between women and men as a function of age. Methods Within 3 integrated healthcare systems in the Cardiovascular Research Network, we studied all patients seen from 2001–2007 with incident hypertension. Within 1-year of cohort entry, patient’s hypertension was categorized as: 1) controlled based upon achieving guideline-recommended BP levels, 2) recognized if hypertension was diagnosed or a hypertension medication dispensed, and 3) treated based on hypertension medications dispensed. Multivariable logistic regression models assessed the association between gender and 1-year hypertension outcomes, adjusted for patient characteristics. Results Among the 152,561 patients with incident hypertension, 55.6% were women. Compared to men, women were older, had more kidney disease and more blood pressure measures during follow-up. Overall, men tended to have lower rates of hypertension control compared to women (41.2% vs. 45.7%, adjusted OR 0.93, 96% CI 0.91–0.95). A significant gender by age interaction was found with men aged 18–49 having 17% lower odds of hypertension control and men aged ? 65 having 12% higher odds of hypertension control compared to women of similar ages (p<0.001). Conclusions In this incident hypertension cohort, younger men and older women had lower rates of hypertension control compared to similarly aged peers. Future studies should investigate why gender differences vary by age in order to plan appropriate means of improving hypertension management regardless of gender or age.

DAUGHERTY, Stacie L.; MASOUDI, Frederick A.; ELLIS, Jennifer L.; HO, P. Michael; SCHMITTDIEL, Julie A.; TAVEL, Heather M.; SELBY, Joe V.; O'CONNOR, Patrick J.; MARGOLIS, Karen L.; MAGID, David J.

2012-01-01

114

Does PTSD Differ According to Gender Among Military Veterans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This was a study involving systematic random samples of 225 male and 232 female military veterans respectively that had received services at a VAMC in the South. The purpose was to examine what ecological factors predict a diagnosis of PTSD among those veterans. As expected, gender differences in relevant predictors of PTSD were observed: Generally, interpersonal factors, depression and fearfulness

Brent B. Benda; Holly A. House

2003-01-01

115

Gender differences in symptom presentation associated with coronary heart disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores gender differences in symptom presentation associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). In this prospective study, nurse data collectors directly observed 550 patients as they presented to the Emergency Department (ED) of Yale-New Haven Hospital. The final sample included 217 patients (41% women) diagnosed with CHD (acute coronary ischemia or myocardial infarction). Chest pain was the most frequently

Kerry A Milner; Marjorie Funk; Sally Richards; Rebekah Mull Wilmes; Viola Vaccarino; Harlan M Krumholz

1999-01-01

116

Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the…

Wilhelm, Jennifer

2009-01-01

117

Gender Differences in Children's Nurturant Interactions with Their Infant Siblings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research focused on the exploration of gender differences in interaction with infant siblings in the home and the maternal socialization of baby care in girls as opposed to boys. Observations were made of 20 families, each with 2 parents, an infant under the age of 12 months, and an older child between the ages of 46 and 102 months. Five…

Blakemore, Judith E. Owen

118

Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

Wilhelm, Jennifer

2009-01-01

119

Gender Differences in PTSD Symptoms: An Exploration of Peritraumatic Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Females are at higher risk than males for developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following exposure to trauma, which may stem from gender differences in initial physiological and psychological responses to trauma. The present study aimed to examine a number of peri- and initial post-traumatic reactions to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) to determine the extent to which they contributed to gender differences in PTSS. 356 adult MVA survivors (211 males and 145 females) reported on peritraumatic dissociation, perception of life threat and initial PTSS. In addition, heart rate and urinary cortisol levels were collected in-hospital. 6 weeks and 6 months later, PTSS were assessed via clinical interviews. Results suggested that initial PTSS and peritraumatic dissociation were marginally significant mediators at 6-week follow-up and significant mediators at 6-month follow-up, providing partial support for the hypothesis that initial responses to trauma may account for observed gender differences in PTSS development.

Irish, Leah A.; Fischer, Beth; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

120

Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender

Carl, John D.

2012-01-01

121

Gender differences in new brand name response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional guidelines for naming new products overlook possible individual-level differences that may affect response to\\u000a new brand names. This research draws on sound symbolism theory to investigate whether gender affects response to new brand\\u000a names. Specifically, two studies are conducted to examine whether females respond more favorably than males to brand names\\u000a with front vowels and whether males respond more

Richard R. Klink

2009-01-01

122

Gender differences in self-employment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the factors that influence transitions into self-employment, paying particular attention to gender differences. We find that: (i) men are more responsive to the wage differential between wage\\/salaried employment and self-employment; (ii) liquidity constraints are more important for men; and (iii) the link between father’s self-employment status and the probability of self-employment is stronger for men. Taken together,

Yannis Georgellis; Howard J. Wall

2004-01-01

123

Gender differences in defined contribution pension decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper,considers,gender,differences in allocation of household,wealth,to defined contribution pensions. Using data from the 1989 Survey of Consumer Finances , we estimate the coefficient of relative risk aversion based on the allocation of wealth into defined,contribution pensions. Unlike previous studies, we consider the problem in the context of the household’s overall portfolio. We find that women,exhibit greater relative risk aversion

Vickie L. Bajtelsmit; Alexandra Bernasek; Nancy A. Jianakoplos

1999-01-01

124

Gender Differences in Causes of Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study adopts a stress process perspective to analyze gender differences in the causes of depression. The stress process links psychological well-being to position in the social structure via the mediating and moderating effects of stressors and resources. The study examines stressors and resources as mediators of the SES\\/depression relationship, and resources as moderators of the stressor\\/depression relationship. Furthermore, it

Marta Elliott

2001-01-01

125

Gender differences in alcohol and substance use relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review explores gender differences in relapse and characteristics of relapse events in alcohol and substance use. For alcohol, relapse rates were similar across gender. Although negative mood, childhood sexual abuse, alcohol-related self-efficacy, and poorer coping strategies predicted alcohol relapse, gender did not moderate these effects. Gender did moderate the association between marriage and alcohol relapse. For women, marriage and

Kimberly S. Walitzer; Ronda L. Dearing

2006-01-01

126

New Directions in the Study of Gender Similarities and Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review new trends in research on the psychology of gender. The gender similarities hypothesis holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Gender is not only an individual-difference or person variable but also a stimulus variable. Emerging approaches to cross-national measurement of constructs such as gender equality provide new insights into patterns of

Janet Shibley Hyde

2007-01-01

127

Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support.

Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

2009-01-01

128

Gender Differences in Verbal Ability: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many regard gender differences in verbal ability to be one of the well-established findings in psychology. To reassess this belief, we located 165 studies that reported data on gender differences in verbal ability. The weighted mean effect size (d) was +0.11, indicating a slight female superiority in performance. The difference is so small that we argue that gender differences in

Janet Shibley Hyde; Marcia C. Linn

1988-01-01

129

The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

130

Differential Effects of an Adult Observer’s Presence on Sex-Typed Play Behavior: A Comparison Between Gender-Schematic and Gender-Aschematic Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the differential effect of an adult observer’s presence on the sex-typed play behavior of gender\\u000a schematic and aschematic preschoolers. A total of 116 Israeli preschoolers (M age = 64.9 months) participated in the study. Children were classified as either gender schematic or aschematic based upon\\u000a responses to a computerized measure of different sex stereotype components. Children’s play behavior with

Pamela Wilansky-Traynor; Thalma E. Lobel

2008-01-01

131

Gender Communication Differences: The Impact on Strategic Leadership and Decisionmaking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this strategic research paper is to examine the impact of gender communication differences at the strategic leadership and decisionmaking level. The paper will also examine common gender communication differences that have been well-documen...

B. J. Scherb

1997-01-01

132

Gender Differences in White Matter Microstructure  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual dimorphism in human brain structure is well recognised, but little is known about gender differences in white matter microstructure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to explore differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural integrity. Methods A whole brain analysis of 135 matched subjects (90 men and 45 women) using a 1.5 T scanner. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to confirm those results where proximity to CSF raised the possibility of partial-volume artefact. Results Men had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in cerebellar white matter and in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus; women had higher FA in the corpus callosum, confirmed by ROI. Discussion The size of the differences was substantial - of the same order as that attributed to some pathology – suggesting gender may be a potentially significant confound in unbalanced clinical studies. There are several previous reports of difference in the corpus callosum, though they disagree on the direction of difference; our findings in the cerebellum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus have not previously been noted. The higher FA in women may reflect greater efficiency of a smaller corpus callosum. The relatively increased superior longitudinal fasciculus and cerebellar FA in men may reflect their increased language lateralisation and enhanced motor development, respectively.

Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco; Barker, Gareth J.; Daly, Eileen; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Woolley, James; McGuire, Philip K.

2012-01-01

133

Gender Differences in Problem Drinking and Depression: Different “Vulnerabilities?”  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between stressors and resources and the functioning of a sample of 515 men and women who had a drinking problem. At a one-year follow-up, both women and men had improved on three functioning measures: alcohol consumption, days intoxicated, and depression. There were no gender differences at Time 2 on alcohol consumption, but men had more

Marilyn McKean Skaff; John W. Finney; Rudolf H. Moos

1999-01-01

134

Gender Differences in Quits and Absenteeism in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female workers are traditionally viewed as more likely to quit, to be absent and to take more days of absence than male workers, and this gender difference is widely used as an important explanation for the gender wage gap and other labour market differences between men and women. This study documents the gender differences in quits and absenteeism in Canada

Xuelin Zhang

2007-01-01

135

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males).

2013-01-01

136

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning.

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

137

Gender Differences in Dementia Spousal Caregiving  

PubMed Central

The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE), clinical dementia rating scale (CDR), neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P < 0.001), and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P = 0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P < 0.001). However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P < 0.001). Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease.

Poysti, Minna Maria; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo; Savikko, Niina; Tilvis, Reijo Sakari; Eloniemi-Sulkava, Ulla; Pitkala, Kaisu Hannele

2012-01-01

138

Gender Differences for Constructed-Response Mathematics Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored gender differences in answers to constructed-response mathematics items. Features relevant and irrelevant to the scoring rubric but possibly related to gender differences were identified by a content expert after a review of the literature. Raters were trained to score the identified features for approximately 500 papers evenly divided across two grade levels and between genders. The

Mark Pomplun; Lee Capps

1999-01-01

139

Gender differences in schizotypal personality in a Chinese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies that have examined schizotypal personality traits using self-reported measures have found gender differences in the expression and degree of schizotypy. Despite the reported presence of schizotypal traits in Asian populations, putative gender differences have been almost entirely derived from studies of Western populations. This study examined the gender effect of schizotypy in a broad sample of the Chinese population

Meng En Guo; Simon Lowes Collinson; Mythily Subramaniam; Siow Ann Chong

2011-01-01

140

Sex and power: gender differences in computer-mediated interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preponderance of psychological literature indicates gender differences in written and oral communication. This study explores a new channel of communication, that of cybertalk. As this method of discourse is not gender-salient, one might argue that sex differences in communication style would be eliminated or reduced. However, we suggest that gendered power differentials in communication style transcend the medium. Archived

N. M Sussman; D. H Tyson

2000-01-01

141

Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

2010-01-01

142

Gender and Achievement -- Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background of the Study Differences between females and males in mathe matics have long been observed and discussed among educators and researchers. Presumably, because of the complexity of gender-related issues and the multi-faceted nature of test performance, results reported from a variety of studies are inconsistent and often even contradictory (Hoover and Han, 1995). Evidence from several comprehensive meta-analytic studies

Liru Zhang

143

Gender differences in the incentive salience of adult and infant faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces—heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been observed in sensitivity to infant cuteness, infant faces appear to

Amanda C. Hahn; Dengke Xiao; Reiner Sprengelmeyer; David I. Perrett

2012-01-01

144

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and gender differences  

PubMed Central

In a comparative study, involving 500 subjects with 294 males and 206 females aged 30 years and above, data were collected from NIMS (National Institute of Medical Sciences) hospital and research centre and controls from the general population whose age and sex were matched with subjects during the years 2010 - 2011. Metabolic syndrome was present both in women and men corresponding to 29% and 23% of the women's and men's sample, respectively. The prevalence was higher in women than in men. In women, elevated BMI, low HDL cholesterol, increased waist circumference and hyperglycemia were significantly larger contributors to the metabolic syndrome while in men these were hypertension and elevated triglycerides. The contribution of several metabolic components to the metabolic syndrome is different in men and women. This might contribute to gender specific differences in the relative risk of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance.

Beigh, Seerat Hussain; Jain, Saroj

2012-01-01

145

Gender differences in mathematics achievement: an investigation of gender differences by item difficulty interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from research exploring gender by item difficulty interaction on mathematics test scores in Cyprus. Data steamed from 2 longitudinal studies with 4 different age groups of primary school students. The hypothesis that boys tended to outperform girls on the hardest items and girls tended to outperform boys on the easiest items was generally supported for each

Leonidas Kyriakides; Panayiotis Antoniou

2009-01-01

146

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

2004-01-01

147

Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

2008-01-01

148

[Gender differences in genetic and environmental etiology of gender role personality (BSRI)].  

PubMed

This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality. PMID:19938658

Sasaki, Shoko; Yamagata, Shinji; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

2009-10-01

149

Determinants of Individual Differences and Gender Differences in Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence

Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer

2001-01-01

150

Gender Differences in Cerebral Aneurysm Location  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: A limited number of studies consisting predominantly of ruptured aneurysms have looked at differences in anatomical distribution of aneurysms between male and females. Unlike all other causes of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) occur more often in women and are thought to be a result of both hormonal influences and variation in wall shear stress. This paper retrospectively looks at a cohort of largely unruptured intracranial aneurysms to determine if there exists a gender discrepancy in the anatomic distribution of cerebral aneurysms. Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive patients with ruptured and unruptured intradural saccular cerebral aneurysms treated endovascularly was performed. Results: Six hundred eighty-two aneurysms were treated. Seventy-two percentage of the patients were women and 27% of patients presented with SAH. Among women, most aneurysms were located along the ICA (54%) while men the ACA (29%, compared to 15% in women), a discrepancy evident in both unruptured and ruptured groups. Females tended to present later in life (59 vs. 55?years), with multiple aneurysms (11 vs. 6% in men), and with SAH (28 vs. 23% in men) – the majority of these ruptured aneurysms were located at the ICA (42%), while men at the ACA (47%). Additionally, the majority (68%) of ruptured ICA aneurysms were PCOM. Conclusion: Understanding the natural history of aneurysms is imperative in treating incidentally found aneurysms. Significant differences exist between the genders in relation to aneurysm location, the most pronounced at the ICA and ACA. Previously described hormonal and hemodynamic theories behind cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis seem like plausible reasons to explain these differences.

Ghods, Ali J.; Lopes, Demetrius; Chen, Michael

2012-01-01

151

Gender differences in aging: cognition, emotions, and neuroimaging studies  

PubMed Central

Gender and aging moderate brain-behavior relationships. Advances in neuroscience enable integration of neurobehavioral, neuroanatomic, and neurophysiology measures. Here we present neurobehavioral studies thai examine cognitive and emotion processing in healthy men and women and highlight the effects of sex differences and aqinq. Neuroanatomic studies with maqnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicate that the progressive decrease in brain volume affects froniotemporal brain regions in men more than in Vi/omen, Functional imaging methods suggest sex differences in rate of blood flow, pattern of glucose metabolism, and receptor activity. The role of ovarian hormones is important in elucidating the observed relationships. A life span perspective on gender differences through the integration of available methodologies will advance understanding healthy people and the effects of brain disorders.

Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

2002-01-01

152

Observing Different Microbes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a microscope to examine three different microbes: bacteria, yeast and paramecia. Educator will need to prepare the yeast solution one day before the activity. This lesson guide includes background information, educator resources and Slide Preparation Cards. A yogurt recipe is included as an extension to this activity.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Denk, James P.

2008-01-01

153

Teachers' Beliefs on Gender Differences in Mathematics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Purpose in this study was to understand the specific beliefs that are held by two high school teachers about gender differences in mathematics education, and the extent of consistency between these teachers' stated beliefs about gender and instructional practices and classroom interactions. This study was built upon three previous studies of teacher's gender-related beliefs, conducted by Tiedemann (2000a), She

Sraboni Ghosh

2004-01-01

154

Gender differences and programming environments: across programming populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been significant research into gender regarding educational and workplace practices, there has been little investigation of gender differences pertaining to problem solving with programming tools and environments. As a result, there is little evidence as to what role gender plays in programming tools---and what little evidence there is has involved mainly novice and end-user programmers in academic

Margaret M. Burnett; Scott D. Fleming; Shamsi Iqbal; Gina Venolia; Vidya Rajaram; Umer Farooq; Valentina Grigoreanu; Mary Czerwinski

2010-01-01

155

Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders  

PubMed Central

The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (p <0.05), negative experiences with health care providers (p <0.05) and anticipated difficulties procuring insurance (p <0.01). Men were concerned that the vaccine would weaken the immune system (p <0.005) or would affect their HIV test results (p <0.05). Motivators for women included the ability to conceive a child without worrying about contracting HIV (p <0.10) and support from their spouse/significant other for being vaccinated (p <0.10). Motivators for men included feeling safer with sex partners (p <0.05) and social influence from friends to get vaccinated (p <0.005). Family support for HIV immunization was a motivator for both men and women (p <0.10). Gender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability.

Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A.; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

2010-01-01

156

Gender Difference in Patients with Recurrent Neurally Mediated Syncope  

PubMed Central

Purpose The gender difference of neurally mediated syncope is not well defined in a large patient population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the gender difference of clinical manifestations in patients with neurally mediated syncope who underwent head-up tilt test. Materials and Methods The medical records of 1,051 consecutive patients with two or more episodes of syncope, who were diagnosed as having neurally mediated syncope by head-up tilt test, were retrospectively reviewed. Results Of 1,051 patients, 497 (47.3%) patients were male and 554 (52.7%) patients were female. Female patients were experiencing syncopal episodes for longer periods of their lives (8.2 ± 9.5 years vs. 6.8 ± 9.2 years, p = 0.002) and more episodes of syncope prior to head-up tilt test (HUT) (7.2 ± 9.4 vs. 5.0 ± 6.4, p = 0.001) than male patients. Micturition syncope (20.0% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001) was observed more frequently in male patients than in female patients. To the contrary, however, defecation syncope (16.3% vs. 9.3%, p < 0.001) was observed more frequently in female patients than in male patients. Conclusion Female patients were experiencing syncopal episodes for longer periods of their lives and more episodes of syncope than male patients. Gender difference was also noted with regard to frequency of situational syncope.

Park, Jungwae; Jang, Shin Yi; Yim, Hye Ran; On, Young Keun; Huh, June; Shin, Dae-Hee; Kim, Jun Hyung

2010-01-01

157

Gender Differences in Postinfarction Left Ventricular Remodeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Previous studies suggest that gender affects the adaptive responses of the heart to some forms of cardiac overload. It is unknown whether gender influences left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods: We performed transthoracic echocardiographic-Doppler examinations in age-matched male (n = 17) and female (n = 16) rats before, and 1 and 6 weeks after transmural MI

Sheldon E. Litwin; Sarah E. Katz; Christine M. Litwin; James P. Morgan; Pamela S. Douglas

1999-01-01

158

Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.  

PubMed

This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

159

Gender-related differences in the impact of tropical diseases on women: what do we know?  

PubMed

This paper explores the importance of gender differences in the impact of tropical diseases on women. Malaria and schistosomiasis are used as examples but most of the observations also apply to other diseases endemic to developing countries. The distinction between sex and gender is discussed and evidence of sex and gender differences in the determinants and consequences of malaria and schistosomiasis, particularly their economic, social and personal dimensions, is reviewed. Issues on which research and intervention studies are needed are identified. PMID:8200878

Vlassoff, C; Bonilla, E

1994-01-01

160

Gender Differences Is Important in the China Mutual Fund Industry?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper shows the differences of the investment ability and styles between fund managers' different genders. The portfolio structure of female managers is not significantly different from their male counterparts; the average performance of male fund managers is better than female managers, but at the same time more variable. Key-word:Gender differences;Fund appraisal; Empirical investigation ?. INTRODUCTION OF THE INVESTIGATION We

Ziqiang Zhao; Jingdong Zhao; Xuelin Wang; Honghu Ge

2011-01-01

161

Theory of Planned Behavior explains gender difference in fruit and vegetable consumption.  

