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1

Gender Differences in Pay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the gender pay gap in the United States. Both gender-specific factors, including gender differences in qualifications and discrimination, and overall wage structure, the rewards for skills and employment in particular sectors, importantly influence the gender pay gap. Declining gender differentials in the U.S., and the more rapid closing of the gender pay gap in the U.S. than elsewhere,

Francine D. Blau; Lawrence M. Kahn

2000-01-01

2

Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.  

PubMed

Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

2014-01-01

3

Gender similarities and differences.  

PubMed

Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

Hyde, Janet Shibley

2014-01-01

4

Proof Study: Gender Differences  

E-print Network

Proof Study: Gender Differences 11/29/01 Kyle Green Dan Beaver Marquis Bennett Eric Germo Rick survey focusing on the gender differences in the answers. First, both of the male and the female grade's easy," then you most likely have had some mathematical background. But how much of a background in math

Nguyen, Hieu D.

5

Gender Differences in Preferences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature on gender differences in economic experiments. In the three main sections, we identify robust differences in risk preferences, social (other-regarding) preferences, and competitive preferences. We also speculate on the source of these differences, as well as on their implications. Our hope is that this article will serve as a resource for those seeking to understand

Rachel Croson; Uri Gneezy

2009-01-01

6

Gender Differences in Creativity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

2008-01-01

7

Gender differences in young children’s temperament traits: Comparisons across observational and parent-report methods  

PubMed Central

Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Methods Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826

Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.

2012-01-01

8

Mind & Brain Gender Difference  

E-print Network

See Also: Mind & Brain Gender Difference· Relationships· Fossils & Ruins Evolution· Early Climate.ExpatFinder.com/Instant-Quotes Related Stories In Matters Of Sex And Death, Men Are An Essential Part Of The Equation (Aug. 29, 2007

Lummaa, Virpi

9

[Laughter: gender differences].  

PubMed

Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. PMID:21489520

Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

2011-01-01

10

Investigating Gender Differences in Reading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

2010-01-01

11

Cognitive Gender Differences Are Disappearing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in cognitive abilities were determined using the norms from the four standardizations of the Differential Aptitude Tests conducted between 1947 and 1980, and from the four standardizations of the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test\\/Scholastic Aptitude Test conducted between 1960 and 1983. The standardized gender differences (ds) were averaged over grade of examinees and year of standardization to obtain a

Alan Feingold

1988-01-01

12

Gender Differences in Mathematical Trajectories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Large national data sets and curvilinear growth models were used to examine gender differences in mathematics achievement trajectories from elementary through high school. Despite relatively equal starting points and relatively equal slopes, boys had a faster rate of acceleration, resulting in a slight gender difference by 12th grade. (Contains 39…

Leahey, Erin; Guo, Guang

2001-01-01

13

Gender Differences in Cognitive Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

2011-01-01

14

Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the 1960s, gender differences in mathematics performance have been a major topic in educational and mathematical research. This study entails a gender comparative analysis of students' mathematics performance as determined by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills and by the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency. In a public school system in rural…

Porter, Rhonda C.

15

Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

Abramo, Joseph Michael

2011-01-01

16

Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE  

E-print Network

Gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules 1 Running head: GENDER DIFFERENCES IN COMPLIANCE Gender Differences in Preschool Children's Declared and Behavioral Compliance with Pedestrian Rules ABSTRACT The study examined gender differences in compliance with pedestrian rules among preschool

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Cognitive gender differences: A developmental perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the developmental literature on cognitive gender differences and compares past and present trends in gender differences, by age, from the standardizations of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (1949–1981) and the California Achievement Tests (CAT; 1956–1985). Consistent with prior research, decreases in gender differences were found for adolescents. For children, gender differences were small or nonexistent in the Wechsler

Alan Feingold

1993-01-01

18

Gender Differences in Wikipedia Editing Yahoo! Research  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Wikipedia Editing Judd Antin Yahoo! Research Santa Clara, VA 95054 jantin are women. However, the number of contributors is just one way to ex- amine gender differences, it is just one way to examine gender differences on Wikipedia. In this paper we focus not on the gender gap

Militzer, Burkhard

19

Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in mathematics and science have received substantial attention in the education research since the early 1980s when strong evidence for a male advantage was found in various studies. Given that mathematics is required for a variety of careers, the potential cause(s) of this disparity have generated much research, much of it…

You, Zhixia

2010-01-01

20

Gender differences in mathematical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined gender differences in children tested at grade levels two, four and six over an eleven year period. Total Mathematics, Mathematical Computation and Mathematical Concept Normal Curve Equivalency (NCE) scores were collected from the past eleven years of administrations of Science Research Associates (SRA) Achievement Series tests. Scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC or

Cathy W. Hall; Cynthia Hoff

1988-01-01

21

Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In

Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak

2000-01-01

22

Gender differences in spatial orientation: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

While significant gender differences in spatial abilities consistently emerge, results concerning gender differences in spatial orientation skills are mixed, ranging from “marked differences” to “no-differences”. In order to improve our understanding of this phenomenon, literature about gender differences in spatial orientation skills is reviewed from 1983 to 2003. The influence of biological and socio\\/cultural factors is discussed as well as

Emanuele Coluccia; Giorgia Louse

2004-01-01

23

Gender Differences as Reflected in Family Stories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In past generations, traditional gender roles may have dominated family life. One method of investigating the relationship of gender roles and their impact on subsequent generations is to use the relating of family stories to obtain quantitative data. A study was conducted to examine gender role information and gender differences in the passing…

Diedrick, Patricia

24

Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

2008-01-01

25

Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.  

PubMed

Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159

Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

2011-09-01

26

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Possible Selves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined gender differences in global self-esteem at adolescence by investigating the content of and gender differences within high school students' possible selves. Students completed questionnaires on hoped for and feared possible selves and on self-perception. Students were able to access and report a vast array of possible selves. Gender

Knox, Michele; Funk, Jeanne; Elliott, Robert; Bush Ellen Greene

2000-01-01

27

Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

2012-01-01

28

Ratios exaggerate gender differences in mathematical ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comments on J. C. Stanley and C. P. Benbow's assertion concerning gender differences in the distribution of SAT-M scores. The present author contends that if an emphasis on group differences minimizes the magnitude of gender differences, then an emphasis on ratio can only exaggerate such differences.

Joseph S. Rossi

1983-01-01

29

Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.  

PubMed

A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses. PMID:24934011

Schredl, Michael

2014-01-01

30

Gender Differences in Neurodevelopment and Epigenetics  

PubMed Central

Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727

Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.

2013-01-01

31

Gender differences in localGender differences in local residents' relationships withresidents' relationships with  

E-print Network

Gender differences in localGender differences in local residents' relationships withresidents and analyze gender in human-environment relationships. Using social role theory, we discuss the different ways-people studies. In this presentation, we examine differences between women's and men's attitudes and perceptions

Srinivasan, N.

32

Gender and Math: Putting Differences in Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Eurocentric cultures there is a belief that there are gender differences in mathematics achievement. In reality, those differences are small whereas differences among ethnic groups, countries, and schools--often related to privilege--are much larger. (JOW)

Kimball, Meredith

1996-01-01

33

Gender Differences in Altruistic Reputation: Are They Artifactual?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tested notion that observed sex differences in children's altruistic reputations that favor girls are due to sex-biased items found in peer-assessment measures. Gender-fair assessment of altruistic reputation was attempted through the use of empirically derived examples of masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral prosocial behaviors. (Author/DST)

Zarbatany, Lynne; And Others

1985-01-01

34

Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

2009-01-01

35

Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

2008-01-01

36

Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

2014-01-01

37

Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow  

SciTech Connect

Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

1990-01-01

38

Gender differences in mathematics education in Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses whether gender differences in mathematics education exist in Zambia, and if so, what are their possible causes. Differences are found to be present both in terms of access, and in terms of performance. Possible reasons for such differences are examined, in the light of empirical data consisting of responses to an attitude questionnaire.

Roy Sayers

1994-01-01

39

Gender differences in ischemic heart disease.  

PubMed

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in most developed countries. Gender-related differences have been found in the presentation, prevalence, and clinical outcomes of CAD in many studies. Compared to women, men present with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction more often and have a higher prevalence of CAD. These findings indicate that gender may have an important influence on CAD. Appropriate diagnosis, prevention, recent patent inventions, and treatment will improve the care of all patients. It is therefore necessary to consider the differences in the features of ischemic heart disease between men and women when examining patients. Novel drugs for tailor-made therapy based on gender differences should be developed for the treatment of CAD in future. PMID:19545234

Wake, Ryotaro; Yoshiyama, Minoru

2009-11-01

40

Performance In Competitive Environments: Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though the provision of equal opportunities for men and women has been a priority in many countries, large gender differences prevail in competitive high-ranking positions. Suggested explanations include discrimination and differences in preferences and human capital. In this paper we present experimental evidence in support of an additional factor: women may be less effective than men in competitive environments,

Uri Gneezy; Muriel Niederle; Aldo Rustichini

2003-01-01

41

Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

2011-01-01

42

Gender Differences in Training, Capital, and Wages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper constructs an equilibrium job-matching model where workers differ in their attachment to the labor force. The model predicts that workers with weaker attachment to the labor market will receive lower starting wages and lower post-training wages, and will be placed in jobs that offer less training and use less capital. The implications of the model for gender differences

John M. Barron; Dan A. Black; Mark A. Loewenstein

1993-01-01

43

Sex and Gender Differences in Eating Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the research literature on sex and gender differences in hunger and eating behavior. If you ask people about these types of differences in hunger and eating, they will readily identify some: women exhibit certain distinctive cravings during pregnancy and certain phases of the menstrual cycle; men eat more than women do; men are more likely

C. Peter Herman; Janet Polivy

44

Gender differences in the intravenous self-administration of mu opiate agonists  

E-print Network

Gender differences in the intravenous self-administration of mu opiate agonists Theodore J. Cicero Gender differences have been observed in a number of aspects of the pharmacology of opiates, including gender differences exist in the intravenous (IV) self-administration of opiates in an operant

Steinbach, Joe Henry

45

Choices and preferences: Experiments on gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in consumer choices ond preferences were explored in two quosi-experiments. In Experiment I, business cards were collected from 144 men and 83 women attending a Young Designers exhibition. The business cards of male designers were found to be of standard size and printed on white card significantly more often than the cards of female designers. In Experiment 11,

GLORIA MOSS; ANDREW M. COLMAN

2001-01-01

46

Gender Differences in Peace Education Programmes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to…

Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

2009-01-01

47

Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

48

Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

2012-01-01

49

Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

Momsen, Janet Henshall

2000-01-01

50

Gender Differences in Advanced Mathematical Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three studies examined strategy flexibility in mathematical problem solving among high school students on Scholastic Assessment Test-Mathematics problems and among college students on Graduate Record Examination-Quantitative items. Results suggested that strategy flexibility was a source of gender differences in mathematics ability as assessed by…

Gallagher, Ann M.; DeLisi, Richard; Holst, Patricia C; McGillicuddy-DeLisi, Ann V.; Morely, Mary; Cahala, Cara

2000-01-01

51

Regional and Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 45,206 high school seniors investigated their participation and performance in mathematics subjects taken to complete the secondary education qualification in Victoria, Australia. Gender differences varied with the particular assessment administered. There was a significant regional effect where rural students, particularly males,…

Cox, Peter

2000-01-01

52

Gender differences in adolescent interpersonal identity formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in adolescent interpersonal identity formation were investigated in 41 male and 42 female high school juniors and seniors. Subjects were interviewed and assessed on progress toward interpersonal identity achievement in friendship and dating relationships. Differential patterns of correlation for each sex were examined for measures of vocational identity, psychological masculinity and femininity, and achievement motivation. Results indicated that

William Thorbecke I; Harold D. Grotevant

1982-01-01

53

Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

Thompson, Michael D.

2012-01-01

54

Gender Differences in Social Security Disability Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes gender differences in Social Security disability awards. Logit analysis is used to identify significant determinants of receiving a Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) award. The results show that, even after controlling for applicant characteristics and nature of impairment, women receive Social Security disability awards at a significantly lower rate than do men.

Marjorie L. Baldwin

1997-01-01

55

Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress.  

PubMed

Recent research indicates gender differences in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether induced stress resulted in gender-specific patterns of brain activation during a decision task involving monetary reward. Specifically, we manipulated physiological stress levels using a cold pressor task, prior to a risky decision making task. Healthy men (n?=?24, 12 stressed) and women (n?=?23, 11 stressed) completed the decision task after either cold pressor stress or a control task during the period of cortisol response to the cold pressor. Gender differences in behavior were present in stressed participants but not controls, such that stress led to greater reward collection and faster decision speed in males but less reward collection and slower decision speed in females. A gender-by-stress interaction was observed for the dorsal striatum and anterior insula. With cold stress, activation in these regions was increased in males but decreased in females. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of stress on reward-related decision processing differs depending on gender. PMID:21609968

Lighthall, Nichole R; Sakaki, Michiko; Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Nga, Lin; Somayajula, Sangeetha; Chen, Eric Y; Samii, Nicole; Mather, Mara

2012-04-01

56

Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increas- ing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender stratification hypothesis maintains that such gender differences are closely related to cultural

Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet Shibley Hyde; Marcia C. Linn

2010-01-01

57

Gender differences in students’ mathematics game playing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10–12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of the types of mathematics-rich games students prefer to play. Girls preferred to

Tom Lowrie; Robyn Jorgensen

2011-01-01

58

Investigating Differences in Earnings Based on Gender  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module, created by Kathy Rowell of Sinclair Community College, will focus on frequencies and percentages as well as corresponding bar charts and pie graphs. It will examine how variables such as race, age, gender, and education are related to differences in income earnings within the United States. The module features different aspects such as: learning objectives, key concepts, a learner's pre-assessment, introduction to the topic, critical thinking questions and a learner's post assessment.

Rowell, Kathy

59

Gender differences in seasonal affective disorder (SAD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a 146 women and 44 men (out- and inpatients; treatment sample) with Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD; winter type) were tested\\u000a for gender differences in demographic, clinical and seasonal characteristics. Sex ratio in prevalence was (women : men) 3.6\\u000a : 1 in unipolar depressives and 2.4 : 1 in bipolars (I and II). Sex ratios varied also between different birth cohorts

M. J. Lucht; S. Kasper

1999-01-01

60

Cognitive gender differences among Israeli children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated gender differences among 11,000 Israeli children in Grades 4–6 with respect to verbal, spatial, and mathematical ability, as measured by 12 intelligence tests. Consistent differences in score variance were found across grades for 11 of the 12 tests. In each of these tests the variance for boys exceeded that for girls by 10%–20%. With respect to mean

Sorel Cahan; Yael Ganor

1995-01-01

61

Gender Differences in PTSD Symptoms: An Exploration of Peritraumatic Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Females are at higher risk than males for developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following exposure to trauma, which may stem from gender differences in initial physiological and psychological responses to trauma. The present study aimed to examine a number of peri- and initial post-traumatic reactions to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) to determine the extent to which they contributed to gender differences in PTSS. 356 adult MVA survivors (211 males and 145 females) reported on peritraumatic dissociation, perception of life threat and initial PTSS. In addition, heart rate and urinary cortisol levels were collected in-hospital. 6 weeks and 6 months later, PTSS were assessed via clinical interviews. Results suggested that initial PTSS and peritraumatic dissociation were marginally significant mediators at 6-week follow-up and significant mediators at 6-month follow-up, providing partial support for the hypothesis that initial responses to trauma may account for observed gender differences in PTSS development. PMID:20956066

Irish, Leah A.; Fischer, Beth; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

2010-01-01

62

Assessing Risk Factors for Migraine: Differences in Gender Transmission  

PubMed Central

Aim Our aim was to assess which specific factors are contributing to an increased risk of migraine in a group of 131 Portuguese families. Methods We studied 319 first-degree relatives, using a multilevel approach to account for the dependency among members from the same family. We included in the model relative’s gender, the proband’s gender and age-at-onset, to evaluate if any of these variables were associated with relative’s affection status. We also included in the model proband’s migraine subtype. We further assessed female and male transmissions within the proband nuclear family. Results Relatives’ gender was found to be a risk factor for migraine (Odds Ratio?=?2.86; 95% CI?=?1.75–4.67), with females at a higher risk. When splitting probands according to their migraine subtype, we found that none of the variables studied contributed to relatives of MA-probands affection-status. Our results also show a significant difference between proband’s transmission and the gender of the parents and offspring. Conclusions With this study, we showed that gender is truly a risk factor for migraine and that a gender-biased transmission is also observed. This reinforce the importance of identifying genes associated with migraine that are modulated by genes located in the sex chromosomes and the study of mitochondrial DNA or X-chromosome and hormonal-related effects associated with migraine susceptibility. PMID:23185642

Lemos, Carolina; Alonso, Isabel; Barros, José; Sequeiros, Jorge; Pereira-Monteiro, José; Mendonça, Denisa; Sousa, Alda

2012-01-01

63

Gender differences in Iranian patients with ankylosing spondylitis.  

PubMed

Inequalities in features and severity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have been noticed between men and women, suggesting a possible influence of gender on disease phenotypes. Comparing disease features and characterization of gender differences in clinical features and medications could help elucidate the potential influence of gender on the severity of AS in patients. This study aims to assess the influence of gender on disease patterns in Iranian patients with AS. Three hundred and twenty patients diagnosed with primary AS were assessed for demographic variables, clinical manifestations, HLA status, disease severity, functional capacities, quality of life, and treatment status. Sixty-seven women and 253 men were included corresponding to a male to female ratio of 3.78:1. Both groups were similar regarding ethnicity, positive family history, and juvenile onset AS. HLA-B27 was more frequent among males (78.3 vs. 55.2 %; p?genders. No difference in gender-associated diagnostic delays was observed. Female disease was at least as severe as male disease, and in some aspects, females presented with more severe disease. Despite a relatively similar disease profile, we observed a higher rate of enthesitis among women. Together with the equally high rate of disease activity indices in both genders, these findings indicate an overall longer delay to diagnosis in our country. Early detection and specialized care would be of great practical importance. PMID:24288047

Shahlaee, Abtin; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Farhadi, Elham; Fallahi, Sasan; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza

2015-02-01

64

Different, Not Better: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning and Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on gender differences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…

Geist, Eugene A.; King, Margaret

2008-01-01

65

The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

2012-01-01

66

Gender Differences in Verbal Ability: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many regard gender differences in verbal ability to be one of the well-established findings in psychology. To reassess this belief, we located 165 studies that reported data on gender differences in verbal ability. The weighted mean effect size (d) was +0.11, indicating a slight female superiority in performance. The difference is so small that we argue that gender differences in

Janet Shibley Hyde; Marcia C. Linn

1988-01-01

67

Gender Differences in Sexuality: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analysis surveyed 177 usable sources that reported data on gender differences on 21 different measures of sexual attitudes and behaviors. The largest gender difference was in incidence of masturbation: Men had the greater incidence (d = .96). There was also a large gender difference in attitudes toward casual sex: Males had considerably more permissive attitudes (d = .81). There

Mary Beth Oliver; Janet Shibley Hyde

1993-01-01

68

Gender differences in coerced patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. Methods 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. Results When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Conclusions Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions trigger the application of coercive measures in men. Moreover coerced women showed diminished social functioning, and more importantly more severe symptoms from the “excitement/hostile” cluster in contrast to coerced men. National and international recommendation on coercive treatment practices should include appropriate consideration of the evidence of gender differences in clinical presentation and aggressive behaviors found in inpatient populations. PMID:24118928

2013-01-01

69

Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender

Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

2015-01-01

70

RESEARCH Open Access Gender difference and sex hormone production  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Gender difference and sex hormone production in rodent renal ischemia and analyze the influence of gender differences on tissue remodelling during the recovery process. Method: Age and tissue injury is gender-dependent. These differences are associated with a modulation of sex hormone

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms  

E-print Network

EA 4272 Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms Christophe J. NORDMAN (*) François;Gender differences in pay in African manufacturing firms#### Christophe J. Nordman * François is known about gender wage differences in developing countries, especially with respect to the possible

Boyer, Edmond

72

Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress  

E-print Network

Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress Nichole R. Lighthall,1 California, 3620 McClintock Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA Recent research indicates gender differences the period of cortisol response to the cold pressor. Gender differences in behavior were present in stressed

Mather, Mara

73

Gender Differences in Completed Schooling Kerwin Kofi Charles  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Completed Schooling Kerwin Kofi Charles University of Michigan kcharles specific analysis reveals that these stock measures mask two interesting patterns: (a) gender difference in the 1970's is an important exception. In addition to other differences, their work does not focus on gender

Shyy, Wei

74

Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre*  

E-print Network

1 Decomposing gender differences in temporary contracts Frederic Salladarre* & Boubaker Hlaimi Abstract: This study analyses gender differences in fixed term contracts in 19 European countries, using to be more feminized and that gender differences in temporary employment can arise from a female specific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

75

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

Busch, Tor

1995-01-01

76

Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

2014-01-01

77

Gender differences in attitudes toward animal research.  

PubMed

Although gender differences in attitudes toward animal research have been reported in the literature for some time, exploration into the nature of these differences has received less attention. This article examines gender differences in responses to a survey of attitudes toward the use of animals in research. The survey was completed by college students and consisted of items intended to tap different issues related to the animal research debate. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to support tenets of the animal protection movement. Likewise, women were more likely than men to favor increased restrictions on animal use and were more concerned than men about the suffering of research animals. Analysis of item contents suggested that women endorsed items reflecting a general caring for animals, were more willing than men to make personal sacrifices such as giving up meat and medical benefits in an effort to protect animals, and were more likely than men to question the use of animals in research on scientific grounds. Men, on the other hand, tended to emphasize the potential benefits arising from the use of animals in research. PMID:11654977

Eldridge, Jennifer J; Gluck, John P

1996-01-01

78

Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

2013-01-01

79

Gender differences in ocular blood flow.  

PubMed

Abstract Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919

Schmidl, Doreen; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina

2015-02-01

80

Gender Differences for Constructed-Response Mathematics Items  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored gender differences in answers to constructed-response mathematics items. Features relevant and irrelevant to the scoring rubric but possibly related to gender differences were identified by a content expert after a review of the literature. Raters were trained to score the identified features for approximately 500 papers evenly divided across two grade levels and between genders. The

Mark Pomplun; Lee Capps

1999-01-01

81

Gender and Achievement -- Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background of the Study Differences between females and males in mathe matics have long been observed and discussed among educators and researchers. Presumably, because of the complexity of gender-related issues and the multi-faceted nature of test performance, results reported from a variety of studies are inconsistent and often even contradictory (Hoover and Han, 1995). Evidence from several comprehensive meta-analytic studies

Liru Zhang

82

Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning  

PubMed Central

In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

2011-01-01

83

Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

2008-01-01

84

Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

2004-01-01

85

Gender and Poverty: A Life Cycle Approach to the Analysis of the Differences in Gender Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lokshin and Mroz study complex interactions between gender and poverty in postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina. The goal of their analysis is to uncover how a spectrum of gender differentials at different parts of the life cycle varies across income groups. Using the data from the 2001 Bosnia and Herzegovina Living Standards Measurement Study, the authors find strong gender-poverty interaction in

Michael Lokshin; Thomas A. Mroz

2003-01-01

86

Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement: An Investigation of Gender Differences by Item Difficulty Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents findings from research exploring gender by item difficulty interaction on mathematics test scores in Cyprus. Data steamed from 2 longitudinal studies with 4 different age groups of primary school students. The hypothesis that boys tended to outperform girls on the hardest items and girls tended to outperform boys on the easiest…

Kyriakides, Leonidas; Antoniou, Panayiotis

2009-01-01

87

Gender differences in mathematics achievement: an investigation of gender differences by item difficulty interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents findings from research exploring gender by item difficulty interaction on mathematics test scores in Cyprus. Data steamed from 2 longitudinal studies with 4 different age groups of primary school students. The hypothesis that boys tended to outperform girls on the hardest items and girls tended to outperform boys on the easiest items was generally supported for each

Leonidas Kyriakides; Panayiotis Antoniou

2009-01-01

88

Gender Differences in Lunar-related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle?level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two?dimensional and three?dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic Explorations in Astronomical Learning (REAL) curriculum. Students’ conceptual understandings were measured through analysis of pre?test

Jennifer Wilhelm

2009-01-01

89

[Gender differences in resting EEG related to Eysenk's Personality Traits].  