PubMed

A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender difference. Males reported greater perceived norms for FVI, but norms did not predict FVI. Gender did not moderate the influence of TPB constructs on FVI. Thus, TPB constructs substantially explained the gender difference. Interventions targeted toward adult males may benefit by promoting favorable attitudes and perceived behavioral control over FVI. PMID:22898607

Emanuel, Amber S; McCully, Scout N; Gallagher, Kristel M; Updegraff, John A

2012-08-14

162

Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

2012-01-01

163

Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the…

Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

2012-01-01

164

Gender Differences in Ethical Perceptions of Business Practices: A Social Role Theory Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20, 000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples

George R. Franke; Deborah F. Crown; Deborah F. Spake

1997-01-01

165

Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

2012-01-01

166

Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

2008-01-01

167

Vive La Difference? Genetic Explanations for Perceived Gender Differences in Nurturance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated genetic explanations for perceived gender differences in nurturance, a gender intensified prescriptive trait,\\u000a compared to other gendered traits. Based on a nationally representative telephone survey of Black and White Americans (N?=?1200), we found perceived gender differences in nurturance were more often attributed to genetics than perceived gender\\u000a differences math ability or violence. Men were more likely than women to

Elizabeth R. Cole; Toby Epstein Jayaratne; Laura A. Cecchi; Merle Feldbaum; Elizabeth M. Petty

2007-01-01

168

Gender Differences and Leadership: A Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Does gender style adaptation detract from attributes increasingly required for successful leadership in future operations. Specifically, do women occupying leadership positions (military and civilian) adapt, exhibiting traditionally male leadership styles...

M. J. Kelley

1997-01-01

169

Audit committee gender differences and earnings management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether gender diversity of audit committees has a significant impact on the firm's earnings management. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper uses a performance-adjusted discretionary accrual model to examine the association between gender variables and the firm's earnings management. Regression analysis is applied using 320 firms from the S&P Small Cap 600.

Sheela Thiruvadi; Hua-Wei Huang

2011-01-01

170

Sex appeal advertising: gender differences in Chinese consumers’ responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research was designed in order to explore the gender differences in Chinese consumers’ responses to sex appeal advertising. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Experiments were conducted at a university in South China with a total of 157 commerce students. Four advertisements, designed for the same fictional brand but featuring different genders and different levels of sex appeal, were tested in

Fang Liu; Jianyao Li; Hong Cheng

2006-01-01

171

Gender and Ethnic Differences on CPI™ 434 Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender and ethnic differences on three classes of CPI scales (folk, special purpose, and vector) using a sample of 570 employed adults. Statistically significant differences were found between the gender and ethnic groups on some of the scales. However, effect sizes show that, with the exception of the Femininity\\/Masculinity (F\\/M) scale, these differences are not meaningful; indicating

Nancy A. Schaubhut; David A. C. Donnay; Richard C. Thompson; Michael L. Morris

172

A Review of Gender Differences among Substance Abusers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article provides a review of various types of literature on gender differences among substance abusers. The authors begin this literature review by summarizing the literature on the differing treatment needs of men and women. The authors continue with a review of the empirically based literature on gender differences in background…

Pelissier, Bernadette; Jones, Nicole

2005-01-01

173

Gender differences in information search: implications for retailing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence on search behavior of gender, purchase confidence, and internal knowledge in different purchase situations. It is expected that there will be gender differences on search behavior, particularly given different purchase situations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the main and interaction effects of the

Nelson Barber; Tim Dodd; Natalia Kolyesnikova

2009-01-01

174

Gender Differences in Marital and Life Satisfaction among Chinese Malaysians  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in marital and life satisfaction in a convenience sample of 425 Chinese Malaysian men\\u000a (41%) and women (59%). Consistent with findings in many Western cultures, gender role theory predictions were supported in\\u000a this study. While controlling for age and education, MANCOVA tests revealed men reporting higher levels of marital satisfaction\\u000a than women, whereas gender differences

Kok-Mun Ng; Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy; Clinton G. Gudmunson; WinNee Cheong

2009-01-01

175

Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation  

PubMed Central

We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.

Bolzendahl, Catherine

2010-01-01

176

Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

2012-01-01

177

Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis…

Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

2012-01-01

178

Gender differences among those exhibiting characteristics of binge eating disorder.  

PubMed

One hundred and eighty-seven former residential weight control participants exhibiting binge eating traits were assessed for gender differences regarding demographics, diet, exercise, weight control techniques, behavior modification techniques and binge eating characteristics. Data were gathered using a 68-item paper pencil questionnaire. Results indicate that there were no significant differences between males and females regarding demographic variables, and the number and types of weight control programs tried since leaving the residential program. Significant differences did exist between males and females in the number of times they had started dieting in the past year. No significant differences were observed among males and females regarding severity, binge emotions and compensatory behaviors. Statistically significant differences did exist regarding post-binge emotions. Results from this study suggest that males and females differ in regard to the diet/binge cycle and additionally, males appear to have a different or less emotional response subsequent to a binge. PMID:11234245

DiGioacchino, R F; Sargent, R G; Sharpe, P A; Miller, P

1999-06-01

179

Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.  

PubMed

To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all ?(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

2012-01-01

180

Gender differences in stimulated cytokine production following acute psychological stress  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests that acute psychological stress modulates inflammatory competence; however, not all findings are consistent. Gender is one factor that may impact magnitude of response. To explore this possibility, we examined the effects of acute mental stress on lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)- 1 ?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- ? among a relatively healthy sample of midlife men (n=28) and women (n=34). Blood samples for the assessment of cytokine production were drawn before, immediately after and 30 minutes following subjects’ performance of an evaluative speech task. Relative to baseline evaluations, the speech stressor elicited a significant increase in stimulated production of all 3 pro-inflammatory cytokines, as measured 30 minutes following the end of the task. There were no gender differences in the magnitude of this effect. However, men showed a significant decrease in cytokine production from before to immediately following the stressor, whereas women showed no change across this period. Menopausal status partially accounted for these gender differences, with postmenopausal women displaying greater increases in IL-6 and TNF-? production from baseline-to-post task when compared to men. These data provide further evidence that acute psychological stress primes the immune system to mount larger inflammatory responses and initial support for gender differences in the patterning of stress-related cytokine activity. In addition, this study presents novel evidence that post-menopausal women may be particularly susceptible to stress-related inflammatory responses. The possibility that this contributes to the increased risk of inflammatory disease observed among older women warrants investigation.

Prather, Aric A.; Carroll, Judith E.; Fury, Jacqueline M.; McDade, Kevin K.; Ross, Diana; Marsland, Anna L.

2008-01-01

181

Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes  

PubMed Central

To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all ?2 p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle (“t-bone”) crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training – for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly.

Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

2012-01-01

182

Regional Differences in Gender-Role Attitudes: Variations by Gender and Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we use data from the General Social Survey (1985-1998) to examine the effects of region on gender-role attitudes, focusing on variations across time by gender and race. Regional differences in gender-role attitudes persisted into the 1990s for white men and women, with southern whites holding more traditional attitudes than those held by whites in other parts of

Rebecca S. Powers; J. Jill Suitor; Susana Guerra; Monisa Shackelford; Dorothy Mecom; Kim Gusman

2003-01-01

183

The stability of individual differences in gender typing: Implications for understanding gender segregation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of individual differences has important implications for understanding the origins of gender-typed behaviors. For example, if some children have a stronger preference for same-sex playmates (gender segregation) than do others, then exploring characteristics that may differentiate these children from their peers (e.g., preference for gender-typed toys or teacher proximity) should prove fruitful. Otherwise, research might be focused more

Kimberly K. Powlishta; Lisa A. Serbin; Lora C. Moller

1993-01-01

184

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role Inventory) and demographic information also were obtained. Factor analysis of the COPE revealed 4

Jill M. Washburn-Ormachea; Stephen B. Hillman; Shlomo S. Sawilowsky

2004-01-01

185

Gender Differences among Patients with a Single Depressive Episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Studies on gender differences in depression have usually included a mixture of patients with first-episode, chronic and recurrent depression. Consequently, the results might be confounded by the history of depression among participants. The present study evaluated gender differences in sociodemographic, clinical and treatment variables among patients suffering exclusively from single-episode depression. Method: Systematic recruitment of 301 participants via the

Jens D. Bukh; Camilla Bock; Maj Vinberg; Ulrik Gether; Lars Vedel Kessing

2010-01-01

186

Gender Differences in Education in a Dynamic Household Bargaining Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore the issue of gender differences in education in the context of a two-sex overlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children. We show that the gender difference implied by our model is smaller than the one that would result from a pure investment

Cristina Echevarria; Antonio Merlo

1999-01-01

187

Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

2012-01-01

188

Gender differences in education in a dynamic household bargaining model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the issue of gender differences in education in the context of a two-sexoverlapping generations model where men and women of each generation bargain over consumption, number of children, and investment in education of their children conditional on gender, andparents are altruistic toward their children. We show that the difference in the education levels ofboys and

Antonio Merlo; Cristina Echevarria

1997-01-01

189

Gender Differences in Economics--Fact or Artefact?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated gender differences in economics education and achievement, using data from a study of Australian secondary school students that collected data on student background and economics achievement (via the Test of Economic Literacy). Results showed few gender differences related to item bias, total performance, and student background…

Lietz, Petra; Kotte, Dieter

1999-01-01

190

Gender differences in the circadian rhythms of rhesus monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies investigating gender differences in human circadian rhythms report equivocal results. In addition, many of these studies have been limited to examination of one circadian variable. This study examined gender differences in circadian rhythms of multiple physiological variables of rhesus monkeys under highly controlled conditions. Under general anesthesia, eight female and seven male rhesus were implanted with a biotelemetry transmitter

Laura K. Barger; Tana M. Hoban-Higgins; Charles A. Fuller

2010-01-01

191

The Emergence of Gender Differences in Depression During Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are no gender differences in depression rates in prepubescent children, but, after the age of 15, girls and women are about twice as likely to be depressed as boys and men. In this article, three models for how gender differences in depression might develop in early adolescence are described and evaluated. According to Model 1, the causes of depression

Susan Nolen-Hoeksema; Joan S. Girgus

1994-01-01

192

Gender differences in factors of social control and rational choice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous research in the area of rational choice and social control has often included gender as a control variable, few studies have reported statistical tests for difference in associations between key variables and offending for men and women. Using scenario data from a sample of university students, this study examines gender differences in levels of explanatory variables and identifies

Stephen G. Tibbetts; Denise C. Herz

1996-01-01

193

Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from an action adventure versus a sad film, and to animated previews of a prototypical “male” versus “female” movie. Females were more likely than males to express sadness in response to the sad scene, and gender differences in intensities of sadness increased with age. Children were much more likely

Mary Beth Oliver; Stephen Green

2001-01-01

194

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male.

Jessieka Mata; Negin Ghavami; Michele A. Wittig

2010-01-01

195

Gender Differences in HIV Risk Behaviors of Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Incarcerated men and women differ in their views on HIV prevalence rates and susceptibility and their ability to prevent HIV infection. The objective of this study was to assess sex and gender differences in HIV risk behaviors of inmates in order to better support the consideration of gender in the development of HIV prevention interventions for the incarcerated population.

Titilayo C. Abiona; Adedeji S. Adefuye; Joseph A. Balogun; Patricia E. Sloan

2009-01-01

196

Use of Social Support: Gender and Personality Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in social support have been explained in terms of gender differences in socialization and personality. The current research focused directly on the link between social support and gender variables. An adult, largely Caucasian sample of both sexes reported an experience in which they had received support, and were assessed on masculinity, femininity, nurturance, affiliation, autonomy, and self-confidence. The

Gretchen M. Reevy; Christina Maslach

2001-01-01

197

Gender differences in social support among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether exposure to life stress can help explain gender differences in the use of social support. Findings from a longitudinal study suggest that as the number of stressful life events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge only in

Neal Krause; Verna Keith

1989-01-01

198

Gender differences in advertising response and self-consciousness variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assesses gender differences in self-consciousness traits and advertising responses across a sample of adult Americans. The results indicate that there are gender differences in public self-consciousness and social anxiety, with the effects particularly pronounced for younger females. Younger females also recalled more television commercials than other male and female groups. The social implications of these findings are considered.

Stephen J. Gould

1987-01-01

199

Restrained eating: Mediator of gender differences on cognitive restructuring tasks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the hypothesis that gender differences in eating restraint might mediate previously reported gender differences in cognitive restructuring tasks. Thirty female and 30 male college students matched for dietary restraint were administered two tests that had differentiated females from males and obese from normal-weight individuals in previous research: Luchins' water jar problems, and the Embedded Figures Test. On

Claire Etaugh; Patricia Hall

1989-01-01

200

Sex differences in gender-related childhood memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on theories of gender development, especially the one proposed by Nancy Chodorow, it was predicted that boys' gender-related childhood memories will be different from girls' on five dimensions related to activity, emotionality, and sex appropriateness. Forty-five men and 45 women were asked to describe their earliest gender-related childhood memories. The memories were analyzed by two judges. The data document

Ariella Friedman; Ayala Pines

1991-01-01

201

Doing Gender Difference Through Greeting Cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greeting card communication reflects the highly gendered division of both emotional and domestic labor in US culture. It is generally thought that American men do not take as much responsibility for sending greeting cards as women, or display competence in this mode of communication. Both survey data and field work with greeting card consumers confirm this overall pattern. For many

Emily West

2009-01-01

202

Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children  

PubMed Central

The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature.

Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

203

Gender Role Differences in College Students from One and Two-Parent Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores three aspects of gender roles: the person's perceptions of their own gender role, the person's perceptions of socially idealized gender roles, and the fit between an individual's gender role and their perception of the ideal person's gender role. Because parent–child relationships and gender models and attitudes in one- and two-parent families may differ, the gender roles of

Michael Slavkin; AnneDopkins Stright

2000-01-01

204

Family background and gender differences in educational expectations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socioeconomic outcomes of parents and their children are more correlated for sons than for daughters. This paper presents empirical evidence from Denmark that these gender differences result from different transmission mechanisms by separating the effects of parental education and income.

Kristin J. Kleinjans

2010-01-01

205

Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity.

Pollard, K. Michael

2011-01-01

206

Unpacking Gender Differences in Students' Perceived Experiences in Introductory Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.

Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2009-11-01

207

Gender Differences of Electrophysiological Characteristics in Focal Atrial Tachycardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences of supraventricular tachycardias such as atrioventricular nodal re- entry, atrioventricular re-entry, and atrial fibrillation have been reported. There is little evidence of the effect of gender on focal atrial tachycardia (FAT). The study consisted of 298 patients who were referred to this institution for radiofrequency catheter ablation of FAT from October 1992 to April 2008 and included 156

Yu-Feng Hu; Jin-Long Huang; Tsu-Juey Wu; Satoshi Higa; Chun-Ming Shih; Ching-Tai Tai; Yenn-Jiang Lin; Shih-Lin Chang; Li-Wei Lo; Tuan Ta-Chuan; Chien-Jong Chang; Wen-Chin Tsai; Pi-Chang Lee; Hsuan-Ming Tsao; Sugako Ishigaki; Asuka Oyakawa; Shih-Ann Chen

2009-01-01

208

Division of labour and gender differences in metropolitan car use  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests the need for a broader view of `gender and transport' by presenting a study of gender differences in car use for maintenance travel. Although many more women are now entering the labour force than a few decades ago, they still have to undertake the larger share of household-related work. The main objective of this paper is to

Henning Best; Martin Lanzendorf

2005-01-01

209

Gender Differences in Poor Outcome Patients With Lifelong Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender effects have been reported quite consistently in schizophrenia, with male patients having an earlier age of onset, poorer functional outcome, greater negative symptoms and cognitive impairment, and less severe positive symptoms. Because age of onset, cognitive impairments, and negative symptoms are all correlated with poorer functional status, it is not clear if previously reported gender differences in symptoms are

Patrick J. Moriarty; Dana Lieber; Ashley Bennett; Leonard White; Michael Parrella; Philip D. Harvey; Kenneth L. Davis

2001-01-01

210

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN POLITICAL CONCEPTUALIZATION 1956-1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Voter published 1956 data showing males to be more likely than females to conceptualize politics in abstract terms. This article extends that analysis through 1980, using data from the CPS National Election Studies. The aggregate gender differences in conceptualization persist throughout the entire period. Controls for education and political involvement fail to diminish the gender gap in conceptualization.

PINKY S. WASSENBERG; KAY G. WOLSBORN; PAUL R. HAGNER; JOHN C. PIERCE

1983-01-01

211

Gender Differences in Computer Education: A Costa Rican Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a time allocation study that was designed to determine how two types of teachers spent their time regarding gender differences in a primary school computer laboratory in Costa Rica. Topics include the sociocultural context of gender roles in Costa Rica, hypothesis testing, and the domination of boys in computer labs. Contains 101…

Huber, Brad R.; Scaglion, Richard

1995-01-01

212

Gendered Utilization Differences of Mental Health Services in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural

Alean Al-Krenawi; John R. Graham; Jamil Kandah

2000-01-01

213

Gender differences in moral judgment: Implications for clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the potential for gender bias in psychotherapy is commonly recognized, most of the literature addressing this problem has concentrated on the assessment process. Therapists are left with few guidelines regarding the avoidance of bias in ongoing therapeutic relationships. This article reviews alternative explanations of gender difference in moral judgment with particular attention to their clinical relevance. The writer suggests

Michele S. Reimer

1984-01-01

214

The impact of gender difference on entrepreneurship: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the development of world economy, it is more and more common for women to become self-employed. But there is little research on the female entrepreneurship in the academic field. We find that gender difference has a certain extent of impact on entrepreneurship after reading thoroughly the relevant literature both home and abroad. This paper analyze the influence of gender

Jia Li; Xiao Zhang; Junyan Xie; Zhong Yang

2008-01-01

215

Moral Cognition: Explaining the Gender Difference in Antisocial Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…

Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.

2001-01-01

216

In Bloom: Gender Differences in Preferences among Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at gender differences in preferences for altruism, risk and competition in math and word search among adolescents in Sweden. We find that girls are more altruistic and less risk taking than boys. We find no gender gap in performance change when comparing performance under non-competition with performance under competition. Boys and girls are equally likely to choose to

Anna Dreber; Emma von Essen; Eva Ranehill

2011-01-01

217

Gender differences in the cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Introduction: There is evidence for gender differences in cognitive functioning. Men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD)\\u000a might also differ in the pattern of cognitive deficits. We hypothesised that gender differences in the cognitive deficits\\u000a of Alzheimer's disease may be related to pre-existing gender differences in cognitive functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: The performances of 84 subjects with AD and 438 non-demented

R. Heun; M. Kockler

2002-01-01

218

Toward accommodating gender differences in multimedia communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there have been measurable improvements in the technical development of multimedia, research from a socio-technical viewpoint suggests that the benefits of multimedia technology, especially in fulfilling user requirements, do not always live up to initial promises. This paper aims to address one of the fundamental but often neglected areas in user requirements, i.e., gender-related issues. The paper identifies and

AMELIA TONG; ELA KLECUN

2004-01-01

219

[Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].  