PubMed

EEG mapping was used to study gender differences in hemispheric organization related to personality (40 male and 42 female subjects, the students 17-20 ages). The results showed, that each clearly defined personality trait (neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticizm and social conformity) characterized by special EEG pattern differenced on men and women groups. At the same time, more close interaction of gender and neuroticism was observed, but gender and extraversion were less connected. Neuroticism related patterns of coherence in the alpha2- and beta2-bands were associated with an activity changes in anterior cortex in men but posterior--in women, at that the positive correlations were observed in the beta2-band in the former case and negative ones in the second. There are two opposing tendencies of the interaction between extraversion and gender in a modulation of the resting theta-rhythm: an increase of cortex connections in men and decrease ones in women. The specificity of spatial-temporal EEG patterns in men associated mostly with a psychoticizm value but in women--with a social conformism. In either case these personality traits related to activity of frontal cortex in the left hemisphere. PMID:15481382

Razumnikova, O M

2004-01-01

90

Teachers' Beliefs on Gender Differences in Mathematics Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Purpose in this study was to understand the specific beliefs that are held by two high school teachers about gender differences in mathematics education, and the extent of consistency between these teachers' stated beliefs about gender and instructional practices and classroom interactions. This study was built upon three previous studies of teacher's gender-related beliefs, conducted by Tiedemann (2000a), She

Sraboni Ghosh

2004-01-01

91

Gender Differences in Cerebral Aneurysm Location  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: A limited number of studies consisting predominantly of ruptured aneurysms have looked at differences in anatomical distribution of aneurysms between male and females. Unlike all other causes of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) occur more often in women and are thought to be a result of both hormonal influences and variation in wall shear stress. This paper retrospectively looks at a cohort of largely unruptured intracranial aneurysms to determine if there exists a gender discrepancy in the anatomic distribution of cerebral aneurysms. Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive patients with ruptured and unruptured intradural saccular cerebral aneurysms treated endovascularly was performed. Results: Six hundred eighty-two aneurysms were treated. Seventy-two percentage of the patients were women and 27% of patients presented with SAH. Among women, most aneurysms were located along the ICA (54%) while men the ACA (29%, compared to 15% in women), a discrepancy evident in both unruptured and ruptured groups. Females tended to present later in life (59 vs. 55?years), with multiple aneurysms (11 vs. 6% in men), and with SAH (28 vs. 23% in men) – the majority of these ruptured aneurysms were located at the ICA (42%), while men at the ACA (47%). Additionally, the majority (68%) of ruptured ICA aneurysms were PCOM. Conclusion: Understanding the natural history of aneurysms is imperative in treating incidentally found aneurysms. Significant differences exist between the genders in relation to aneurysm location, the most pronounced at the ICA and ACA. Previously described hormonal and hemodynamic theories behind cerebral aneurysm pathogenesis seem like plausible reasons to explain these differences. PMID:22661965

Ghods, Ali J.; Lopes, Demetrius; Chen, Michael

2012-01-01

92

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial uni- versity. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as demonstrated on multiple-choice test items; and to what extent are there gender differences in the

K. Shane Goodwin; Lee Ostrom; Karen Wilson Scott

93

Gender differences in proclivity for unethical behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores possible connections between gender and the willingness to engage in unethical business behavior. Two approaches to gender and ethics are presented: the structural approach and the socialization approach. Data from a sample of 213 business school students reveal that men are more than two times as likely as women to engage in actions regarded as unethical but

Michael Betz; Lenahan O'Connell; Jon M. Shepard

1989-01-01

94

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence Theodore J. Cicero*, Bruce Nock, Edward R. Meyer  

E-print Network

Gender-linked differences in the expression of physical dependence in the rat Theodore J. Cicero In earlier studies, it was shown that there were gender differences in several aspects of the pharmacological observations with spontaneous withdrawal, we found no gender differences in the naloxone- precipitated

Steinbach, Joe Henry

95

Gender differences: Let's see them in writing  

SciTech Connect

Differences between males and females in the nature of their verbal communication have been documented. The findings of this study have provided a new dimensional to those of previous research. There is support for the idea that among college graduates with similar communication skills, females use written communication as a means of establishing rapport more than males. In a voluntary, relatively unstructured task, females tend to write longer responses and to express themselves by complete thoughts (sentences). Females are also more likely to use first person singular pronouns and first person singular possessive adjectives. There is no support in this situation for gender differences in offering solutions to described program weaknesses. The length of the open-ended responses describing weaknesses and strengths are more closely related to each other than they are to ratings of program satisfaction. This study was unique in that it was based on written communication of college graduates in a voluntary task. Differences in findings from of those of other studies may be due to experience and education of the participants. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Boser, J.A.; Wiley, P.D. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Clark, S.B. (Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States))

1991-01-01

96

Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

2012-01-01

97

Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.  

PubMed

We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives. PMID:25154113

Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

2014-01-01

98

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving  

E-print Network

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving Ivon Arroyo and Beverly P. Woolf important to consider for domains for which there are well-established group differences, such as gender differences in mathematics. 1 Customization and Multimedia Improve Learning Both customized teaching

Arroyo, Ivon M.

99

Gender differences in mathematics anxiety: An artifact of response bias?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Females are more likely than males to report anxiety about mathematics. Hunsley and Flessati (1988) examined two explanations for this difference: the sex-role socialization hypothesis, which states that gender differences occur as a result of differences in socialization, and the math experiences hypothesis, which states that math anxiety is due to previous experiences with mathematics, regardless of gender. They found

Sonya Lucia Flessati; John Jamieson

1991-01-01

100

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data  

E-print Network

Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data Jonce Dimov1 , Inge to be an impor- tant pathological feature of MS (see for instance [2]). Gender differences according to a number- ducted in order to unravel differences between male and female patiens. To this end, a unique dataset

Marchiori, Elena

101

Mathematics Competitions, Gender, and Grade Level: Does Time Make Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we draw on data from a large mathematics competition, for the years 1987 to 2000 and use two different but closely related measures to investigate possible gender differences in performance. Our analyses revealed that small gender differences in favour of males persisted but had decreased over time. Consistent with reports from…

Leder, Gilah C.; Pederson, David G.; Pollard, Graham H.

2003-01-01

102

Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

2012-01-01

103

No Difference in Gender-specific Hip Replacement Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender-specific total hip arthroplasty (THA) design has been recently debated with manufacturers launching gender-based designs.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to investigate the survivorship and clinical outcomes of a large primary THA cohort specifically\\u000a assessing differences between genders in clinical outcomes, implant survivorship, revisions as well as sizing and offset differences.\\u000a We reviewed 3461 consecutive patients receiving 4114 primary

Timothy Kostamo; Robert B. Bourne; John Paul Whittaker; Richard W. McCalden; Steven J. MacDonald

2009-01-01

104

Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes  

PubMed Central

To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all ?2 p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle (“t-bone”) crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training – for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

2012-01-01

105

Gender difference in the pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma.  

PubMed

Abstract Glaucoma is the principal cause of irreversible blindness in the world, the second leading cause of blindness in the United States, and it results in optic nerve head axonal degeneration and corresponding visual field deficits. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only known modifiable risk factor in glaucoma. Non-modifiable risk factors for glaucoma include age, ethnicity, central corneal thickness, and family history. While our understanding of the role of gender as a risk factor in glaucoma development and progression remains nascent, multiple observations have shown gender differences in the incidence and prevalence of glaucoma. Depending on the type of glaucoma, hormone therapy, oral contraceptive use and menopausal status have also been associated with glaucoma. In addition, pregnancy leads to changes in IOP, while the treatment of glaucoma must be tailored based on the systemic effects of topical therapeutics on the mother and fetus. This review will focus on the epidemiologic, anatomic and endocrinologic differences in male and female glaucoma patients. In addition, this review will discuss treatment modalities that may be more appropriate for one gender than the other, especially with respect to a woman's pregnancy status. PMID:25285808

Tehrani, Shandiz

2015-02-01

106

Gender Differences in a Clinical Trial for Prescription Opioid Dependence  

PubMed Central

Although gender differences in substance use disorders have been identified, few studies have examined gender differences in prescription drug dependence. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large clinical trial for prescription opioid dependence. Despite no pre-treatment differences in opioid dependence severity, women reported significantly greater functional impairment, greater psychiatric severity, and higher likelihood of using opioids to cope with negative affect and pain than men. Women were also more likely than men to have first obtained opioids via a legitimate prescription and to use opioids via the intended route of administration. Men reported significantly more alcohol problems than women. There were no significant gender differences in medication dose, treatment retention, or opioid outcomes. Thus, despite the presence of pre-treatment gender differences in this population, once the study treatment was initiated, women and men exhibited similar opioid use outcomes. PMID:23313145

McHugh, R. Kathryn; DeVito, Elise E.; Dodd, Dorian; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Connery, Hilary Smith; Weiss, Roger D.

2012-01-01

107

Gender Differences in Current Received during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Low current transcranial electrical stimulation (tCS) is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, and proton density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female) were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20?mm round and 50?mm?×?45?mm were examined at 0.5, 1, and 2?mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a 1-cm sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a 10-fold difference in the amount of current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P?differences in current levels that the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancelous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (P?differences should be considered when planning tCS studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences. PMID:25177301

Russell, Michael; Goodman, Theodore; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Lyeth, Bruce G.

2014-01-01

108

Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

2013-01-01

109

Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

2011-01-01

110

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

2010-01-01

111

Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from an action adventure versus a sad film, and to animated previews of a prototypical “male” versus “female” movie. Females were more likely than males to express sadness in response to the sad scene, and gender differences in intensities of sadness increased with age. Children were much more likely

Mary Beth Oliver; Stephen Green

2001-01-01

112

Gender Differences in Mathematics Participation: an Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in many areas of participation in school are receding, but the gap favouring males in mathematics study in senior secondary school persists. This study attempted to identify some of the dimensions underlying gender differences in mathematics participation. The data from a survey of Years 10, 11 and 12 students at four high schools were used to examine the

Stephen Lamb

1997-01-01

113

Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male.

Jessieka Mata; Negin Ghavami; Michele A. Wittig

2010-01-01

114

Gender Differences in Severity of Writing and Reading Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

2008-01-01

115

Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…

Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

2004-01-01

116

Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress  

E-print Network

Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward PROCESSING 2 ABSTRACT Recent research indicates gender differences in the impact of stress on decision to the cold pressor. Gender differences in behavior were present in stressed participants but not controls

Mather, Mara

117

Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

2009-01-01

118

Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a secondary analysis of TIMSS conducted in 2003 by the International Association for the Evaluation of educational Achievement (IEA). This is the second participation from Malaysia since TIMSS 1999 involving students in the eighth grade. The paper examines gender differentials in terms of the overall mathematics average achievement as well as the main content areas of mathematics

Halimah Awang; Noor Azina Ismail

119

GNDS 120: Women, Gender, Difference Research Resources  

E-print Network

and social sciences. Additional reference works are available online. The Gender Studies Subject Guide accessed resources Sign in to the web proxy service to connect to online subscription resources from off a core collection of academic encyclopedias, dictionaries, handbooks and companions for the humanities

Abolmaesumi, Purang

120

Age and Gender Differences in Instructional Preferences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines whether students' age and/or gender impact their preferences for instructional practices thought to improve learning, and their preparation for college and performance in college. Students were asked which of 38 instructional practices they preferred, how often they experienced each practice, and how well prepared they felt in…

Belcheir, Marcia J.

121

Gender bias in the observation of experimental pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine how men and women observe experimentally induced pain in male and female participants and to specifically determine the accuracy of observed pain ratings, the possible interactions between the sex of the viewer and the sex of the individual being observed, and the influence of gender role expectations on observed pain ratings. The

Michael E Robinson; Emily A Wise

2003-01-01

122

Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation: Gender Invariance May Be Situation Invariance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of gender differences in social dominance orientation (SDO) have investigated settings more or less hierarchy-enhancing.\\u000a The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in SDO (1) within social structures varying in equality-enhancement,\\u000a i.e., communities differing in political equality between men and women, and (2) settings where equality was maximized and held constant, i.e., democratic, voluntary associations,

Ingrid Zakrisson

2008-01-01

123

Unpacking Gender Differences in Students' Perceived Experiences in Introductory Physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.

Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

2009-11-01

124

Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

125

Gendered Utilization Differences of Mental Health Services in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural

Alean Al-Krenawi; John R. Graham; Jamil Kandah

2000-01-01

126

Gender Differences in the Development of Mathematics Attitudes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed Canadian high school students to note differences by gender in attitudes toward mathematics. Results indicated that for both genders, certain variables associated with mathematics success deteriorated as adolescence progressed. Younger girls experienced more mathematics anxiety and considered themselves less competent, but many such…

Chouinard, Roch; Vezeau, Carole; Bouffard, Therese; Jenkins, Brenda

1999-01-01

127

Pulling the Plug on Gender-Related Differences in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides suggestions for decreasing gender-related differences in mathematics and questions for teachers to ask themselves regarding gender equity in mathematics. Teachers are urged to highlight the contributions of female and male mathematicians, to create a classroom climate that values problem solving, and to hold high expectations for all…

Adams, Thomasenia Lott

1998-01-01

128

Gender Differences in Young Adolescents' Mathematics and Science Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This literature review pays particular attention to research that: (1) focuses on gender differences in mathematics and science achievement; and (2) offers implications for middle school educators addressing young adolescents' gender-specific needs. The review offers a list of recommendations for middle school educators based on the research. (EV)

Manning, M. Lee

1998-01-01

129

Gender differences in adolescent dating abuse prevalence, types and injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of adults report inconsistent findings as to whether males or females are more likely to use violent behaviors toward their partner. Although partner violence frequently begins during adolescence, few dating violence studies involve adolescents and even fewer report findings by gender. This study examines gender differences in adolescent dating violence. Data are from self-administered questionnaires com- pleted by 81%

Vangie A. Foshee

1996-01-01

130

Gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Limited research has been conducted on gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of gender in the link between perceived environment and PA. METHODS: Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in

Enrique Garcia Bengoechea; John C Spence; Kerry R McGannon

2005-01-01

131

Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

2011-01-01

132

Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

1993-01-01

133

Gender Differences in Work Stress Among Clinical Social Workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since no consistent pattern of gender differences in the measurement of burnout and work stress has been reported in the literature, this study presents further data illustrating the effect of various work-related stress variables upon burnout and selected psychological strains related to gender d~fferences. The data were received from a national sample of 617 clinical social workers. The results indicate

David P. Himle; Srinika D. Jayaratne

1987-01-01

134

Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors  

PubMed Central

Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

Pollard, K. Michael

2011-01-01

135

Gender differences in the cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a Introduction: There is evidence for gender differences in cognitive functioning. Men and women with Alzheimer's disease (AD)\\u000a might also differ in the pattern of cognitive deficits. We hypothesised that gender differences in the cognitive deficits\\u000a of Alzheimer's disease may be related to pre-existing gender differences in cognitive functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method: The performances of 84 subjects with AD and 438 non-demented

R. Heun; M. Kockler

2002-01-01

136

Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

2009-01-01

137

Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

2012-03-01

138

Gender Differences in the Effects of Acute Stress on Spatial Ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reports that men and women differ in spatial ability are common, recent research examining stress effects on spatial\\u000a navigation have not included analyses of gender differences. The current study investigated cue perception and mental rotation\\u000a after an acute cold-water hand immersion stress in 156 undergraduates from the western United States. Gender differences were\\u000a observed in spatial performance and spatial

Kara I. Gabriel; Stephen M. Hong; Marvin Chandra; Susan D. Lonborg; Cynthia L. Barkley

2011-01-01

139

The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe.  

PubMed

Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women's cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

2014-08-12

140

The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

Drab, Deborah D.

141

Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red-backed salamanders  

E-print Network

Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red online 27 October 2004; MS. number: A9684) Most studies of animal behaviour are based on direct animals by men and women observers (`gender identification bias') for any of the behaviours examined

Marsh, David

142

An experimental test for gender differences in beneficent behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine data from a laboratory test in which each subject is given the task of dividing a sum of money between him-or-herself and one other. We find no evidence for gender differences in generosity.

Gary E. Bolton; Elena Katok

1995-01-01

143

Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal  

SciTech Connect

It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

Atreya, Kishor [Alternative Development and Research Center (ADRC), GPO BOX 20078, Kathmandu (Nepal)]. E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

2007-06-15

144

A Meta-Analytic Review of Gender Differences in ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined gender differences in ADHD through a meta-analysis. Effect size estimates for the primary symptoms and correlates of ADHD were calculated in an attempt to replicate and extend a previous meta-analysis on gender differences in the disorder. Relatively lenient inclusion criteria were used in order to maximize the number of studies included in the effect sizes.The results

J. Gershon

2002-01-01

145

The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

2011-01-01

146

Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.  

PubMed Central

Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

2007-01-01

147

How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

2014-01-01

148

Still Different After All These Years: Gender Differences in Professional Identity Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider issues affecting professional identity formation, such as individual differences, graduate training, cultural perspectives, and ideology. We propose that gender differences in professional identity and functioning also are attributable, to a significant degree, to early developmental experiences. We review the professional socialization process and then discuss three theoretical issues related to gender differences that appear to affect women in

K. Ramsey McGowen; Lorraine E. Hart

1990-01-01

149

Gender differences in mathematics: Does the story need to be rewritten?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on the corresponding measures. The nested-factor model assumes interindividual differences in mathematical ability to be

Martin Brunner; Stefan Krauss; Mareike Kunter

2008-01-01

150

ORIGINAL PAPER Gender differences in activity patterns of American mink  

E-print Network

- riality, sexual dimorphism in body size and different environmental factors. Keywords Mustela visonORIGINAL PAPER Gender differences in activity patterns of American mink Neovison vison in Germany and circadian activity patterns of American mink Neovison vison were studied in a fishpond area in northern

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Gender Differences in Temperament: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mean level and variability of 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament in children ages 3 months to 13 years. Effortful control showed a large difference favoring girls and the dimensions within that factor (e.g., inhibitory control: d = -0.41,…

Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Van Hulle, Carol A.

2006-01-01

152

Addressing Cognitive Differences and Gender During Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research evaluated the impact of supplementing user models with additional data about cognitive features of the student. Supplemental data included individual differences variables such as: developmental stage of the learner (Piagetian), spatial ability, math-facts-retrieval and gender. These differences were applied along with multimedia and customization in two intelligent tutoring systems, one for arithmetic and one for geometry. The research

IVON ARROYO; BEVERLY P. W OOLF; CAROLE R. BEAL

2006-01-01

153

An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women, including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance,

Jane M. Watson

1989-01-01

154

Gender differences in students’ rational decisions to cheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few rational choice studies of deviant behavior have reported statistical tests of difference in the effects of explanatory variables between men and women. Using scenario?based survey data from a sample of 330 university students (171 women and 159 men), this study examined gender differences in levels and effects of explanatory variables on intentions to cheat on exams. Findings showed significant

Stephen G. Tibbetts

1997-01-01

155

Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysm prevalence, treatment, and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the management of and outcome of surgery for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA).Methods: Hospital discharge data from all acute care hospitals in Michigan, as compiled in the Michigan Inpatient Data Base, were retrospectively analyzed to assess sex differences in regard to AAA prevalence, treatment, and surgical outcome from 1980

Dolores J. Katz; James C. Stanley; Gerald B. Zelenock

1997-01-01

156

Gender Differences in the Reporting of Physical and Somatoform Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Women have consistently been shown to report greater numbers of physical symptoms. Our aim in this study was to assess gender differences for specific symptoms and to assess how much of these differences were attributable to psychiatric comorbidity. Method: Data from the PRIME-MD 1000 study (1000 patients from four primary care sites evaluated with the Primary Care Evaluation of

KURT KROENKE; ROBERT L. SPITZER

157

Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

158

Gender differences in the cardiovascular effect of sex hormones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in men than in women of similar age, and the menopause-associated increase in cardiovascular disease in women, has led to speculation that gender-related differences in sex hormones have a key role in the development and evolution of cardiovascular disease. Compelling data have indicated that sex differences in vascular biology are determined not only by

Cristiana Vitale; Michael E. Mendelsohn; Giuseppe M. C. Rosano

2009-01-01

159

Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

2010-01-01

160

Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare men and women for differences in affective and cognitive processes associated with impulse buying behavior and to identify gender differences in terms of impulsive purchases made from a variety of product categories. A total of 277 students served as the sample. Using analysis of variance tests, males and females were found to

Amanda Coley; Brigitte Burgess

2003-01-01

161

Gender and Assessment: Differences, Similarities and Implications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recent changes in higher education in the UK have led to much discussion about the performance of men and women students with different methods of assessment. Aim: To see whether or not there were differences between the marks awarded to men and women final-year psychology students as a function of the modes of assessment used. Method:…

Hartley, James; Betts, Lucy; Murray, Wayne

2007-01-01

162

Library Leadership: Does Gender Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the possible impacts and implications of female leadership on the library profession. Demographics, differences between men and women as leaders, characteristics of effective leadership, and changing models of organizations are discussed. (Contains 36 references.) (EAM)

Kaufman, Paula T.

1993-01-01

163

Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.  

PubMed

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

2014-12-22

164

Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior  

PubMed Central

Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.

Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

2014-01-01

165

Gender differences in interacting with AnimalWatch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research has been carried out that examines how the two genders interact with software. This is of special importance in the case of educational software for mathematics, given the difficulties that girls and women have encountered while learning the subject (Eccles et al., 1993). We have observed the interactions of 350 elementary school students with a mathematics intelligent tutoring

Ivon Arroyo

166

Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

2002-01-01

167

Gender Differences in Mathematical Attainment at 16 +  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Much is made today of ‘equal opportunities’ between the sexes in education. Yet, in mathematics in 1984 there were still only 10 girls achieving good grades to every 15 boys (DES statistics). A study group of one thousand 16+ mathematics scripts revealed that there are certain topics on which boys and girls differ significantly in performance. Comparisons are made

J. Stephen Bradberry

1989-01-01

168

Gender differences in mathematics strategy use  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine whether differences in first grade girls' and boys' strategy use could be predicted by their temperament characteristics. Eighty-four first grade students, 42 boys and 42 girls, from two suburban elementary schools participated in this study. Children were asked to solve addition and subtraction problems using any strategy they preferred. Attempted and correct

Heather Davis; Martha Carr

2001-01-01

169

Some Notes on Gender Differences in Mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a belated follow?up to an article by Sharma & Meighan published in 1980. They suggested that pupils who studied other numerical subjects, specifically physics and technical drawing, did better in mathematics O level than pupils who studied only arts subjects with mathematics. They further suggested that sex differences in enrollments in other cognate subjects might account for

Alison Kelly

1987-01-01

170

Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

Harper, Vernon, Jr.

2007-01-01

171

Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

2007-01-01

172

Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

Vahter, Marie [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Liden, Carola [Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Karolinska, Institutet and Stockholm County Council (Sweden); Ceccatelli, Sandra [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden); Berglund, Marika [Divisions of Metals and Health and Toxicology and Neurotoxicology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, SE-171 77 Stockholm (Sweden)

2007-05-15

173

Gender Differences in Mathematics: Does the Story Need to Be Rewritten?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on…

Brunner, Martin; Krauss, Stefan; Kunter, Mareike

2008-01-01

174

Gender Differences in Young Children's Interactions When Learning Fundamental Motor Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports a study that examined how preschoolers interacted while learning fundamental motor skills. Researchers observed children over a six-month period during their daily motor skills program and found gender differences in the way children interacted in that context. Girls and boys learned from different types of interaction among themselves.…

Garcia, Clersida

1994-01-01

175

Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

Roivainen, Eka

2011-01-01

176

Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

2011-01-01

177

Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

Lopez, J. Derek

2014-01-01

178

Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

2014-01-01

179

Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

2010-01-01

180

Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

2012-01-01

181

Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

2014-01-01

182

Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

2013-01-01

183

College Student Views of the Elderly: Some Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four hundred and forty-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential anonymous 38-item questionnaire designed to assess student attitudes toward the elderly. The data revealed several significant gender differences including the age at which a person becomes "old" (men select a younger age), strength (men see less…

Knox, David; Kimuna, Sitawa; Zusman, Marty

2005-01-01

184

Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

2012-01-01

185

Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

2010-01-01

186

DOMINANT OR DIFFERENT? GENDER ISSUES IN COMPUTER SUPPORTED LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant increase in the use of computer supported learning (CSL) within schools and universities across the world gives rise to concern about gender-related differences in performance and interaction style in these environments. Research has shown that initial perceptions of CSL environments as democratic and offering equal opportunities to all students were flawed because interactions that take place through electronic

Cathy Gunn

2003-01-01

187

Gender Differences in Opinions and Practices with Regard to a \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socio-cultural theories about gender differences with regard to food and health constitute the point of departure for this paper, which is based on data from two representative surveys in the Norwegian population. Both were carried out in the autumn of 1994; the first with 1050, the second with 13 200 respondents above 15 years of age. The surveys included questions

R. Aa. FAGERLI; M. WANDEL

1999-01-01

188

Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

2007-01-01

189

Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

2009-01-01

190

Gender differences in processing speed: A review of recent research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and finger tapping. Females also

Eka Roivainen

2011-01-01

191

Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Higher rates of reported morbidity among women are sometimes attributed to lower thresholds among women for experiencing and reporting symptoms. Gender differences in the perception of signs and symptoms of minor illness were examined on data from the MRC Common Cold Unit. Volunteers assessed the presence and severity of colds at the end of their stay in the Unit, using

Sally Macintyre

1993-01-01

192

Participation in Class and in Online Discussions: Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences between participation in face-to-face and web-based classroom discussions were examined, by comparing the men-women actual participation ratio to the men-women attendance (or login) ratio. It was found that men over-proportionally spoke at the face-to-face classroom whereas women over-proportionally posted messages in the…

Caspi, Avner; Chajut, Eran; Saporta, Kelly

2008-01-01

193

Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

2004-01-01

194

Gender and managerial level differences in perceptions of effective leadership  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to examine gender- and management- level differences in perceptions of effective leadership within a framework of new leadership models that focus on the processes of influencing self and others rather than leadership based on hierarchy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A self-report questionnaire was distributed to a sample of council employees. The responses were analysed using thematic matrix

Michael K. Muchiri; Ray W. Cooksey; Lee V. Di Milia; Fred O. Walumbwa

2011-01-01

195

Gender Differences in Preschoolers' Understanding of the Concept of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in North American preschoolers' biological reasoning about the concept of "life". Four-year-olds (M = 4.6, SD = 3.3 months) and five-year-olds (M = 5.6, SD = 3.8 months) were asked about the function of 13 body parts, organs, and bodily processes. Results indicated that the likelihood of mentioning the…

Schroeder, Meadow; Graham, Susan A.; McKeough, Anne; Stock, Hayli; Palmer, Jaime

2010-01-01

196

Solving Graphics Tasks: Gender Differences in Middle-School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual-spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined gender differences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in…

Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.

2011-01-01

197

Gender Differences in Suicide Attempters in Hungary: Retrospective Epidemiological Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. Methods In the framework of the WHO\\/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pécs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. Results A

Sandor Fekete; Viktor Voros; Peter Osvath

198

Early School Experiences: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of gender differences in mathematics learning examined two 4-year-olds who attended a Melbourne, Australia preschool. The study traces the experiences of the students, one female and one male, during their first formal exposure to mathematics in kindergarten. Of particular concern was how the preschoolers interacted with their teacher,…

Leder, Gilah C.

199

Gender Differences in Victim and Crime Characteristics of Sexual Assaults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines gender differences in victim and crime characteristics in an effort to determine the extent to which sexual assault is a similar experience for men and for women. Data from a routine structured interview was obtained from medical charts of 842 women and 128 men seen at an urban hospital-based rape treatment center. Demographic characteristics were similar,

Rachel Kimerling; Alessandra Rellini; Vanessa Kelly; Patricia L. Judson; Lee A. Learman

2002-01-01

200

Asymmetries in gender-related familiarity with different semantic categories. Data from normal adults.  

PubMed

The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles. PMID:23242352

Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

2013-01-01

201

Observing Different Microbes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use a microscope to examine three different microbes: bacteria, yeast and paramecia. Educator will need to prepare the yeast solution one day before the activity. This lesson guide includes background information, educator resources and Slide Preparation Cards. A yogurt recipe is included as an extension to this activity.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Erdmann, Deanne B.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Denk, James P.

2008-01-01

202

Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats  

PubMed Central

The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty) rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity. PMID:24892034

Ohta, Takeshi; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Shuichi

2014-01-01

203

Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

2013-01-01

204

Smoking among Individuals with Schizophrenia in Korea: Gender Differences  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status. Method An anonymous self-report survey was conducted with psychiatric inpatients. Results Compared to males, females were less likely to be current smokers (p < 0.001) and more likely to be former smokers (p < 0.01). Females were also less likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001). Having more years of education (p < 0.05) and higher nicotine dependence scores (p < 0.05) were associated with decreased odds of intending to quit smoking, whereas having more previous quit attempts (p < 0.01) was associated with increased odds. These findings were significant even after adjusting for gender. Smokers were more likely to be daily caffeine users (p < 0.001) than their non-smoking counterparts. Conclusion Nurses in Korea should play an active role in tobacco control for patients with schizophrenia by providing cessation counseling and educating the effect of caffeine use on cigarette consumption, while tailoring the service to gender differences found in this study. PMID:24070993

Kim, Sun S.; Chung, Sangkeun; Park, Jong-Il; Jung, Ae-Ja; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

2013-01-01

205

Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Differences in Physical Activity  

PubMed Central

This study examines racial, ethnic and gender (REG) differentials in physical activity (PA), a significant input into health production and human capital investments. Prior studies have relied on leisure-time activity, which comprises less than 10% of non-work PA and does not capture specific information on intensity or duration, thus presenting an incomplete and potentially-biased picture of how various modes of PA differ across REG groups. This study addresses these limitations by constructing detailed and all-inclusive PA measures from the American Time Use Surveys, which capture the duration of each activity combined with its intensity based on the Metabolic Equivalent of Task. Estimates suggest significant REG differentials in work-related and various modes of non-work PA, with 30–65% of these differentials attributed to differences in education, socioeconomic status, time constraints, and locational attributes. These conditional PA differentials are consistent with and may play a role in observed REG disparities in health outcomes.

Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval; Grossman, Michael; Leung, Leigh Ann

2013-01-01

206

Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury. PMID:22949877

Hazelhoff, María H.; Bulacio, Romina P.; Torres, Adriana M.

2012-01-01

207

Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender stratification hypothesis maintains that such gender differences are closely related to cultural variations

Nicole M. Else-Quest; Janet Shibley Hyde; Marcia C. Linn

2010-01-01

208

An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables\\u000a associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence,\\u000a self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women,\\u000a including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance,

Jane M. Watson

1989-01-01

209

Gender-based analysis of leadership differences in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate differences of leadership styles of Turkish men and women managers in team-oriented and participative leadership dimensions. In addition, the purpose of this resarch is to find out the differences of leadership styles and also the effect of pre-managerial and managerial experiences on leadership style in a gender-based context. Design\\/methodology\\/approach –

Füsun Ç?nar Alt?nta?

2010-01-01

210

Differential effects of an adult observer's presence on sex-typed play behavior: A comparison between gender-schematic and gender-aschematic preschool children.  

PubMed

The present study examined the differential effect of an adult observer's presence on the sex-typed play behavior of gender schematic and aschematic preschoolers. A total of 116 Israeli preschoolers (M age = 64.9 months) participated in the study. Children were classified as either gender schematic or aschematic based upon responses to a computerized measure of different sex stereotype components. Children's play behavior with gender typical and atypical, attractive and unattractive, toys was videotaped. An observer was present for half the children's play and absent for the other half's play. Observation status affected the aschematic, but not the schematic, children's play with gender typical toys. For example, observed aschematic boys spent a greater percent of time playing with the unattractive masculine toys compared to unobserved aschematic boys. This difference was not apparent for schematic boys. Additionally, a difference found for schematic boys was not apparent in schematic girls, i.e., when unobserved, schematic boys tended to spend a greater percent of time playing with the unattractive masculine toy than aschematic boys. Further, some differences were found for unattractive, and not attractive, toys. For instance, observed aschematic boys spent a greater percent of time playing with the unattractive masculine toy than did the unobserved aschematic boys. This gap was not found for the attractive masculine toy. Results are discussed with reference to the accessibility and complexity of gender schemas. PMID:18299975

Wilansky-Traynor, Pamela; Lobel, Thalma E

2008-08-01

211

Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

Y?lmaz, Serkan; Ery?lmaz, Ali

2010-08-01

212

Sex Differences During the Early Separation-Individuation Process: Implications for Gender Identity Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations made in a nursery setting of 22 infants 9 to 12 months old suggest that girls become aware of psychological separateness earlier than do boys. The nature of the infant's means of coping, the relation to mother and to play objects, and maternal handling differences are also reported. Implications for gender identity formation are discussed.

Wendy Olesker

1990-01-01

213

Gender differences in risk behaviors of nursing students at the University of Seville.  

PubMed

The importance of studying risky behaviors in youth is determined by the initiation, development, and consolidation of different behaviors at this vital stage of life. Gender, as a cross-category analysis, has become one of the most decisive factors in the study of these behaviors. The aim of our study is to analyze the role of gender in risky behaviors (sexuality, road safety, and toxin consumption) of nursing students at the University of Seville. It is an analytical, observational, cross-sectional, and retrospective study. A self-administered questionnaire (N = 220) for first-year nursing students was used. Results indicate that gender is a variable that explains, from the unequal presence of men and women in pursuing nursing degrees, the different risky behaviors they adopt. The sample shows that risky behaviors among university students who are interested in health sciences are similar to those reported by younger people in the same and different context. PMID:25202812

Barrientos-Trigo, Sergio; Gil-García, Eugenia; Porcel-Gálvez, Ana M

2014-01-01

214

Gender Differences in Leg Stiffness and Stiffness Recruitment Strategy During Two-Legged Hopping  

PubMed Central

The authors compared leg stiffness (KVERT), muscle activation, and joint movement patterns between 11 men and 10 women during hopping. Physically active and healthy men and women performed continuous 2-legged hopping at their preferred rate and at 3.0 Hz. Compared with men, women demonstrated decreased KVERT; however, after the authors normalized for body mass, gender differences in KVERT were eliminated. In comparison with men, women also demonstrated increased quadriceps and soleus activity, as well as greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratios. There were no significant gender differences for joint movement patterns (p > .05). The relationship between the observed gender differences in muscle recruitment and the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women requires further study. PMID:15730945

Padua, Darin A.; Arnold, Brent L.; Carcia, Christopher R.; Granata, Kevin P.

2006-01-01

215

Evidence for Gender Differences in Cognition, Emotion and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease?  

PubMed Central

A number of gender differences have been documented in the incidence and symptomatology of the second most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Overall, previous reports suggest a less frequent incidence and a more benign phenotype in women mainly in Western populations, which is thought to be mediated by estrogens in particular in early stages of the disease. Not only motor symptoms seem to underlie gender effects, but also non-motor symptoms such as psychiatric and cognitive impairments, which can often precede motor manifestation. However, reliable results for gender differences in PD in particular of cognitive function and emotion processing, having a major impact on quality of life, are lacking. Moreover, studies investigating gender effects in PD in these areas have revealed highly heterogeneous results. The present review summarizes findings of currently available studies on gender effects on neuropsychological tests covering major cognitive domains, emotion processing as well as quality of life in patients with PD. Overall, the occurrence of cognitive impairment in PD seems to be associated with male gender, though inconsistent results were shown in cognitive screening tests. Regarding emotion recognition, men with PD were found to be less accurate than women with PD at identifying fearful expressions, whereas vice versa results appeared in healthy subjects. Lower quality of life and greater disability were reported by women compared to men with PD, which corresponds with the results in healthy subjects. Several disease-specific mediators as well as the question of a general gender and age-related effect as observed in healthy individuals are discussed. Increased knowledge on possible gender effects in PD would provide an enhanced insight in underlying pathological mechanisms, and has potential implications for the diagnosis and treatment of PD. PMID:24490118

Heller, Julia; Dogan, Imis; Schulz, Jörg B.; Reetz, Kathrin

2014-01-01

216

Gender and ethnic differences in readiness to change smoking behavior.  

PubMed

The Transtheoretical Model has been used extensively to investigate smoking behavior. However, gender and ethnic differences in key constructs of the Transtheoretical Model have not been fully evaluated. This gap in the literature is addressed in this brief report. We examined gender and ethnic differences in stages of change (readiness to quit smoking), perceived pros (benefits) and cons (costs) of smoking, and self-efficacy (confidence) in ability to quit among smokers seeking cessation treatment. Participants were 330 smokers ages 18 to 75, who responded to advertisements for a free minimal-contact smoking cessation program. Thirty percent of women were confident they could quit smoking compared to 53% of men. Women reported more pros of smoking and more cons of smoking than men. White smokers reported more pros of smoking than African smokers. These findings highlight the need to bolster quitting confidence among women and to identify alternatives to the pros of smoking relevant to women smokers. PMID:9332155

Audrain, J; Gomez-Caminero, A; Robertson, A R; Boyd, R; Orleans, C T; Lerman, C

1997-01-01

217

Gender Differences on the Math Subtest of the Scholastic Aptitude Test may be Culture-Specific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-cultural studies can shed new light on theories of gender differences in cognition. In the present study, Chinese students were given items from the math subtest of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) that have been found to produce the largest gender differences in American students. The authors describe how four different explanations of gender differences make different predictions regarding the

James P. Byrnes; Li Hong; Shaoying Xing

1997-01-01

218

Gender differences in object location memory: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study was to quantify the magnitude of gender differences in object location memory tasks. A total\\u000a of 123 effect sizes (d ) drawn from 36 studies were included in a meta-analysis using a hierarchical approach. Object identity memory (37 effect\\u000a sizes) and object location memory (86 effect sizes) tasks were analyzed separately. Object identity memory

Daniel Voyer; Albert Postma; Brandy Brake; Julianne Imperato-McGinley

2007-01-01

219

Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviewers have consistently concluded that males perform better on mathematics tests than females do. To make a refined assessment of the magnitude of gender differences in mathematics performance, we performed a meta-analysis of 100 studies. They yielded 254 independent effect sizes, representing the testing of 3,175,188 Ss. Averaged over all effect sizes based on samples of the general population, d

Janet Shibley Hyde; Elizabeth Fennema; Susan J. Lamon

1990-01-01

220

Naming Oneself Criminal: Gender Difference in Offenders’ Identity Negotiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative research examines gender differences in offenders’ability to negotiate a positive identity once the pejorative labels of criminal, prostitute, drug dealer, and incompetent parents have been imputed onto them. In-depth semi-structured focused interviews were conducted with a purposeful information-rich sample of eight male and eight female offenders. Content analysis reveals that males were much more adept than female offenders

Brenda Geiger; Michael Fischer

2005-01-01

221

Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

2014-01-01

222

Gender and sex differences in job status and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesStudies have shown greater health risks associated with blue-collar manufacturing employment for women than men. It remains challenging, however, to distinguish gendered job status (affected by family composition and other personal characteristics) from sex-linked biological differences influencing physiological response to workplace physical hazards.MethodsWe examined the effects of hourly (blue-collar) status on incident hypertension among men and women, using health claims

Jane E Clougherty; Ellen A Eisen; Martin D Slade; Ichiro Kawachi; Mark R Cullen

2010-01-01

223

Gender-related clinical differences in obsessive-compulsive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the gender-related differences of clinical features in a sample of obsessive-compulsive (OCD) patients. One hundred and sixty outpatients with a principal diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-IV, Y-BOCS = 16) were admitted. Patients were evaluated with a semi-structured interview covering the following areas: socio-demographic data, Axis I diagnoses (DSM-IV), OCD clinical features

F Bogetto; S Venturello; U Albert; G Maina; L Ravizza

1999-01-01

224

Gender Differences in the Functional and Structural Neuroanatomy of Mathematical Cognition  

PubMed Central

Despite ongoing debate about the nature of gender differences in mathematics achievement, little is known about gender similarities and differences in mathematical cognition at the neural level. We used fMRI to compare brain responses in 25 females and 24 males during a mental arithmetic task involving 3-operand addition and subtraction. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gender differences in brain structure. Although females and males did not differ in accuracy or response times (effect size d < 0.3), significant gender differences in functional brain activation were observed in the right dorsal and ventral visuo-spatial information processing streams (d > 1.1). Males showed greater dorsal stream activation in right intra-parietal sulcus areas important for numerical cognition, and angular gyrus regions of the default mode network that are typically deactivated during complex cognitive tasks, as well as greater ventral stream activation in the right lingual and parahippocampal gyri. VBM revealed an opposite pattern of gender differences – compared to males, females had greater regional density and greater regional volume in dorsal and ventral stream regions where males showed greater fMRI activation. There were no brain areas where females showed greater functional activation than males, and no brain areas where males showed greater structural density or volume than females. Our findings provide evidence for gender differences in the functional and structural organization of right hemisphere brain areas involved in mathematical cognition. Together with the lack of behavioral differences, our results point to more efficient use of neural processing resources in females. PMID:19376239

Keller, Katherine; Menon, Vinod

2010-01-01

225

Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Incident Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men with diabetes. Previous cross-sectional studies of prevalent diabetes have found that women are less likely to meet ADA and AHA guidelines for control of cardiovascular risk factors (hemoglobin A1c, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure), but have not studied the critical period immediately after diagnosis. Methods To assess gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors at the time of diabetes diagnosis (baseline) and one year later (follow-up), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6,547 individuals with incident diabetes in an integrated care delivery system. We assessed mean cardiovascular risk factor values by gender and adjusted odds ratios of attaining ADA goals. Findings Compared with men, at baseline women had lower hemoglobin A1c (7.9% vs. 8.2%, P<0.001), higher LDL cholesterol (118.9 vs. 111.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (131.9 vs. 130.5 mmHg, P<0.001), and lower diastolic blood pressure (79.1 vs. 79.7 mmHg, P=0.006). At follow-up, the hemoglobin A1c gender gap had closed (6.9% vs. 6.9%, P=0.39), and the gender gaps had decreased for blood pressure (129.8/77.0 vs. 128.9/77.6, P=0.009) and LDL cholesterol (104.0 vs 98.2 mg/dL, P<0.001). These associations varied by age. Adjusted odds ratios showed similar relationships. Conclusions In this cohort of individuals with incident diabetes, men and women had important differences in risk factor control at the time of diabetes diagnosis. These differences varied by age, and decreased over time. PMID:24439948

Schroeder, Emily B.; Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Daugherty, Stacie L.; Steiner, John F.

2014-01-01

226

Gender Differences in Fatigue Associated With Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Fatigue is a symptom of acute myocardial infarction (AMI); however, few studies have characterized the fatigue associated with AMI in men and women. METHODS The convenience sample included 88 men and 28 women admitted with a diagnosis of AMI at 6 Midwestern facilities. Data were collected upon hospital admission and 30 days after discharge. A total of 37 men and 10 women responded to the 30-day questionnaires. The Profile of Mood States Fatigue (POMS-F) subscale was used to measure fatigue and the Depression-Dejection subscale to measure depressed mood. RESULTS At baseline, significant gender differences were found, with women more likely to have higher POMS-F scores (15.80, SD = 7.33) than men (11.19, SD = 7.04, P = .004). Significant gender differences were also found at 30 days (t = 2.40, df = 45, P = .02). POMS-F scores for women were higher at baseline, with decreased fatigue levels 30 days after discharge (t = 5.36, df = 9, P ? .05). No differences were found in POMS-F scores for men (t = 1.26, df = 36, P = .213) between baseline and 30 days after discharge. Fatigue was associated with depressed mood and gender at baseline (R2 = 0.48, P < .05) and 30 days after discharge (R2 = 0.308, P < .05). CONCLUSIONS In this sample, fatigue at baseline and at 30 days after discharge was associated with gender and depressed mood. Women reported high levels of fatigue with AMI and lower fatigue after discharge. Men reported moderate to high fatigue levels, which did not change over time. Further research is needed to discern fatigue patterns before and after AMI. PMID:20216323

Fennessy, Michelle M.; Fink, Anne M.; Eckhardt, Ann L.; Jones, Jessica; Kruse, Donna K.; VanderZwan, Kathryn J.; Ryan, Catherine J.; Zerwic, Julie Johnson

2010-01-01

227

Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

1991-01-01

228

Gender differences in factors influencing electrocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy in severe aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

We investigated gender differences in factors influencing the electrocardiographic (ECG) findings of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). The functional and geometric responses of the left ventricle to chronic pressure overload, such as hypertension and AS, have been reported to be different between men and women. However, gender differences in the factors influencing the ECG findings of LVH in pressure overload remain unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study in consecutive patients with severe AS (aortic valve area (AVA) assessed by cardiac catheterization <1.0 cm(2)) without concomitant significant aortic regurgitation, mitral stenosis and/or regurgitation, conduction disturbance, or myocardial infarction (n = 35 males, 68 females). The ECG criteria were classified into three categories: (1) high voltage by the Sokolow-Lyon index associated with ST-T wave changes (with no digitalis therapy); (2) high voltage alone; and (3) normal. Groups 1 and 2 were defined as LVH on ECG. We compared the ECG findings in relation to the AS severity between genders. Women were older, but there were no significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, AVA index (AVAI), mean pressure gradient or peak velocity across the AV, LV mass index (LVMI) derived from echocardiography or the distribution of ECG categories between genders. A multiple logistic regression analysis including age, gender, hypertension, AVAI, mean pressure gradient, and LVMI revealed that the LVMI (P = 0.001) and AVAI (P = 0.0434) were significantly related to the distribution of ECG categories. LVMI significantly predicted LVH on ECG in both genders, but AVAI was a predictive factor in only women. ECG LVH in patients with severe AS may be mainly reflected by LVMI in men and by both LVMI and AVAI in women. Factors other than AVA, such as end-stage disease and/or complicating factors such as hypertension, may underlie the observed differences in ECG findings of LVH between men and women. PMID:23979264

Satoh, Shinji; Omura, Soichiro; Inoue, Hiroko; Ejima, Emiko; Shimozono, Koutatsu; Hayashi, Makiko; Mori, Takahiro; Takenaka, Katsuhiko; Kawamura, Natsumi; Numaguchi, Kotaro; Mori, Etsuo; Asoh, Akemi; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Hiyamuta, Koji

2014-09-01

229

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-12-01

230

Gender differences in the symptoms of major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2 were used for a gender analysis of individual symptoms and overall rates of depression in the preceding 12 months. Major depressive disorder was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in this national, cross-sectional survey. The female to male ratio of major depressive disorder prevalence was 1.64:1, with n = 1766 having experienced depression (men 668, women 1098). Women reported statistically more depressive symptoms than men (p < 0.001). Depressed women were more likely to report "increased appetite" (15.5% vs. 10.7%), being "often in tears" (82.6% vs. 44.0%), "loss of interest" (86.9% vs. 81.1%), and "thoughts of death" (70.3% vs. 63.4%). No significant gender differences were found for the remaining symptoms. The data are interpreted against women's greater tendency to cry and to restrict food intake when not depressed. The question is raised whether these items preferentially bias assessment of gender differences in depression, particularly in nonclinic samples. PMID:18000452

Romans, Sarah E; Tyas, Jeanette; Cohen, Marsha M; Silverstone, Trevor

2007-11-01

231

Gender differences in the physiological responses and kinematic behaviour of elite sprint cross-country skiers.  

PubMed

Gender differences in performance by elite endurance athletes, including runners, track cyclists and speed skaters, have been shown to be approximately 12%. The present study was designed to examine gender differences in physiological responses and kinematics associated with sprint cross-country skiing. Eight male and eight female elite sprint cross-country skiers, matched for performance, carried out a submaximal test, a test of maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) and a shorter test of maximal treadmill speed (V (max)) during treadmill roller skiing utilizing the G3 skating technique. The men attained 17% higher speeds during both the VO(2max) and the V (max) tests (P < 0.05 in both cases), differences that were reduced to 9% upon normalization for fat-free body mass. Furthermore, the men exhibited 14 and 7% higher VO(2max) relative to total and fat-free body mass, respectively (P < 0.05 in both cases). The gross efficiency was similar for both gender groups. At the same absolute speed, men employed 11% longer cycles at lower rates, and at peak speed, 21% longer cycle lengths (P < 0.05 in all cases). The current study documents approximately 5% larger gender differences in performance and VO(2max) than those reported for comparable endurance sports. These differences reflect primarily the higher VO(2max) and lower percentage of body fat in men, since no gender differences in the ability to convert metabolic rate into work rate and speed were observed. With regards to kinematics, the gender difference in performance was explained by cycle length, not by cycle rate. PMID:21748369

Sandbakk, Oyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Leirdal, Stig; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

2012-03-01

232

Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use of either nest or song perch sites in vegetation analyses can result in misleading, or at least incomplete, descriptions of a species' habitat. Habitat interpretations for Willow Flycatchers (and perhaps for many passerines) are a function of the gender-specific behavior of the birds observed and the scale of vegetation measurement.

Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

1992-01-01

233

Gender Differences in Functional Status in Middle and Older Age: Are There Any Age Variations?  

PubMed Central

Objectives The present study examines gender differences in changes in functional status after age 50 and how such differences vary across different age groups. Methods Data came from the Health and Retirement Study, involving up to six repeated observations of a national sample of Americans older than 50 years of age between 1995 and 2006. We employed hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates in depicting temporal variations in functional status between men and women. Results As a quadratic function, the worsening of functional status was more accelerated in terms of the intercept and rate of change among women and those in older age groups. In addition, gender differences in the level of functional impairment were more substantial in older persons than in younger individuals, although differences in the rate of change between men and women remained constant across age groups. Discussion A life course perspective can lead to new insights regarding gender variations in health within the context of intrapersonal and interpersonal differences. Smaller gender differences in the level of functional impairment in the younger groups may reflect improvement of women’s socioeconomic status, greater rate of increase in chronic diseases among men, and less debilitating effects of diseases. PMID:18818448

Liang, Jersey; Bennett, Joan M.; Shaw, Benjamin A.; Quiñones, Ana R.; Ye, Wen; Xu, Xiao; Ofstedal, Mary Beth

2010-01-01

234

Gender differences in science misconceptions in eighth grade astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between gender and science misconceptions at the eighth grade level. This study attempted to ascertain if there are significant differences between genders in the number and types of science misconceptions eighth grade science students have. The specific misconceptions used in this investigation concern gravity, seasons, and phases of the moon. It remains a serious problem in science education that girls are being inadequately trained to question and reflect on their science understandings. It has been suggested that girls may have more problems with misconceptions than do boys. In keeping with the constructivist ideas as to what constitutes an effective way to teach science (Burke, 1995; Lorsbach & Tobin, 2000) this study explored the ability of students to understand theoretical and conceptual principles of science. The data for this study was obtained using the methodology of a multiple choice survey which contains common misconceptions and the correct answers as choices. This survey was administered to eighth grade students in a large suburban school district by their science teachers. Interviews of a randomly selected sample group of 20 (10 boys and 10 girls) were conducted by the researcher. The results of the study used a t-test to compare boys and girls to see if there was a significant difference in types and/or number of science misconceptions. A matrix of possible answers to the survey was used to analyze the results of the interviews. There was a statistically significant difference between the means for the two groups, indicating a gender difference in knowledge of astronomy concepts. The results of the interviews also showed a difference in astronomy knowledge and background information. In addition the interviews showed that girls were very unsure of their answers while boys defended their answers even when they were incorrect.

Gray, Pamela A.

235

Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

2011-01-01

236

Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient availability  

E-print Network

Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient photosynthetic rates across treatments. · Our results suggest that genders invest N surplus in different al., 2006). However, reproductive costs are often not detected because genders might have different

Villar-Salvador, Pedro

237

Gender Differences in Spatial Awareness in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Preliminary Investigation  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Spatial Awareness in Immersive Virtual Environments: A Preliminary.mania@ced.tuc.gr Abstract This paper presents an experiment exploring gender differences in spatial navigation, memory compared to consistent objects. Furthermore, a clear gender difference was found with female participants

Mania, Katerina

238

WORKING PAPER N 2009 -36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs  

E-print Network

WORKING PAPER N° 2009 - 36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs: Females trapped SUP�RIEURE halshs-00575011,version1-9Mar2011 #12;Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs: Females Abstract In this paper, we propose a job assignment model allowing for a gender difference in access

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

239

RESEARCH Open Access Age and gender difference in non-drafting  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

240

Replicating a Self-Affirmation Intervention to Address Gender Differences: Successes and Challenges  

E-print Network

Replicating a Self-Affirmation Intervention to Address Gender Differences: Successes and Challenges gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we gender differences in the first-semester, calculus-based mechanics course (Physics 1) at the University

Colorado at Boulder, University of

241

Gender differences in aggression as a function of provocation: A meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we meta-analytically examine experimental studies to assess the moderating effect of provocation on gender differences in aggression, Convergent evidence shows that, whereas unpro- voked men are more aggressive than women, provocation markedly attenuates this gender difference. Gender differences in appraisals of provocation intensity and fear of danger from retaliation (but not negative affect) partially mediate the attenuating

B. Ann Bettencourt; Norman Miller

1996-01-01

242

Gender-specific differences and the impact of family integration on time trends in  

E-print Network

Gender-specific differences and the impact of family integration on time trends in age-stratified suicide rates of Swiss men and women aged 15­79 and analysed gender-specific differences from 1950 variables can be included. We found strong gender- specific differences in suicide mortality. While the same

Zurich, University of

243

Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone  

E-print Network

Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone Paola concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aver- sion disappeared Women are, on average, more risk averse than men in financial decision-making (1). Gender differences

Maestripieri, Dario

244

Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: Robust and surprising findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas

Antonio Terracciano; Robert R. McCrae

2001-01-01

245

Behavioral and Physiological Findings of Gender Differences in Global-Local Visual Processing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are gender differences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies gender differences in cognition, the literature on gender differences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during…

Roalf, David; Lowery, Natasha; Turetsky, Bruce I.

2006-01-01

246

Gender Differences in Confidence Levels, Group Interactions, and Feelings about Competition in an Introductory Robotics Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classroom environment influences each student's educational experience. The aim of this classroom evaluation was to gain a better understanding of how each gender functions in an introductory robotics class, where LEGOs and ROBOLAB were used as a tool to teach engineering principles and basic robotics concepts. A better understanding of how each gender performs in reaction to the classroom setup will hopefully lead to the development of a learning environment that is mutually beneficial to each gender. The course, a general freshman introduction to engineering, targeted for this evaluation required students to complete robotic challenges while working within groups and participating in design competitions. The present evaluation explored gender differences in self-confidence levels related to robotic tasks, feelings toward competitions as a component of the course, and differences in the way males and females interact within groups. Assessment was conducted through interviews, observations, and written questionnaires. Competency in robotics activities was found to be similar although males were found to be more confident of their own abilities. Both genders felt the competitions were enjoyable and integral to the atmosphere of the class. Males in the class took the competitions more seriously than did the females. Building and programming robots were thought to be their greatest areas of learning by the women. Males, on the other hand, cited working in groups and learning to compromise as the areas where they made the greatest improvements.

Milto, Elissa; Portsmore, Merredith; Rogers, Chris

2010-02-19

247

Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

2012-02-01

248

Gender Differences in Treatment Outcomes Among Participants in a Mixed-Gender Substance Abuse Aftercare Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined gender and gender-related predictors in multiple outcomes of substance abuse aftercare treatment among 78 females and 141 males enrolled in a mixed-gender aftercare program in Massachusetts from 1994 to 1996. Female participants entered the program with higher needs than their male counterparts, showing a worse condition in almost all baseline characteristics, of which many are statistically significant.

Hyong Suk Yeom

2011-01-01

249

Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

2010-01-01

250

Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

2006-01-01

251

Gender Differences in Smoking Behaviors in an Asian Population  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. Methods In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. Results The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Conclusions Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates. PMID:18681817

Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N.

2008-01-01

252

Injury to cotton by adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states.  

PubMed

Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). However, no clear relationship between Lygus population level and plant injury has been established. Age-dependent feeding activity by L. hesperus is a possible source of variation that has not been examined for its influence in studies of the impact of Lygus on cotton. Recent video-based laboratory studies indicated that feeding behaviors and trivial movement varied among L. hesperus adults of different gender and reproductive states (prereproductive; reproductive and unmated; and reproductive and mated). We compared within-plant distributions and accumulations of feeding injury to intact cotton plants corresponding to adult L. hesperus of different gender and reproductive states. Adult females, regardless of reproductive state, were observed on squares and axillary buds more often than were males. Additionally, prereproductive adults were observed on squares and axillary buds more often than were mated or unmated reproductive adults, regardless of gender. Plants that were exposed to prereproductive adults exhibited more abscised squares and more squares with injured anthers compared with plants exposed to reproductive adults. However, feeding injury did not differ by insect mating status or gender. These results are consistent with results of our previous video-based assays, and indicate adult reproductive state represents a source of variation that should be controlled in studies to evaluate Lygus-induced injury to cotton and other crop plants. PMID:22507007

Cooper, W Rodney; Spurgeon, Dale W

2012-04-01

253

Gender differences in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether there are differences between men and women patients who have chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and, if\\u000a so, to ascertain whether a gender-related pattern exists.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: A descriptive study of demographic, clinical, and psychosocial measures, the results of which were prospectively collected\\u000a for patients who had CFS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: A university-based referral clinic devoted to the evaluation and

Dedra Buchwald; Tsilke Pearlman; Phalla Kith; Karen Schmaling

1994-01-01

254

EB 2006 Refresher Course - Gender Differences in Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology, and in the pathophysiology of disease. This refresher course will provide an overview of this new information, with the goal of providing teachers of medical students with the background necessary to include the most important aspects of sex-based differences in their medical student curricula. The presentations will discuss both male and female physiology, and will address sex-based differences due to the actions of both androgens and the ovarian steroid hormones. The presentation topics include gender differences in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, the musculoskeletal system, the central nervous system, and the immune system.

PhD Martha L. Blair (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Department of Pharmacology and Physiology); Margaret E. Wierman (University of Colorado Veterans Affairs Medical Center); PhD Virginia H. Huxley (University of Missouri School of Medicine Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology); PhD Marybeth Brown (University of Missouri-Columbia Dept of Physical Therapy)

2006-04-01

255

Gender Differences in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Treatment Implications  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea is a common cause of daytime sleepiness for millions of Americans. It is also a disease associated with an increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. A number of population based studies have shown that obstructive sleep apnea is more common in men than in women and this discrepancy is often evident in the clinical setting. There are a number of pathophysiological differences to suggest why men are more prone to the disease than women. Although the exact mechanisms are unknown, differences in obesity, upper airway anatomy, breathing control, hormones, and aging are all thought to play a role. The purpose of this review was to examine the literature on gender differences in obstructive sleep apnea and to analyze whether or not these differences in pathogenic mechanisms affect diagnosis or treatment. PMID:18951050

Lin, Christine M.; Davidson, Terence M.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

2009-01-01

256

Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

2014-07-01

257

Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use  

PubMed Central

Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

2008-01-01

258

Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (p<0.001). Pre BR males were modeled by a linear RR response to SBP (p=0.000) while females had a quadratic response which saturated at high SBP (p=0.019). By day 30, both genders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (p<0.001) when compared to pre BR. Females had a higher SBS than males pre BR (p=0.006). Females exhibited saturating SBS at higher SBP (p=0.016) on day 30, while males were modeled by a linear SBS response to SBP (p=0.035). NE: Females had different NE response to diastolic BP than males pre BR (p=0.035) and on day 30 (p=0.005). CONCLUSION: NE, RR and SBS responses to BP are affected by gender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.

Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

2009-01-01

259

Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

2014-01-01

260

Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

2014-01-01

261

Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

2010-01-01

262

A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2010-01-01

263

Beliefs and Gender Differences: A New Model for Research in Mathematics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major focus of this study is to propose a new research model, namely the Modified CGI gender model, for the study of gender differences in mathematics. This model is developed based on Fennema, Carpenter, and Peterson's (1989) CGI model. To examine the validity of this new model, this study also examines the gender differences in teacher and…

Li, Qing

2004-01-01

264

Gender Differences in Large-Scale Math Assessments: PISA Trend 2000 and 2003  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many efforts have been made to determine and explain differential gender performance on large-scale mathematics assessments. A well-agreed-on conclusion is that gender differences are contextualized and vary across math domains. This study investigated the pattern of gender differences by item domain (e.g., Space and Shape, Quantity) and item type…

Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark

2009-01-01

265

Gender Differences in Verbal Communication between Popular and Unpopular Children during an Interactive Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in communication effectiveness between popular and unpopular 5- to 7-year-old children. Because previous research suggests that there may be gender differences in how popular and unpopular children communicate with each other, 24 same-gender pairs (each containing a popular and an unpopular child) were…

Murphy, Suzanne M.; Faulkner, Dorothy

2006-01-01

266

Gender Differences in Paediatric Patients of the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Gender differences in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently reported as a secondary outcome and the results are divergent. To assess gender differences by analysing data collected within the Swiss IBD cohort study database since 2008, related to children with IBD, using the Montreal classification for a systematic approach. Methods Data on gender, age, anthropometrics, disease location at diagnosis, disease behaviour, and therapy of 196 patients, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 91 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) were retrieved and analysed. Results The crude gender ratio (male : female) of patients with CD diagnosed at <10 years of age was 2.57, the adjusted ratio was 2.42, and in patients with UC/IC it was 0.68 and 0.64 respectively. The non-adjusted gender ratio of patients diagnosed at ?10 years was 1.58 for CD and 0.88 for UC/IC. Boys with UC/IC diagnosed <10 years of age had a longer diagnostic delay, and in girls diagnosed with UC/IC >10 years a more important use of azathioprine was observed. No other gender difference was found after analysis of age, disease location and behaviour at diagnosis, duration of disease, familial occurrence of IBD, prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations, complications, and requirement for surgery. Conclusion CD in children <10 years affects predominantly boys with a sex ratio of 2.57; the impact of sex-hormones on the development of CD in pre-pubertal male patients should be investigated. PMID:25349830

Herzog, Denise; Buehr, Patrick; Koller, Rebekka; Rueger, Vanessa; Heyland, Klaas; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes; Schibli, Susanne

2014-01-01

267

Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).

Baxter, R.K.

1987-01-01

268

Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

2009-01-01

269

Gender and age differences in parent-child emotion talk.  

PubMed

This study examined gender differences in emotion word use during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Emotion talk was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Mothers mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers. During the play-related storytelling task, mothers of 4-year-old daughters mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did mothers of 4-year-old sons, whereas fathers of 4-year-old daughters directed a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers of 4-year-old sons during the reminiscence task. No gender differences were found with parents of 6-year-old children. During the reminiscence task daughters mentioned more emotion words with their fathers than with their mothers. Finally, mothers' use of emotion talk was related to whether children used emotion talk in both tasks. Fathers' use of emotion talk was only related to children's emotion talk during the reminiscence task. PMID:25387786

Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

2015-03-01

270

Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students  

PubMed Central

Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

2013-01-01

271

Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.  

PubMed

Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

1994-01-01

272

Teachers' beliefs and gender differences in mathematics: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the literature related to gender issues and teachers' beliefs regarding mathematics education is reviewed. The first part concerns teacher gender, including those aspects not directly dealing with teacher beliefs. Some studies related to teachers' beliefs considering gender as a variable are also reported. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research. To assist readers in visualizing how

Qing Li

1999-01-01

273

Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

2011-01-01

274

Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze pharmacological interactions among drugs taken by elderly patients and their age and gender differences in a population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database provided by the Institute of Geriatric and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The database was composed of 438 elderly and includes information about the patients' disease, therapy regimens, utilized drugs. All drugs reported by the elderly patients were classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification System. The drug-drug interactions and their severity were assessed using the Micromedex® Healthcare Series. RESULTS: Of the 438 elderly patients in the data base, 376 (85.8%) used pharmacotherapy, 274 were female, and 90.4% of females used drugs. The average number of drugs used by each individual younger than 80 years was 3.2±2.6. Women younger than 80 years old used more drugs than men in the same age group whereas men older than 80 years increased their use of drugs in relation to other age groups. Therefore, 32.6% of men and 49.2% of women described at least one interaction, and 8.1% of men and 10.6% of women described four or more potential drug-drug interactions. Two-thirds of drug-drug interactions were moderate in both genders, and most of them involved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, loop and thiazide diuretics, and ?-blockers. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients should be closely monitored, based on drug class, gender, age group and nutritional status. PMID:22086515

Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luísa Scheer; de Araújo Zago, Luísa Faria; Schroeter, Guilherme; Gomes, Irenio; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

2011-01-01

275

Gender difference added? Institutional variations in the gender gap in first class degree awards in mathematical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article shows how multilevel modelling can be used to study institutional variations in the gender differences in achievement. The results presented are from analyses of the degree classifications of 22,433 individuals who graduated in mathematical sciences, from universities in the UK, between 1994\\/95 and 1999\\/2000. The analyses were designed to measure gender differences in the achievement of first class

Vanessa Simonite

2005-01-01

276

Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults  

PubMed Central

This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

2015-01-01

277

Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults.  

PubMed

This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

2015-01-01

278

Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.  

PubMed

This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors. PMID:25112219

Lam, Desmond

2014-08-12

279

SVM Method used to Study Gender Differences Based on Microelement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

[objective] Intelligent Algorithm of SVM is used for studying gender differences based on microelement data, which provide reference For the application of Microelement in healthy people, such as providing technical support for the investigation of cases.[Method] Our Long-term test results on hair microelement of health people were consolidated. Support vector machine (SVM) is used to classified model of male and female based on microelement data. The radical basis function (RBF) is adopted as a kernel function of SVM, and the model adjusts C and ? to build the optimization classifier, [Result] Healthy population of men and women of manganese, cadmium and nickel are quite different, The classified model of Microelement based on SVM can classifies the male and female, the correct classification ratio set to be 81.71% and 66.47% by SVM based on 7 test date and 3 test data selection. [conclusion] The classified model of microelement data based on SVM can classifies male and female.

Chun, Yang; Yuan, Liu; Jun, Du; Bin, Tang

280

Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

2008-01-01

281

Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender

Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Linn, Marcia C.

2010-01-01

282

The Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences in  

E-print Network

States of America Abstract Many studies demonstrate that there is still a significant gender bias gender biases [4]. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain the gradual loss of women along the STEMThe Possible Role of Resource Requirements and Academic Career-Choice Risk on Gender Differences

Radicchi, Filippo

283

WORKING PAPER N 2013 25 Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs  

E-print Network

to highlight the gender bias in promotions but it remains purely descriptive. We propose a more precise measure of this gender bias which can be justi...ed with a microfounded framework. Our work builds on the literatureWORKING PAPER N° 2013 ­ 25 Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs Laurent Gobillon

Boyer, Edmond

284

Gender Differences in Instrumental Learning among Secondary School Students in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7-13) within Western and non-Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender

Ho, Wai-Chung

2009-01-01

285

Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: assessing sex and gender differences  

PubMed Central

With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24470773

Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A

2014-01-01

286

Gender differences in loss of psychological resources following experimentally-induced vicarious stress.  

PubMed

The present research focuses on gender differences in resource loss, perceived threat, and negative affective reactions induced by experimental manipulation of vicarious stress. Israeli students (54.7% women) were randomly allocated to one of two conditions: (1) Threat Condition (n=98), in which participants were exposed to a video film depicting terror attacks and (2) Control Condition (n=30), in which participants viewed a video film depicting a series of non-emotive news broadcasts. Participants also completed measures of mastery, optimism, and self-esteem. The data indicated that whereas under the Threat Condition women scored lower on psychological resources and higher on perceived threat than men, no significant gender differences were observed under the Control Condition. A path analysis revealed that gender was directly related to perceived threat and resource loss, which, in turn, were related to negative affect. In addition, a greater sense of mastery was related to lower resource loss. Overall, these experimental findings suggest that gender and mastery bear prominent effects on cognitive and emotional reactions to vicarious life threat. PMID:21988457

Ben-Zur, Hasida; Zeidner, Moshe

2012-07-01

287

Gender-related differences in the burden of non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Differences in the expression of non-motor symptoms (NMS) by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients may have important implications for their management and prognosis. Gender is a basic epidemiological variable that could influence such expression. The present study evaluated the prevalence and severity of NMS by gender in an international sample of 951 PD patients, 62.63% males, using the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS). Assessments for motor impairment and complications, global severity, and health state were also applied. All disease stages were included. No significant gender differences were found for demographic and clinical characteristics. For the entire sample, the most prevalent symptoms were Nocturia (64.88%) and Fatigue (62.78%) and the most prevalent affected domains were Sleep/Fatigue (84.02%) and Miscellaneous (82.44%). Fatigue, feelings of nervousness, feelings of sadness, constipation, restless legs, and pain were more common and severe in women. On the contrary, daytime sleepiness, dribbling saliva, interest in sex, and problems having sex were more prevalent and severe in men. Regarding the NMSS domains, Mood/Apathy and Miscellaneous problems (pain, loss of taste or smell, weight change, and excessive sweating) were predominantly affected in women and Sexual dysfunction in men. No other significant differences by gender were observed. To conclude, in this study significant differences between men and women in prevalence and severity of fatigue, mood, sexual and digestive problems, pain, restless legs, and daytime sleepiness were found. Gender-related patterns of NMS involvement may be relevant for clinical trials in PD. PMID:22237822

Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Falup Pecurariu, Cristian; Odin, Per; van Hilten, Jacobus J; Antonini, Angelo; Rojo-Abuin, Jose M; Borges, Vanderci; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Aarsland, Dag; Brooks, David J; Ray Chaudhuri, Kallol

2012-08-01

288

Gender differences in BOLD activation to face photographs and video vignettes.  

PubMed

Few neuroimaging studies have reported gender differences in response to human emotions, and those that have examined such differences have utilized face photographs. This study presented not only human face photographs of positive and negative emotions, but also video vignettes of positive and negative social human interactions in an attempt to provide a more ecologically appropriate stimuli paradigm. Ten male and 10 female healthy right-handed young adults were shown positive and negative affective social human faces and video vignettes to elicit gender differences in social/emotional perception. Conservative ROI (region of interest) analysis indicated greater male than female activation to positive affective photos in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, all in the right hemisphere. No significant ROI gender differences were observed to negative affective photos. Male greater than female activation was seen in ROIs of the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus to positive social videos. Male greater than female activation occurred in only the left middle temporal ROI for negative social videos. Consistent with previous findings, males were more lateralized than females. Although more activation was observed overall to video compared to photo conditions, males and females appear to process social video stimuli more similarly to one another than they do for photos. This study is a step forward in understanding the social brain with more ecologically valid stimuli that more closely approximates the demands of real-time social and affective processing. PMID:19428627

Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Zhu, David C

2009-07-19

289

Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

2014-12-01

290

The Development of Students' Mathematics Self-Concept in Relation to Gender: Different Countries, Different Trajectories?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in the development of children's and adolescents' academic self-perceptions have received increasing attention in recent years. This study extends previous research by examining the development of mathematics self-concept across grades 7-12 in three cultural settings: Australia (Sydney; N = 1,333), the United States (Michigan; N…

Nagy, Gabriel; Watt, Helen M. G.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Trautwein, Ulrich; Ludtke, Oliver; Baumert, Jurgen

2010-01-01

291

Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. PMID:25180581

Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

2014-01-01

292

Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement: Findings From the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88) national samples were used to investigate gender differences in mathematics achievement. Gender differences were not found when total-group means were compared. When the high end of math score distributions was examined, however, noteworthy gender differences favoring male students emerged. These differences became larger from the 8th grade to the 12th

Xitao Fan; Michael Chen; Audrey R. Matsumoto

1997-01-01

293

Gender \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

Jacqueline Lecarme

2002-01-01

294

Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

Richards, Gayle Patrice

295

Gender Differences in Persistence and Attributions in Stereotype Relevant Contexts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present research was designed to examine the effects of gender math stereotypes on performance attributions and persistence. Two experiments tested whether stereotypes guided men’s and women’s reactions to negative or positive feedback on an alleged test of verbal or math ability. In Study 1, attributions to ability were influenced by gender stereotypes: women were more sensitive to feedback on

Amy Kiefer; Margaret Shih

2006-01-01

296

Authoritarian and Homophobic Attitudes: Gender and Adult Attachment Style Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism,

Barbara Gormley; Frederick G. Lopez

2010-01-01

297

Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

2004-01-01

298

Who's Lagging Now? Gender Differences in Secondary Course Enrollments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generation ago, concern about gender equity in schools prompted both federal and state legislation. In the 1980s, that concern gave way to other educational equity issues, but recent research showing a strong relationship between school curriculum and labor market outcomes for women and men suggests that it is time to reexamine gender equity in educa- tion. Over the last

Anne Danenberg

299

Gender differences in child\\/adolescent personality traits: Slovenes and Russians compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study compared gender differences in parental perceptions of child personality trait expression across different age groups in Slovenia and Russia. The patterns of gender differences in adolescents were further explored using parent and self-rating methods of assessment. Employing the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003) reports on large samples of children\\/ adolescents (2 to 15

Helena R. Slobodskaya; Gennady G. Knyazev

2008-01-01

300

Exploring gender differences with different gain calculations in astronomy and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate differences in learning gains by gender, we collected data in large introductory astronomy and biology courses. Male astronomy students had significantly higher pre- and post-test scores than female students on the astronomy diagnostic test. Male students also had significantly higher pretest and somewhat higher post-test scores than female students on a survey instrument designed for an introductory biology course. For both courses, males had higher learning gains than female students only when the normalized gain measure was utilized. No differences were found with any other measures, including other gain calculations, overall course grades, or individual exams. Implications for using different learning gain measures in science classrooms, as well as for research on learning differences by gender are discussed.