PubMed

Perfectionism is a dimension which has been studied very little as a separate entity. It is not even considered as a nosological factor. No classification of the medical sciences underlines its importance other than to speak of a personality trait, of an aspect, or of a parameter. Nevertheless, perfectionism is related to multiple disorders such as depression (18, 20, 36), suicide (8, 16, 55), nutritional problems (11, 28), anxiety (3), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (53), social phobia (2), as well as insomnia (46). Certain authors stress the possible role of perfectionism in the development or the persistence of a substantial number of these disorders (7, 22, 38). Given these facts, it is all the easier to understand the interest shown by clinicians and researchers in the subject. Better detection and evaluation of its impact on behaviour is important in putting therapies in place (6, 53). Relationships between perfectionism and fear of failure have been approached (21, 51, 54). Correlations between perfectionism and high levels of state and trait anxiety have been demonstrated (23). The evaluation of perfectionism has been dealt with very little. Some questionnaires devote a sub-category to it, such as the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Irrational Beliefs Test. However, recently, it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct. Two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation. Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate defined perfectionism as the setting of excessively high standards for performance associated with critical self-evaluation. Six dimensions are described: concern over making mistakes, high personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubt about quality of performance and organization. Internal consistency and validity have been established (25, 26). Hewitt and Flett (30, 31, 33, 35) have developed another approach where three dimensions of perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality trait, but it can be used also in taking into account stress and its impact, for instance

Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

220

Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Gender Invariance May Be Situation Invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of gender differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) have investigated settings more or less hierarchy-enhancing.\\u000a The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in SDO (1) within social structures varying in equality-enhancement,\\u000a i.e., communities differing in political equality between men and women, and (2) settings where equality was maximized and held constant, i.e., democratic, voluntary associations,

Ingrid Zakrisson

2008-01-01

221

Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark) and segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2012-02-01

222

Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes’ Coping with Interpersonal Stressors in Sport: More Similarities than Differences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in the types of coping strategies adolescent athletes use to manage sport-related interpersonal stress. To explain gender coping differences, the dispositional and situational gender coping hypotheses were explored (Tamres, Janicki, & Helgenson, 2002). Adolescent athletes from Western Canada (N = 524) completed measures of stress appraisal and coping-strategy use in response to a self-selected interpersonal

Sharleen D. Hoar; Peter R. E. Crocker; Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen

2010-01-01

223

Gender differences in the dynamics of terminal T wave intervals.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate gender differences in the dynamic changes of the terminal T wave (Ta-e interval) of healthy subjects. Holter ECGs were recorded in 24 healthy volunteers (12 men aged 23 +/- 2 years). The intervals from QRS onset to the apex (QaT) and to the end of the T wave (QeT), and the interval between the apex and the end of the T wave (Ta-e) were measured. Then, the QeT/RR, QaT/RR, and Ta-e/RR relationship was evaluated by linear regression analysis in each subject. The QeT and QaT intervals were significantly longer in women than men and the slope of the QeT/RR and QaT/RR relationship was steeper in women than men. The Ta-e intervals showed a significant but weaker positive correlation with the preceding RR intervals in 7 (58.3%) men and 9 (75.0%) women. The average values of the slope and the correlation coefficient of the Ta-e/RR relationship were significantly smaller compared to those of QeT and QaT in both men and women (P < 0.0001). The slope of the Ta-e/RR relationship was significantly greater in women than men (0.025 +/- 0.009 vs 0.011 +/- 0.012, P < 0.005). However, the Ta-e intervals were significantly longer over the entire range of RR intervals in men than women (P < 0.0001). The rate-correcting formulas of Bazett and Framingham overcorrected the Ta-e intervals. The observed gender difference in the measurement and dynamics of the Ta-e interval may help to understand the mechanisms underlying the gender difference in the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:15189532

Nakagawa, Mikiko; Ooie, Tatsuhiko; Ou, Baiqing; Ichinose, Masashi; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori

2004-06-01

224

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

225

Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue  

PubMed Central

The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies.

Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

2012-01-01

226

Depression in children and adolescents: Does gender make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of depression is higher in females after puberty, suggesting a gender-related difference. This article reviews\\u000a studies that have examined gender differences in the presentation and treatment of depression in adults and discusses how\\u000a this information applies to depressed children and adolescents. The adult literature suggests that men and women vary in presentation\\u000a of depression. In addition, differences exist

Elizabeth B. Weller; Angelica Kloos; Joon Kang; Ronald A. Weller

2006-01-01

227

Gender Differences Among African-American Substance Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to determine if there were gender differences in 80 medical records (37 African-American men and 43 African-American women) from one drug treatment facility located in a midwest ern city. Using independent t-tests and chi square analyses to determine group differences, there were significant gender differences relative to childhood sexual abuse experiences and maternal alcohol

Carol J. Boyd; Frederic Blow; Linda S. Orgain

1993-01-01

228

Gender differences in psychosocial responses to lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although biologically based sex differences in the smoking patterns, epidemiology, biomedical markers, and survival rates associated with lung cancer are well documented, examinations of psychosocial gender differences are scarce.Objective: This cross-sectional study examined gender differences in psychosocial factors that are important in the medical management of lung cancer.Methods: A convenience sample of patients who were attending a multidisciplinary lung

Joy M. Jacobs-Lawson; Mitzi M. Schumacher; Travonia Hughes; Susanne Arnold

2010-01-01

229

Gender differences in mental health: evidence from three organisations.  

PubMed

It is commonly observed that women report higher levels of minor psychiatric morbidity than men. However, most research fails to control for the gendered distribution of social roles (e.g. paid work and domestic work) and so does not compare men and women in similar positions. In this short report, we examine the distribution of minor psychiatric morbidity (measured by the 12 item General Health Questionnaire) amongst men and women working in similar jobs within three white-collar organisations in Britain, after controlling for domestic and socioeconomic circumstances. Data from self-completion questionnaires were collected in a Bank (n = 2,176), a University (n = 1,641) and the Civil Service (n = 6,171). In all three organisations women had higher levels of minor psychiatric morbidity than men, but the differences were not great; in only the Civil Service sample did this reach statistical significance. We conclude that generalisations about gender differences in minor psychiatric morbidity can be unhelpful, as these differences may vary depending on the context of the study. PMID:11848278

Emslie, Carol; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Hunt, Kate; Macintyre, Sally; Shipley, Martin; Stansfeld, Stephen

2002-02-01

230

Individual differences in melancholy gender among women: does ambivalence matter?  

PubMed

This research offers an empirical investigation inspired by Butler's theory of melancholy gender (1995) and a revision of this theory (Jay 2007a). Psychoanalytic feminist theory is drawn on to suggest that melancholy and gender are more likely to be associated in female development than in male development, and Freud's theory of melancholy (1917) is taken to suggest that ambivalence predicts individual differences in melancholy gender among women. In a longitudinal study of women's adult development, an examination of femininity, depressive symptoms, and ambivalence in attachment was conducted in order to evaluate these claims. Findings show that depressive symptoms and femininity are significantly correlated within the sample, but that individual differences in melancholy gender exist. To understand these differences, an analysis was conducted to determine whether ambivalence in attachment accounts for the relation between depressive symptoms and femininity; complementary analyses examined whether low ambivalence in attachment attenuates, or lessens, the relation between femininity and depressive symptoms. Results from these analyses support the notion that it is not the loss and internalization of the same-sex object choice per se that results in melancholy gender in women, as Butler argues; rather, it is the internalization of a lost, ambivalent same-sex attachment that forges the link between melancholy and gender. Narrative material is presented to personify melancholy and unmelancholy gender. PMID:18246763

Jay, Meg

2007-01-01

231

Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to gender differences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter–word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an objective direct measure (N = 268; Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task) and, for a subsample of children, a

J. S. Matthews; Claire Cameron Ponitz; Frederick J. Morrison

2009-01-01

232

Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are striking differences between boys' andgirls' art during the elementary school years, but it isunknown whether such artistic gender differences emergeearlier in childhood. We tested 20 preschoolers (12 boys, 8 girls) and 29 kindergartners (15boys, 14 girls), most White and middle-class, on threetasks to assess gender-stereotypicality in theirdrawings and preferences for pictures. As predicted, in a production task, boys

Chris J. Boyatzis; Julie Eades

1999-01-01

233

A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences in ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined gender differences in ADHD through a meta-analysis. Effect size estimates for the primary symptoms and correlates of ADHD were calculated in an attempt to replicate and extend a previous meta-analysis on gender differences in the disorder. Relatively lenient inclusion criteria were used in order to maximize the number of studies included in the effect sizes.The results

J. Gershon

2002-01-01

234

Gender Differences in Impression Management in Organizations: A Qualitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we review the literature on impression management to determine if there are substantial gender differences\\u000a in the employment of impression management tactics in organizational contexts. Based on a social roles theory perspective\\u000a (Eagly, 1987), we examined use of impression management tactics in organizational settings for gender differences in behavior.\\u000a We expected that men and women would generally

Rosanna E. Guadagno; Robert B. Cialdini

2007-01-01

235

The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

2011-01-01

236

Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: effects on children's gender attitudes and intergroup bias.  

PubMed

Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed gender attitude, intergroup bias, and personal preference measures at the beginning and end of a 2-week period during which teachers either did or did not make gender salient. Observations of peer play were also made at both times. After 2 weeks, children in the high- (but not low-) salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers. Children's own activity and occupational preferences, however, remained unaffected. PMID:21077864

Hilliard, Lacey J; Liben, Lynn S

237

Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?  

SciTech Connect

Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

Dimich-Ward, Helen [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada)]. E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G. [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); James Hogg iCapture Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6 (Canada); Kennedy, Susan M. [School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

2006-06-15

238

Gender Differences in Risk Perception: Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial body of risk research indicates that women and men differ in their perceptions of risk. This paper discusses how they differ and why. A review of a number of existing empirical studies of risk perception points at several problems, regarding what gender differences are found in such studies, and how these differences are accounted for. Firstly, quantitative approaches,

Per E. Gustafson

1998-01-01

239

Strong Evidence for Gender Differences in Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are men more willing to take financial risks than women? The answer to this question has immediate relevance for many economic issues. We assemble the data from 15 sets of experiments with one simple underlying investment game. Most of these experiments were not designed to investigate gender differences and were conducted by different researchers in different countries, with different instructions,

Gary Charness; Uri Gneezy

2012-01-01

240

Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.  

PubMed Central

Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective.

Moller-Leimkuhler, Anne Maria

2007-01-01

241

Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness  

PubMed Central

This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries.

2007-01-01

242

Gender differences in bladder control: from babies to elderly.  

PubMed

In both sexes, there are anatomical and behavioral differences in dealing with bladder control, as well as voiding and incontinence. Despite intensive research within the last decades, the differences in physiology and pathophysiology as well as gender differences of bladder control and continence are still poorly understood and further research is highly needed. In babies, gender difference seems to be most likely caused by a difference in maturity rate of the bladder. After gaining bladder control, behavior starts to be influenced by socialization. During preschool and school, children experience a negative perception of school toilets. Especially girls crouch over the toilet seat and train to empty the bladder without relaxation of the pelvic floor. This posture may lead to bladder dysfunction. Often adult women continue this bad habit and bladder dysfunction may consolidate. From the fourth decade in both sexes lower urinary tract symptoms start to develop. However, men and women handle the problem variedly showing gender differences in coping strategies with better coping mechanisms in women. In general, gender difference in help seeking and receiving treatment increases with younger age. In elderly, urinary incontinence is only associated with a higher mortality in men, and elderly men seek more often professional help. Aim of the review is to provide an insight into gender differences of bladder control and bladder dysfunction. PMID:23881351

Bauer, Ricarda M; Huebner, Wilhelm

2013-07-24

243

Gender Differences in Spiritual Development During the College Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in spirituality and related traits are an assumed reality despite the lack of empirical information that\\u000a directly compares women and men. I used a national and longitudinal sample of 3,680 college students surveyed with the Cooperative\\u000a Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman Survey (2000) and later with the College Students’ Beliefs and Values (CSBV)\\u000a Survey (2003) to examine gender

Alyssa N. Bryant

2007-01-01

244

Gender differences in diurnal triglyceridemia in lean and overweight subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: Increased fasting and postprandial triglyceridemia is one of the cardiovascular risk factors for patients with insulin resistance. Since triglyceride (TG) metabolism largely depends on gender, we have investigated diurnal TG changes in patients with and without overweight, focusing on gender differences.METHODS: Twenty-two males and 22 females with overweight (mean body mass index (BMI) 28.0±2.3 kg\\/m2) measured capillary TG concentrations

CJM Halkes; M Castro Cabezas; JPH van Wijk; DW Erkelens

2001-01-01

245

Gender and race differences in young adults’ body dissatisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences by gender and race (White or Black) in two aspects of college students’ body dissatisfaction—dissatisfaction with specific body parts and physique anxiety—were examined. Four hundred and ninety-one students completed surveys assessing both aspects of body dissatisfaction and eight risk factors for body dissatisfaction from biological, psychological, and sociocultural domains. Mean levels of dissatisfaction with body parts varied by gender,

Jessica Lynn Penkal; Lawrence A. Kurdek

2007-01-01

246

DIFFERENCES AMONG GENDER-ROLE IDENTITY GROUPS ON STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated stress differences among 210 university students who identified their gender-roles as: masculine-men, feminine-women, androgynous-men, and androgynous-women. Participants responded to the Student-life Stress Inventory and Gender-role Questionnaire. Data showed the masculine-men group experienced less overall stress when compared to the other groups; and more stress when compared to the women groups on competing. The androgynous- men group was

Bernadette M. Gadzella; Catharina Carvalho; William G. Masten

247

Understanding gender differences in distributive and procedural justice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in treatment and in judgments of distributive and procedural justice were examined. Three hundred nine\\u000a litigants who had been involved in arbitrated auto negligence lawsuits responded to exit surveys. Two mechanisms by which\\u000a gender might influence justice perceptions were explored. First, we examined whether a “chivalry bias” might be operating,\\u000a in which the procedures systematically favor women over

Carol T. Kulik; E. Allan Lind; Maurice L. Ambrose; Robert J. MacCoun

1996-01-01

248

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientists and Engineers: A Literature Review Special Report Hypertext Format Gender Differences ... and Engineers: A Literature Review Portable Document Format (.pdf) Gender Differences in the ...

249

Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys…

Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

2009-01-01

250

Sex roles and gender differences in the experience of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied sex differences and sex role correlates of depressive experiences in 82 female and 39 male college students. Gender differences in depressive experiences were found. These differences were consistent with societal sex role expectations. The level of depression on the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale was negatively associated with sex role congruence, as assessed by the Sex-Role Stereotype Questionnaire, scored for

Eve S. Chevron; Donald M. Quinlan; Sidney J. Blatt

1978-01-01

251

The Worlds We Live In: Gender Similarities and Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores two different traditions of gender difference research and theory. One tradition emphasizes similarities between the sexes, whereas the other emphasizes differences. Feminist psychologists who work within the similarities tradition focus on how women and men are alike in order to promote the full integration of women into the male-dominated public world. Feminist psychologists who work within the

MEREDITH M. KIMBALL

1994-01-01

252

Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power

1987-01-01

253

Gender differences in investment strategies: an information processing perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refers to past research regarding gender differences in investment strategies which has pointed to two important differences: female investors appear both to be more risk averse and to have less confidence in their investment decisions than male investors in equivalent circumstances. Given the relative consistency of these findings, as well as the potential long-term financial implications of these differing investment

Judy F. Graham; Jr Edward J. Stendardi; Joan K. Myers; Mark J. Graham

2002-01-01

254

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE ENTREPRENERIAL START-UP PROCESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large sample of entrepreneurs from eastern Canada was used in conjunction with t-tests and structural equation modelling to determine gender differences in the entrepreneurial start-up process. Women and men certainly put different emphases on various different aspects of the process. As compared to men, for instance, women started smaller companies on average, had less of a clear idea of

Helen Mallette; Norman McGuinness

255

The Emergence of Gender Difference in Depressed Mood during Adolescence: The Role of Intensified Gender Socialization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined the prevalence of depressive mood in 12,000 Norwegian adolescents, ages 12-20. Found that from age 14 on, girls scored above boys in depressed mood, though no gender difference was found at age 12. The difference was partially explained by increased developmental challenges for girls, including puberty, weight and body dissatisfaction,…

Wichstrom, Lars

1999-01-01

256

Gender Differences in Parental StrainParental Role or Gender Role?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines gender differences in the strains associated with parenting. We hypothesize that due to the different role experiences of being a parent, mothers are more likely than fathers to experience greater role strain. Women who parent are more likely than their male counterparts to be exposed to strain-inducing experiences because they spend more time in child care and

JACQUELINE SCOTT; DUANE F. ALWIN

1989-01-01

257

Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359)\\u000a using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals\\u000a that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged\\u000a in direct contact, collective types

Hilde Coffé; Catherine Bolzendahl

2010-01-01

258

Gender Differences in Genetic Risk Profiles for Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, complications and burden differ markedly between women and men. Although there is variation in the distribution of lifestyle factors between the genders, they do not fully explain the differences in CVD incidence and suggest the existence of gender-specific genetic risk factors. We aimed to estimate whether the genetic risk profiles of coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke and the composite end-point of CVD differ between the genders. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied in two Finnish population cohorts, using the case-cohort design the association between common variation in 46 candidate genes and CHD, ischemic stroke, CVD, and CVD-related quantitative risk factors. We analyzed men and women jointly and also conducted genotype-gender interaction analysis. Several allelic variants conferred disease risk for men and women jointly, including rs1801020 in coagulation factor XII (HR?=?1.31 (1.08–1.60) for CVD, uncorrected p?=?0.006 multiplicative model). Variant rs11673407 in the fucosyltransferase 3 gene was strongly associated with waist/hip ratio (uncorrected p?=?0.00005) in joint analysis. In interaction analysis we found statistical evidence of variant-gender interaction conferring risk of CHD and CVD: rs3742264 in the carboxypeptidase B2 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.009 for CHD, and rs2774279 in the upstream stimulatory factor 1 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.007 for CHD and CVD, showed strong association in women but not in men, while rs2069840 in interleukin 6 gene, p(interaction)?=?0.004 for CVD, showed strong association in men but not in women (uncorrected p-values). Also, two variants in the selenoprotein S gene conferred risk for ischemic stroke in women, p(interaction)?=?0.003 and 0.007. Importantly, we identified a larger number of gender-specific effects for women than for men. Conclusions/Significance A false discovery rate analysis suggests that we may expect half of the reported findings for combined gender analysis to be true positives, while at least third of the reported genotype-gender interaction results are true positives. The asymmetry in positive findings between the genders could imply that genetic risk loci for CVD are more readily detectable in women, while for men they are more confounded by environmental/lifestyle risk factors. The possible differences in genetic risk profiles between the genders should be addressed in more detail in genetic studies of CVD, and more focus on female CVD risk is also warranted in genome-wide association studies.

Silander, Kaisa; Saarela, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Auro, Kirsi; Karvanen, Juha; Kulathinal, Sangita; Niemela, Matti; Ellonen, Pekka; Vartiainen, Erkki; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarela, Janna; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Evans, Alun; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Peltonen, Leena

2008-01-01

259

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LENIENCY TOWARDS POLICE MISCONDUCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article explores the differences in leniency between male and female partici- pants on a sample of 95 police officers and 247 students in Slovenia. The partici- pants read eleven hypothetical scenarios of police misconduct and answered the questions measuring their moral judgments, attitudes, and behavioral intentions regarding the described behaviors. The results showed that at least some differ- ences

MILAN PAGON; BRANKO LOBNIKAR; DARKO ANELJ

260

Still Different After All These Years: Gender Differences in Professional Identity Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider issues affecting professional identity formation, such as individual differences, graduate training, cultural perspectives, and ideology. We propose that gender differences in professional identity and functioning also are attributable, to a significant degree, to early developmental experiences. We review the professional socialization process and then discuss three theoretical issues related to gender differences that appear to affect women in

K. Ramsey McGowen; Lorraine E. Hart

1990-01-01

261

A Multivariate Model of Gender Differences in Adolescents' Internalizing and Externalizing Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences observed in interpersonal and self-critical vulnerabilities, reactivity to stressful life events, quality of relationships, and self-concepts inform a multivariate theoretical model of the moderating effects of gender on internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence. To test this model, data were collected in a 1-year prospective study from an ethnically diverse sample of 460 middle school students. Increases in

Bonnie J. Leadbeater; Gabriel P. Kuperminc; Sidney J. Blatt; Christopher Hertzog

1999-01-01

262

Gender differences in behavioural changes induced by latent toxoplasmosis.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii modifies behaviour of its intermediate hosts, including humans, where it globally infects about 20-60% of the population. Although it is considered asymptomatic in its latent stage, it was previously found to have remarkable and gender different effects on the personality factors A (warmth), G (rule consciousness), L (vigilance, mistrust) and Q3 (self-control, self-image) from Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire. We performed a double blind experiment testing 72 and 142 uninfected men and women, respectively, and 20 and 29 infected men and women, respectively, in order to verify these gender differences using behavioural experiments. Our composite behavioural variables Self-Control and Clothes Tidiness (analogue to the 16PF factors G--conscientiousness and Q3--self-control) showed a significant effect of the toxoplasmosis-gender interaction with infected men scoring significantly lower than uninfected men and a trend in the opposite direction in women. The effect of the toxoplasmosis-gender interaction on our composite behavioural variable Relationships (analogue to factor A--warmth) approached significance; infected men scored significantly lower than uninfected men whereas there was no difference in women. In the composite behavioural variable Mistrust (analogue to factor L), the pattern was affected by environment (rural versus urban). Possible interpretations of the gender differences are discussed. PMID:16978630

Lindová, Jitka; Novotná, Martina; Havlícek, Jan; Jozífková, Eva; Skallová, Anna; Kolbeková, Petra; Hodný, Zdenek; Kodym, Petr; Flegr, Jaroslav

2006-08-31

263

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice  

PubMed Central

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed.

Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

2010-01-01

264

Gender Differences in Self-Reported Response to Troubles Talk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tannen [(1990) You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation, New York: William Morrow] and others have argued that women and men differ in communication style, and particularly in the way they respond to “troubles talk.” However, her research on gender differences in communication style has primarily made use of qualitative analysis of naturally occurring discourse. A Communication Styles

Shari L. Michaud; Rebecca M. Warner

1997-01-01

265

Exploring Cross-National Differences in Gender Gaps in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of one sex with respect to the other. The…

van Langen, Annemarie; Bosker, Roel; Dekkers, Hetty

2006-01-01

266

Gender differences in educational and labour market outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite numerous changes in policy and legislation, issues of gender equity in the Australian education system and labour market remain a concern of the Australian public. Males and females differ in academic performance at various points in their education; there are differences in the numbers of young men and women participating in education and training; men and women experience differential

Kylie Hillman; Sheldon Rothman

2003-01-01

267

Gender differences in educational attainment: influences of the family environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys’ and girls’ early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium Cohort Study linked with the teachers Foundation Stage Profile

Fiona K. Mensah; Kathleen E. Kiernan

2010-01-01

268

Gender Differences in Temperament: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mean level and variability of 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament in children ages 3 months to 13 years. Effortful control showed a large difference favoring girls and the dimensions within that factor (e.g., inhibitory control: d = -0.41,…

Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Van Hulle, Carol A.

2006-01-01

269

Explaining spousal differences in reproductive preferences: A gender inequality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey we show that, contrary to some earlier findings, substantial differences in fertility goals exist between spouses in sub-Saharan Africa. Further, we indicate that gender inequality is associated with these differences in fertility goals. Women in dyads that give nonnumeric responses to questions on preferred family size are very likely to

F. Nii-Amoo Dodoo; Arna Seal

1994-01-01

270

Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare men and women for differences in affective and cognitive processes associated with impulse buying behavior and to identify gender differences in terms of impulsive purchases made from a variety of product categories. A total of 277 students served as the sample. Using analysis of variance tests, males and females were found to

Amanda Coley; Brigitte Burgess

2003-01-01

271

Exploring Cross-National Differences in Gender Gaps in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of one sex with respect to the other. The variation…

van Langen, Annemarie; Bosker, Roel; Dekkers, Hetty

2006-01-01

272

Gender Differences in Eating Behavior and Body Weight Regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in food intake and selection first appear in adolescence. Men consume more calories than women, and the sexes have different eating styles, which indicate that women have been socialized to eat in a more feminine manner. Women experience more food-related conflict than men do, in that they like fattening foods but perceive that they should not eat them.

Barbara J. Rolls; Ingrid C. Fedoroff; Joanne F. Guthrie

1991-01-01

273

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN STORIES OF EVERYDAY INTERNET USE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is a secondary analysis of data collected from four web-based focus groups of nurses and computer scientists who were frequent Internet users. Our aim in this secondary study was to examine gender differences and shared practices in the interpretation of narratives when using this technology. We found that women have different values than men when using the Internet.

Suzanne Steffan Dickerson

2003-01-01

274

Gender Differences in the Negative Affective Priming of Aggressive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative affective priming of aggression was examined across different aversive contexts (general stress exposure and frustration) with a laboratory aggression paradigm that measured the intensity of shocks participants delivered to a putative employee. Participants' emotional responses were gauged via startle eyeblink reactions and self-report mood ratings. Aside from gender differences in overall aggression, men but not women exposed to

Edelyn Verona; John J. Curtin

2006-01-01

275

Pilot Personality: Gender and Career-Level Differences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Little work has been done to examine personality differences between female and male Air Force pilots. The current study investigates gender differences at beginning and mid-career points. These samples are compared to non-pilots controls. Female pilots d...

R. E. King J. D. Callister P. D. Retzlaff S. McGlohn

1997-01-01

276

Framework for gender differences in human and animal toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and behavior between males and females are a dominant theme in biology, transcending the plant and animal kingdoms. Yet differences due to sex and gender have not received adequate attention in human or animal toxicology nor always in epidemiology. Generalizations are often made about species’ responses to xenobiotics, without data or consideration of female\\/male

Michael Gochfeld

2007-01-01

277

Gender differences in students’ rational decisions to cheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few rational choice studies of deviant behavior have reported statistical tests of difference in the effects of explanatory variables between men and women. Using scenario?based survey data from a sample of 330 university students (171 women and 159 men), this study examined gender differences in levels and effects of explanatory variables on intentions to cheat on exams. Findings showed significant

Stephen G. Tibbetts

1997-01-01

278

Gender Differences in Burnout: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The literature on male-female differences in burnout has produced inconsistent results regarding the strength and direction of this relationship. Lack of clarity on gender differences in organizationally relevant phenomena, such as work burnout, frequently generates ungrounded speculations that may (mis)inform organizational decisions. To address…

Purvanova, Radostina K.; Muros, John P.

2010-01-01

279

Gender differences in game behaviour in invasion games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game performance in invasion games. There also exist different participation and learning patterns.

David Gutierrez; Luis M. García-López

2012-01-01

280

Gender Differences in Mortality after Hospital Admission for Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Differences between men and women in stroke symptoms, management and disability have been reported to be unfavorable for women. Yet, studies into differences between men and women in survival after a stroke yielded inconsistent results. We investigated whether gender was associated with all-cause mortality after hospital admission for stroke. Methods: A nationwide cohort of patients with a first admission

I. Vaartjes; J. B. Reitsma; M. Berger-van Sijl; M. L. Bots

2009-01-01

281

Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Influences of the Family Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…

Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

2010-01-01

282

Gender differences in the cardiovascular effect of sex hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in men than in women of similar age, and the menopause-associated increase in cardiovascular disease in women, has led to speculation that gender-related differences in sex hormones have a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease. Compelling data have indicated that sex differences in vascular biology are determined not only by

Cristiana Vitale; Michael E. Mendelsohn; Giuseppe M. C. Rosano

2009-01-01

283

Psychiatric Co-Morbidity and Gender Differences in Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Although gender differences in psychopathology among the general psychiatric population appear to be well documented, such differences have been either ignored or inconsistently investigated among people with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: The study examined psychiatric co-morbidity in 295 men and 295 women with ID and…

Tsakanikos, E.; Bouras, Nick; Sturmey, P.; Holt, G.

2006-01-01

284

Gender differences in cardiac electrophysiology and arrhythmias. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

th century. More recently this has expanded to include cardiac electrophysiology. The mechanisms responsible for the disparities are being elucidated. Contributing factors may include: differing amounts of sex and gonadal steroids, differences in autonomic tone, and gender specific hemodynamic variables. Women have a longer corrected QT interval and men have a lower intrinsic heart rate. Atrial fibrillation is more common

RAMESH M. GOWDA; SABRINA L. WILBUR; PAUL SCHWEITZER

2007-01-01

285

Observed Classroom Behavior of Children with ADHD: Relationship to Gender and Comorbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examined hypothesized gender and comorbidity differences in the observed classroom behavior of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The behavior of 403 boys and 99 girls with ADHD, ages 7–10, was compared (a) to observed, sex-specific classroom behavior norms, (b) by sex, and (c) by comorbid subgroups. Boys and girls with ADHD deviated significantly from classroom norms on 15\\/16

Howard B. Abikoff; Peter S. Jensen; L. L. Eugene Arnold; Betsy Hoza; Lily Hechtman; Simcha Pollack; Diane Martin; Jose Alvir; John S. March; Stephen Hinshaw; Benedetto Vitiello; Jeffrey Newcorn; Andrew Greiner; Dennis P. Cantwell; C. Keith Conners; Glen Elliott; Laurence L. Greenhill; Helena Kraemer; William E. Pelham Jr; Joanne B. Severe; James M. Swanson; Karen Wells; Tim Wigal

2002-01-01

286

Gender difference in ethical abilities of dental students.  

PubMed

Walker's comprehensive review of claims of gender difference and gender bias in moral cognition concluded 1) that gender explains a negligible amount of the variability in moral reasoning development, 2) that accumulated evidence does not support claims of gender polarity in moral orientations (i.e., an ethic of care and an ethic of justice), and 3) that future research should focus on the range of psychological processes that engender moral maturity. This study examined whether male and female predoctoral dental students who completed an ethics curriculum grounded in Rest's comprehensive model of moral functioning differed on measures of four capacities: moral sensitivity, moral reasoning, moral motivation, and moral implementation. From archival data at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry, data on sixty females and sixty males were randomly selected from five cohorts (n=386) who completed an ethics curriculum and outcome measures of the four capacities between 1996 and 2000. Gender differences were not apparent for a measure of moral sensitivity, but were evident for one of the moral reasoning indices, for the responsibility dimension of moral motivation, and for the measure of moral implementation. Implications are drawn for future research and for professional ethics education. PMID:22942409

You, Di; Bebeau, Muriel J

2012-09-01

287

Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative…

Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

2007-01-01

288

Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

289

Gender differences in cholinergic and dopaminergic deficits in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

As Parkinson disease (PD) may affect men and women differentially, we investigated gender differences in regional projection system integrity in 148 PD subjects (36 women, 112 men) using monoaminergic [(11)C]dihydrotetrabenazine and acetylcholinesterase [(11)C]PMP positron emission tomography. After controlling for age, disease duration, and Hoehn and Yahr score, men showed 5.9 % greater caudate dopaminergic denervation (p = 0.0018) and 5.8 % greater neocortical cholinergic denervation (p = 0.0097). No significant gender differences were seen in putaminal dopaminergic or thalamic cholinergic denervation. PMID:23532360

Kotagal, Vikas; Albin, Roger L; Müller, Martijn L T M; Koeppe, Robert A; Frey, Kirk A; Bohnen, Nicolaas I

2013-03-27

290

Pension reform, personal pensions and gender differences in pension coverage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Personal Pension Scheme introduced in Chile in 1981 has acquired a paradigmatic role for pension reform in less developed and developed countries. In contrast to the significant gender gap in private pension coverage observed in developed countries, in Chile women's participation in the personal pension scheme is marginally higher than men's. Using cross-section data the paper analyzes the determinants

Armando Barrientos

1998-01-01

291

Gender differences in interacting with AnimalWatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has been carried out that examines how the two genders interact with software. This is of special importance in the case of educational software for mathematics, given the difficulties that girls and women have encountered while learning the subject (Eccles et al., 1993). We have observed the interactions of 350 elementary school students with a mathematics intelligent tutoring

Ivon Arroyo

292

Gender differences in false memory production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated differences in false memory production between men and women, using the Deese\\/Roedgier McDermott\\u000a (DRM) paradigm. Five word lists were used (MAN, GIRL, BREAD, BLACK, HIGH) and it was predicted that males would produce more\\u000a false memories for the MAN word list while females will produce more false memories for the GIRL word list. Results did not

Grant Bauste; F. Richard Ferraro

2004-01-01

293

Methamphetamine use behaviors and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis describes methamphetamine (MA) use behaviors in a broad cross-section of (N=350) former clients from a large publicly funded treatment system and examines differences between males and females in drug use history, MA initiation and motivators, MA-related problems, acquisition, distribution, manufacture, and treatment characteristics. Results show polydrug use, prolonged MA use before treatment, initiation primarily through friends, common sensation-seeking

Mary-Lynn Brecht; Ann O'Brien; Christina von Mayrhauser; M. Douglas Anglin

2004-01-01

294

Gender differences in personality and heart-rate variability.  

PubMed

Both personality traits and autonomic functioning show as gender differences, but their relationship is not well understood. Medically unexplained symptoms are related to personality features and can be assessed by autonomic measurement. The patterns are hypothesised to identify gender differences. We recruited 30 male and 30 female healthy volunteers. All participants completed the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and heart-rate variability (HRV) measurement. Correlation analysis was performed to identify the relationships between TPQ scores and HRV parameters. For the subjects as a whole, the subdimension harm avoidance 4 (HA4, fatigability and asthenia) was found to be negatively correlated with low-frequency (LF) power, high-frequency (HF) power and total power (TP) of HRV. Novelty seeking 1 (NS1, exploratory excitability) was found to be positively correlated with LF power and TP. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the interactions exploratory excitability x gender and fatigability x gender are predictors of LF and HF power, respectively. Our result supports the hypothesis that personality features such as exploratory excitability and fatigability are associated with autonomic functioning and that gender is a moderator in these relationships. PMID:23499230

Huang, Wei-Lieh; Chang, Li-Ren; Kuo, Terry B J; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Ying-Zai; Yang, Cheryl C H

2013-03-15

295

Gender-Linked Differences in Everyday Memory Performance: Effort Makes the Difference  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found gender differences in everyday memory tasks such as remembering shopping lists or directions, and these findings can be attributed to increased motivation or memory skill resulting from the association of different tasks with masculine or feminine gender roles. To investigate the motivational explanation, the recall of an ambiguous shopping list, labeled as grocery or hardware, was

Ann Colley; Jane Ball; Nicola Kirby; Rebecca Harvey; Ingrid Vingelen

2002-01-01

296

Gender differences in perceived intimacy with different members of adolescents' social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has clearly established important gender differences in how intimacy is viewed within a narrow set of relationships, primarily those with same-sex peers. This article presents a new social pressures model that delineates a set of diverse forces believed to influence gender differences in intimacy across a much wider set of social relationships during early adolescence. Although it was

Dale A. Blyth; Frederick S. Foster-Clark

1987-01-01

297

No Difference in Gender-specific Hip Replacement Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Gender-specific total hip arthroplasty (THA) design has been recently debated with manufacturers launching gender-based designs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the survivorship and clinical outcomes of a large primary THA cohort specifically assessing differences between genders in clinical outcomes, implant survivorship, revisions as well as sizing and offset differences. We reviewed 3461 consecutive patients receiving 4114 primary THAs (1924 women, 1537 men) between 1980 and 2004 with a minimum of 2 years followup (mean, 11.33 ± 6.5 years). A subset of patients with complete implant data was reviewed for sizing and offset differences. Preoperative, latest, and change in clinical outcome scores as well as Kaplan–Meier analysis were performed. Men had higher raw clinical outcome scores preoperatively and postoperatively. Differences in change of clinical outcome scores were found only in the WOMAC pain score in favor of the female cohort (39.4 versus 36.1). Survivorship and revision rate were not significantly different. Men used larger stems with greater stem lengths, neck offset, and neck lengths. Current implant systems were sufficiently versatile to address the different size and offset needs of male and female patients. These data suggest there is no apparent need for a gender-designed THA system. Level of Evidence: Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Kostamo, Timothy; Whittaker, John Paul; McCalden, Richard W.; MacDonald, Steven J.

2008-01-01

298

Gender Differences in the Object-Oriented Play of Preschoolers with Cognitive Delays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in the play of preschool children with cognitive delays were investigated. Twelve dependent variables representing categorical and sequential play were coded from observations of 18 boys and 12 girls playing during an independent-play session at home. Boys and girls were observed to play differentially with three toy sets (mixed, doll, and vehicle) with which they were presented. Overall,

D. MICHAEL MALONE; JOHN LANGONE

1995-01-01

299

Males' and females' conversational behavior in cross-sex dyads: From gender differences to gender similarities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated gender differences in conversational behavior in an experimental setting. Twenty men and 20 women were randomly paired in 20 dyads and were asked to discuss a given topic. We examined the transcripts through a varied range of behavioral variables. First we analyzed the sequential ordering of utterances in order to establish the way male and female speakers take

Agnesa Pillon; Catherine Degauquier; François Duquesne

1992-01-01

300

Gender similarities in doctors’ preferences — and gender differences in final specialisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a career history study of gender differences and similarities in recruitment to and transitions between specialities among Norwegian doctors. A questionnaire on career and family history was sent to all Norwegian doctors authorised in 1980–1983. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to describe and analyse completion of specialisation in the specialty in which they

Elisabeth Gjerberg

2002-01-01

301

A Structural Social Psychological View of Gender Differences in Cooperation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze differences in cooperation between men and women in social dilemma settings. Using a structural social psychological\\u000a framework, we examine how the actor, the encounter, the microstructure, and the macrostructure might influence when gender\\u000a differences emerge in cooperation. Many of the interaction differences, often linked to innate differences between men and\\u000a women, are modified when the context is modified.

Jane Sell; Kathy J. Kuipers

2009-01-01

302

Spanning the gender gap: gender differences in delinquency among inner-city adolescents.  

PubMed

The purpose of this investigation was to study the relationship between gender and delinquency among inner-city adolescents participating in a court diversion program. Official and self-report records of 64 adolescents were analyzed to determine the influence of gender on program referrals, arrest rates, drug use, delinquency, and gang involvement. Gender differences emerged in both the referral source and behavioral patterns of the adolescents. Overall, males were more likely to be referred to the program for violations of the law, to have been arrested, and to have engaged in aggressive offenses and selling drugs. Females were more likely to be referred because of status offenses. Gang membership had an intensifying effect on the delinquent behaviors of all youths. Male gang members were far more likely than nonmembers to have been arrested, and female gang members were more likely than nonmembers to carry weapons. PMID:8266841

Rhodes, J E; Fischer, K

1993-01-01

303

Gender differences in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain behavior and analgesic response in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Females show greater sensitivity than males to several modalities of experimental pain. However, the gender differences in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain have not been studied. The current study examined the gender differences in neuropathic pain behavior and the effect of analgesics in a paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain model in rats. Methods Neuropathic pain was induced by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (2 mg/kg) on 4 alternate days in Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders. Mechanical allodynia was measured using a von Frey filament. The gender differences in analgesic responses were determined after administration of morphine (2 or 5 mg/kg), ketamine (2 or 5 mg/kg), or combined morphine (2 mg/kg) and ketamine (2 mg/kg). Results Paclitaxel induced mechanical allodynia, which began to manifest on day 4, peaked within 10 days, and plateaued for at least 2 months after the first paclitaxel injection. No gender difference in the manifestation of mechanical allodynia was observed. A 2 mg/kg dose of ketamine increased the mechanical threshold only in males. The 5 mg/kg dose of ketamine significantly increased the mechanical threshold in both genders. Morphine (2 and 5 mg/kg) dose-dependently increased the mechanical thresholds in both genders. The 2 mg/kg dose of ketamine enhanced the antinociceptive effect of 2 mg/kg morphine only in females. Conclusions No gender difference in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain or analgesic response to ketamine or morphine was observed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Low dose ketamine enhanced the analgesic effect of morphine on paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia but only in female rats.

Hwang, Boo-Young; Kim, Eun-Soo; Kim, Chul-Hong; Kwon, Jae-Young

2012-01-01

304

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-05-15

305

Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe  

PubMed Central

We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future.

Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

2008-01-01

306

Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

2002-01-01

307

Gender Differences in Informal Education Environments: A Review of the Literature on Gender and Learning in Science Museums.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research related to gender and learning in science museums. Examines 10 studies including studies of stereotypic behavior patterns, parent talk and family interactions, and gender-biased exhibits. Describes the need for a better understanding of gender differences in informal learning environments and more exhibits specifically designed…

Taylor, David

2002-01-01

308

Renin angiotensin system and gender differences in dopaminergic degeneration  

PubMed Central

Background There are sex differences in dopaminergic degeneration. Men are approximately two times as likely as premenopausal women of the same age to develop Parkinson's disease (PD). It has been shown that the local renin angiotensin system (RAS) plays a prominent role in sex differences in the development of chronic renal and cardiovascular diseases, and there is a local RAS in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic cell loss is enhanced by angiotensin via type 1 (AT1) receptors. Results In the present study, we observed that intrastriatal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine induced a marked loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of male rats, which was significantly higher than the loss induced in ovariectomized female rats given estrogen implants (i.e. rats with estrogen). However, the loss of dopaminergic neurons was significantly lower in male rats treated with the AT1 antagonist candesartan, and similar to that observed in female rats with estrogen. The involvement of the RAS in gender differences in dopaminergic degeneration was confirmed with AT1a-null mice lesioned with the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPTP. Significantly higher expression of AT1 receptors, angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and NADPH-oxidase complex activity, and much lower levels of AT2 receptors were observed in male rats than in female rats with estrogen. Conclusions The results suggest that brain RAS plays a major role in the increased risk of developing PD in men, and that manipulation of brain RAS may be an efficient approach for neuroprotective treatment of PD in men, without the feminizing effects of estrogen.