Willoughby, Shannon D.; Metz, Anneke

2009-07-01

301

Gender differences in the functional and structural neuroanatomy of mathematical cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite ongoing debate about the nature of gender differences in mathematics achievement, little is known about gender similarities and differences in mathematical cognition at the neural level. We used fMRI to compare brain responses in 25 females and 24 males during a mental arithmetic task involving 3-operand addition and subtraction. We also used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gender differences

Katherine Keller; Vinod Menon

2009-01-01

302

Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Self-Evaluations of Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has shown that gender differences in self-perceptions exist. However, interpretational ambiguities make it impossible to determine whether these gender differences are due to the operation of biases. The present research investigated whether gender differences in biased self-perceptions exist by assessing the accuracy of posttask self-evaluations of performance. In accordance with self-consistency theory, it was hypothesized that Ss' expectancies affect

Sylvia Beyer; E. Bowden

1990-01-01

303

How large are cognitive gender differences? A meta-analysis using !w² and ^I d  

Microsoft Academic Search

E. E. Maccoby and C. N. Jacklin (1974) concluded that the following cognitive gender differences were well-established: verbal ability, quantitative ability, and visual–spatial ability. The present study applied meta-analysis techniques to studies cited by Maccoby and Jacklin, assessing the magnitude of gender differences using both |w–2 and d statistics. Results indicate that gender differences in all of these abilities were

Janet S. Hyde

1981-01-01

304

Gender differences: Let`s see them in writing  

SciTech Connect

Differences between males and females in the nature of their verbal communication have been documented. The findings of this study have provided a new dimensional to those of previous research. There is support for the idea that among college graduates with similar communication skills, females use written communication as a means of establishing rapport more than males. In a voluntary, relatively unstructured task, females tend to write longer responses and to express themselves by complete thoughts (sentences). Females are also more likely to use first person singular pronouns and first person singular possessive adjectives. There is no support in this situation for gender differences in offering solutions to described program weaknesses. The length of the open-ended responses describing weaknesses and strengths are more closely related to each other than they are to ratings of program satisfaction. This study was unique in that it was based on written communication of college graduates in a voluntary task. Differences in findings from of those of other studies may be due to experience and education of the participants. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Boser, J.A.; Wiley, P.D. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Clark, S.B. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States)

1991-12-31

305

Gender differences in cognitive and affective responses to sexual coercion.  

PubMed

This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame) self-blame, trauma symptoms, and upset at the time of the incident) with respect to their most serious or upsetting sexually coercive experience. The women were more upset than were the men at the time of the incident. Contrary to predictions, the men and women did not differ in the extent to which they attributed blame to themselves or the strength of their internal attributions, guilt, or shame. Both the men and women attributed more blame to the coercer than to themselves; however, the women attributed more blame to the coercer than did the men. The women reported more trauma symptoms than the men did which was related to the finding that more women than men had experienced sexual coercion involving physical force. These results are discussed in terms of the similarities and differences between men's and women's cognitive and affective responses to sexual coercion. PMID:22007110

Byers, E Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A

2012-03-01

306

Gender differences in the employment expectations of final year undergraduates in a university in Central China   

E-print Network

This study investigates the gender differences in final year undergraduates’ employment expectations, broken down by salary expectations, occupational expectations and working region expectations, in a university in ...

Zhu, Jian

2011-11-24

307

Borderline personality disorder in adolescence: exploring gender differences and effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy.  

E-print Network

??This thesis considers Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD), its diagnosis in adolescence and apparent gender differences in diagnosis and treatment. Although often considered within a clinical… (more)

Leather, Amanda

2014-01-01

308

Age, altitude and gender differences in body dimensions.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study ageing process in a high altitude population and a population residing in plains with a special emphasis on gender differences in physical and physiological traits. An endogamous population of the Rajput caste group staying in the Sirmaur District (altitude = 2438.4 m a.s.l. - 3048 m a.s.l.) of Himachal Pradesh was studied. A total of 151 subjects, males (n = 81) and females (n = 70) between the age range 40-75 years, was measured. Similarly an endogamous population of Punjabi speaking (both Khatri and Arora) residing in Delhi (plains) was studied. A total of 288 subjects from the plains, females (n = 149) and males (n = 139) ranging in age from 55-80 years and above was measured. Comparative changes in anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, body weight, biceps skinfold thickness, triceps skinfold thickness, upper arm circumference, hip circumference, waist circumference, calf circumference) and physiological variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and average grip strength) were studied. Cormic Index (CI), Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were computed. ANOVA was conducted to find the intergroup variation. Significant gender differences were found for all the physiological and some of the anthropometric variables (stature, sitting height and skinfold thicknesses) between populations from high altitude and plains. Both the structural and functional variables were found to be significantly influenced by age. Women in all the age categories from the plains were found to be overweight (BMI range 23.9 kg/m2 - 26.8 kg/m2) unlike women at high altitude. The majority of the males and females from hills were reported to belong to normal weight category. The WHR was found to be higher among males than in females from both the regions. All the variables were not found to be equally age dependant reflecting differential rate of ageing in various dimensions. The population inhabiting different environmental conditions varied in the rate of relative ageing. PMID:19216182

Tyagi, Renu; Tungdim, Mary Grace; Bhardwaj, Shaila; Kapoor, Satwanti

2008-12-01

309

Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

2014-05-01

310

Examining Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement on the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) offers a unique opportunity to examine some of the issues related to gender differences in mathematics achievement in an international context. TIMSS report of 8th grade mathematics achievement revealed few significant differences in mean achievement by gender; differences that did…

Fierros, Edward Garcia

311

Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement: Findings from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from national samples from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 were used to study gender differences in mathematics achievement. Gender differences were not found when total group means were compared, but noteworthy differences favoring males were found at the high end of the score distributions. (SLD)

Fan, Xitao; And Others

1997-01-01

312

Gender differences in mathematics achievement: Exploring the early grades and the extremes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in mathematics achievement have important implications for the underrepresentation of women in science. Typically, gender differences in mathematics achievement are thought to emerge at the end of middle school and beginning of high school, yet some studies find differences among younger children. This paper utilizes data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 to analyze

Andrew M. Penner; Marcel Paret

2008-01-01

313

Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a previously unknown gender difference in the distribution of spatial attention, a basic capacitythatsupportshigher-levelspatialcognition.More remarkably, we found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender dispar- ity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition. After only 10 hr of training with an ac-

Jing Feng; Ian Spence; Jay Pratt

2007-01-01

314

Beliefs and gender differences: A new model for research in mathematics education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major focus of this study is to propose a new research model, namely the Modified CGI gender model, for the study of gender\\u000a differences in mathematics. This model is developed based on Fennema, Carpenter, and Peterson’s (1989) CGI model. To examine\\u000a the validity of this new model, this study also examines the gender differences in teacher and student beliefs

Qing Li

2004-01-01

315

Gender Differences in Large-Scale Math Assessments: PISA Trend 2000 and 2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many efforts have been made to determine and explain differential gender performance on large-scale mathematics assessments. A well-agreed-on conclusion is that gender differences are contextualized and vary across math domains. This study investigated the pattern of gender differences by item domain (e.g., Space and Shape, Quantity) and item type (e.g., multiple-choice items, open constructed-response items). The U.S. portion of the

Ou Lydia Liu; Mark Wilson

2009-01-01

316

Gender differences in self-assessments at the application interface  

E-print Network

Past studies have shown that supply side sorting processes at the job application interface contribute to both vertical and horizontal gender job segregation. A prominent set of theories focused on the supply side stress ...

Campero Molina, Santiago

2013-01-01

317

GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...

318

Gender Differences in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism and Fragile X Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Gender is an important factor to consider in understanding the clinical presentation, management, and developmental trajectory\\u000a of children with neuropsychiatric disorders. While much is known about the clinical and neurobehavioural profiles of boys\\u000a with neuropsychiatric disorders, surprisingly little is known about girls. The aim of this chapter was to review our understanding\\u000a of gender by considering the most prevalent childhood

Nicole J. Rinehart; Kim M. Cornish; Bruce J. Tonge

319

Gender Differences in Counselors’ Attitudes Toward and Attributions About Incest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the extent to which offender’s and victim’s gender as well as counselor gender were related to 111 (67 female and 44 male) counselors’ attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Participants read case notes from an intake session; answered treatment questions; and completed the Jackson Incest Blame Scale, the Incest Attitudes Survey, and the Sex-Role Ideology

Eve M. Adams; Nancy E. Betz

1993-01-01

320

Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving.  

PubMed

A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1-5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men's data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men's or women's texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25463963

Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Gaster, Samuel; Struckman-Johnson, Dave; Johnson, Melissa; May-Shinagle, Gabby

2015-01-01

321

Gender Differences in the Careers of Academic Scientists and Engineers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The typical postsecondary academic career follows a well-ordered path with several discrete milestones. The first of these is securing a tenure-track position at an academic institution, at which point the individual is usually assigned to a junior rank, such as assistant professor. Junior faculty members ordinarily are employed on probation and are given a specified number of years to earn tenure. The second milestone, the tenure decision, is perhaps the most critical point on the academic career path. Earning tenure usually means lifetime employment and arrival at another milestone, promotion to the rank of associate professor. Failing to earn tenure often results in termination of employment at the institution. Some doctorate holders, presumably those who establish distinguished records, reach a final milestone with promotion to the rank of full professor.1 This study uses data from a nationally representativesample of recipients of doctorates in science and engineering (S&E). With these data we examined gender differences for four critical outcomes that reflect successful movement along the postsecondary academic career path. These four critical outcomes are tenure track placement, earning tenure, promotion to the rank of associate professor, and promotion to the rank of full professor. Target Audience: 2-4 Year College Faculty/Administrators, Scientists,Technicians

322

Naming oneself criminal: gender difference in offenders' identity negotiation.  

PubMed

This qualitative research examines gender differences in offenders'ability to negotiate a positive identity once the pejorative labels of criminal, prostitute, drug dealer, and incompetent parents have been imputed onto them. In-depth semi-structured focused interviews were conducted with a purposeful information-rich sample of eight male and eight female offenders. Content analysis reveals that males were much more adept than female offenders at juggling with conventional and street norms to justify and/or resist stigmatizing labels in order to construct a favorable identity. Appeal to such personal strengths as know-how, competence, loyalty, and a code of honor allowed male offenders to challenge the boundaries between conventional and delinquent worlds. Concomitantly such an appeal gave rise to a sense of efficacy perception and an optimistic explanatory style. In contrast, even though female offenders were able to justify the labels of drug dealer, prostitute, and thief by appeal to higher loyalties and reject that of insane, all their justifications collapsed when having to negotiate the identity of incompetent mother. Female offenders' negative internal attributions and deprivation of the normative center-motherhood resulted in apathy, anomie, and lack of confidence in their ability to do something worthwhile. Rehabilitation guidelines would build female offenders' personal strengths while redirecting those exhibited by male offenders into lawful enterprises. PMID:15746270

Geiger, Brenda; Fischer, Michael

2005-04-01

323

Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

Becker, Rolf

2014-01-01

324

Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

2013-01-01

325

Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

2013-01-01

326

Understanding Gender Differences in Anxiety: The Mediating Effects of Instrumentality and Mastery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing a better understanding of modifiable psychological factors that account for gender differences in anxiety may provide insight into interventions that can be used to target these risk processes. The authors developed a mediational model to examine the degree to which gender differences in anxiety are explained by instrumentality and…

Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

2012-01-01

327

A Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The present study aims to examine gender differences in attitudes toward professional psychological help-seeking behavior and how gender differences could be affected by other cultural factor such as race. Participants: The authors selected studies that involved undergraduate and graduate students as samples, making the total number of…

Nam, Suk Kyung; Chu, Hui Jung; Lee, Mi Kyoung; Lee, Ji Hee; Kim, Nuri; Lee, Sang Min

2010-01-01

328

Gender Differences in Gifted Students' Advice on Solving the World's Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in interests and preferences are among the currently accepted potential explanations for the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. In an attempt to analyze the development of such preferences, gender differences expressed in essays written by gifted elementary students…

Malin, Jenessa; Makel, Matthew C.

2012-01-01

329

Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

330

Gender Differences in Gifted Children's Spatial, Verbal, and Quantitative Reasoning Abilities in Taiwan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…

Wang, Wen-Ling

2004-01-01

331

A Longitudinal Analysis of Gender Differences in Affective Outcomes in Mathematics during Middle and High School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Longitudinal investigation of gender differences in the rate of change in mathematic affect (attitude and anxiety toward mathematics and utility of mathematics) across middle and high school. Finds, for example, no gender differences in the rate of decline in either attitude or utility, but females grew faster in anxiety than males. (Contains 6…

Ma, Xin; Cartwright, Fernando

2003-01-01

332

Gender Differences In Learning Style Specific To Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage features an article by Donna Milgram of IWITTS that explores the gender differences in teaching science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). There are gender differences in learning styles specific to science, math, engineering and technology (STEM) that teachers of these subjects should keep in mind when developing lesson plans and teaching in the classroom.

Milgram, Donna

333

Gender Differences in Performance on Multiple-Choice and Constructed Response Mathematics Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in performance on multiple-choice and constructed-response items in mathematics were studied with 3592 11th graders taking a high school graduation examination. Results suggest that gender differences in mathematics may be linked to content and item format, thus supporting the usefulness of a many-faceted Rasch model for…

Garner, Mary; Engelhard, George, Jr.

1999-01-01

334

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE VALUATION OF EMPLOYER-PROVIDED HEALTH INSURANCE  

E-print Network

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE VALUATION OF EMPLOYER-PROVIDED HEALTH INSURANCE NASSER DANESHVARY health insurance trade-off must account for two different effects: the heterogeneity of jobs men, explaining about 3% of the gender-earning differentials. Health insurance does not contribute

Ahmad, Sajjad

335

Gender Differences in Perceptions of Water in Arizona: Insights from the Science of Water Art Project  

E-print Network

Gender Differences in Perceptions of Water in Arizona: Insights from the Science of Water Art in determining if gender is linked to children's perceptions of how they use water now and in the future the artwork, a coding scheme was developed based on nine different themes that could occur in the artwork

Hall, Sharon J.

336

The worker scale: Developing a measure to explain gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research has consistently found that men engage in more behavioral self-handicapping than do women. We first review evidence suggesting that these gender differences result from women placing more importance on displaying effort than do men. We then present the results of two studies seeking to develop measures of beliefs about effort that might explain these gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping.

Sean M. McCrea; Edward R. Hirt; Kristin L. Hendrix; Bridgett J. Milner; Nathan L. Steele

2008-01-01

337

Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

2012-01-01

338

Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Study of Leader Effectiveness in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines gender differences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…

Antonaros, Mary E.

2010-01-01

339

Demographic and Clinical Features of Patients With Fibromyalgia Syndrome of Different Settings: A Gender Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWell-established gender differences in the clinical picture of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) have been suggested. However, studies on gender differences in demographic and clinical features of FMS have contradictory results. Their significance is limited by the small number of patients included and selection bias of single settings.

Winfried Häuser; Hedi Kühn-Becker; Hubertus von Wilmoswky; Margit Settan; Elmar Brähler; Frank Petzke

2011-01-01

340

Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

2010-01-01

341

What Do We Learn about Difference from the Scholarship on Gender?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the past 30 years of research on gender. Discusses lessons learned: to study difference in context, make real comparisons, look for similarities as well as differences, examine variation within as well as between groups, investigate exceptions, note failure to find effects, allow equifinality, and move beyond gender as a category per se.…

Rosenfeld, Rachel A.

2002-01-01

342

Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Genetic Testing, Risk Interpretation and Genetic Testing Concerns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares gender differences in attitudes towards prenatal testing, testing in minors, Huntington testing and the creation of designer babies and identifies how risk of genetic disease is perceived by both genders. A questionnaire was developed to explore attitudes towards different types of genetic testing, interpreting risk of genetic disease and concerns relating to genetic testing. A total of

Verity Leach

2010-01-01

343

Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

2006-01-01

344

The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: A qualitative study?  

PubMed Central

Despite increasing interest in gender and health, ‘lay’ perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, ‘macho’ constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their ‘provider’ role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. ‘gender as structure’ versus ‘gender as performance’, ‘gender as difference’ versus ‘gender as diversity’. PMID:18558455

Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

2008-01-01

345

Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

2010-01-01

346

Gender Differences in Learning Styles: Nurturing a Gender and Style Sensitive Computer Science Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The gender digital divide has been widely discussed and researched over the years. Previous studies have focused on a number of factors such as computer attitude, computer anxiety, computer self-efficacy, and computer experience. This study empirically tested the sensitivity of a learning style instrument, the "Gregorc Style Delineator" (GSD), to…

Lau, Wilfred Wing Fat; Yuen, Allan Hoi Kau

2010-01-01

347

An Exploratory Study of Gender Effect on Student Presentation Evaluations: Does Gender Similarity Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used…

Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

2009-01-01

348

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and daughters during mathematics homework interactions, with effects moderated by mothers' gender-role attitudes and mathematics education. Traditional mothers, especially those with

Sara M. Lindberg; Janet Shibley. Hyde; Liza M. Hirsch

2008-01-01

349

Influence of Item Content and Stereotype Situation on Gender Differences in Mathematical Problem Solving  

Microsoft Academic Search

On standardized tests of mathematical problemsolving, the typical finding has been that women scorelower than men. Experiment 1 manipulated gender labeling(female character, male character, or gender neutral) within the problem question to seewhether this accounted for gender differences inmathematical problem solving. Sixty-four seventh andeighth graders were tested on modified versions of theCanadian Test of Basic Skills (CTBS) with the resultsshowing

Margaret Walsh; Crystal Hickey; Jim Duffy

1999-01-01

350

Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement Between Canadian and Asian Education Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender-related issues were examined in four education systems (British Columbia, Ontario, Hong Kong, and Japan) based on algebra and geometry achievement data of Population A (13-year-olds) and Population B (high school seniors) from the Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS). The results showed (a) no significant interaction effects between gender and education system, (b) no significant gender differences in algebra, and

Xin Ma

1995-01-01

351

Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Children: A Meta-Analytic Review  

PubMed Central

Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = ?.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = ?.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = ?.20) and adolescence (g = ?.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = ?.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia

2012-01-01

352

Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Tolerance to Short Arm Centrifugation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation for the NASA Artificial Gravity (AG) pilot study, the tolerability of the proposed AG parameters was tested in 11 ambulatory human subjects (6m, 5w) by exposing each to a short arm centrifuge trial. Subjects were oriented in the supine position (but inclined 6deg head down) on one arm of the centrifuge, and the rotation rate (30.6-33.4 rpm) and radial position of the feet were set to produce 2.5G of equivalent gravitational load at the force plate directly beneath the feet, 1G at the level of the mediastinum, and approximately 0.55G at the labyrinth. Amongst the 6 men participating in this preliminary study, 5 completed at least 60 minutes of the trial successfully with no adverse sequelae. However, amongst the female cohort the test was stopped by the medical monitor before 60 min in all but one case, with pre-syncope listed as the reason for termination in all cases. Mean time before abort of the centrifuge run amongst the women was 33.2 +/- 20.97 min. It is known that women have a greater predisposition to syncope during orthostatic stress, under normal tilt table conditions, during LBNP, and following space flight. The reasons for this difference are the subject of some debate, but anthropometric factors, the vasoactive effects of sex hormones, gender differences in susceptibility to motion sickness, catecholamine levels, ability to augment total peripheral resistance in response to orthostatic stress, and structural differences in cardiac anatomy and physiology have all been suggested. This finding led to the exclusion of women from the AG pilot study. Clearly if AG is to be employed as a multi-system countermeasure it must provide physiological protection at rotation rates within the tolerance limits of all potential astronauts. Further investigation of the responses of women to centrifugation will be necessary to determine how to adjust AG parameters for tolerance by female subjects before a more detailed investigation of the appropriate dose in terms of G load, rotation rate, exposure duration and frequency can be performed.

Fong, Kevin J.; Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H.

2007-01-01

353

A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships  

PubMed Central

Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences. PMID:25414754

Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B.; Verbitsky, Oleg

2014-01-01

354

Gender differences in the metabolic syndrome and their role for cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Women live longer than men and develop cardiovascular disease (CVD) at an older age. The metabolic syndrome represents a major risk factor for the development of CVD, and gender differences in this syndrome may contribute to gender differences in CVD. In recent years, the metabolic syndrome has been more prevalent in men than in women. Prevalence is increasing and this increase has been steeper in women, particularly in young women, during the last decade. The contributions of the different components of the metabolic syndrome differ between genders and in different countries. In a recent survey in Germany, 40% of the adult population had been diagnosed with disturbed glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Undiagnosed diabetes was more frequent in men than in women, and risk factors for undiagnosed diabetes differed between the sexes. Worldwide, in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose was observed more frequently in men, whereas impaired glucose tolerance occurred relatively more often in women. Lipid accumulation patterns differ between women and men. Premenopausal women more frequently develop peripheral obesity with subcutaneous fat accumulation, whereas men and postmenopausal women are more prone to central or android obesity. In particular, android obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and the development of type 2 diabetes. Visceral adipocytes differ from peripheral adipocytes in their lipolytic activity and their response to insulin, adrenergic and angiotensin stimulation and sex hormones. Visceral fat is a major source of circulating free fatty acids and cytokines, which are directly delivered via the portal vein to the liver inducing insulin resistance and an atherogenic lipid profile. Inflammation increases cardiovascular risk particularly in women. A relatively greater increase in cardiovascular risk by the appearance of diabetes in women has been reported in many studies.Thus, the presently available data suggest that the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome and its contribution to the relative risk of cardiovascular events and heart failure show gender differences, which might be of potential relevance for prevention, diagnostics, and therapy of the syndrome. PMID:16598526

Regitz-Zagrosek, V; Lehmkuhl, E; Weickert, M O

2006-03-01

355

Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

2012-01-01

356

Gender Differences in Developmental Dyscalculia Depend on Diagnostic Criteria  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning difficulty specific to mathematics learning. The prevalence of DD may be equivalent to that of dyslexia, posing an important challenge for effective educational provision. Nevertheless, there is no agreed definition of DD and there are controversies surrounding cutoff decisions, specificity and gender

Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Goswami, Usha; Szucs, Denes

2013-01-01

357

Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

2013-01-01

358

Gender Differences in the Polysomnographic Features of Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of gender on the polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a retrospective study of 830 patients with OSA diagnosed by overnight polysomnogra- phy (PSG). The severity of OSA was determined from the apnea- hypopnea index (AHI) for total sleep time (AHI TST ), and was clas- sified as mild (5 to 25 events\\/h), moderate

KRISTINE S. THORNLEY; PATRICK J. HANLY

359

Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

2008-01-01

360

Gender-Related Differences in the Central Arterial Pressure Waveform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study investigated the effect of age and gender on central arterial hemodynamic variables derived from noninvasive tonometric carotid pressure waveforms.Background. Women have a greater age-related increase in left ventricular (LV) mass than do men and are more likely to experience symptomatic heart failure after infarction despite their higher ejection fraction. In studies of these changes, ventricular afterload is

Christopher S Hayward; Raymond P Kelly

1997-01-01

361

Race and Gender Differences in Children's Socialization into Sport.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the sport socialization of children between the ages of nine and 12 indicated that White children are influenced by specific agents of socialization such as fathers and teachers, while Black children are influenced by situational and contextual variables. Noteworthy from the gender comparisons is the predominantly same-sex influence on…

Greendorfer, Susan L.; Ewing, Martha E.