2011-01-01

309

Gender differences in stress response: Role of developmental and biological determinants  

PubMed Central

Stress response is associated with manifestations of various psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. Hence, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence this association. Moreover, men and women tend to react differently with stress–both psychologically and biologically. These differences also need to be studied in order to have a better understanding in the gender difference observed for many disorders, which are likely to be contributed by the gender difference in stress reactivity and responses. Such an understanding would have a significant impact on our understanding about how adult health is set during early life and how adult disease could be prevented in men and women.

Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Gupta, Chandra Shekhar

2011-01-01

310

Gender Differences in Educational Attainment among the Children of Canadian Immigrants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the gender differences in university education attainment among the children of Canadian immigrants, observing the extent to which parental human capital and social capital in the family and immigrant community may be more important and\\/or different for men and women. This allows us to examine the degree to which structural and cultural factors used to explain racial

Teresa Abada; Eric Yeboah Tenkorang

2009-01-01

311

Gender Differences in Mathematics: Does the Story Need to Be Rewritten?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on…

Brunner, Martin; Krauss, Stefan; Kunter, Mareike

2008-01-01

312

Beliefs About Gender Differences in Methods and Causes of Suicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty undergraduate students (20 Males, 20 females) made judgments about the relationship between an individual's gender and the method of suicide most likely to be chosen by that individual. The perceived relationship between different precipitating events for suicide and the method of suicide were also examined, as were the participants' judgments about the moral justifiability of suicide in response to

Francis T. McAndrew; Andrew J. Garrison

2007-01-01

313

Gender differences in performance of script analysis by older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Script analysis as a test of executive functions is presumed sensitive to cognitive changes seen with increasing age. Two studies evaluated if gender differences exist in performance on scripts for familiar and unfamiliar tasks in groups of cognitively intact older adults. In Study 1, 26 older adults completed male and female stereotypical scripts. Results were not significant but a tendency

Edward Helmes; J. D. Bush; Donna Pike; Deirdre Drake

2006-01-01

314

Gender Differences in Restricting Work Efforts because of Family Responsibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In egalitarian families, we might expect that men and women similarly prioritize work and family obligations. Yet, prior research examining gender differences in work-family priorities often use measures that imperfectly reflect those priorities. Drawing two samples of full-time married workers from the 1992 National Study of the Changing…

Maume, David J.

2006-01-01

315

Gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry for face processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current cognitive neuroscience models predict a right-hemispheric dominance for face processing in humans. However, neuroimaging and electromagnetic data in the literature provide conflicting evidence of a right-sided brain asymmetry for decoding the structural properties of faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this inconsistency might be due to gender differences in hemispheric asymmetry. RESULTS: In this

Alice M Proverbio; Valentina Brignone; Silvia Matarazzo; Marzia Del Zotto; Alberto Zani

2006-01-01

316

Gender differences and styles in the use of digital games  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the cognitive style of 581 (212 male and 369 female)

Philip Bonanno; P. A. M. Kommers

2005-01-01

317

Poles Apart? Gender Differences in Proposals for Sexuality Education Content  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Are young women and men's preferences for sexuality education content poles apart? This article explores gender differences in senior school students' suggestions for issues sexuality education should cover. Findings are analysed in relation to debate about mixed and single sex classrooms and boys' perceived disinterest in lessons. It is argued…

Allen, Louisa

2008-01-01

318

Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces—Zhejiang a high growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely

Xiaoyan Lei; Yuqing Hu; James P. Smith; Yahao Zhao

2011-01-01

319

Further meta-analytic procedures for assessing cognitive gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outlined procedures for assessing the heterogeneity of a set of effect sizes derived from a meta-analysis, testing for trends with contrasts among the effect sizes obtained, and evaluating the practical importance of the average effect size obtained. These procedures were applied to data presented by J. S. Hyde (1981) regarding cognitive gender differences. The authors conclude that (a) for all

Robert Rosenthal; Donald B. Rubin

1982-01-01

320

Gender Differences in Evaluations of Tobacco and Alcohol Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between gender and reactions to different styles of advertising tobacco and alcohol products was examined in a sample of adolescents (average age of fourteen years) and their parents. Self-monitoring was also examined as a possible correlate of preferences for types of advertisements. Respondents were asked to rate magazine advertisements which were oriented toward the product's image or the

KATHERINE COVELL; KENNETH L. DION; KAREN K. DION

1994-01-01

321

Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Response to Dementia Caregiving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined gender differences in car- diovascular responses to laboratory-based stress, as well as in ambulatory hemodynamic (i.e., blood pressure and heart rate) functioning among caregivers of persons with dementia. Design & Methods: Participants were 25 men and 25 women caregivers, matched on age, type of care recipient's dementia, and relationship to the care re- cipient. After cardiovascular

Audie A. Atienza; Patrick C. Henderson; Sara Wilcox; Abby C. King

2001-01-01

322

Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

2010-01-01

323

Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

2012-01-01

324

Gender Differences in Preschoolers' Understanding of the Concept of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in North American preschoolers' biological reasoning about the concept of "life". Four-year-olds (M = 4.6, SD = 3.3 months) and five-year-olds (M = 5.6, SD = 3.8 months) were asked about the function of 13 body parts, organs, and bodily processes. Results indicated that the likelihood of mentioning the…

Schroeder, Meadow; Graham, Susan A.; McKeough, Anne; Stock, Hayli; Palmer, Jaime

2010-01-01

325

Gender differences in memory for object and word locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesized that gender differences in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) are larger in tasks requiring active elaboration of the material. In the present study we explored this issue by using an object relocation task, with both verbal and visual stimuli. The involvement of active processes was manipulated through the type of transformation required on the stimulus and through

Zaira Cattaneo; Albert Postma; Tomaso Vecchi

2006-01-01

326

Women in Science CommercializationLooking for Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes the participation of women in technology-oriented scientific projects (known as the TEST program) to identify gender-based differences in attitudes toward commercialization and innovation based on scientific research. The analysis is based on the TEST program that marks a milestone in science policy in Croatia, and represents a shift toward innovation policy. There is a higher representation of

Jasminka Lažnjak; Željka Šporer; Jadranka Švarc

2011-01-01

327

Gender differences in earnings among economics and business faculty  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research note finds significant earnings differentials across gender that can not be explained by differences in individual, job, or institutional characteristics. Specifically, we find that female economics and business faculty earn between 1.3 and 7.4% less than would be predicted in the absence of discrimination.

Michael D. Robinson; James Monks

1999-01-01

328

Gender Differences in Self-Regulated Online Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study analyzed gender differences in self-regulated learning components, motivational beliefs and achievement in self-regulated online learning environment. Sample of the study consisted of 145 participants from an online programming course which is based on synchronous and asynchronous communication methods over the Internet. Motivated…

Yukselturk, Erman; Bulut, Safure

2009-01-01

329

Gender Differences in Employment and the Informal Care of Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares gender differences among employed informal caregivers of disabled adults. Female caregivers, as compared to male caregivers, had significantly lower household incomes and were assisting care recipients with higher levels of cognitive and behavioral impairments. Female caregivers also reported higher levels of caregiving strain, work interference, and role strain, after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and caregiving and employment

Karen I. Fredriksen

1996-01-01

330

Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

2010-01-01

331

Gender Differences in Attitudes toward and Confidence in Computer Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined gender and student group differences in stereotypes and confidence for first-year and more advanced computer science (CS) students. In the spring of 2001, 18-page questionnaires were distributed to first-year students (n=30: 21 females, 9 males) and students enrolled in an introductory CS course (n=32: 11 females, 21 males)…

Beyer, Sylvia; Chavez, Michelle; Rynes, Kristina

332

Gender differences of psychological abuse in high school dating relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is becoming increasingly evident that physical abuse is often accompanied by psychological abuse in marital as well as college dating relationships. However, no known research has been conducted to examine psychological abuse in the high school population, nor have gender differences been explored in relationship to psychological abuse of high school students. For this study, the Psychological Maltreatment of

Christian E. Molidor

1995-01-01

333

Gender differences in blue collar workers' use of hearing protection.  

PubMed

In this study, the Health Promotion Model (HPM) was used as the basis for a structural equation model of male and female blue collar workers' self-reported use of hearing protection devices (HPDs). Overall use did not differ by gender; in addition, self-efficacy and barriers to use of HPDs were the two best predictors of this behavior for both men and women. Despite the similarities in HPD use and the most important predictors of that use between men and women, the predictive models differed by gender in several ways. Significant predictors of use among men also included age and value of use of HPDs. For women, ethnic status and plant site were additional significant predictors of use. Because the influences of plant site and gender on self-reported use of HPDs could not be separated in this study, further research should address worksite culture and assess differences by gender. Knowledge of these differences will aid development of more effective interventions and may increase the use of hearing protection. PMID:9302730

Lusk, S L; Ronis, D L; Baer, L M

1997-01-01

334

Incidence of dementia: does gender make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies suggested that women are at higher risk of dementia than men. However, that was based on rather limited data. We investigated possible gender differences in the incidence of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia, in the Rotterdam Study, a large population based prospective cohort study in the Netherlands of 7,046 persons aged 55 years and older, free of

Annemieke Ruitenberg; Alewijn Ott; John C. van Swieten; Albert Hofman; Monique M. B. Breteler

2001-01-01

335

School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

2003-01-01

336

Gender Differences in Childcare: Time Allocation in Five European Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the intrahousehold allocation of time in households headed by heterosexual couples to show gender differences in childcare in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Using data for the five sample countries from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP; 1994–2001) and the framework of a general efficiency approach, each parent's hours spent on childcare are regressed against individual

Inmaculada García-Mainar; José Alberto Molina; Víctor M. Montuenga

2011-01-01

337

Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher rates of reported morbidity among women are sometimes attributed to lower thresholds among women for experiencing and reporting symptoms. Gender differences in the perception of signs and symptoms of minor illness were examined on data from the MRC Common Cold Unit. Volunteers assessed the presence and severity of colds at the end of their stay in the Unit, using

Sally Macintyre

1993-01-01

338

Gender differences in attributions about microcomputer learning in elementary school  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether girls' attributions about computer use were more likely to follow a pattern of learned helplessness, boys' and girls' attributions about a computerized drill-and-practice task and a tutorial program were assessed. Factor analysis of responses on an attribution questionnaire revealed three factors that differed across gender and across task. Multiple regression, using exposure time, group size, attributions, and

Miranda D'Amico; Lois J. Baron; Mary Elizabeth Sissons

1995-01-01

339

Gender differences in behavioural changes induced by latent toxoplasmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing evidence that the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii modifies behaviour of its intermediate hosts, including humans, where it globally infects about 20–60% of the population. Although it is considered asymptomatic in its latent stage, it was previously found to have remarkable and gender different effects on the personality factors A (warmth), G (rule consciousness), L (vigilance, mistrust) and Q3

Jitka Lindová; Martina Novotná; Jan Havlí?ek; Eva Jozífková; Anna Skallová; Petra Kolbeková; Zden?k Hodný; Petr Kodym; Jaroslav Flegr

2006-01-01

340

Gender differences in awareness of courtship initiation tactics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, two phases of the initiation of courtship behavior are distinguished, namely the first move of making the contact, and the self-presentation after the contact has been established. Gender differences with respect to cognitions and expectations of courtship behavior were analyzed through self-report in a Dutch Caucasian student population. Our goal was to assess male and female roles

Carolina de Weerth; Akko Kalma

1995-01-01

341

Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Students towards Computing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper examines students' pre-college experience with computers. It finds significant gender differences in how students develop interest in computers; exposure to computers at home; availability of computers in high schools; and high-school preparations for college study in a computing field. The paper has a number of implications to improve…

Varma, Roli

2009-01-01

342

Gender Differences in High?school Students’ Views about Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in 79 high?school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even

Patricia H. Miller; Jennifer Slawinski Blessing; Stephanie Schwartz

2006-01-01

343

Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

2012-01-01

344

College Student Views of the Elderly: Some Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four hundred and forty-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 38-item questionnaire designed to assess student attitudes toward the elderly. The data revealed several significant gender differences including the age at which a person becomes "old" (men select a younger age), strength (men see less…

Knox, David; Kimuna, Sitawa; Zusman, Marty

2005-01-01

345

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

2012-01-01

346

Gender Differences in High-School Students' Views about Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students' attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females' low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four…

Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

2006-01-01

347

Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Literature Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This analysis of literature explores gender differences in leadership style. As greater numbers of women enter the ranks of leadership and more research is conducted, contradictory findings emerged. Using the qualitative software program Nvivo version 1.2, 36 pieces of qualitative, quantitative, and popular culture literature were summarized,…

Clisbee, Mary

2005-01-01

348

Discriminate analysis gender public school principal servant leadership differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to apply discriminate analysis to determine principal's leadership styles differences between genders in USA Midwest public schools. A distinction is to be made between “servant” (seen as aligned with emotional intelligence) and “traditional” (or top-down) leadership. The debate between the traditional (or, top-down) leadership approach, versus the servant (which is seen as aligned with emotional

Max Fridell; Rebecca Newcom Belcher; Phillip E. Messner

2009-01-01

349

Gender differences in leadership competencies, expatriate readiness, and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role that gender differences play in evaluating perceptions of global competence, individual readiness for expatriate assignments and overall job performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 11 global leadership competencies and perceptions of expatriate readiness for international assignments, along with job performance are rated by self raters and supervisors. Findings

Mary L. Connerley; Ross L. Mecham; Judy P. Strauss

2008-01-01

350

Gender differences in perceptions of the healthiness of foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our perceptions of the healthiness of foods are thought to influence what we decide to eat. Reportedly, women (as compared to men) eat more nutritious foods and are more likely to consider health issues when deciding what to eat However, until now, few studies have investigated possible gender differences in perceptions of the healthiness of foods. In the present study,

Michael E. Oakes; Carole S. Slotterback

2001-01-01

351

Gender Specific Differences in the Perceived Antecedents of Academic Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document consists of the report of a study undertaken to establish the existence of any gender specific differences in the perceived antecedents of academic stress. The definition of stress as a negative emotion strongly associated with doubt about coping is suggested to be particularly relevant to the academic arena where students…

Jones, Russell W.

352

Gender differences in days lost from work due to illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author uses data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey to investigate the extent and determinants of gender differences in days lost from work due to illness. She finds that for both men and women, health status measures, such as self-reported health status and medical events, more consistently explained absenteeism than did economic factors such as wages and the

Jessica P. Vistnes

1997-01-01

353

Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male…

Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

2007-01-01

354

Partner influence on noncondom use: Gender and ethnic differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates gender and ethnicity differences in the experience of not using a condom due to a partner's influence (unwanted noncondom use). Analysis of 247 anonymous questionnaires from students at urban community college campuses revealed that 46.7% had experienced unwanted noncondom use since age 16, and 37% had experienced unwanted noncondom use with their current or most recent partner.

Laurie A. Smith

2003-01-01

355

Gender Differences in Suicide Attempters in Hungary: Retrospective Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. Methods In the framework of the WHO\\/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pécs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. Results A

Sandor Fekete; Viktor Voros; Peter Osvath

356

Gender Differences in Chemosensory Perception and Event-related Potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated chemosensory gender differences by means of ratings of total nasal chemosensory intensity, unpleasantness and sensory irritation and simultaneous recordings of chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs) for three concentrations of the olfactory\\/trigeminal stimulus pyridine in 19 women and 17 men, all young adults. Results show that, compared to men, women gave higher intensity and unpleasantness ratings, in particular

Jonas K. Olofsson; Steven Nordin

2004-01-01

357

Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female adolescents were much less involved in antisocial, aggressive, and

Hun-Soo Kim; Hyun-Sil Kim

2005-01-01

358

Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

2012-01-01

359

Parental Contributions to Adolescents' Possessions and Educational Expenses: Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explored adolescent gender differences in possessions and parental financial assistance. Eight common adolescent possessions were analyzed, as well as expected parental contributions to their children's postsecondary education. Findings from 448 high school students revealed that males were significantly more likely to own stereos and athletic…

Peters, John F.

1991-01-01

360

Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

2011-01-01

361

Poles apart? Gender differences in proposals for sexuality education content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Are young women and men’s preferences for sexuality education content poles apart? This article explores gender differences in senior school students’ suggestions for issues sexuality education should cover. Findings are analysed in relation to debate about mixed and single sex classrooms and boys’ perceived disinterest in lessons. It is argued that young women and men’s content preferences were largely similar

Louisa Allen

2008-01-01

362

Gender Differences in Attributions of Blame for Male Rape Victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research on blaming the victim has virtually ignored male victimization while concentrating on the female victim. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether or not gender differences exist in blaming a male rape victim and whether or not any theories of victim blame could be applied to this domain. Subjects were given the Belief in a

MARK A. WHATLEY; RONALD E. RIGGIO

1993-01-01

363

Gender Differences in Affective, Schizoaffective, and Schizophrenic Disorders 319  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines gender dif- ferences in the clinical profiles and long-term outcomes of chronic DSM-III Axis I psychotic inpatients from the Chestnut Lodge followup study. Diagnostic groups include schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis, and unipolar affective disorder. Sex differences were fre- quent, especially in schizophrenia. Females with schizophrenia, for ex- ample, had superior premorbid social, sexual, and marital adjust- ments. They

Thomas H. McGlashan; Karen K. Bardenstein

364

Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

2011-01-01

365

Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

Madden, David

2010-01-01

366

Everyday stressors and gender differences in daily distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines gender differences in psychological distress by assessing men's and women's experience of daily stressors and psychological distress in a sample of 166 married couples. Respon- dents completed a structured daily diary each day over the course of 42 days. Results showed that women reported a higher prevalence of high distress days and a lower prevalence of distress-free

David M. Almeida; Ronald C. Kessler

1998-01-01

367

Gender Differences in Financial Hardships of Medical Debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Women are more likely than men to forgo, delay, and ration medical care because of medical debt. Using 2003–04 Community Tracking Study Household Survey data, this study examined gender differences in five financial hardships associated with medical debt. Regression analyses accounting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors of health services use indicated women were less likely to report being contacted

Sharina D. Person; Tyra Dark; Jacqueline C. Wiltshire; Roger L. Brown

2011-01-01

368

Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

2012-01-01

369

Gender Differences in Financial Hardships of Medical Debt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women are more likely than men to forgo, delay, and ration medical care because of medical debt. Using 2003–04 Community Tracking Study Household Survey data, this study examined gender differences in five financial hardships associated with medical debt. Regression analyses accounting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors of health services use indicated women were less likely to report being contacted

Sharina D. Person; Tyra Dark; Jacqueline C. Wiltshire; Roger L. Brown

2011-01-01

370

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ORIENTATION TOWARD RETIREMENT FROM PAID LABOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have reported gender differences in older workers' orientations toward retirement, with women expressing less favorable views. This study of 557 women and 245 men in their 60s, not currently married, showed that previously married women, who often face a poor financial situation in retirement, were less likely than previously married men to agree that older workers should retire

LAURIE RUSSELL HATCH

1992-01-01

371

Gender Differences in Reporting Psychological Abuse in a National Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the nature and impact of psychological abuse for males and females is crucial because it might be the precursor of other forms of violence. This study examines reported gender differences in psychologically abusive acts using a national sample of U.S. citizens. The data were collected anonymously from an online administration of the Measure of Psychological Abuse (MPAB). Other measures

M. Jill Rogers; Diane Follingstad

2011-01-01

372

Gender Differences and Offender Reentry: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, men have been incarcerated at rates far greater than women. As a result, reentry and reintegration programs have focused mainly on men's needs. The Second Chance Act of 2007 authorized funding for offender reentry programs and research on special populations—including about women and parents acknowledging the importance of identifying gender differences to improve offender rehabilitation efforts for successful reintegration.

Solveig Spjeldnes; Sara Goodkind

2009-01-01

373

Gender and managerial level differences in perceptions of effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine gender- and management- level differences in perceptions of effective leadership within a framework of new leadership models that focus on the processes of influencing self and others rather than leadership based on hierarchy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A self-report questionnaire was distributed to a sample of council employees. The responses were analysed using thematic matrix

Michael K. Muchiri; Ray W. Cooksey; Lee V. Di Milia; Fred O. Walumbwa

2011-01-01

374

Gender Differences in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…

Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

2010-01-01

375

Gender differences in Taiwan high school students' computer game playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to explore gender differences among adolescents who play computer games: key areas of study include hours played, motivation, enjoyment experienced, and the impacts on the students’ lives. The data were obtained from 535 Taiwan high school students. Results indicated that males spent more time playing computer games than did females and also enjoyed it

Chien Chou; Meng-Jung Tsai

2007-01-01

376

Gender differences in Italian children’s capabilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child well-being is analysed in this paper using the capability approach with a special focus on gender differences. The capabilities analysed are senses imagination and thought and play. These are crucial dimensions in the definition of child well-being and the country analysed performs particularly badly, with regards other industrialized countries. We estimate a Structural Equation Model (SEM) where the two

Addabbo Tindara; Di Tommao Maria Laura; Maccagnan Anna

2011-01-01

377

Examining Gender Differences in Drug-Abusing Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined gender differences among drug-abusing adolescents (N = 2,281). Overall, male adolescents reported somewhat higher usage levels of various drugs than did female adolescents, and they had an earlier onset of regular marijuana use. In terms of clinical signs of problem severity, female adolescents showed higher scores than male adolescents on Physical Symptoms, Escape (with drugs), and

Elizabeth A. Opland; Ken C. Winters; Randy D. Stinchfield

1995-01-01

378

DOMINANT OR DIFFERENT? GENDER ISSUES IN COMPUTER SUPPORTED LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant increase in the use of computer supported learning (CSL) within schools and universities across the world gives rise to concern about gender-related differences in performance and interaction style in these environments. Research has shown that initial perceptions of CSL environments as democratic and offering equal opportunities to all students were flawed because interactions that take place through electronic

Cathy Gunn

2003-01-01

379

Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

2007-01-01

380

Eating Sweet Snacks: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a study of gender differences in the components of the Theory of Reasoned Action in relation to eating sweet snacks, and the role of these components in predicting sweet-snacking in women and men. Totals of 65 women and 64 men completed questionnaires assessing attitudes and behaviours towards eating sweet snacks. Women were more ambivalent towards eating sweet

SARAH C. GROGAN; RUSSELL BELL; MARK CONNER

1997-01-01

381

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP A Large Sample Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate possible gender differences in organizational leadership behavior, a diverse sample of North American male and female managers (n=1,800) matched for organization, management level, job function, and management experience were com- pared on 22 leadership behaviors and 3 effectiveness measures. Outcome measures were assessed using a 360-degree strategy in which each manager was evaluated by self, boss,

Robert I. Kabacoff

2010-01-01

382

Gender differences in mathematics performance: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Reviewers have consistently concluded that males perform better on mathematics tests than females do. To make a refined assessment of the magnitude of gender differences in mathematics performance, we performed a meta-analysis of 100 studies. They yielded 254 independent effect sizes, representing the testing of 3,175,188 Ss. Averaged over all effect sizes based on samples of the general population, d was -0.05, indicating that females outperformed males by only a negligible amount. For computation, d was -0.14 (the negative value indicating superior performance by females). For understanding of mathematical concepts, d was -0.03; for complex problem solving, d was 0.08. An examination of age trends indicated that girls showed a slight superiority in computation in elementary school and middle school. There were no gender differences in problem solving in elementary or middle school; differences favoring men emerged in high school (d = 0.29) and in college (d = 0.32). Gender differences were smallest and actually favored females in samples of the general population, grew larger with increasingly selective samples, and were largest for highly selected samples and samples of highly precocious persons. The magnitude of the gender difference has declined over the years; for studies published in 1973 or earlier d was 0.31, whereas it was 0.14 for studies published in 1974 or later. We conclude that gender differences in mathematics performance are small. Nonetheless, the lower performance of women in problem solving that is evident in high school requires attention. PMID:2138794

Hyde, J S; Fennema, E; Lamon, S J

1990-03-01

383

Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury.

Hazelhoff, Maria H.; Bulacio, Romina P.; Torres, Adriana M.

2012-01-01

384

Gender related differences in kidney injury induced by mercury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl(2) since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl(2) (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl(2) induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl(2) treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl(2) administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl(2)-induced renal injury. PMID:22949877

Hazelhoff, María H; Bulacio, Romina P; Torres, Adriana M

2012-08-22

385

Gender differences in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitivity in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Gender-related differential sensitivity to ethanol has long been recognized. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the zebrafish, an animal model used currently to study genetics and development related to a variety of human diseases, is also sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Sensitivity to ethanol in the zebrafish can be easily gauged with a simple nonintrusive behavioral test that measures ethanol-related alterations in schooling by determining the distance between each fish and its nearest neighbor. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of gender on the strain-specific ethanol sensitivity that we had observed previously. One hundred and sixty zebrafish of the wild-type (WT) and the long fin striped (LFS) strains were equally divided by gender for use in this study. For acute ethanol treatment, the fish were separated by gender and strain and exposed to 0.0, 0.125, 0.25 0.50, or 1.0% (vol/vol) ethanol. In the chronic study, eight fish of each strain and gender were exposed to 0.5% (vol/vol) ethanol for a period of 10 weeks and the swimming behavior tested before treatment and after each week of treatment. Results showed that female WT zebrafish displayed enhanced sensitivity to the effects of chronic ethanol exposure of increased nearest neighbor distances, whereas male and female LFS fish were not significantly affected by chronic ethanol exposure. Results of the acute ethanol study showed a dose-dependent effect in both strains and a gender effect that needs to be further investigated before enhanced female sensitivity to acute ethanol can be verified. PMID:20880661

Dlugos, Cynthia A; Brown, Shereene J; Rabin, Richard A

2010-09-29

386

Gender Differences in the Functional Recovery after Acute Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose PurposezzInterest in gender differences in the effects of acute stroke is growing worldwide. However, gender differences in functional recovery after acute stroke in the Korean population have yet to be evaluated. The aim of this investigation was to compare long-term functional outcomes between male and female after acute stroke. Methods Patients with acute stroke were enrolled prospectively between January 2005 and January 2009. Baseline characteristics, risk factors, stroke subtypes, time delay from onset to arrival at a hospital, active treatment, and stroke severity were compared between male and female. Differences in mortality and disability at discharge, and at 3 months and 1 year after stroke onset were also investigated. Functional disabilities were categorized into two groups: good outcome (score on modified Rankin scale ?2) and poor outcome (score on modified Rankin scale >2). Results Among 1,055 patients with acute stroke, 575 were male (aged 64.83±11.98 years, mean±SD) and 480 were female (aged 70.09±13.02 years). There were no gender differences in mortality at 3 months and 1 year after stroke. The frequency of poor outcomes was higher in female patients than in male patients at discharge (39.8% versus 30.9%, respectively; p=0.003), the 3 months follow-up (32.3% versus 20.8%, respectively; p<0.001), and the 1 year follow-up (31.1% versus 18.7%, respectively; p=0.001). After adjusting for multiple confounding factors including age and stroke severity, the female gender persisted as a predictor of poor functional outcome at 3 months and 1 year after stroke. Conclusions Female patients have greater difficulty than male patients in recovering from a disabled state after acute stroke. Future studies should investigate the causes of this gender difference.

Kim, Ji-Sun; Roh, Hakjae; Ahn, Moo-Young; Hwang, Hye-Won

2010-01-01

387

Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria When Selecting a College  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the selection process. Student gender differences were financial aid, security, academics, friendly atmosphere

Phylis M. Mansfield; Jacquelyn Warwick

2006-01-01

388

Gender differences in symptom presentation associated with coronary heart disease.  

PubMed

This study explores gender differences in symptom presentation associated with coronary heart disease (CHD). In this prospective study, nurse data collectors directly observed 550 patients as they presented to the Emergency Department (ED) of Yale-New Haven Hospital. The final sample included 217 patients (41% women) diagnosed with CHD (acute coronary ischemia or myocardial infarction). Chest pain was the most frequently reported symptom in women (70%) and men (71%). Unadjusted analyses revealed that women were more likely than men to present with midback pain (odds ratio [OR] 9.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.10 to 44.11, p = 0.001), nausea and/or vomiting (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19 to 4.42, p = 0.012), dyspnea (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.16, p = 0.032), palpitations (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.02 to 11.47, p = 0.036), and indigestion (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.44, p = 0.040). After adjustment for age and diabetes, women were more likely to present with nausea and/or vomiting (OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.23 to 4.79, p = 0.011) and indigestion (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.10 to 4.53, p = 0.048). Women (30%) and men (29%) were equally likely to present without chest pain, and dyspnea was the most common non-chest pain symptom. In the subgroup of patients without chest pain, unadjusted analyses revealed that women were more likely to report nausea and/or vomiting compared with men (OR 4.40, 95% CI 1.30 to 14.84, p = 0.013). Although we found some significant gender differences in non-chest pain symptoms, we conclude that there were more similarities than differences in symptoms in women and men presenting to the ED with symptoms suggestive of CHD who were later diagnosed with CHD. PMID:10468075

Milner, K A; Funk, M; Richards, S; Wilmes, R M; Vaccarino, V; Krumholz, H M

1999-08-15

389

Gender differences in the incentive salience of adult and infant faces.  

PubMed

Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces--heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been observed in sensitivity to infant cuteness, infant faces appear to hold equal incentive salience among men and women. In the present study, we investigated the incentive salience of attractiveness and cuteness in adult and infant faces, respectively. We predicted that, given alternative viewing options, gender differences would emerge for motivation to view infant faces. Heterosexual participants completed a "pay-per-view" key-press task, which allowed them to control stimulus duration. Gender differences were found such that infants held greater incentive salience among women, although both sexes differentiated infant faces based on cuteness. Among adult faces, men exerted more effort than women to view opposite-sex faces. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous reports, gender differences do exist in the incentive salience of infant faces as well as opposite-sex faces. PMID:22928658

Hahn, Amanda C; Xiao, Dengke; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Perrett, David I

2012-08-29

390

Gender differences in giving blood: a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background An overview of European blood donors shows that the distribution of men and women donors is similar in many countries, with Italy being an exception in that women account for only 30% of donors. Gender medicine is a key issue in this context, even though gender studies are very limited in the transfusion field, whether considered broadly or with specific regards to the selection, management and retention of donors. It, therefore, seemed important to compare the presence of women among blood donors in different European countries and examine the roles that gender is reported to play in the donation of blood in order to identify possible implications for communication with and management of the donor. Methods To determine the proportion of women among donors in European countries, data were collected from annual reports or documents available on the websites of national associations; furthermore, all papers related to giving blood published in the five main journals in the sector (Transfusion, Vox Sanguinis, Transfusion and Apheresis Science, Transfusion Medicine, Blood Transfusion) were considered; about 80 publications were selected and the gender variable was examined. Results The published studies showed that gender plays key roles in the motivation to give blood (women being more altruistic, men being more individualistic) and in adverse reactions, which was a particularly critical problem leading to fewer women become regular donors. A few aspects specific to the management of donors in Italy also emerged. Discussion Gender seems to play an important role in the aspects studied and does, therefore, merit further consideration in relation to strategies to recruit donors and the management of critical events during donation.

Bani, Marco; Giussani, Barbara

2010-01-01

391

Gender differences in affective responses to sexual rejection.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: (1) Are affective responses to sexual rejection different for men and women? (2) Do positive emotions to sexual rejection occur and how do they balance with negative emotions? (3) How can gender differences in affective responses to sexual rejection be explained? A sample of 67 men and 65 women (age 18-30 years) completed a questionnaire in which they rated their affective responses to a hypothetical situation of sexual rejection. Analyses of variance revealed gender differences: men anticipated a less negative and more positive affective response to sexual rejection than women did. Men also reported they would experience a more positive than negative affective response after supposedly being sexually rejected. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that differences between men and women were mediated by the respondents' expectations in the stimulus situation, their interest in casual sex, and their masculinity. PMID:15162085

de Graaf, Hanneke; Sandfort, Theo G M

2004-08-01

392

Gender and situational differences in children's smiles, touch, and proxemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that gender differences in nonverbal behaviors which are often considered to be affiliative may represent systematic differences between males and females in self-presentation. Smiling, touching, and interpersonal distance were studied with 256 White adolescents and preadolescents, who were randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs. Self-presentation was made more salient by asking each subject pair to pose for

Phyllis W. Berman; Vicki L. Smith

1984-01-01

393

Gender Differences in Virtual Negotiation: Theory and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social roles create conflicting behavioral expectations for female negotiators; however, virtual negotiations reduce social\\u000a pressures. This paper reviews theoretical explanations on why men and women might differ in negotiations that occur through\\u000a email, telephone, or video. Forty-three negotiation studies comparing face-to-face and virtual negotiations were examined\\u000a for gender differences. All studies were reported in English but not limited to US

Alice F. Stuhlmacher; Maryalice Citera; Toni Willis

2007-01-01

394

Generational Differences in Gender Attitudes Between Parents and Grown Offspring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined generational differences in gender attitudes between parents and grown offspring, including the extent\\u000a to which these differences vary in families with daughters vs families with sons and in African American vs European American\\u000a families. Participants included 158 African American and European American men and women (aged 22 to 49 years), their mothers,\\u000a and their fathers (N?=?474) recruited predominantly

Kelly E. Cichy; Eva S. Lefkowitz; Karen L. Fingerman

2007-01-01

395

Perceptions of emotion expressiveness: gender differences among senior executives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Folk theory and empirical studies generally indicate that women tend to be somewhat more expressive than men. The present study seeks to determine whether there are gender-related emotion-expressiveness differences among senior executives and to explore the extent to which there are emotion expressiveness differences by organizational position. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The levels of self-reported expressiveness among senior organizational leaders

Jamie L. Callahan; Michael G. Hasler; Homer Tolson

2005-01-01

396

Gender Differences in Temperament: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mean level and variability of 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament in children ages 3 months to 13 years. Effortful control showed a large difference favoring girls and the dimensions within that factor (e.g., inhibitory control: d = ?0.41, perceptual sensitivity: d = ?0.38) showed moderate

Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet Shibley Hyde; H. Hill Goldsmith; Carol A. Van Hulle

2006-01-01

397

Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

Sonnert, Gerhard

2004-03-01

398

Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression: Gender-Typed Characteristics or Problem-Solving Skills Deficits?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored gender differences indepressive symptoms during adolescence in relation withgender-typed characteristics, problem-solving abilities,and stressful life events. Participants were 306 white French-speaking adolescents (142 men and164 women) from upper middle-class families enrolled ina high school in the Trois-Rivières area ofQuebec. Participants ranged in age from 14 to 17 years, with a mean age of 15.3 years (SD = .95).

Diane Marcotte; Michel Alain; Marie-Josee Gosselin

1999-01-01

399

Differences Between and Within Genders in Gender Role Orientation According to Age and Level of Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyses the masculinity and femininity in a Spanish sample made up of 164 adult workers (88 men and 76 women).\\u000a To be specific, the objective was to demonstrate whether age and level of education were related to differences in masculinity\\u000a and femininity, both when comparing between the two genders and when the comparisons are made within the same

Antonia Calvo-Salguero; José Miguel Ángel García-Martínez; Adelaida Monteoliva

2008-01-01

400

Gender differences in pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment.  

PubMed

Gender differences in pathological gambling disorder (PGD) have received little investigation. This study was constructed to detail the demographic and phenomenological differences in men and women with PGD. We assessed gender differences in 131 subjects with PGD who were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical features of PGD, and treatment history. Seventy-eight (60%) subjects were women, and 53 (40%) were men. Men had an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, while women progressed to pathological gambling sooner after beginning to gamble. In terms of gambling behavior, men were more likely to engage in blackjack, cards, sporting events, and the track, whereas women played slot machines and bingo. Women reported that loneliness was the major trigger to gambling, while men were more likely to gamble secondary to sensory stimuli. Although men were as likely as women to have filed bankruptcy because of gambling, women were more likely to have written bad checks and men were more likely to have lost significant savings. Both groups were equally likely to seek treatment, but Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and outpatient therapy were reported equally ineffective in reducing gambling symptoms. There appear to be some gender differences in the clinical features of PGD, and these differences may have treatment implications. PMID:11788920

Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

401

Recovery in involuntary psychiatric care: Is there a gender difference?  

PubMed

Background: Research on recovery from mental illness and the influence of compulsory psychiatric institutional care has revealed the complexity of this concept. There is also limited knowledge regarding the impact of gender-role expectations in these contexts, and how such expectations may influence both the care and individuals' recovery processes. Aim: To explore women's and men's perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care on recovery from severe mental illness. Method: Grounded theory was used to analyse 30 first-person accounts of recovery from mental illness, elicited via interviews with individuals who had been compulsorily treated in hospital and diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Results: Inpatient care at an early stage was crucial for the informants' recovery. However, there was ambivalence in their perceptions of the impact of compulsory inpatient care. The narratives confirmed gender differences as well as gender stereotypes. Conclusions: The results have implications for recovery research, in that they emphasise the importance of understanding recovery as a gender-influenced process. PMID:24020851

Schön, Ulla-Karin

2013-10-01

402

Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

2006-09-01

403

Sex Differences During the Early Separation-Individuation Process: Implications for Gender Identity Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations made in a nursery setting of 22 infants 9 to 12 months old suggest that girls become aware of psychological separateness earlier than do boys. The nature of the infant's means of coping, the relation to mother and to play objects, and maternal handling differences are also reported. Implications for gender identity formation are discussed.

Wendy Olesker

1990-01-01

404

Phenotypical evidence for a gender difference in cardiac norepinephrine transporter function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Norepinephrine transporter (NET) function has a central ,role in the ,regulation of synaptic norepinephrine concentrations. Clinical observations in orthostatic intolerance patients suggest a gender difference in NET function. We compared the cardiovascular response to selective NET inhibition with reboxetine between ,12 healthy men and 12 age-matched women. Finger blood pressure, brachial blood pressure, and heart rate were measured. The

Christoph Schroeder; Frauke Adams; Michael Boschmann; Jens Tank; Sebastian Haertter; Andre Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Friedrich C. Luft; Jens Jordan

2004-01-01

405

Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

2009-01-01

406

Gender Differences in the Object-Oriented Play of Preschoolers with Cognitive Delays.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of gender differences in the observed play of 30 preschool children with cognitive delays found that, overall, boys engaged in more functional play and were more sophisticated when playing with a vehicle toy set whereas girls engaged in more constructive play and demonstrated greater sophistication with respect to doll toys. (Author/DB)

Malone, D. Michael; Langone, John

1995-01-01

407

Sex Differences in Referral Rates of Children with Gender Identity Disorder: Some Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 1978 through 1995, a sex ratio of 6.6:1 of boys to girls (N = 275) was observed for children referred to a specialty clinic for gender identity disorder. This article attempts to evaluate several hypotheses regarding the marked sex disparity in referral rates. The sexes did not differ on four demographic variables (age at referral, IQ, and parent's social

Kenneth J. Zucker; Susan J. Bradley; Mohammad Sanikhani

1997-01-01

408

Gender differences in involuntary job loss and the reemployment experience : Less there than meets the eye  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The study seeks to compare the experiences of job loss and reemployment experiences among female and male higher level managers and professionals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper compares data collected at two periods in time from (n=120) females and (n=184) males who completed two self-report questionnaires. Findings – Relatively few gender differences were observed in the present study. The

Jelena Zikic; Ronald J. Burke; Lisa Fiksenbaum

2008-01-01

409

Gender differences in psychosocial risk factors among Slovenian adolescents.  