1981-01-01

362

Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

363

Schooling and Industrialization in China: Gender Differences in School Enrollment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rapid decrease in gender inequality in education over the past several decades in China has drawn significant attention in the existing literature. Several factors have been proposed or examined to explain this decrease. However, few studies have examined this topic from the perspective of the changing job structure and skill requirements in…

Lee, Ming-Hsuan

2014-01-01

364

Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

2013-01-01

365

Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines gender-related beliefs about the causes of substance abuse, the power of various substances, the prevalence of substance use, and the effectiveness of various interventions. Results show that women were more likely to attribute causality to biological or environmental factors and to believe prevention and treatment were more effective.…

Kauffman, Stephen E.; Poulin, John; Silver, Paula

1997-01-01

366

Gender differences in kindergarteners' robotics and programming achievement  

E-print Network

STEM fields Introduction Men continue to outnumber women in numerous STEM (science, technology of stereotype threat on women's confidence and interest in these traditionally masculine fields (Spencer et al Gender disparities in STEM fields ``STEM'' has been defined in a variety of ways in past research (AAUW

Bers, Marina Umaschi

367

Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

2005-01-01

368

Gender Differences in African American Students' Satisfaction with College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred sixty-nine African American college students completed a modified version of Astin's Overall Satisfaction with College scale and Brown Scale of College Social Support, which was developed for this study. Findings indicate that the correlates and predictors of satisfaction with college vary as a function of both gender and dimension of…

Brown, Tamara L.

2000-01-01

369

Aging and Psychological Distress: Are There Gender Differences?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although there is consensus in the mental health literature that women report more distress and depressive symptoms than men, it is not clear if this applies to all age groups. To examine the relationship of gender and distress among older adults, two methods were employed. First, a review was conducted of all random community surveys conducted…

Feinson, Marjorie Chary

370

College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

2008-01-01

371

Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender

Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya

2009-01-01

372

The Gender Wage Ratio: Does it Differ Between Races?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1964 the Civil Rights Act made it illegal for employers to discriminate against individuals on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin (Coleman, 2003). This act was passed to help bring equality to men and women of all races; however, a gender wage gap still exists. Up until the 1970s it was estimated that women made

BritannyKirkpatrick

2006-01-01

373

Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present study, men and women demonstrated significantly different strategies for regulating blood pressure and cerebral flow both at rest and during orthostatic stress on the day in which they had undergone exposure to AG. Since, in both men and women, a single, acute bout of AG exposure improved orthostatic tolerance, the feasibility of short exposures to AG during longer spaceflights or prior to entry into a gravitational (Earth or Mars) environment, should be explored. Given the known beneficial effects of AG on other organ systems, the present study indicates that the positive effect of artificial gravity on cardiac output make AG a likely candidate for sustaining cardiovascular conditioning upon return to gravity. Supported by KY NASA EPSCoR Grant #NNX07AT58A, KY State Matching Grants, NASA JSC Human Research Program and NASA Ames Research Center.

Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

374

An Investigation of Gender Differences in the Components Influencing the Difficulty of Spatial Ability Items.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the role that gender differences play in the determination of the components influencing the difficulty of spatial ability items. Results for 2,245 examinees taking a spatial ability test that is part of the Dental School Admission Battery show that component difficulties show little variation across gender. (SLD)

Kramer, Gene A.; Smith, Richard M.

2001-01-01

375

Examining Gender Differences in the Nature and Context of Intimate Partner Violence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been conducted on gender differences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding gender

Cho, Hyunkag

2012-01-01

376

Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

2009-01-01

377

Addressing Gender Differences in Computer Ability, Attitudes and Use: The Laptop Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of gender on computer related attitudes, ability, and use has been actively documented, but little research has been done examining how to modify and reduce imbalances. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ubiquitous computing (24-hour access to a laptop and the Internet) on gender differences in pre-service teachers…

Kay, Robin

2006-01-01

378

Trends in Gender Differences in Mathematics and Science (TIMSS 1995-2003)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates changes in gender differences evident in the performance of grade 8th grade students participating in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) between 1995 and 2003. Gender specific results and patterns found in TIMSS 1995 were compared with later cycles of the study in order to address the…

Neuschmidt, Oliver; Barth, Juliane; Hastedt, Dirk

2008-01-01

379

Gender and Mother-Child Interactions during Mathematics Homework: The Importance of Individual Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do contemporary families promote gender-differentiated or egalitarian attitudes and behavior surrounding mathematics? The current study examined mother-child interactions during mathematics homework as a microcosm of contemporary gender socialization. Results revealed individual differences in mothers' treatment of their fifth-grade sons and…

Lindberg, Sara M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Hirsch, Liza M.

2008-01-01

380

Trends in gender differences in mathematics and science (TIMSS 1995–2003)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates changes in gender differences evident in the performance of grade 8th grade students participating in the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) between 1995 and 2003. Gender specific results and patterns found in TIMSS 1995 were compared with later cycles of the study in order to address the question of how far the mathematics and

Oliver Neuschmidt; Juliane Barth; Dirk Hastedt

2008-01-01

381

Teacher Perceptions of Gender-Based Differences among Elementary School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Far fewer males than females work in elementary education today. This deficit may represent an unacceptable balance in elementary teacher gender demographics. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, 217 elementary teachers in four public…

Wood, Tracy D.

2009-01-01

382

Who Gets Market Supplements? Gender Differences within a Large Canadian University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the gender pay gap among university faculty by analyzing gender differences in one component of faculty members' salaries--"market premiums." The data were collected during the Fall of 2002 using a survey of faculty at a single Canadian research university. Correspondence analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed…

Doucet, Christine; Durand, Claire; Smith, Michael

2008-01-01

383

Implications of gender differences for human health risk assessment and toxicology  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper from The Human Health working group of SGOMSEC 16 examines a broad range of issues on gender effects in toxicology. Gender differences in toxicology begin at the gamete and embryo stage, continuing through development and maturation and into old age. Sex influences exp...

384

Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender

Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

2010-01-01

385

Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

2012-01-01

386

Adolescent Gender Differences in Alcohol Problem Behaviors and the Social Contexts of Drinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of over 1300 high school students examined gender differences in the social context of drinking associated with 4 alcohol problem behaviors (high intensity drinking, binge drinking, driving while intoxicated, and riding with an intoxicated driver). Student surveys revealed significant multivariate interaction effects between gender and…

Treiman, Katherine A.; Beck, Kenneth H.

1996-01-01

387

The Different Worlds of Academia: A Horizontal Analysis of Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women are underrepresented in advanced positions in higher education in Europe. This study takes a horizontal perspective and focuses on the relationship between gender and discipline in order to combine research on gender in higher education with theories of disciplinary differences in academic cultures. The study points out substantial…

Silander, Charlotte; Haake, Ulrika; Lindberg, Leif

2013-01-01

388

Gender differences in online travel information search: Implications for marketing communications on the internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender has been and continues to be one of the most common forms of segmentation used by marketers in general and advertisers in particular. In general, males and females are likely to differ in information processes and decision making. The growing predominance of Internet use has further highlighted the need for understanding online users’ attitudes and behaviors from a gender

Xinran Y. Lehto; Alastair M. Morrison

2007-01-01

389

Using E-mail for Personal Relationships: The Difference Gender Makes  

E-print Network

Using E-mail for Personal Relationships: The Difference Gender Makes Bonka Boneva Robert Kraut Special issue on The Internet and Everyday Life (Version 10, March 5, 2001) Running head: E-mail, gender Advanced Technologies. Debra Hindus, Scott Mainwaring, Bonnie Johnson, Eric Dishman at Interval Research

390

Using departmental surveys to assess computing culture: Recognizing and addressing gender differences  

E-print Network

Using departmental surveys to assess computing culture: Recognizing and addressing gender differences in percep- tions about computer science that divided along gender lines and also proved that universities have historically devel- oped computer science courses with a male bias. Thus, even

Blank, Douglas

391

Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…

Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga

2006-01-01

392

Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

2011-01-01

393

Examining gender differences in IT professionals' perceptions of job stress in response to technological change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines antecedents and consequences of IT professionals' perceptions of job stress within the context of assimilating a technological innovation in the workplace. Drawing on recent research on issues of gender within the IT profession (Ahuja 2002; Trauth 2002), as well as on recent studies into gender differences in workplace stress (Gardiner & Tiggeman 1999), we develop a conceptual

Mike Gallivan

2003-01-01

394

Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment, but female disadvantage in the quality of

Theodore P. Gerber; Olga Mayorova

2006-01-01

395

Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing  

PubMed Central

The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

2009-01-01

396

Age and Gender Related Differences in Human Parotid Gland Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Objective The present study evaluated differences in gene expression associated with age and gender in the human parotid gland. Design Parotid gland tissue was analyzed using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® HGU133plus2.0 array. Results Differential gene expression, defined as a statistically significant difference with a 1.5 fold or greater change, was detected in 787 gene probe sets; 467 (~59%) showed higher expression in females. Several genes associated with saliva secretion were differentially expressed in male and female parotid glands including vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 VAMP3, synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP23, RAS oncogene family member RAB1A and the syntaxin binding protein STXBP1. Evaluation of gene expression in the youngest and the oldest female subjects revealed that the expression of 228 probe sets were altered during aging; 155 genes were up-regulated in the aged female parotid gland. However, of the genes that were altered during aging, 22 of the 30 probes (73%) classified as being associated with immune responses were down-regulated in the aged parotid gland. A panel of differentially expressed, age- and gender-related genes was selected for validation by quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. Comparable differences in gene expression were detected by both Affymetrix array and quantitative, real-time RT-PCR methods. Conclusions Our data suggest that salivary gland function may be adversely affected in the aged population due, at least in part, to the altered regulation of several categories of genes. Moreover, the gender specific differences in gene expression identified in the present study correlate with the previously observed sexual dimorphism in salivary gland function. PMID:18571147

Srivastava, Alaka; Wang, Jianghua; Zhou, Hui; Melvin, James E.; Wong, David T.

2008-01-01

397

Voice, speech and gender: male-female acoustic differences and cross-language variation in English and French speakers  

E-print Network

Voice, speech and gender: male-female acoustic differences and cross- language variation in English and words' durations were measured. Significant cross-gender differences were obtained for each tested differences. These results suggest that cross-gender acoustic differences are partly socially constructed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Waist circumference values in Spanish children—Gender related differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To obtain reference values of the waist circumference in Spanish children, and to investigate their dependence on age and gender.Design: Cross-sectional study.Setting: General school-age population.Subjects: A representative sample of the schools in Zaragoza, Spain, was drawn from seven schools. The population selected comprised 1728 children with ages ranging from 6.0–14.9 y. Of the original sample, 368 children (21.29%) were

LA Moreno; J Fleta; L Mur; G Rodríguez; A Sarría; M Bueno

1999-01-01

399

Grant Title: DRUG ABUSE DISSERTATION RESEARCH: EPIDEMIOLOGY, PREVENTION, TREATMENT, SERVICES AND WOMEN AND SEX/GENDER DIFFERENCES (R36)  

E-print Network

AND WOMEN AND SEX/GENDER DIFFERENCES (R36) Funding Opportunity Number: PAR-10-020. CFDA Number(s):93/or women and sex/gender differences. Grant support is designed to encourage doctoral candidates from

Farritor, Shane

400

Gender and ethnic differences in social constraints among a sample of New York City police officers.  

PubMed

Gender and ethnic differences in social constraints on and off the job among a sample of 372 police officers was examined. Positive and negative social interactions with supervisors and coworkers, and perceptions of the work environment as well as support and resentment of the job from family and significant others, was included. As hypothesized, women and minority men reported more negative social interactions on the job, such as criticism, bias, and sexual harassment. Few differences were observed for positive social interactions on or off the job, and where differences emerged, women and minority men reported more favorable social interactions. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for intervention, policy, and future research. PMID:9547048

Morris, A

1996-04-01

401

Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating) differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating. PMID:22992241

2012-01-01

402

Gender differences in the learning and teaching of surgery: a literature review  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore evidence concerning gender differences in teaching and learning in surgery to guide future initiatives. Methods This systematic review was conducted searching in the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed. All studies related to gender differences in surgical education, teaching or learning of surgery at an undergraduate level were included. Data was extracted and critically appraised. Gender differences in learning, teaching, skills acquisition, perceptions and attitudes, interest on surgery, personality and factors influencing interest in surgical careers were differentiated. Results There is an underrepresentation of women in surgical academia, due to lack of role models and gender awareness. It is not clear whether or not gender itself is a factor that affects the learning of surgical tasks. Female students pursuing a surgical career had experienced sexual harassment and gender discrimination that can have an effect on the professional identity formation and specialty choice. There are differences in personality among female and male students interested in surgery. Gender is a determining factor to choose surgery, with a consistent lower proportion of women compared interested in pursuing a surgical career. Mentoring and personality fit are important in medical student’s specialty selection. Female students are more likely to be discouraged from pursuing a surgical career by a lack of female role models. Conclusions Bias against women in surgery still exists. There is a lack of studies that investigate the role of women in the teaching of surgery. PMID:25341220

Josephson, Anna

2014-01-01

403

Gender Differences in Variance and Means on the Naglieri Non-Verbal Ability Test: Data from the Philippines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Research on gender differences in intelligence has focused mostly on samples from Western countries and empirical evidence on gender differences from Southeast Asia is relatively sparse. Aims: This article presents results on gender differences in variance and means on a non-verbal intelligence test using a national sample of public…

Vista, Alvin; Care, Esther

2011-01-01

404

Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper from Jing Feng, Ian Spence and Jay Pratt discusses gender differences in spatial cognition. The team "found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender disparity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition." Two spatial reasoning experiments are described in the paper. This research may be helpful for instructors and technical programs looking to improve female students' spatial abilities. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Feng, Jing

405

Sex/Gender Differences and Autism: Setting the Scene for Future Research  

PubMed Central

Objective The relationship between sex/gender differences and autism has attracted a variety of research ranging from clinical and neurobiological to etiological, stimulated by the male bias in autism prevalence. Findings are complex and do not always relate to each other in a straightforward manner. Distinct but interlinked questions on the relationship between sex/gender differences and autism remain underaddressed. To better understand the implications from existing research and to help design future studies, we propose a 4-level conceptual framework to clarify the embedded themes. Method We searched PubMed for publications before September 2014 using search terms “‘sex OR gender OR females’ AND autism.” A total of 1,906 articles were screened for relevance, along with publications identified via additional literature reviews, resulting in 329 articles that were reviewed. Results Level 1, “Nosological and diagnostic challenges,” concerns the question, “How should autism be defined and diagnosed in males and females?” Level 2, “Sex/gender-independent and sex/gender-dependent characteristics,” addresses the question, “What are the similarities and differences between males and females with autism?” Level 3, “General models of etiology: liability and threshold,” asks the question, “How is the liability for developing autism linked to sex/gender?” Level 4, “Specific etiological–developmental mechanisms,” focuses on the question, “What etiological–developmental mechanisms of autism are implicated by sex/gender and/or sexual/gender differentiation?” Conclusions Using this conceptual framework, findings can be more clearly summarized, and the implications of the links between findings from different levels can become clearer. Based on this 4-level framework, we suggest future research directions, methodology, and specific topics in sex/gender differences and autism. PMID:25524786

Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Baron-Cohen, Simon

2015-01-01

406

GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT  

EPA Science Inventory

GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711...

407

Gender and Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Lower Extremity Mechanics during Treadmill Running  

PubMed Central

Female runners have a two-fold risk of sustaining certain running-related injuries as compared to their male counterparts. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the sex-related differences in running kinematics is necessary. However, previous studies have either used discrete time point variables and inferential statistics and/or relatively small subject numbers. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to use a principal component analysis (PCA) method along with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to examine the differences in running gait kinematics between female and male runners across a large sample of the running population as well as between two age-specific sub-groups. Bilateral 3-dimensional lower extremity gait kinematic data were collected during treadmill running. Data were analysed on the complete sample (n?=?483: female 263, male 220), a younger subject group (n?=?56), and an older subject group (n?=?51). The PC scores were first sorted by the percentage of variance explained and we also employed a novel approach wherein PCs were sorted based on between-gender statistical effect sizes. An SVM was used to determine if the sex and age conditions were separable and classifiable based on the PCA. Forty PCs explained 84.74% of the variance in the data and an SVM classification accuracy of 86.34% was found between female and male runners. Classification accuracies between genders for younger subjects were higher than a subgroup of older runners. The observed interactions between age and gender suggest these factors must be considered together when trying to create homogenous sub-groups for research purposes. PMID:25137240

Phinyomark, Angkoon; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Osis, Sean T.; Ferber, Reed

2014-01-01

408

GENDER DIFFERENCE IN ABILITY USING THE STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE IN THE UPPER EXTREMITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miyaguchi, K and Demura, S. Gender difference in ability using the stretch-shortening cycle in the upper extremities. J Strength Cond Res 23(1): 231-236, 2009—A gender difference in ability using the stretch-shortening cycle (SSC ability) in the upper extremities has not been studied in detail. This study aimed to devise an index to evaluate SSC ability during powerful elbow flexion and

KAZUYOSHI MIYAGUCHI; SHINICHI DEMURA

409

Sex and Gender Differences in Control of Blood Pressure  

PubMed Central

In recent years the interest in studying the impact of sex steroids and gender on the regulation of blood pressure and cardiovascular disease has been growing. Women are protected from most cardiovascular events compared to men, until after menopause, and postmenopausal women are at increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared to premenopausal women. The pathophysiological mechanisms have not been elucidated but are not likely as simple as the presence or absence of estrogens, since hormone replacement therapy in elderly women in the Women’s Health Initiative or the HERS Trials did not provide primary or secondary prevention against cardiovascular events. Men are also thought to be at risk for cardiovascular disease at earlier ages than women, and these mechanisms too are not likely to be as simple as the presence of testosterone since androgen levels drop in men with cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In fact, many investigators now believe that it is the reduction in androgen levels that frequently accompanies chronic disease and may exacerbate cardiovascular disease in men. In this review the roles of sex steroids and gender in mediating or protecting against hypertension and cardiovascular disease will be discussed. PMID:23746374

Maranon, Rodrigo; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

2014-01-01

410

Gender and Age Group Differences in Mass Media and Interpersonal Influences on Body Dissatisfaction Among Chinese Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite evidence that middle adolescent girls (ages 14–17) experience more body dissatisfaction than early adolescent girls\\u000a (ages 10–13) or boys at these ages, researchers have rarely considered whether such differences are observed regarding factors\\u000a related to body dissatisfaction, particularly within non-Western samples. To address this issue, gender and age group differences\\u000a in media and interpersonal influences on body dissatisfaction were

Hong Chen; Todd Jackson

411

Telescoping and Gender Differences in Alcohol Dependence: New Evidence From Two National Surveys  

PubMed Central

Objective The course of alcohol disorders in women is often described as “telescoped” compared to that in men, with a later age at initiation of alcohol use but shorter times from use to dependence and treatment. This study examined evidence for such a telescoping effect in the general population and tested birth cohort effects for gender differences. Method Data from two U.S. national surveys conducted 10 years apart (1991–1992 and 2001–2002) using the same diagnostic instrument (the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–IV) were used to analyze five birth cohorts. Age at initiation of alcohol use, time from first use to dependence, and time from dependence to first treatment were analyzed. Interaction terms (cohort by gender; cohort by gender by time) were tested in Cox proportional hazards models. Results Little evidence was found for a telescoping effect in women. For alcohol use and dependence, cohort and gender interacted, which suggests that gender differences are diminished in more recent cohorts. A three-way interaction of cohort, gender, and time was significant for time from first use to dependence, suggesting that men have a shorter time to dependence, especially in younger cohorts. Conclusions A telescoping effect is not evident in the general population. Gender differences in the overall hazard of alcohol use and dependence are decreasing in more recent cohorts, while gender differences in time from first use to dependence are increasing. These findings challenge the commonly held notion of a gender-specific course of alcohol disorders and suggest the need for a greater clinical focus on problem drinking in women and further research on accelerated time to dependence in men. PMID:20439391

Keyes, Katherine M.; Martins, Silvia S.; Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S.

2013-01-01

412

Gender Differences in the Association between Socioeconomic Status and Subclinical Atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study explored the pattern of associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and atherosclerosis progression (as indicated by carotid intima media thickness, CIMT) across gender. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 5474 older persons (mean age 73 years) recruited between 1999 and 2001 in the 3C study (France). We fitted linear regression models including neighborhood SES, individual SES and cardiovascular risk factors. Results CIMT was on average 24 µm higher in men (95% CI: 17 to 31). Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with CIMT in women only (highest versus lowest tertiles: ?12.2 µm, 95%CI ?22 to ?2.4). This association persisted when individual SES and risk factors were accounted for. High individual education was associated with lower CIMT in men (?21.4 µm 95%CI ?37.5 to ?5.3) whereas high professional status was linked to lower CIMT among women (?15.7 µm 95%CI: ?29.2 to ?2.2). Adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors resulted in a slightly more pronounced reduction of the individual SES-CIMT association observed in men than in women. Conclusion In this sample, neighborhood and individual SES displayed different patterns of associations with subclinical atherosclerosis across gender. This suggests that the causal pathways leading to SES variations in atherosclerosis may differ among men and women. PMID:24282522

Grimaud, Olivier; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Berr, Claudine; Helmer, Catherine; Dufouil, Carole; Kihal, Wahida; Alpérovitch, Annick; Chauvin, Pierre

2013-01-01

413

The Influence of Child Gender Role and Maternal Feedback to Child Stress on the Emergence of the Gender Difference in Depressive Rumination in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents…

Cox, Stephanie J.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet S.

2010-01-01

414

Examining gender differences in the nature and context of intimate partner violence.  

PubMed

Many studies have been conducted on gender differences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding gender differences in IPV, but national data collections do not regularly report on this information. This study expects to fill this gap by using nationally representative data to examine differences in the nature and context of IPV between male and female perpetrators. This study uses the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Descriptive statistics for each gender are first obtained (n = 2,190). A discriminant analysis is used with gender as a grouping variable, including only perpetrators of IPV (n = 236). The independent variables are age, race, education, employment, financial security, frequency and severity of IPV, controlling behaviors, and the initiator of physical arguments. The study findings suggest that women and men do not vary much in the prevalence, frequency, and severity of IPV, controlling behaviors, or the initiation of physical arguments. They also suggest that those variables are rather weak in differentiating IPV against men from IPV against women. Since the study revealed some gender differences in IPV and, at the same time, encountered methodological difficulties in convincingly showing them as real gender differences, more research is clearly needed. PMID:22366476

Cho, Hyunkag

2012-09-01

415

Gender differences in reactions to the sexualization of athletes.  

PubMed

Participants rated a series of photographs that depicted well-known male and female athletes in a sexualized fashion or not. In general, sexualized targets were perceived as more attractive but as less competent than non-sexualized targets, and for ratings of competence, sexualization effects were greater for female targets. Sexualization had no effects on women's perceptions of the competence of male targets, whereas for men, sexualization affected their perceptions of the competence of both male and female targets, although the influence of sexualization was stronger for female targets than it was for male targets. These findings suggest that the gender of the target and of the perceiver needs to be considered when evaluating the influences of sexualization. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of objectification theory, which has focused on the objectification of women by women. PMID:25258333

Nezlek, John B; Krohn, William; Wilson, Dannon; Maruskin, Laura

2015-01-01

416

Gender Differences in Physical Aggression: A Prospective Population-Based Survey of Children before and after 2 Years of Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much controversy over the past decades on the origins of gender differences in children's aggressive behavior. A widely held view is that gender differences emerge sometime after 2 years of age and increase in magnitude thereafter because of gender-differentiated socialization practices. The objective of this study was to test…

Baillargeon, Raymond H.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Cote, Sylvana; Perusse, Daniel; Wu, Hong-Xing; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

2007-01-01

417

Gender Differences in Salary in a Recent Cohort of Early-Career Physician-Researchers  

PubMed Central

Purpose Since prior studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts, the authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. Method In 2010-11, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K-award type, K-award funding institute, K-award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Results Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P < 0.001) even after adjusting for specialty, academic rank, work hours, research time, and other factors. Peters-Belson analysis indicated that 17% of the overall disparity in the full sample was unexplained by the measured covariates. In the married subset, after accounting for spousal employment status, 10% remained unexplained. Conclusions The authors observed, in this recent cohort of elite, early-career physician researchers, a gender difference in salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary at academic institutions is important. PMID:24072109

Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A.; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A.

2013-01-01

418

Gender Differences in Neuropsychological Performance across Psychotic Disorders – a Multi-Centre Population Based Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with schizophrenia and other psychoses exhibit a wide range of neuropsychological deficits. An unresolved question concerns whether there are gender differences in cognitive performance. Methods Data were derived from a multi-centre population based case-control study of patients with first-episode psychosis. A neuropsychological test battery was administered to patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=70, 36% females), bipolar/mania (N=34, 60% females), depressive psychosis (N=36, 58% females) and healthy controls (N=148, 55% females). Generalized and specific cognitive deficits were compared. Results There was strong evidence for disorder-specific gender differences in neuropsychological performance. Males and females with schizophrenia showed similar pervasive neuropsychological impairments. In psychotic depressive disorder females performed worse than males across neuropsychological measures. Differences in neuropsychological performance between males and females with bipolar/manic disorder were restricted to language functions. Symptom severity did not contribute to the observed gender differences. Conclusions Early in the course of psychotic illness, gender related factors appear to moderate the severity of cognitive deficits in depressive psychosis and bipolar/mania patients. PMID:24204806

Zanelli, Jolanta; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Morgan, Craig; Russo, Manuela; Pilecka, Izabela; Fearon, Paul; Demjaha, Arsime; Doody, Gill A.; Jones, Peter B.; Murray, Robin M.; Reichenberg, Abraham

2013-01-01

419

Sexual Orientation and Gender Differences in Markers of Inflammation and Immune Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual minorities have documented elevated risk factors that can lead to inflammation and poor immune functioning Purpose Investigate disparities in C-Reactive protein and Epstein Barr Virus by gender and sexual orientation. Methods We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine disparities in CRP (N=11,462) and EBV (N=11,812). Results Among heterosexuals, women had higher levels of CRP and EBV than men. However, sexual-minority men had higher levels of CRP and EBV than heterosexual men and sexual minority women. Lesbians had lower levels of CRP than heterosexual women. Conclusions Gender differences in CRP and EBV found between men and women who identify as 100% heterosexual were reversed among sexual minorities and not explained by known risk factors (e.g. victimization, alcohol and tobacco use, BMI). More nuanced approaches to addressing gender differences in sexual orientation health disparities that include measures of gender nonconformity and minority stress are needed. PMID:24347405

Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Austin, S. Bryn

2014-01-01

420

Studying sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia: A consensus report  

PubMed Central

In September 2006, members of the Sex, Gender and Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain met to discuss the following: (1) what is known about sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia; (2) what are the “best practice” guidelines for pain research with respect to sex and gender; and (3) what are the crucial questions to address in the near future? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from basic science, clinical and psychosocial pain researchers, as well as from recognized experts in sexual differentiation and reproductive endocrinology. We intend this document to serve as a utilitarian and thought-provoking guide for future research on sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia, both for those currently working in this field as well as those still wondering, “Do I really need to study females?” PMID:17964077

Greenspan, Joel D.; Craft, Rebecca M.; LeResche, Linda; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Berkley, Karen J.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Gold, Michael S.; Holdcroft, Anita; Lautenbacher, Stefan; Mayer, Emeran A.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Murphy, Anne Z.; Traub, Richard J.

2010-01-01

421

Age and gender differences in the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in the older population  

PubMed Central

Background The coexistence of several chronic diseases in one same individual, known as multimorbidity, is an important challenge facing health care systems in developed countries. Recent studies have revealed the existence of multimorbidity patterns clustering systematically associated distinct clinical entities. We sought to describe age and gender differences in the prevalence and patterns of multimorbidity in men and women over 65 years. Methods Observational retrospective multicentre study based on diagnostic information gathered from electronic medical records of 19 primary care centres in Aragon and Catalonia. Multimorbidity patterns were identified through exploratory factor analysis. We performed a descriptive analysis of previously obtained patterns (i.e. cardiometabolic (CM), mechanical (MEC) and psychogeriatric (PG)) and the diseases included in the patterns stratifying by sex and age group. Results 67.5% of the aged population suffered two or more chronic diseases. 32.2% of men and 45.3% of women were assigned to at least one specific pattern of multimorbidity, and 4.6% of men and 8% of women presented more than one pattern simultaneously. Among women over 65 years the most frequent pattern was the MEC pattern (33.3%), whereas among men it was the CM pattern (21.2%). While the prevalence of the CM and MEC patterns decreased with age, the PG pattern showed a higher prevalence in the older age groups. Conclusions Significant gender differences were observed in the prevalence of multimorbidity patterns, women showing a higher prevalence of the MEC and PG patterns, as well as a higher degree of pattern overlapping, probably due to a higher life expectancy and/or worse health. Future studies on multimorbidity patterns should take into account these differences and, therefore, the study of multimorbidity and its impact should be stratified by age and sex. PMID:24934411

2014-01-01

422

Gender Differences in Clinical Outcomes among HIV-Positive Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy in Canada: A Multisite Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cohort data examining differences by gender in clinical responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain inconsistent and have yet to be explored in a multi-province Canadian setting. This study investigates gender differences by injection drug use (IDU) history in virologic responses to ART and mortality. Methods Data from the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration, a multisite cohort study of HIV-positive individuals initiating ART after January 1, 2000, were included. This analysis was restricted to participants with a follow-up HIV-RNA plasma viral load measure and known IDU history. Weibull hazard regression evaluated time to virologic suppression (2 consecutive measures <50 copies/mL), rebound (>1000 copies/mL after suppression), and all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of presumed ART use in pregnancy on virologic outcomes. Results At baseline, women (1120 of 5442 participants) were younger (median 36 vs. 41 years) and more frequently reported IDU history (43.5% vs. 28.8%) (both p<0.001). Irrespective of IDU history, in adjusted multivariable analyses women were significantly less likely to virologically suppress after ART initiation and were at increased risk of viral load rebound. In adjusted time to death analysis, no differences by gender were noted. After adjusting for presumed ART use in pregnancy, observed gender differences in time to virologic suppression for non-IDU, and time to virologic rebound for IDU, became insignificant. Conclusions HIV-positive women in CANOC are at heightened risk for poor clinical outcomes. Further understanding of the intersections between gender and other factors augmenting risk is needed to maximize the benefits of ART. PMID:24391803

Cescon, Angela; Patterson, Sophie; Chan, Keith; Palmer, Alexis K.; Margolese, Shari; Burchell, Ann N.; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina B.; Machouf, Nima; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Tsoukas, Chris; Hogg, Robert S.; Raboud, Janet M.; Loutfy, Mona R.

2013-01-01

423

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few and very small N studies published indicated that males have a poorer pre-morbid cognitive performance than females. This study examined the gender differences in premorbid cognition, utilizing cognitive assessments performed on female and male adolescents before induction into military service. The Israeli Draft Board Registry, which contains cognitive assessments equivalent to IQ scores on 16-18 year old Israeli adolescents, was linked with the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which records all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Scores on premorbid cognitive performance in schizophrenia were examined in 90 female-male case pairs matched for school attended as a proxy for socio-economic status. The mean age of first hospitalization was 20. 1+/-1.8 years of age for males and 19.6+/-1.8 years of age for females. A repeated-measures ANCOVA with age of first hospitalization and years of formal education as covariates, and controlling for gender differences in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents, revealed a significant difference in pre-morbid cognitive performance between males and females on all four cognitive measures [F(1,87)=8.07, P=0.006] with females scoring lower (worse) than males. In this national cohort, pre-morbid cognition was poorer in female, compared with male, adolescents who will suffer from schizophrenia in the future, a result consistent with some, but not all, similar studies. These results may be valid only for patients with first hospitalization around age 20. Hence, gender differences in premorbid cognition should be taken into account when assessing gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:11042436

Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Kaplan, Z; Mark, M; Nahon, D; Davidson, M

2000-10-27

424

A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success\\/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming exp- erience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible

Brenda Cantwell Wilson

2002-01-01

425

Gender Differences in Experimental Disclosure: Evidence, Theoretical Explanations, and Avenues for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in emotional expression is long-standing. Given well-established gender differences in expressivity, it is surprising\\u000a that researchers have not consistently examined gender as a potential moderator of outcome in the context of experimental\\u000a disclosure studies. This article comments on Range and Jenkins’ (2010) research recommendations in light of the suggestion\\u000a that males evidence greater benefit of disclosure than females and

Shelby L. Langer

2010-01-01

426

Gender Differences in Video Game Characters’ Roles, Appearances, and Attire as Portrayed in Video Game Magazines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video game characters have the potential to shape players’ perceptions of gender roles. Through social comparison processes,\\u000a players learn societal expectations of appearances, behaviors and roles. Forty-nine articles were coded from current U.S.\\u000a gaming magazines, resulting in 115 coded characters. This content analysis of video game magazine articles investigated how\\u000a characters are portrayed, focusing on gender differences. Males were more

Monica K. Miller; Alicia Summers

2007-01-01

427

Gender Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity Among Cocaine-Using Opiate Addicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychiatric comorbidity was examined for a sample of 212 methadone patients dually addicted to opiates and cocaine, focusing on gender differences. Diagnoses were determined by the SCID for DSM-III-R. Men displayed more lifetime (but not current) substance use disorders, while women displayed more lifetime and current non-substance use disorders. There were several significant interactions among psychiatric disorders and gender. Women

Stephen Magura; Sung-Yeon Kang; Andrew Rosenblum; Leonard Handelsman; Jeffrey Foote

1998-01-01

428

Gender Differences in Acute Tobacco Withdrawal: Effects on Subjective, Cognitive, and Physiological Measures  

PubMed Central

Gender differences in tobacco withdrawal are of considerable clinical importance, but research findings on this topic have been mixed. Methodological variation in samples sizes, experimental design, and measures across studies may explain the inconsistent results. The current study examined whether male (n = 101) and female (n = 102) smokers (?15 cigarettes/day) differed in abstinence-induced changes on a battery of self-report measures (withdrawal, affect, craving), cognitive performance tasks (attention, psychomotor performance), and physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure, brain electroencephalogram). Participants attended 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions, 1 following 12 hr of abstinence and the other following ad libitum smoking. Results showed that women reported greater abstinence-induced increases in negative affect, withdrawal-related distress, and urge to smoke to relieve withdrawal distress. In contrast, both genders reported similar abstinence-induced changes in positive affect and urge to smoke for pleasure. Men and women exhibited generally similar abstinence-induced changes in physiological and cognitive performance measures. In addition, gender did not moderate the association between withdrawal symptoms and baseline measures of smoking behavior and dependence. Abstinence-induced changes in withdrawal distress mediated the effect of gender on latency until the 1st cigarette of the day at trend levels (p < .10). These findings suggest that there are qualitative gender differences in the acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome that may underlie gender-specific smoking patterns. PMID:17295582

Leventhal, Adam M.; Boyd, Susan; Moolchan, Eric T.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lerman, Caryn; Pickworth, Wallace B.

2009-01-01

429

Gender difference in work-family conflict among Japanese information technology engineers with preschool children.  

PubMed

Since the Family Policy Act, which requires companies to develop action plans to support their employees who have children in an attempt to reverse the declining birthrate in Japan, was enacted in 2003, many Japanese organizations and occupational health staff have become interested in work-family conflict (WFC), especially WFC in employees with young children. A cross-sectional survey of regularly employed information technology (IT) engineers with preschool children in Japan was conducted to examine the gender difference in WFC, relationship of WFC with outcomes, and predictors of WFC by gender. Data from 78 male and 102 female respondents were analyzed. There was no significant gender difference in total level of WFC. However, the level of work interference with family (WIF) was significantly higher in males than in females and the level of family interference with work (FIW) was significantly higher in females. Regarding outcomes, WIF was significantly related to depression and fatigue in both genders. Moreover, different predictors were related to WIF and FIW by gender. A family-friendly culture in the company was related to WIF only in males. To prevent depression and cumulative fatigue in employees with young children, occupational practitioners have to pay attention to not only employees' work stress but also their family stress or amount of family role in both genders. PMID:18493112

Watai, Izumi; Nishikido, Noriko; Murashima, Sachiyo

2008-01-01

430

Gender-mediated differences in vertical transmission of a nucleopolyhedrovirus.  

PubMed

With the development of sensitive molecular techniques for detection of low levels of asymptomatic pathogens, it becoming clear that vertical transmission is a common feature of some insect pathogenic viruses, and likely to be essential to virus survival when opportunities for horizontal transmission are unfavorable. Vertical transmission of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) is common in natural populations of S. exigua. To assess whether gender affected transgenerational virus transmission, four mating group treatments were performed using healthy and sublethally infected insects: i) healthy males (H?) × healthy females (H?); ii) infected males (I?) × healthy females (H?); iii) healthy males (H?) × infected females (I?) and iv) infected males (I?) × infected females (I?). Experimental adults and their offspring were analyzed by qPCR to determine the prevalence of infection. Both males and females were able to transmit the infection to the next generation, although female-mediated transmission resulted in a higher prevalence of infected offspring. Male-mediated venereal transmission was half as efficient as maternally-mediated transmission. Egg surface decontamination studies indicated that the main route of transmission is likely transovarial rather than transovum. Both male and female offspring were infected by their parents in similar proportions. Incorporating vertically-transmitted genotypes into virus-based insecticides could provide moderate levels of transgenerational pest control, thereby extending the periods between bioinsecticide applications. PMID:23940671

Virto, Cristina; Zárate, Carlos A; López-Ferber, Miguel; Murillo, Rosa; Caballero, Primitivo; Williams, Trevor

2013-01-01

431

Desired Career Outcomes Among College Students: Differences by Gender and Intended Career Field  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using factor analysis we investigated the desired career outcomes of a large sample of college students. From fifteen original items, we extracted eight factors covering over 50% of the total variance. Some of these factors were associated with gender and/or intended career field. The âcommunal valuesâ factor is positively associated with the female gender and a life sciences career interest, and negatively associated with an engineering career interest. Furthermore, the âinnovatorâ factor is associated with the male gender and an interest in physical sciences and engineering careers. Another factor strongly associated with male gender is âcareer as means to social recognition.â These results are in line with existing research pointing to different goals for males and females when choosing careers: Females are more oriented toward communal behavior and a connection with real life, whereas males are more attracted by social recognition and power.

Lung, Florin D.; Potvin, Geoff; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

2014-02-01

432

Heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences. Three studies conducted with students at six different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men. The same social psychological variables appear to underlie

Gregory M. Herek

1988-01-01

433

Ethnic and Gender Differences in Farm Tasks and Safety Practices Among Rural California Farm Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural work is hazardous and is common among rural youth, especially for those living on farms or ranches. Previous work has shown differences in farm work and injury patterns between boys and girls, but little data exist addressing ethnic differences. This study examined ethnic and gender differences in farm tasks, safety attitudes, and use of protective measures among rural California

Stephen A. McCurdy; Jonathan A. Kwan

2012-01-01

434

Unity and difference: A critical appraisal of polarizing gender identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Unity and Difference track.\\u000aIn The Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel draws out the inter-dependency of unity and difference. In order to have a unity there must be differences which compose it, as a unity unifies different elements. If in unifying these elements they cease to be different from each other, however, then the whole

Stephanie Adair

2010-01-01

435

Sex, Lies and fMRI—Gender Differences in Neural Basis of Deception  

PubMed Central

Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants’ subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization. PMID:22952631

Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona

2012-01-01

436

Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.  

PubMed

Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. PMID:25450956

Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

2015-01-22

437

Cigarette smoking motives: factorial structure and gender differences in a longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Research investigating the factorial structure of cigarette smoking motives (based on the Horn-Waingrow Smoking Survey) suggests considerable similarity in factor structure across different samples as well as stability of structure in repeated assessments. This study evaluates the replicability of six commonly found Horn-Waingrow factors in a sample of 109 men and women from three longitudinal studies and also reports on gender and other psychosocial differences. Principal component analyses exactly replicated previously reported factors, separately for each gender. Significant gender differences in level are shown for two smoking motives (Reduction of Negative Affect and Pleasure): Women more than men report that they smoke for these reasons. Also, there are significant differences in motives between current and former smokers and between smokers with and without smoking spouses. PMID:3170047

Livson, N; Leino, E V

1988-06-01

438

Introduction/overview: gender-based differences in pharmacologic and toxicologic responses.  

PubMed

Gender may be the most important factor in mammalian development and response to exogenous agents. From believing sex-related differences required sheltering women to protect their reproductive capacity (Victorians thought exercise, education, train travel, and certain music neuro- and reprotoxic to females) to legislating a status of essential equality of the sexes may have increased women's health issues. Men and women often respond differently to drugs. Inclusion of women in phase I/II clinical trials is insufficient to identify gender-based differences in response; rather, animal models should be the basis for predicting gender-based differences in pharmacologic and toxicologic effects. Unfortunately, current animal models do not consistently demonstrate such differences. Use of commonly used species (e.g., rats and dogs) does not necessarily result in relevant evaluation of an agent in a species at appropriate development (age), physiological state, anatomy, metabolism, or kinetics for estimation of human risks. The need to test agents in relevant animal models and advances in metabolic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic capabilities challenge us to improve methods by using the most relevant models for estimating human risk. We need to be concerned about gender-related differences and the dynamics of gender-based growth and development over the entire life cycle. We must also consider potential interactions of dietary supplements and other exogenous agents that can act as drugs or modulate the potential effects of drugs differently in men, women, and developing children of both sexes. To this end, the health benefits of genistein and the effects of this dietary agent in a multigeneration study in rats will be described. It is envisioned that this symposium will assist in re-recognition of the importance of gender-related differences in use and response to pharmaceuticals and result in optimization of nonclinical testing procedures to identify benefits and risks for human use of these agents. PMID:11488555

Christian, M S

2001-01-01

439

Gender differences in follower behavior. An experimental study of reactions to ambitious decision makers.  

PubMed

This study investigates whether observers react negatively to overly ambitious leaders, focusing on whether women are more sensitive than men in their perceptions of the traits of decision makers and whether men and women behave differently as a result of such perceptions. Results from two laboratory experiments show how participants react to ambitious decision makers in simple bargaining scenarios. The results indicate that observers tend to equate ambition for decision-making authority with self-interested, unfair, male behavior. Moreover, observers tend to be less satisfied with a decision made by an ambitious decision maker compared to the same decision made by an unambitious decision maker. That is, people generally dislike ambitious decision makers independent of the actual decision that is made. Further, there are important differences in male and female expectations of what decision makers will do that, when combined with perceptions of decision-maker gender, have more nuanced implications for outcome satisfaction and our understanding of "follower behavior." PMID:21761980

Larimer, Christopher W; Hannagan, Rebecca J

2010-09-01

440

Gender differences in conference presentations: a consequence of self-selection?  

PubMed Central

Women continue to be under-represented in the sciences, with their representation declining at each progressive academic level. These differences persist despite long-running policies to ameliorate gender inequity. We compared gender differences in exposure and visibility at an evolutionary biology conference for attendees at two different academic levels: student and post-PhD academic. Despite there being almost exactly a 1:1 ratio of women and men attending the conference, we found that when considering only those who presented talks, women spoke for far less time than men of an equivalent academic level: on average student women presented for 23% less time than student men, and academic women presented for 17% less time than academic men. We conducted more detailed analyses to tease apart whether this gender difference was caused by decisions made by the attendees or through bias in evaluation of the abstracts. At both academic levels, women and men were equally likely to request a presentation. However, women were more likely than men to prefer a short talk, regardless of academic level. We discuss potential underlying reasons for this gender bias, and provide recommendations to avoid similar gender biases at future conferences. PMID:25346879

Fanson, Kerry V.; Lanfear, Rob; Symonds, Matthew R.E.; Higgie, Megan

2014-01-01

441

Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

LeGrand, Julie

442

Gender differences in the association between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease: the Hisayama Study  

PubMed Central

Aims: Periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome (MS) are more prevalent in males than in females. However, whether there is a gender difference in the association between these health conditions has not yet been investigated. This study examined the gender difference in this association, considering the definition of periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: We recruited 1040 males and 1330 females, aged ?40 years, with at least ten teeth from subjects of the 2007 Hisayama health examination. We performed a logistic regression analysis with various definitions of periodontal disease the dependent variable and MS as the independent variable. Following the analysis, the data were reanalysed with the structural equations model. Results: The logistic regression analysis suggested a stronger association between periodontal disease and MS in females than that in males when periodontal disease was more severely defined. When we constructed the structural equations model in each gender, the model showed a good fit to the data of females, suggesting the association between periodontal disease and MS in females, but not in males. Conclusions: Gender differences seem to exist in the association between periodontal disease and MS; MS might show a stronger association with periodontal disease in females than in males. Furuta M, Shimazaki Y, Takeshita T, Shibata Y, Akifusa S, Eshima N, Kiyohara Y, Ninomiya T, Hirakawa Y, Mukai N, Nagata M, Yamashita Y. Gender differences in the association between metabolic syndrome and periodontal disease: the Hisayama Study. J Clin Periodontol 2013; 40: 743–752. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12119. PMID:23829196

Furuta, Michiko; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Takeshita, Toru; Shibata, Yukie; Akifusa, Sumio; Eshima, Nobuoki; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hirakawa, Yoichiro; Mukai, Naoko; Nagata, Masaharu; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2013-01-01

443

Gender differences in attitudes and beliefs associated with bystander behavior and sexual assault.  

PubMed

Sexual violence is a significant problem on many college campuses. Bystander education programs have been found to train individuals to act to prevent sexual and partner violence and improve the responses of peers to survivors. Limited evidence suggests that gender differences exist between males and females regarding both attitudes toward, and use of, bystander behavior, with females reporting more supportive attitudes and greater use of bystander behavior. The purpose of this study is to compare male and female college students on attitudes toward date rape, bystander efficacy, intention to act as a bystander, and actual use of bystander behaviors. A secondary aim explored gender differences in theoretically driven bystander behaviors and barriers to acting as a bystander. A convenience sample of 157 full-time undergraduate students aged 18-24 years completed survey measures of attitudes related to sexual and partner violence and willingness to help. Analysis of variance and chi-square were used to compare gender differences in scores. Significant gender differences were found for date rape attitudes, efficacy, and intention to act as a positive bystander. Men reported more rape-supportive attitudes and greater intention to act as a bystander than women, whereas women reported greater levels of bystander efficacy than men. The findings can be used in tailoring gender-specific components of bystander education programs for sexual assault prevention and intervention. PMID:24762431

Amar, Angela F; Sutherland, Melissa; Laughon, Kathryn

2014-01-01

444

The communicative aspect of nonfatal suicidal behavior--are there gender differences?  

PubMed

Data from the Norwegian part of the WHO/EURO Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior were used to investigate gender differences in the communicative aspect of nonfatal suicidal behavior by means of analyzing precipitating factors, intentions involved in and effects of the suicidal act within the frame of Qvortrup's interpretation of speech-act theory. Eighty-nine patients (48 women and 41 men) were included in the analyses, virtually no gender differences were found. Thus, in general, the results did not support the view that persons engaging in nonfatal suicidal behavior should receive different treatment or follow-up as a group based on their gender. The results gave some support to Qvortrup's speech-act theory and his four categories of suicidal behavior, emotional toward others, regulative toward others, emotional toward oneself and regulative toward oneself. PMID:12617478

Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa; Nordvik, Hilmar

2002-01-01

445

Pronounced gender and age differences are evident in personal health care spending per person.  

PubMed

This paper examines differences in national health care spending by gender and age. Our research found significant variations in per person spending by gender across age groups, health services, and types of payers. For example, in 2004 per capita health care spending for females was 32 percent more than for males. Per capita differences were most pronounced among the working-age population, largely because of spending for maternity care. Except for children, total spending for and by females was greater than that for and by males, for most services and payers. The gender difference in total spending was most pronounced in the elderly, as a result of the longer life expectancy of women. PMID:21148180

Cylus, Jonathan; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

2011-01-01

446

Gender differences in emotion recognition: Impact of sensory modality and emotional category.  