PubMed

This study investigated psychosocial risk factors in adolescents and assessed gender differences in the frequency of their occurrence. A specially designed questionnaire, which included validated scales for the evaluation of depression (Zung Self-rating Depression Scale) and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale), was administered to a representative sample of Slovenian adolescents. The final sample consisted of 4,590 high school students of both sexes, aged 14 to 19 years. Data analysis revealed several significant gender differences. Girls more often than boys reported family conflict, personal problems, physical inactivity, attempts to control body weight, use of psychoactive drugs, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Their level of depression was higher and self-esteem lower when compared with their male counterparts. Boys more often than girls indicated that they watched a great deal of television, were the victims of peer violence, and drank alcohol. PMID:11130589

Tomori, M; Zalar, B; Plesnicar, B K

2000-01-01

410

Gender and Ethnic Differences in Body Image and Opposite Sex Figure Preferences of Rural Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study examined whether rural adolescents would report gender and ethnic differences in body image similar to those that have been observed in urban samples. Data were analyzed for 384 rural adolescents (57% African American, 43% Caucasian, mean age 13 yr) to determine gender and ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction, body size discrepancy, and current and ideal figure ratings. Females wanted to be smaller and reported more body dissatisfaction than did males. Caucasian females reported the most body dissatisfaction. African Americans reported larger current and ideal figure ratings than did Caucasians. African Americans preferred larger opposite sex figures than did Caucasians. Both African American and Caucasian males selected a larger female figure as ideal than was selected by females. Results demonstrated that gender and ethnic differences exist in body image for rural adolescents. This frequently overlooked population may benefit from further study. Implications of findings and limitations of the study are also discussed.

Jones, LaShanda R.; Fries, Elizabeth; Danish, Steven J.

2007-01-01

411

Gender Differences in Leg Stiffness and Stiffness Recruitment Strategy During Two-Legged Hopping  

PubMed Central

The authors compared leg stiffness (KVERT), muscle activation, and joint movement patterns between 11 men and 10 women during hopping. Physically active and healthy men and women performed continuous 2-legged hopping at their preferred rate and at 3.0 Hz. Compared with men, women demonstrated decreased KVERT; however, after the authors normalized for body mass, gender differences in KVERT were eliminated. In comparison with men, women also demonstrated increased quadriceps and soleus activity, as well as greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratios. There were no significant gender differences for joint movement patterns (p > .05). The relationship between the observed gender differences in muscle recruitment and the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women requires further study.

Padua, Darin A.; Arnold, Brent L.; Carcia, Christopher R.; Granata, Kevin P.

2006-01-01

412

Gender differences in crack users who are research volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared gender differences in a non-treatment sample of crack cocaine users interested in participating in a research study on addiction. Data was collected from initial telephone screening interviews of women and men responding to cocaine research recruitment in a midwest urban environment over a two-year period. Female respondents (n = 88) were age- and race-matched with men interviewed

Susan A. Dudish; Dorothy K. Hatsukami

1996-01-01

413

Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine

Romuald Lepers; Paul J. Stapley

2010-01-01

414

Preadolescent gender differences in associations between temperament, coping and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between temperament, coping, depressive and aggressive mood in 8–12-year-old boys (n = 185) and girls (n = 219) were investigated, with a focus on gender differences. Children completed two self-report questionnaires: the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised and Children's Coping Strategies Checklist-Revised1. Comparing boys and girls on three temperament dimensions, positive affectivity, negative affectivity and effortful control, girls scored higher

Boo de G. M; M. Spiering

2010-01-01

415

Gender differences in glenoid anatomy: an anatomic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in glenoid anatomy have not been well studied in the current literature. Previous literature demonstrates\\u000a a mismatch between glenoid anatomy and glenoid implants for shoulder replacements. This may have clinical implications in\\u000a that glenoid loosening after shoulder arthroplasty has been cited as a frequent cause of poor performance of shoulder implants,\\u000a and perhaps the most common indication for

Andrea Merrill; Kara Guzman; Suzanne L. Miller

2009-01-01

416

Gender differences in Hong Kong adolescent consumers' green purchasing behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to examine how gender differs in environmental attitude, environmental concern, perceived seriousness of environmental problems, perceived environmental responsibility, peer influence, self identity in environmental protection and green purchasing behavior in Hong Kong adolescent consumers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A total of 6,010 (2,975 males and 3,035 females) adolescents in Hong Kong were recruited through multi-staged random sampling.

Kaman Lee

2009-01-01

417

Gender differences in cognitive abilities of reading-disabled twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences were assessed in three research-identified samples of children who were members of twin pairs: (1) 120\\u000a male and 124 female probands from same-sex identical and fraternal twin pairs in which at least one member of each pair is\\u000a reading disabled; (2) a comparison sample of 148 males and 161 females from same-sex twin pairs with no history of

J. C. DeFries; Sally J. Wadsworth; Jacquelyn J. Gillis

1990-01-01

418

Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension  

PubMed Central

Objectives Studies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish cultural gendered factors influencing employment decisions (e.g., expected work roles, family responsibilities) from sex-linked biological differences shaping physiological response to workplace physical hazards. Methods We examined effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims data for 14,618 white- and blue-collar aluminum manufacturing employees in eight U.S. states. To explore gender differences in job status, we developed sex-stratified propensity score models identifying key socioeconomic predictors of hourly status for men and women. To examine effects of hourly employment on hypertension risk, after adjusting for gender differences in job placement, we applied time-weighted logistic regression models, stratified by propensity score, with additional adjustment for socioeconomic confounders. Results Family structure (partnership, parity) influenced job status for both sexes; single mothers were more likely to hold hourly jobs (OR = 2.02 (95% CI = 1.37–2.97)), partnered men with children less likely (OR = 0.68 (0.56–0.83)). Education, age at hire, and race influenced job placement for both sexes. The effect of hourly status on hypertension was significant only among women predicted to be hourly (OR = 1.78 (1.34 – 2.35)). Conclusions Our results indicate significant risks of hypertension associated with hourly status for women, possibly exacerbated by sociodemographic factors predicting hourly status (e.g., single parenthood, low education). Greater attention to gender differences in job status, workplace stressors, and health risks associated with hourly work, is warranted.

Clougherty, Jane E.; Eisen, Ellen A.; Slade, Martin D.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Cullen, Mark R.

2013-01-01

419

Gender differences in object location memory: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of gender differences in object location memory tasks. A total\\u000a of 123 effect sizes (d ) drawn from 36 studies were included in a meta-analysis using a hierarchical approach. Object identity memory (37 effect\\u000a sizes) and object location memory (86 effect sizes) tasks were analyzed separately. Object identity memory

Daniel Voyer; Albert Postma; Brandy Brake; Julianne Imperato-McGinley

2007-01-01

420

Gender Differences in Presenting and Prodromal Stroke Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Prompt recognition of stroke symptoms is critical to timely treatment and women have increased delay to treatment. Women may be more likely to present with atypical symptoms, but this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated. Methods—We examined gender differences in the prevalence of presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms among 1107 consecutive patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed acute ischemic stroke.

Eileen M. Stuart-Shor; Gregory A. Wellenius; Donna M. DelloIacono; Murray A. Mittleman

2010-01-01

421

Gender differences in presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prompt recognition of stroke symptoms is critical to timely treatment and women have increased delay to treatment. Women may be more likely to present with atypical symptoms, but this hypothesis has not been extensively evaluated.\\u000aMETHODS: We examined gender differences in the prevalence of presenting and prodromal stroke symptoms among 1107 consecutive patients hospitalized with neurologist-confirmed acute

Eileen Stuart-Shor; Gregory A. Wellenius; Donna Dello Iacono; Murray A. Mittleman

2009-01-01

422

Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.  

PubMed

Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process. PMID:22651549

Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

2012-06-21

423

Gender-based differences in rats after chronic dietary exposure to genistein.  

PubMed

Gender-based differences can be observed from pharmacokinetic, behavioral, or anatomical assessments. No single assessment tool will provide a complete answer, but the use of a variety of indices, each with known gender-related outcome differences, can reveal agent-induced gender-based alterations. In a series of initial range-finding studies in rats conducted at the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR), the effects of dietary exposure to the weak estrogen, genistein, have been assessed using a number of techniques with validated gender-related outcome measures. The findings indicated that (1) the internal dose of genistein was higher in females than males after equivalent dietary exposure and this was consistent with the faster rate of genistein elimination in males; (2) in behavioral assessments, males and females in the high-dose dietary genistein group consumed more of a sodium-flavored solution; however, no genistein-related changes were observed in open field or running wheel activity, play behavior, or intake of a saccharin-flavored solution; and (3) dose-related alterations of the volume of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the medial preoptic area were observed in genistein-exposed male rats but not females. These observations describe the utility of a variety of gender-based assessment tools and indicate that dose-related effects of developmental and chronic dietary exposure to genistein can be observed in the rodent. Additional studies, perhaps in nonhuman primates, are necessary to further predict the effect(s) of genistein on human gender-based development. PMID:11488560

Slikker, W; Scallet, A C; Doerge, D R; Ferguson, S A

424

Gender Differences in Fatigue Associated With Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Fatigue is a symptom of acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, few studies have characterized the fatigue associated with AMI in men and women. METHODS The convenience sample included 88 men and 28 women admitted with a diagnosis of AMI at 6 Midwestern facilities. Data were collected upon hospital admission and 30 days after discharge. A total of 37 men and 10 women responded to the 30-day questionnaires. The Profile of Mood States Fatigue (POMS-F) subscale was used to measure fatigue and the Depression-Dejection subscale to measure depressed mood. RESULTS At baseline, significant gender differences were found, with women more likely to have higher POMS-F scores (15.80, SD = 7.33) than men (11.19, SD = 7.04, P = .004). Significant gender differences were also found at 30 days (t = 2.40, df = 45, P = .02). POMS-F scores for women were higher at baseline, with decreased fatigue levels 30 days after discharge (t = 5.36, df = 9, P ? .05). No differences were found in POMS-F scores for men (t = 1.26, df = 36, P = .213) between baseline and 30 days after discharge. Fatigue was associated with depressed mood and gender at baseline (R2 = 0.48, P < .05) and 30 days after discharge (R2 = 0.308, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS In this sample, fatigue at baseline and at 30 days after discharge was associated with gender and depressed mood. Women reported high levels of fatigue with AMI and lower fatigue after discharge. Men reported moderate to high fatigue levels, which did not change over time. Further research is needed to discern fatigue patterns before and after AMI.

Fennessy, Michelle M.; Fink, Anne M.; Eckhardt, Ann L.; Jones, Jessica; Kruse, Donna K.; VanderZwan, Kathryn J.; Ryan, Catherine J.; Zerwic, Julie Johnson

2010-01-01

425

Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352

Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

2012-07-01

426

What a difference difference makes: gendered harms and judicial diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking the UK Ministry of Justice's ongoing quest to ensure a more diverse judiciary as its starting point and backdrop, this paper establishes the House of Lords' decision in Secretary of State for the Home Department v. K (FC); Fornah (FC) v. Secretary of State for the Home Department [2006] as a lens through which to explore the ‘difference’ of

Erika Rackley

2008-01-01

427

He Hits, She HitsAssessing Gender Differences and Similarities in Officially Reported Intimate Partner Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the study of intimate partner violence (IPV), controversy exists over whether perpetration and victimization of domestic violence is gender specific (gendered). Some researchers maintain no or few gender differences in IPV offending and victimization, particularly at less severe levels. Others argue that IPV is highly gendered and perpetrated largely by men against their female partners and expartners. Using officially

Heather C. Melton; Joanne Belknap

2003-01-01

428

Age and gender differences in various topographical orientation strategies.  

PubMed

Orientation in the environment can draw on a variety of cognitive strategies. We asked 634 healthy volunteers to perform a comprehensive battery administered through an internet website (www.gettinglost.ca), testing different orientation strategies in virtual environments to determine the effect of age and gender upon these skills. Older participants (46-67years of age) performed worse than younger participants (18-30 or 31-45years of age) in all orientation skills assessed, including landmark recognition, integration of body-centered information, forming association between landmarks and body turns, and the formation and use of a cognitive map. Among all tests, however, the ability to form cognitive maps resulted to be the significant factor best at predicting the individuals' age group. Gender effects were stable across age and dissociated for task, with males better than females for cognitive map formation and use as well as for path reversal, an orientation task that does not require the processing of visual landmarks during navigation. We conclude that age-related declines in navigation are common across all orientation strategies and confirm gender-specific effects in different spatial domains. PMID:21803342

Liu, Irene; Levy, Richard M; Barton, Jason J S; Iaria, Giuseppe

2011-07-13

429

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-07-20

430

Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.  

PubMed

College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research. PMID:23393954

Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

2012-01-01

431

Gender differences in prison-based drug treatment participation.  

PubMed

Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed. PMID:21764764

Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A

2011-07-14

432

Gender Differences in Factors Associated with Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To identify gender differences in social and behavioral factors associated with antiretroviral adherence. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Methadone maintenance program. PARTICIPANTS One hundred thirteen HIV-seropositive current or former opioid users. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Participants were surveyed at baseline about social and behavioral characteristics and at monthly research visits about drug and alcohol use and medication side effects. Electronic monitors (MEMS) were used to measure antiretroviral adherence. Median adherence among women was 27% lower than among men (46% vs. 73%; P < .05). In gender-stratified multivariate models, factors associated with worse adherence in men included not belonging to an HIV support group (P < .0001), crack/cocaine use (P < .005), and medication side effects (P = .01). Among women, alcohol use (P = .005), heroin use (P < .05), and significant medication side effects (P < .005) were independently associated with worse adherence. In a model including both men and women, worse adherence was associated with lack of long-term housing (P < .005), not belonging to any HIV support groups (P < .0005), crack or cocaine use (P < .01), and medication side effects (P < .0005). In addition, worse adherence was associated with the interaction between female gender and alcohol use (P ? .05). CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of current and former opioid users, gender-stratified analysis demonstrated that different social and behavioral factors are associated with adherence in men and women. Among both men and women, worse adherence was associated with lack of long-term housing, not belonging to an HIV support group, crack/cocaine use, and medication side effects. Among women only, alcohol use was associated with worse adherence.

Berg, Karina M; Demas, Penelope A; Howard, Andrea A; Schoenbaum, Ellie E; Gourevitch, Marc N; Arnsten, Julia H

2004-01-01

433

Gender differences in preattentive processing of facial expressions: an ERP study.  

PubMed

To investigate gender differences in pre-attentive processing of facial expressions we recorded the expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) in the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm. For female participants, sad faces elicited larger EMMN than happy faces, but this difference disappeared in the left hemisphere. For male participants, EMMN was not modulated by facial expressions, regardless of in the left or right hemispheres. While the source analysis indicated that for both genders prefrontal activations were observed for sad EMMN, more sources were involved for male than female participants. For happy EMMN, the current sources were located in the occipital lobe and parietal lobe for females and the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe for males. The present findings emphasized the importance of considering gender as a factor in the study of the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. PMID:23371479

Xu, Qiang; Yang, Yaping; Wang, Pei; Sun, Gang; Zhao, Lun

2013-01-31

434

Gender Differences in the Human Cerebral Cortex: More Neurons in Males; More Processes in Females  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study's objective was to investigate morphometric gender differences of the cerebral cortex in six males and five females, 12 to 24 years old. Though human brains lack sexual dimorphism on routine neuropathologic examinations, gender-specific brain weight, functional, and morphologic differences exist, suggesting that cortical differences may be found. Yet the cerebral cortex may be exempt from gender differences, as

Theodore Rabinowicz; Dorothy E. Dean; Jean McDonald-Comber Petetot; Gabrielle M. de Courten-Myers

1999-01-01

435

An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women, including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance, resulted in comparable final course performance for women and men. These findings are discussed in light of participation rates of women in mathematics.

Watson, Jane M.

1989-02-01

436

Negative life events, social support and gender difference in depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To explore if differences in negative life events, vulnerability and social support may explain the gender difference in depression.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Cross-sectional, multinational, community survey from five European countries (n = 8,787). Depression is measured by Beck Depression Inventory, whereas negative life events and social support are measured\\u000a by various questionnaires.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Women report slightly more negative life events than men do, mainly

Odd Steffen Dalgard; Christopher Dowrick; Ville Lehtinen; Jose Luis Vazquez-Barquero; Patricia Casey; Greg Wilkinson; Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos; Helen Page; Graham Dunn

2006-01-01

437

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PARKINSON'S DISEASE: CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND COGNITION  

PubMed Central

More men than women are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD), and a number of gender differences have been documented in this disorder. Examples of clinical characteristics that appear in men more often than women include rigidity and rapid eye movement behavior disorder, whereas more women than men exhibit dyskinesias and depression. Differences between men and women in cognition have not been extensively examined, though there are reports of deficits in men in aspects of cognition that contribute to activities of daily living, in verbal fluency, and in the recognition of facial emotion, and deficits in women in visuospatial cognition. Side of disease onset may interact with gender to affect cognitive abilities. One possible source of male-female differences in the clinical and cognitive characteristics of PD is the effect of estrogen on dopaminergic neurons and pathways in the brain. This effect is not yet understood, as insight into how the fluctuation of estrogen over the lifetime affects the brain is currently limited. Further attention to this area of research will be important for accurate assessment and better management of PD. Attention should also be directed to multiple covariates that may affect clinical characteristics and cognition. Knowledge about differences in the presentation of PD symptoms in men and women and about the pathophysiology underlying those differences may enhance the accuracy and effectiveness of clinical assessment and treatment of the disease.

Miller, Ivy N.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

2010-01-01

438

Gender Differences in Confidence Levels, Group Interactions, and Feelings about Competition in an Introductory Robotics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom environment influences each student's educational experience. The aim of this classroom evaluation was to gain a better understanding of how each gender functions in an introductory robotics class, where LEGOs and ROBOLAB were used as a tool to teach engineering principles and basic robotics concepts. A better understanding of how each gender performs in reaction to the classroom setup will hopefully lead to the development of a learning environment that is mutually beneficial to each gender. The course, a general freshman introduction to engineering, targeted for this evaluation required students to complete robotic challenges while working within groups and participating in design competitions. The present evaluation explored gender differences in self-confidence levels related to robotic tasks, feelings toward competitions as a component of the course, and differences in the way males and females interact within groups. Assessment was conducted through interviews, observations, and written questionnaires. Competency in robotics activities was found to be similar although males were found to be more confident of their own abilities. Both genders felt the competitions were enjoyable and integral to the atmosphere of the class. Males in the class took the competitions more seriously than did the females. Building and programming robots were thought to be their greatest areas of learning by the women. Males, on the other hand, cited working in groups and learning to compromise as the areas where they made the greatest improvements.

Portsmore, Merredith; Rogers, Chris; Milto, Elissa

2010-02-19

439

Does widowhood explain gender differences in out-of-pocket medical spending among the elderly?  

PubMed

Despite the presence of Medicare, out-of-pocket medical spending is a large expenditure risk facing the elderly. While women live longer than men, elderly women incur higher out-of-pocket medical spending than men at each age. In this paper, we examine whether differences in marital status and living arrangements can explain this difference. We find that out-of-pocket medical spending is approximately 24 percent higher when an individual becomes widowed, a large portion of which is spending on nursing homes. Our results suggest a substantial role of living arrangements in out-of-pocket medical spending. Our estimates combined with differences in rates of widowhood across gender suggest that marital status can explain about one third of the gender difference in total out-of-pocket medical spending, leaving a large portion unexplained. On the other hand, gender differences in widowhood more than explain the observed gender difference in out-of-pocket spending on nursing homes. PMID:23477686

Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

2012-11-12

440

Gender differences in memory for object and word locations.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that gender differences in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) are larger in tasks requiring active elaboration of the material. In the present study we explored this issue by using an object relocation task, with both verbal and visual stimuli. The involvement of active processes was manipulated through the type of transformation required on the stimulus and through the introduction of different kinds of interference. In the three experiments reported, participants were shown either words or cartoon object icons in different locations and had to relocate them in either the same format or in the opposite one (object icons could be transformed into words and vice versa). Males outperformed females in the most demanding conditions, in which object icons and words were presented together in the encoding phase, and both had to be transformed in the recall phase; or when more demanding interferences were used. Our data suggest that the retention strategy was similar for the two groups and that the gender effect is related to a selective female difficulty associated with the increase in active VSWM processing. These findings further support the hypothesized distinction between the passive and active components of VSWM and illustrate the role that this distinction might play in accounting for individual differences. PMID:16608754

Cattaneo, Zaira; Postma, Albert; Vecchi, Tomaso

2006-05-01

441

Gender differences in the ratio between humerus width and length are established prior to puberty  

PubMed Central

Summary On a sample of 1,317 children aged 9.9 years we developed a novel method of measuring humeral dimensions from total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans and showed that gender differences in the ratio between humeral width and length are established prior to puberty. Introduction It is recognised that long bone cross-sectional area is greater in males compared to females, which is thought to reflect more rapid periosteal bone growth in boys. However, it is currently unclear whether these findings reflect gender differences in bone size or shape. In the present study, we investigated whether gender differences exist in the balance between longitudinal and periosteal long bone growth in children, leading to gender differences in bone shape, based on a novel method for evaluating shape of the humerus. We also examined whether these differences are established prior to puberty. Methods Length, area and width of the humerus were estimated from total body DXA scans in 1,317 children aged 9.9?±?0.33 years, who had participated in a nested case-control study of fractures within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (a geographically based birth cohort based in South West England). No differences were observed with respect to parameters of humeral geometry according to fracture history, and so both groups were pooled for further analysis. Aspect ratio (AR) of the humerus was calculated as humeral width divided by length. Total body height and weight were measured at the same time as the DXA scan. Puberty was assessed using self-completion questionnaires. Results Humeral width and length were positively associated with age and height in boys and girls combined (P?gender differences in humeral shape according to pubertal stage. In prepubertal children (i.e. Tanner stage 1), humeral length was similar in boys and girls, but width (1.92 vs 1.88 cm, P?gender differences were observed in early pubertal children (i.e. Tanner stage 2). Conclusion We conclude that the greater periosteal diameter of boys compared to girls reflects differences in the balance between longitudinal and periosteal bone growth. Interestingly, resulting gender differences in humeral AR are established in prepubertal children.