PubMed

Results from studies on gender differences in emotion recognition vary, depending on the types of emotion and the sensory modalities used for stimulus presentation. This makes comparability between different studies problematic. This study investigated emotion recognition of healthy participants (N = 84; 40 males; ages 20 to 70 years), using dynamic stimuli, displayed by two genders in three different sensory modalities (auditory, visual, audio-visual) and five emotional categories. The participants were asked to categorise the stimuli on the basis of their nonverbal emotional content (happy, alluring, neutral, angry, and disgusted). Hit rates and category selection biases were analysed. Women were found to be more accurate in recognition of emotional prosody. This effect was partially mediated by hearing loss for the frequency of 8,000 Hz. Moreover, there was a gender-specific selection bias for alluring stimuli: Men, as compared to women, chose "alluring" more often when a stimulus was presented by a woman as compared to a man. PMID:24151963

Lambrecht, Lena; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Wildgruber, Dirk

2014-04-01

447

Gender Differences in Both Tails of the Distribution of Numerical Competencies in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gender differences in mathematical achievement have been examined in a wide range of age groups but only a few studies addressed this issue in preschool children. We compared preschool girls (n?=?570) and boys (n?=?524) from Germany with regard to numerical competencies. Differences in overall group means and the frequency of representation at…

Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

2013-01-01

448

Gender Differences in the Daily Physical Activities of Danish School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children at pre-school and later at third grade. The study…

Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud; Andersen, Lars Bo

2011-01-01

449

Interpersonal Reactivity Index: Analysis of Invariance and Gender Differences in Spanish Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empathy is understood as a multidimensional construct involving both cognitive and emotional factors for which, traditionally, gender differences have been reported. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis in Catalog Sel Documents Psychol 10:1-19, 1980) is an instrument made up of four subscales, each measuring a different dimension of the…

Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Delgado Egido, Begona; Carrasco Ortiz, Miguel A.; Del Barrio Gandara, M. V.

2013-01-01

450

Gender Differences When Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multilevel Modeling Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting a child with autism may differentially affect mothers and fathers. Existing studies of mother-father differences often ignore the interdependence of data within families. We investigated gender differences within-families using multilevel linear modeling. Mothers and fathers of children with autism (161 couples) reported on their own…

Jones, Leah; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

2013-01-01

451

Gender Differences in PTSD in Israeli Youth Exposed to Terror Attacks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences between boys' and girls' exposure to terror and posttraumatic symptoms were examined in a sample of 2,999 Israeli adolescents. Gender differences were also assessed regarding perceived social support, religious beliefs, and ideological commitment. Results indicate that girls reported more posttraumatic symptoms than boys, although boys…

Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

2009-01-01

452

How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

2011-01-01

453

Gender Differences in the Importance of Work and Family Roles: Implications for Work–Family Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we explored between- and within-gender differences in the importance of life roles and their implications for work–family conflict. In earlier research (Cinamon & Rich, 2002) we found 3 profiles of workers who differ in attributions of importance to work and family roles: persons who assigned high importance to both the work role and the family role (“Dual”

Rachel Gali Cinamon; Yisrael Rich

2002-01-01

454

Gender Differences in First-Grade Mathematics Strategy Use: Social and Metacognitive Influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social and metacognitive contributors to gender differences in 1st grader's mathematics strategy use were explored. Fifty-eight children solved addition and subtraction problems individually and in groups of 3 in October, January, and May. The children's strategy use was assessed individually, as well as their metacognitive knowledge for mathematics strategies and their rationales for the use of different mathematics strategies. The

Martha Carr; Donna L. Jessup

1997-01-01

455

The Role of Attribution and Significant Others in Gender Differences in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated four hypotheses regarding gender differences in mathematic achievement. Questionnaires were completed by 97 students (58 female and 39 male). Responses support two hypotheses: females do not perform as well as males, especially on standardized tests; roles played by parents, teachers, and peers contribute to these differences.…

Ramos, Ismael

1996-01-01

456

Confidence in Mathematics and Its Consequences: Gender Differences among Israeli Jewish and Arab Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied the relative weight of personal, social, and cultural variables that explain gender differences in mathematics learning in different sectors of Israeli society. Results from 106 Jewish and 105 Arab high school students show the higher perceived achievement and mathematics self-confidence of the Arab girls. Explores reasons for the…

Mittelberg, David; Lev-Ari, Lilach

1999-01-01

457

Leadership Styles and School Performance: Is There a Gender Difference in Expectations for Teachers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, the research on the perceptions of gender differences in leadership styles is explored. The study also attempts to determine whether there are differences in overall school performance for male versus female school principals. The methodology involved a mixed-model ANOVA analysis of findings from 31 principals and 236 teachers…

Magee, Iris Denise

2012-01-01

458

Homework Self-Regulation: Grade, Gender, and Achievement-Level Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study examined differences in students' reported homework value, motivation, and metacognitive strategy use during homework completion among two grades, gender, and three achievement levels. Differences among six homework self-regulation constructs (utility value, intrinsic value, effort, persistence, planning, and self-checking) were also…

Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; Rowell, Lonnie L.

2009-01-01

459

Gender Differences on the Math Subtest of the Scholastic Aptitude Test May Be Culture-Specific.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study in which Chinese students were given items from the math subtest of the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) which were found to produce the largest gender differences in American students. Concludes that, consistent with differential coursework view but contrary to several others, results revealed no difference in performance on the…

Byrnes, James P.; Hong, Li; Xing, Shaoying

1997-01-01

460

Gender differences in risk behaviour in financial decision-making: An experimental analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines whether gender differences in risk propensity and strategy in financial decision-making can be viewed as general traits, or whether they arise because of context factors. It presents the results of two computerised laboratory experiments designed to examine whether differences in risk preference and decision strategies are explained by the framing of tasks and level of task familiarity

Melanie Powell; David Ansic

1997-01-01

461

The relative price of fairness: gender differences in a punishment game  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ideas of fairness influence economic transactions. Men and women may differ systematically in the nature and extent of this influence. We investigate gender differences in the impact of fairness on the outcome of economic transactions. In our “punishment game” subjects may choose to split a larger pie with a “bad” partner, or a smaller pie with a “good” partner. We

Catherine C. Eckel; Philip J. Grossman

1996-01-01

462

Gender Differences in Language Use: An Analysis of 14,000 Text Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differences in the ways that men and women use language have long been of interest in the study of discourse. Despite extensive theorizing, actual empirical investigations have yet to converge on a coherent picture of gender differences in language. A significant reason is the lack of agreement over the best way to analyze language. In this…

Newman, Matthew L.; Groom, Carla J.; Handelman, Lori D.; Pennebaker, James W.

2008-01-01

463

Gender Differences in Emotional Risk for Self- and Other-Directed Violence among Externalizing Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Women and men generally differ in how frequently they engage in other- and self-directed physical violence and may show distinct emotional risk factors for engagement in these high-impact behaviors. To inform this area, we investigated gender differences in the relationship of emotional tendencies (i.e., anger, hostility, and anhedonic…

Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Finy, M. Sima; Verona, Edelyn

2011-01-01

464

Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

2006-01-01

465

Gender Differences in Academic Self-Efficacy: A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of 187 studies containing 247 independent studies (N = 68,429) on gender differences in academic self-efficacy identified an overall effect size of 0.08, with a small difference favoring males. Moderator analysis demonstrated that content domain was a significant moderator in explaining effect size variation. Females displayed…

Huang, Chiungjung

2013-01-01

466

Gender differences in promotion on a job ladder: Evidence from Finnish metalworkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, using panel data on Finnish metalworkers for the years 1990-2000, explores gender differences in the allocation of workers across jobs of different complexity. The data provide measures for the complexity of the workers' tasks and for the individual productivity of each worker. The results indicate that women were less likely to be promoted than men who started their

Tuomas Pekkarinen; Juhana Vartiainen

2006-01-01

467

Gender Differences in the Choice of Computer Courses: Applying an Expectancy-Value Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of computer courses has a direct influence on the development of computer literacy. It is alarming, therefore, that girls seem to choose computer courses less frequently than boys. The present paper examines (a) whether these often-reported gender differences also occur at the early high school level (Study 1) and (b) how these differences can be predicted by applying

Oliver Dickhäuser; Joachim Stiensmeier-Pelster

2003-01-01

468

Gender differences in the choice of computer courses: applying an expectancy-value model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The choice of computer courses has a direct influence on the development of computer literacy. It is alarming, therefore, that girls seem to choose computer courses less frequently than boys. The present paper examines (a) whether these often-reported gender differences also occur at the early high school level (Study 1) and (b) how these differences can be predicted by applying

OLIVER DICKHÄUSER; JOACHIM STIENSMEIER-PELSTER

2003-01-01

469

Gender Differences in Views about Cognitive Health and Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors among Rural Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Research suggests that men and women often differ in knowledge and beliefs about causes and treatments of a variety of diseases. This study examines gender differences in views about cognitive health and behaviors that have been associated with its maintenance, focusing on older adults living in rural areas. Design and Methods: We…

Wu, Bei; Goins, R. Turner; Laditka, James N.; Ignatenko, Valerie; Goedereis, Eric

2009-01-01

470

Gender-Related and Grade-Related Differences in Writing Topics in Chinese and Canadian Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined Canadian and Chinese first, fourth, and seventh graders to determine sex-related, culture-related, and age-related differences in writing topics. Children were asked to pretend they were animals and write stories about the animals' adventures. Both countries showed gender and age differences in choice of animals which reflected…

Harvey, C. Brian; Ollila, Lloyd; Baxter, Kristin; Guo, Song Zheng

1997-01-01

471

Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Gender Differences at Critical Transitions in the Careers of Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Faculty" presents new and surprising findings about career differences between female and male full-time, tenure-track, and tenured faculty in science, engineering, and mathematics at the nation's top research universities. Much of this…

National Academies Press, 2010

2010-01-01

472

Gender Differences in Social Cognitive Learning at a Technological Project Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study aims to investigate the differences between male and female students in technology project design. The major gender differences discussed in this study include the problem discovering and solving abilities, maneuverability, and inquiry attitude among middle grade students. In the project design, students were required to design and…

Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu; Lin, Hung-Chang; Yau, Che-Ming

2012-01-01

473

Nursing home residence confounds gender differences in Medicare utilization an example of Simpson's paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gender differences in health care utilization in older Americans may be confounded by nursing home residence. Medicare data contain several files that can be used to create a measure of nursing home residence, but prior work has not addressed which best account for potential confounding. Simpson's paradox occurs when aggregated data support a different conclusion from what the disaggregated

Andrea C. Kronman; Karen M. Freund; Amresh Hanchate; Ezekiel J. Emanuel; Arlene S. Ash

2010-01-01

474

Understanding Gender Differences in Middle School Computer Interest and Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 3-year study was conducted to document individual differences in computer interest and use among middle school students and the psychological and social processes that may contribute to these differences. A questionnaire was used to assess the computer interest and use of a sample of approximately 400 middle school students at the end of each of…

Miura, Irene T.

475

Gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood after oral ingestion.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood according to gender and to evaluate the determination of ethanol in saliva for evidential sobriety testing. Twenty-four persons, 12 men and 12 women, took part in the experiments. The subjects received ethanol, as neat 40% v/v vodka, in the amount which should lead according to Widmark formula to the blood alcohol concentration equal to 1.0 g/l. Duplicate samples of an unstimulated mixed saliva secretion and venous blood were taken at 15 min intervals timing from the end of consumption, and ethanol concentrations in both specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography. The pharmacokinetic calculations were done using first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten or zero order elimination models. In most cases ethanol reached higher maximal concentration in saliva than in venous blood, and was faster eliminated from saliva. The significant gender differences in the time-concentration profiles were observed. The maximal ethanol concentrations, both in blood and saliva, were lower in women compared to men. In females, ethanol was faster excreted from the body. Both experimental (Cmax) and extrapolated to zero time (C0) maximum ethanol concentrations were lower in females. The apparent volumes of distribution after oral dose for saliva and blood were very close and did not differ statistically. The study shows that the same factor equivalent to volume of distribution should be used in back calculation of alcohol concentration, and saliva alcohol analysis can be treated as independent method to test sobriety. PMID:14581724

Guba?a, Wojciech; Zuba, Dariusz

2003-01-01

476

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF ETHANOL IN SALIVA AND BLOOD AFTER ORAL INGESTION  

E-print Network

The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood according to gender and to evaluate the determination of ethanol in saliva for evidential sobriety testing. Twenty-four persons, 12 men and 12 women, took part in the experiments. The subjects received ethanol, as neat 40 % v/v vodka, in the amount which should lead according to Widmark formula to the blood alcohol concentration equal to 1.0 g/l. Duplicate samples of an unstimulated mixed saliva secretion and venous blood were taken at 15 min intervals timing from the end of consumption, and ethanol concentrations in both specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography. The pharmacokinetic calculations were done using first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten or zero order elimination models. In most cases ethanol reached higher maximal concentration in saliva than in venous blood, and was faster eliminated from saliva. The significant gender differences in the time-concentration profiles were observed. The maximal ethanol concentrations, both in blood and saliva, were lower in women compared to men. In females, ethanol was faster excreted from the body. Both experimental (C max) and extrapolated to zero time (C 0) maximum ethanol concentrations were lower in females. The apparent volumes of distribution after oral dose for saliva and blood were very close and did not differ statistically. The study shows that the same factor equivalent to volume of distribution should be used in back calculation of alcohol concentration, and saliva alcohol analysis can be treated as independent method to test sobriety.

Pol J. Pharmacol; Dariusz Zuba

477

Tears in your beer: Gender differences in coping drinking motives, depressive symptoms and drinking  

PubMed Central

This study evaluates associations between coping drinking motives (CDM; drinking to regulate negative affect), depressive symptoms, and drinking behavior and extends the literature by also taking into account gender differences. Two hundred forty-three college students (Mean age = 22.93, SD = 6.29, 82% female) participated. Based on previous research, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, particularly among those higher in depressive symptoms, as individuals experiencing higher levels of negative affect (i.e. depressive symptoms) and who drink to cope are likely to drink more and experience more alcohol-related problems. Lastly, based on established gender differences, we expected that CDM would be positively associated with drinking and problems, especially among females higher in depressive symptoms. Unexpectedly, findings suggested that CDMs were positively related to peak drinking, especially among those lower in depressive symptoms. Results further revealed a significant three-way interaction between CDM, depressive symptoms, and gender when predicting alcohol-related problems and drinking frequency. Specifically, we found that CDM were more strongly associated with problems among women who were lower in depressive symptoms; whereas CDM were more strongly associated with problems among men who were higher in depressive symptoms. These findings offer a more comprehensive depiction of the relationship between depressive symptoms, CDM, and drinking behavior by taking into account the importance of gender differences. These results provide additional support for considering gender when designing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies.

Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Steers, Mai-Ly; Quist, Michelle C.; Bryan, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton

2014-01-01

478

Gender Differences in Isokinetic Strength after 60 and 90 d Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent reports suggest that changes in muscle strength following disuse may differ between males and females. PURPOSE: To examine potential gender differences in strength changes following 60 and 90 d of experimental bed rest. METHODS: Isokinetic extensor and flexor strength of the knee (60deg and 180deg/s, concentric only), ankle (30deg/s, concentric and eccentric), and trunk (60deg/s, concentric only) were measured following 60 d (males: n=4, 34.5+/-9.6 y; females: n=4, 35.5+/-8.2 y) and 90 d (males: n=10, 31.4+/-4.8 y; females: n=5, 37.6+/-9.9 y) of 6-degree head-down-tilt bed rest (BR; N=23). Subjects were fed a controlled diet (55%/15%/ 30%, CHO/PRO/FAT) that maintained body weight within 3% of the weight recorded on Day 3 of bed rest. After a familiarization session, testing was conducted 6 d before BR and 2 d after BR completion. Peak torque and total work were calculated for the tests performed. To allow us to combine data from both 60- and 90-d subjects, we used a mixed-model statistical analysis in which time and gender were fixed effects and bed rest duration was a random effect. Log-transformations of strength measures were utilized when necessary in order to meet statistical assumptions. RESULTS: Main effects were seen for both time and gender (p<0.05), showing decreased strength in response to bed rest for both males and females, and males stronger than females for most strength measures. Only one interaction effect was observed: females exhibited a greater loss of trunk extensor peak torque at 60 d versus pre-BR, relative to males (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Sixty and 90 d of BR induced significant losses in isokinetic muscle strength of the locomotor and postural muscles of the knee, ankle, and trunk. Although males were stronger than females for most of the strength measures that we examined, only changes in trunk extensor peak torque were greater for females than males at day 60 of bed rest

English, K. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

2010-01-01

479

Gender Differences in College Preparedness: A Statewide Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors investigated the extent to which boys and girls differed in their college-ready performance in\\u000a reading, in math, and in both subjects for the 2006–2007 school year for the state of Texas (n = 1,099 high schools). Also examined were the extent to which boys and girls differed in their performance on the Scholastic\\u000a Assessment Test (SAT) and

Julie P. Combs; John R. Slate; George W. Moore; Rebecca M. Bustamante; Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Stacey L. Edmonson

2010-01-01

480

Women's advantage at remembering others' appearance: A systematic look at the why and when of a gender difference.  

PubMed

Women recall the appearance of others better than men. The goal of the present research was to shed light on the explanations and boundary conditions of this gender difference. In three studies (592 participants), the authors tested potential mediators and moderators of the gender difference. Results corroborated the robustness of the gender difference. General task motivation, general memory ability, importance of appearance, appearance knowledge, attention paid to target, gazing at target, and communal or agentic orientation could not explain why women were better at recalling others' appearance than men were. Except for importance of appearance and appearance knowledge, which both decreased the magnitude of the gender difference, general task motivation, attention paid to target, length of exposure to target, delay in responding, cognitive load, and response format (verbal vs. nonverbal) had no effect on the gender difference. Results are discussed in relation to gender differences found in the nonverbal sensitivity literature. PMID:16455862

Mast, Marianne Schmid; Hall, Judith A

2006-03-01

481

GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PLASMA LIPID RESPONSE TO DIETARY FAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The relationship between type of dietary fat, atherosclerotic vascular disease risk and lipid/lipoprotein profiles has been studied since the early 1900s. For the most part, observational data from international comparisons and migration studies as well as prospective studies have identified a posit...

482

Reducing gender differences in performance in introductory college physics through values affirmation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite males and females being equally represented at the college level in several STEM disciplines (including biology, chemistry and mathematics), females continue to be under-represented in physics. Our research documents and addresses this participation gender gap in the introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. We characterize gender differences in performance, psychological factors (including attitudes and beliefs) and retention that exist in Physics 1 and 2 [L. E. Kost, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009); L. E. Kost-Smith, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 020112 (2010)]. We find that the gender differences in performance can largely be accounted for by measurable differences in the physics and mathematics backgrounds and incoming attitudes and beliefs of males and females. But these background factors do not completely account for the gender gaps. We hypothesize, based on gender differences in responses to survey questions about students' sense of physics identity and confidence levels, that identity threat (the fear of confirming a negative characterization about one's identity) is playing a role in our courses. Working with researchers in psychology, we implemented an intervention where students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the course [A. Miyake, et al., Science, 330, 1234 (2010)]. This "values affirmation" activity reduced the male-female performance difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. This brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance.

Kost-Smith, Lauren

2011-04-01

483

Playing an action video game reduces gender differences in spatial cognition.  

PubMed

We demonstrate a previously unknown gender difference in the distribution of spatial attention, a basic capacity that supports higher-level spatial cognition. More remarkably, we found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender disparity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition. After only 10 hr of training with an action video game, subjects realized substantial gains in both spatial attention and mental rotation, with women benefiting more than men. Control subjects who played a non-action game showed no improvement. Given that superior spatial skills are important in the mathematical and engineering sciences, these findings have practical implications for attracting men and women to these fields. PMID:17894600

Feng, Jing; Spence, Ian; Pratt, Jay

2007-10-01

484

Social support in ordinary life and laboratory measures of cardiovascular reactivity: gender differences in habituation-sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Gender differences in coronary heart disease are mirrored by gender differences both in cardiovascular reactivity to stress\\u000a and in the nature and content of social support networks. However, little research has examined the association between cardiovascular\\u000a reactivity in the laboratory and social support outside; and none has established whether gender differences in such associations\\u000a can elucidate relevant psychosomatic mechanisms.

Brian M. Hughes

2007-01-01

485

Gender differences in sexual behaviors of AD patients and their relationship to spousal caregiver well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Little is known about gender differences in sexuality among community-dwelling heterosexual couples in which one partner has Alzheimer's disease (AD). Few studies have examined gender differences in specific sexual behaviors or their associations with caregiver well-being. This study evaluated the impact of gender differences on intimacy and sexual satisfaction in marital relationships in which one partner has AD.Method: Baseline

Helen D. Davies; Sneha B. Sridhar; Lori A. Newkirk; Sherry A. Beaudreau; Ruth O’Hara

2012-01-01

486

Gender differences in sexual behaviors of AD patients and their relationship to spousal caregiver well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Little is known about gender differences in sexuality among community-dwelling heterosexual couples in which one partner has Alzheimer's disease (AD). Few studies have examined gender differences in specific sexual behaviors or their associations with caregiver well-being. This study evaluated the impact of gender differences on intimacy and sexual satisfaction in marital relationships in which one partner has AD.Method: Baseline

Helen D. Davies; Sneha B. Sridhar; Lori A. Newkirk; Sherry A. Beaudreau; Ruth O’Hara

2011-01-01

487

Birth cohort effects and gender differences in alcohol epidemiology: a review and synthesis  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol consumption has demonstrated substantial temporal trends, with some evidence suggesting strong birth cohort effects. The identification of at-risk birth cohorts can inform the interpretation of alcohol trends across age, time, and demographic characteristics such as gender. The present literature review has two objectives. First, we conduct a cross-national review of the literature on birth cohort differences in alcohol consumption, disorder, and mortality. Second, we determine the consistency of evidence for birth cohort effects on gender differences. Methods A search was conducted and key data on population characteristics, presence and direction of cohort effects, and interactions with gender compiled. Thirty-one articles were included. Results Evidence suggests that younger birth cohorts in North America, especially those born after World War II, are more likely than older cohorts to engage in heavy episodic drinking and develop alcohol disorders, but this cohort effect is not found in Australia and Western Europe. Cross-nationally, substantial evidence indicates that women in younger cohorts are at especially high risk for heavy episodic drinking and alcohol disorders. Discussion Younger birth cohorts in North America and Europe are engaging in more episodic and problem drinking. The gender gap in alcohol problems is narrowing in many countries, suggesting shifting social norms surrounding gender and alcohol consumption. These trends suggest that public health efforts to specifically target heavy drinking in women are necessary. PMID:21919918

Keyes, Katherine M.; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah S.

2011-01-01

488

Analysis of gender based differences in auditory evoked potentials among healthy elderly population  

PubMed Central

Background: Influence of gender on auditory evoked potentials is contentious. Although there are quite a few studies documenting the gender as an influencing factor on auditory evoked potentials in younger subjects, but there is a lack of similar studies among elderly population. The present study was conducted to find out the pattern of gender based differences in auditory evoked potentials among healthy elderly subjects. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on age matched, healthy males (n = 35) and females (n = 34), aged 50-70 years. The measures included latencies of waves I-V and interpeak latencies (IPL) I-III, III-V and I-V separately for both ears. Data was analyzed statistically using Students unpaired t-test, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software v13.0. Results: The values of all the latencies and IPL for both the ears were non-significantly higher (P > 0.05) in males as compared to females. These results may be attributed to the differences in head circumference between both the genders and to the changed hormonal milieu of sex hormones after menopause. Conclusions: Statistical insignificance of latencies among male and female elderly subjects excludes gender as an influencing factor on auditory evoked potentials in this age group. PMID:25371865

Gupta, Sharat; Mittal, Shallu; Baweja, Pooja; Kumar, Avnish; Singh, Kamal Dev; Sharma, Raghuvansh

2014-01-01

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Gender-Related Differences in Cardiovascular Responses to Orthostatic Stress  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is evidence that men and women have different cardiovascular responses to standing, and that women are more susceptible to orthostatic hypotension than men. The present study seeks to determine if decreased orthostatic tolerance in women is caused by diminished vasoconstrictive responses.

Fritsch-Yelle, Janice M.; DAunno, Dominick S.; Waters, Wendy W.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra

1999-01-01