Clark, E. M.; Ness, A. R.

2006-01-01

442

Gender differences in physical activity in older children and adolescents: the central role of organized sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have generally had limited success in accounting for gender differences in leisure time physical activity. Based on a representative national survey of 3270 Icelandic 6th, 8th and 10th grade students, the study found that girls’ lower enrollment in organized sport clubs fully accounts for gender differences in frequency of overall physical activity, and largely accounts for gender differences

Runar Vilhjalmsson; Gudrun Kristjansdottir

2003-01-01

443

Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas

Antonio Terracciano; Robert R. McCrae

2001-01-01

444

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few

Mark Weiser; Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Zeev Kaplan; Mordechai Mark; Daniella Nahon; Michael Davidson

2000-01-01

445

Delayed auditory feedback effects during reading and conversation tasks: Gender differences in fluent adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) impacts the speech fluency of normally fluent males more than that of normally fluent females. Understanding this gender difference may contribute to our understanding of gender differences in the prevalence of developmental stuttering. To characterize this gender difference in fluent people, DAF-induced dysfluency was measured in 20 male and 21 female young adults during oral reading

David M. Corey; Vishnu Anand Cuddapah

2008-01-01

446

Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we meta-analytically examine experimental studies to assess the moderating effect of provocation on gender differences in aggression, Convergent evidence shows that, whereas unpro- voked men are more aggressive than women, provocation markedly attenuates this gender difference. Gender differences in appraisals of provocation intensity and fear of danger from retaliation (but not negative affect) partially mediate the attenuating

B. Ann Bettencourt; Norman Miller

1996-01-01

447

Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using

Kateri McRae; Kevin N. Ochsner; Iris B. Mauss; John J. D. Gabrieli; James J. Gross

2008-01-01

448

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

449

Behavioral and Physiological Findings of Gender Differences in Global-Local Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are gender differences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies gender differences in cognition, the literature on gender differences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during…

Roalf, David; Lowery, Natasha; Turetsky, Bruce I.

2006-01-01

450

Gender Differences in Science Achievement, Science Self-concept, and Science Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates gender differences in science achievement, self-concept of science ability, and subjective science values, based on TIMSS 1999 and 2003 database. The sample in the analyses presented including 5772 (TIMSS 1999) and 5739 (TIMSS 2003) Taiwanese eighth graders. All statistics showed that gender differences became smaller over time. However, the gender differences in the upper and lower levels

Yuwen Chang

2008-01-01

451

Gender differences in treatment response to sertraline versus imipramine in patients with nonmelancholic depressive disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence of gender differences in depressive disorders in terms of epidemiology and clinical manifestations. However, few studies have addressed the gender differences in terms of antidepressant treatment response in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in the acute antidepressant response to sertraline and imipramine in nonmelancholic depressive disorders. A total of 239

Enrique Baca; Margarida Garcia-Garcia; Alberto Porras-Chavarino

2004-01-01

452

Gender differences in colorectal cancer screening and incidence in large nationwide, population-based cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. A few studies have reported gender differences along the colorectal cancer (CRC) continuum but none has done so longitudinally to compare a cancer and a non-cancer populations.^ Objectives and Methods. To examine gender differences in colorectal cancer screening (CRCS); to examine trends in gender differences in CRC screening among two groups of patients (Medicare beneficiaries with and without cancer);

Peter Nathaniel Abotchie

2010-01-01

453

Gender Differences in Smoking Behaviors in an Asian Population  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. Methods In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. Results The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Conclusions Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates.

Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N.

2008-01-01

454

Same-Gender versus Cross-Gender Friendship Conceptions: Similar or Different?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared same- and cross-gender friendship conceptions and explored the cross-gender friendship experiences of 174 students in grades 3, 6, 9, and 12. Preliminary information about the nature and extent of cross-gender friendship experiences is presented. Variability in responses to questions about beliefs and expectations in both same- and cross-gender friendships was examined to investigate three theoretically derived hypotheses:

Patricia. McDougall; Shelley. Hymel

2007-01-01

455

Gender Differences in Domain-Specific Self-Esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analysis examines gender differences in 10 specific domains of self-esteem across 115 studies, including 428 effect sizes and 32,486 individuals. In a mixed-effects analysis, men scored significantly higher than women on physical appearance (d 0.35), athletic (d 0.41), personal self (d 0.28), and self-satisfaction self-esteem (d 0.33). Women scored higher than men on behavioral conduct (d 0.17) and moral-ethical

Brittany Gentile; Shelly Grabe; Brenda Dolan-Pascoe; Jean M. Twenge; Brooke E. Wells

2009-01-01

456

Gender differences in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether there are differences between men and women patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and, if\\u000a so, to ascertain whether a gender-related pattern exists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: A descriptive study of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial measures, the results of which were prospectively collected\\u000a for patients who had CFS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: A university-based referral clinic devoted to the evaluation and

Dedra Buchwald; Tsilke Pearlman; Phalla Kith; Karen Schmaling

1994-01-01

457

An observational study of delivered and received aggression, gender, and social-psychological adjustment in preschool: “This White Crayon Doesn’t Work …”  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-structured observational study investigated gender differences in delivered and received relational, physical, verbal, and nonverbal aggression in a young preschool sample (N=60). Findings revealed that gender differences in subtypes of aggression may be apparent as early as 3 years of age. Specifically, girls were found to deliver and receive more relational aggression than males, whereas boys tended, although not

Jamie M. Ostrov; Kathleen E. Woods; Elizabeth A. Jansen; Juan F. Casas; Nicki R. Crick

2004-01-01

458

Contributions of weight perceptions to weight loss attempts: differences by body mass index and gender.  

PubMed

Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample (n=899) to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

Lemon, Stephenie C; Rosal, Milagros C; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

2009-02-01

459

Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention.

Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

2009-01-01

460

Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

2010-01-01

461

Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

2006-01-01

462

Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

2010-01-01

463

Different Ways of ‘Seeing’: How Gender Differences in Information Processing Influence the Content Analysis of Narrative Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript examines the potential of bias in qualitative research due to coder gender. It reports a study of gender differences in coding by males and females based on a coding assignment involving written narratives completed by 18 males and 17 females. The study found gender differences in their coding the presence\\/absence of 10 themes related to gift exchanges and

Pamela Kiecker; Kay M. Palan; Charles S. Areni

2000-01-01

464

Cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation: relation to depression.  

PubMed

In the last decade, studies have shown that the use of specific emotion regulation strategies contributes to an increased risk for depression. Past research, however, has overlooked potential cultural and gender differences in emotion regulation. The present study examined the relation between the use of emotion regulation strategies and depressive symptoms among college students in two different cultures (n=380 in Seoul, Korea; n=384 in Miami, USA). Koreans, compared with American students, reported more frequent use of brooding, whereas Americans reported more anger suppression than Koreans. Women were more likely than men to use both types of rumination (i.e., reflective pondering and brooding) and anger suppression in both countries, but these gender differences disappeared once levels of depressive symptoms were controlled for. In addition, the association between the use of reappraisal and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the Korean compared to the US sample. In contrast, the association between anger suppression and depressive symptoms was significantly stronger in the American compared to the Korean sample. These findings highlight the importance of considering the role of culture in emotion regulation. PMID:23805826

Kwon, Hoin; Yoon, K Lira; Joormann, Jutta; Kwon, Jung-Hye

2013-05-13

465

Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.  

PubMed

Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

1994-01-01

466

Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students  

PubMed Central

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes.

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-01-01

467

Gender differences in financial hardships of medical debt.  

PubMed

Women are more likely than men to forgo, delay, and ration medical care because of medical debt. Using 2003-04 Community Tracking Study Household Survey data, this study examined gender differences in five financial hardships associated with medical debt. Regression analyses accounting for predisposing, enabling, and need factors of health services use indicated women were less likely to report being contacted by a collection agency (b=-0.15, p<.05), using savings (b=-0.23, p<.005), or having any financial hardships associated with medical debt (b=-0.24, p<.05). There were no significant gender differences in putting off major purchases, borrowing money, and problems paying for necessities. Similarly, there were positive and negative relationships between medical debt financial hardships and income, insurance, and health status. Findings suggest that making health care affordable and equitable is critically important for both men and women. Research is needed to understand the differential impact of medical debt, especially among disadvantaged populations. PMID:21317529

Wiltshire, Jacqueline C; Dark, Tyra; Brown, Roger L; Person, Sharina D

2011-02-01

468

Gender differences in perception of romance in chinese college students.  

PubMed

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-10-16

469

Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES) of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

Amelina, Hanna; Cristobal, Susana

2009-01-01

470

Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

2011-01-01

471

Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

Moe, Angelica

2012-01-01

472

Are gender differences in colorectal cancer screening rates due to differences in self-reporting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveStudies have found that women are less likely than men to undergo colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. While one source of these disparities may be gender differences in barriers and facilitators to screening, another may be differences in reporting bias.

Joan M. Griffin; Diana Burgess; Sally W. Vernon; Greta Friedemann-Sanchez; Adam Powell; Michelle van Ryn; Krysten Halek; Siamak Noorbaloochi; Joe Grill; Hanna Bloomfield; Melissa Partin

2009-01-01

473

Gender differences in creative thinking revisited: Findings from analysis of variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated gender differences in creativity among 985 schoolchildren (499 boys, 486 girls) by analyzing both means and variability. A relatively new creativity test, the Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP), was employed to gain a more refined understanding of gender differences in creativity using a gestalt approach. Whereas the results of analyses of means generally supported the Gender

Wu-jing He; Wan-chi Wong

2011-01-01

474

Gender similarities and differences in 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGender is a critically important moderator of psychopathology. However, gender similarities and differences in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have received scant investigation. In this study, we examined gender similarities and differences in the broadest sample in which this topic has been examined.

Katharine A. Phillips; William Menard; Christina Fay

2006-01-01

475

International Students in a College Writing Class: Cultural and Gender Differences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines the degree to which gender differences manifest themselves in a literature class for international students. Results of the study about gender differences in writing assignments in a multicultural classroom are explored as they relate to the gender preferences in reading materials. (Author/VWL)|

Wright, Carolyn S.

2002-01-01

476

Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

2010-01-01

477

Gender differences in health: a Canadian study of the psychosocial, structural and behavioural determinants of health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender-based inequalities in health have been frequently documented. This paper examines the extent to which these inequalities reflect the different social experiences and conditions of men's and women's lives. We address four specific questions. Are there gender differences in mental and physical health? What is the relative importance of the structural, behavioural and psychosocial determinants of health? Are the gender

Margaret Denton; Steven Prus; Vivienne Walters

2004-01-01

478

A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2010-01-01

479

Gender differences in competitiveness and risk taking: Comparing children in Colombia and Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore gender differences in preferences for competition and risk among children aged 9–12 in Colombia and Sweden, two countries differing in gender equality according to macro indices. We include four types of tasks that vary in gender stereotyping when looking at competitiveness: running, skipping rope, math and word search. We find that boys and girls are equally competitive in

Juan-Camilo Cárdenas; Anna Dreber; Emma von Essen; Eva Ranehill

2010-01-01

480

Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

2005-01-01

481

Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

2008-01-01

482

Children's perceptions of gender differences in social approval for playing electronic games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences characterize children's commitment to playing electronic games. These gender differences are consistent with common stereotypes that may be triggered by the context and content of electronic games. If conforming to gender stereotypes in electronic game playing maintains social approval, then those children who choose alternate playing patterns risk social sanction. The present study was designed to characterize children's

Jeanne B. Funk; Debra D. Buchman

1996-01-01

483

Social Comparison, Self-Stereotyping, and Gender Differences in Self-Construals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies examined gender differences in self-construals and the role of social comparison in generating these differences. Consistent with previous research, Study 1 (N = 461) showed that women define themselves as higher in relational interdependence than men, and men define themselves as higher in independence\\/agency than women. Study 2 (N = 301) showed that within-gender social comparison decreases gender

Serge Guimond; Armand Chatard; Delphine Martinot; Richard J. Crisp; Sandrine Redersdorff

2006-01-01

484

Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze pharmacological interactions among drugs taken by elderly patients and their age and gender differences in a population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database provided by the Institute of Geriatric and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The database was composed of 438 elderly and includes information about the patients' disease, therapy regimens, utilized drugs. All drugs reported by the elderly patients were classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification System. The drug-drug interactions and their severity were assessed using the Micromedex® Healthcare Series. RESULTS: Of the 438 elderly patients in the data base, 376 (85.8%) used pharmacotherapy, 274 were female, and 90.4% of females used drugs. The average number of drugs used by each individual younger than 80 years was 3.2±2.6. Women younger than 80 years old used more drugs than men in the same age group whereas men older than 80 years increased their use of drugs in relation to other age groups. Therefore, 32.6% of men and 49.2% of women described at least one interaction, and 8.1% of men and 10.6% of women described four or more potential drug-drug interactions. Two-thirds of drug-drug interactions were moderate in both genders, and most of them involved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, loop and thiazide diuretics, and ?-blockers. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients should be closely monitored, based on drug class, gender, age group and nutritional status.

Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luisa Scheer; de Araujo Zago, Luisa Faria; Schroeter, Guilherme; Gomes, Irenio; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

2011-01-01

485

Brain Switches Utilitarian Behavior: Does Gender Make the Difference?  

PubMed Central

Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p?=?.007). In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p?=?.005). In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001) but not after anodal (p?=?.735) VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes.

Fumagalli, Manuela; Vergari, Maurizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Marceglia, Sara; Mameli, Francesca; Ferrucci, Roberta; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Zago, Stefano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Barbieri, Sergio; Cappa, Stefano; Priori, Alberto

2010-01-01

486

Sex/Gender differences in tooth loss and edentulism: historical perspectives, biological factors, and sociologic reasons.  

PubMed

This review highlights what is known regarding differences in tooth loss by sex/gender, and describes: gender-related tooth ablation (the deliberate removal of anterior teeth during life) found in skulls from history and prehistory; potential mediators of the relationship between sex/gender and tooth loss; the current epidemiology of gender differences in tooth loss (limited to North America); and risk factors for tooth loss in the general population and in women. PMID:23570808

Russell, Stefanie L; Gordon, Sara; Lukacs, John R; Kaste, Linda M

2013-04-01

487

Gender Differences in Core Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although gender disparity in ASD has been long documented, research addressing gender related to core ASD symptomatology (e.g.,\\u000a domains, severity, breadth, etc.) is scant. The present research examined gender differences in ASD symptomatology in three\\u000a populations: infants and toddlers at risk for developmental disability, children and adolescents, and adults with intellectual\\u000a disability (ID). No significant gender differences in ASD symptoms

Tessa Taylor Rivet; Johnny L. Matson

488

Kinematic differences between gender specific and traditional knee implants.  

PubMed

In the ongoing debate about gender-specific (GS) vs. traditional knee implants, there is limited information about patella-specific outcomes. GS femoral component features should provide better patellar tracking, but techniques have not existed previously to test this accurately. Using novel computed tomography and radiography imaging protocols, 15 GS knees were compared to 10 traditional knees, for the 6 degrees of freedom of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints throughout the range of motion, plus other geometric measures and quality of life (QOL). Significant differences were found for patellar medial/lateral shift, where the patella was shifted more laterally for the GS femoral component. Neither group demonstrated patellar maltracking. There were no other significant differences in this well-functioning group. PMID:23623459

Saevarsson, Stefan K; Sharma, Gulshan B; Ramm, Heiko; Lieck, Robert; Hutchison, Carol R; Werle, Jason; Matthiasdottir, Sigrun; Montgomery, Spencer J; Romeo, Carolina I; Zachow, Stefan; Anglin, Carolyn

2013-04-25

489

Size matters: community size, HIV stigma, & gender differences.  

PubMed

Conclusions regarding HIV stigma in rural areas are hampered by lack of agreement about rural classification. This investigation examined perceptions of HIV stigma among males and females with HIV/AIDS in metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural areas. Two-hundred people with HIV/AIDS completed a measure of perceived HIV stigma. Their county or town of residence was used to classify community size. Results indicated that community size was related to one aspect of perceived stigma, disclosure concerns, differently for men and women. Rural women reported more disclosure concerns than did metropolitan and micropolitan women. They also reported more disclosure concerns than rural men. Men in micropolitan communities reported more disclosure concerns than men in rural areas and tended to report more disclosure concerns than men in metropolitan areas. Understanding the relationship of community size to HIV stigmatization requires acknowledging that many communities are neither urban nor rural, and it requires considering gender differences. PMID:18815878

Gonzalez, Adam; Miller, Carol T; Solomon, Sondra E; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Cassidy, Daniel G

2008-09-25

490

Gender and ethnic differences in young adolescents' sources of cigarettes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To identify the sources used by young adolescents to obtain cigarettes.?DESIGN—In early 1994 a survey assessing usual sources of cigarettes and characteristics of the respondents was administered in homeroom classes.?SETTING—A large urban, predominantly African American school system.?SUBJECTS—A population-based sample of 6967 seventh graders averaging 13 years of age.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE—Reports of usual sources of cigarettes.?RESULTS—At this age level, young smokers were more likely to get cigarettes from friends (31.2%) than buy them in stores (14.3%). However, the odds of purchasing varied for different groups of children. Regular smokers were much more likely (48.3%) to have purchased cigarettes than experimental smokers (9.6%), p<0.001. Girls were less likely to have bought their cigarettes than boys (p<0.001), and black smokers were less likely to have purchased cigarettes than white children (p<0.001). Results suggested that family members who smoke may constitute a more important source of tobacco products than previously recognised, particularly for young girls.?CONCLUSIONS—In this middle-school sample, peers provided the major point of cigarette distribution. However, even at this age, direct purchase was not uncommon. Sources of cigarettes varied significantly with gender, ethnicity, and smoking rate.???Keywords: gender; ethnicity; adolescents; cigarette sources

Robinson, L.; Klesges, R.; Zbikowski, S.

1998-01-01

491

Gender difference added? Institutional variations in the gender gap in first class degree awards in mathematical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how multilevel modelling can be used to study institutional variations in the gender differences in achievement. The results presented are from analyses of the degree classifications of 22,433 individuals who graduated in mathematical sciences, from universities in the UK, between 1994\\/95 and 1999\\/2000. The analyses were designed to measure gender differences in the achievement of first class

Vanessa Simonite

2005-01-01

492

Gender differences in outcomes of acute mania: a 12-month follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to assess short-term (12 weeks) and long-term (12 months) gender differences in the outcomes of patients\\u000a experiencing an episode of mania in the course of bipolar disorder. European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication\\u000a was a 2-year, prospective, observational study of the outcomes of patients with a manic or mixed episode conducted in 14 European\\u000a countries. Data were

Laia Miquel; Judith Usall; Catherine Reed; Jordan Bertsch; Eduard Vieta; Ana González-Pinto; Jules Angst; Willem Nolen; Inge van Rossum; Josep Maria Haro

2011-01-01