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Sample records for observed gender difference

  1. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  2. Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  3. Reducing the motor response in haptic parallel matching eliminates the typically observed gender difference.

    PubMed

    van Mier, Hanneke I

    2016-01-01

    When making two bars haptically parallel to each other, large deviations have been observed, most likely caused by the bias of a hand-centered egocentric reference frame. A consistent finding is that women show significantly larger deviations than men when performing this task. It has been suggested that this difference might be due to the fact that women are more egocentrically oriented than men or are less efficient in overcoming the egocentric bias of the hand. If this is indeed the case, reducing the bias of the egocentric reference frame should eliminate the above-mentioned gender difference. This was investigated in the current study. Sixty participants (30 men, 30 women) were instructed to haptically match (task HP) the orientation of a test bar with the dominant hand to the orientation of a reference bar that was perceived with the non-dominant hand. In a haptic visual task (task HV), in which only the reference bar and exploring hand were out of view, no motor response was required, but participants had to "match" the perceived orientation by verbally naming the parallel orientation that was read out on a test protractor. Both females and males performed better in the HV task than in the HP task. Significant gender effects were only found in the haptic parallelity task (HP), corroborating the idea that women perform at the same level as men when the egocentric bias of the hand is reduced. PMID:26378006

  4. Postures, typing strategies, and gender differences in mobile device usage: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Gold, J E; Driban, J B; Thomas, N; Chakravarty, T; Channell, V; Komaroff, E

    2012-03-01

    Mobile device text messaging and other typing is rapidly increasing worldwide. A checklist was utilized to characterize joint postures and typing styles in individuals appearing to be of college age (n = 859) while typing on their mobile devices in public. Gender differences were also ascertained. Almost universally, observed subjects had a flexed neck (91.0%, n = 782), and a non-neutral typing-side wrist (90.3%, n = 776). A greater proportion of males had protracted shoulders (p < 0.01, ?(2) test), while a greater proportion of females had a typing-side inner elbow angle of <90°, particularly while standing (p = 0.03, ?(2) test). 46.1% of subjects typed with both thumbs (two hands holding the mobile device). Just over one-third typed with their right thumb (right hand holding the mobile device). No difference in typing styles between genders was found. Future research should determine whether the non-neutral postures identified may be associated with musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:21764031

  5. An observational study of social exclusion under varied conditions: gender and developmental differences.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Marion K; Scott, Bertrina L; Galperin, Mikal B; Bjornstad, Gretchen J; Sexton, Alicia M

    2004-01-01

    To investigate social exclusion, 146 dyads of close friends (N = 292, ages 10, 12, and 14) were observed as they played a board game with a same-gender confederate actor, trained to be a difficult play partner. Verbalizations and gestures were coded for verbal and nonverbal social exclusion, verbal aggression, and verbal assertion. The results indicated few developmental differences. For verbal responses in the presence of the actor, boys were more socially exclusive and verbally aggressive than were girls. Girls engaged in more nonverbal social exclusion in the presence of the actor than did boys. Girls' socially exclusive behaviors were unrelated to other negative behaviors and more strongly related between friends in the actor's absence. PMID:15369530

  6. Gender Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diedrick, Patricia

    Gender differences in spoken and unspoken emotional expression exist and may be related to gender differences in other realms, particularly in self-esteem. This literature review investigated gender differences in communication, particularly as related to emotional expressiveness, detection of emotional responses, and self-disclosures, in relation…

  7. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  8. Gender differences in young children’s temperament traits: Comparisons across observational and parent-report methods

    PubMed Central

    Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Methods Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826

  9. Do gender differences in primary PCI mortality represent a different adherence to guideline recommended therapy? a multicenter observation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is uncertain whether gender differences in outcome after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are only attributable to different baseline characteristics or additional factors. Methods Databases of two German myocardial infarction network registries were combined with a total of 1104 consecutive patients admitted with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and treated according to standardized protocols. Results Approximately 25% of patients were females. Mean age (69 vs 61 years), incidence of diabetes (28% vs 20%), hypertension (68 vs 58%) and renal insufficiency (26% vs 19%) was significantly higher compared to males. Mean prehospital delay was numerically longer in females (227 vs 209 min) as was in hospital delay (35 vs 30 min). PCI was finally performed in 92% of females and 95% of males with comparable procedural success (95% vs 97%). Use of drug eluting stents (55% vs 68%) and application of GP 2b 3a blockers (75% vs 89%) was significantly less frequent in women. At discharge, prescription of beta blockers and lipid lowering drugs was also significantly lower in females (84% vs 90% and 71% vs 84%). Unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher in females (10% vs 5%) without attenuation after 12 months. Adjusted mortality however did not differ significantly between genders. Conclusion Higher unadjusted mortality in females after primary PCI was accompanied by significant differences in baseline characteristics, interventional approach and secondary prophylaxis in spite of the same standard of care. Lower guideline adherence seems to be less gender specific but rather a manifestation of the risk-treatment paradox. PMID:24893930

  10. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  11. Early Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Marj

    2004-01-01

    In a longitudinal study of children in grades 0-4, gender differences are developing very early in some number domains, but there do not appear to be similar differences showing in the measurement and geometry domains studied. The Early Numeracy Research Project collected data at the beginning and end of each year from over 11,000 children in…

  12. [Laughter: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting. PMID:21489520

  13. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  14. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  15. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  16. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  17. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  18. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Drugs.

    PubMed

    Stolarz, Amanda J; Rusch, Nancy J

    2015-08-01

    The different responses of women and men to cardiovascular drugs reflect gender -specific variances in pharmacokinetic profiles and drug sensitivities coupled to inherent differences in the underlying physiology of each sex. Thus, many common cardiovascular drugs exhibit gender -specific therapeutic and adverse effects. For example, the QT interval of the electrocardiogram is longer in women compared to men, and accordingly, drugs that prolong the QT interval are more likely to cause lethal ventricular arrhythmias in female than male patients. As more clinical drug trials include women subjects, our improved knowledge base for assessing the risk/benefit ratio for cardiovascular drugs in women will enable us to consider gender as one factor in prescribing drugs and adjusting drug loading and maintenance dosages. This short review will present evidence for gender- related differences in the responses to common cardiovascular drugs including statins, antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents, ?-blockers, digoxin, vasodilator therapies, and drugs associated with the Long QT Syndrome. PMID:26227895

  19. Gender differences in familiar voice identification.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-02-01

    We investigated gender differences in the identification of personally familiar voices in a gender-balanced sample of 40 listeners. From various types of utterances, listeners had to identify by name 20 speakers (10 female) among a set of 70 possible classmates who were all 12th grade pupils from the same local secondary school. Mean identification rates were 67% from sentences, and around 35% for an isolated /Hello/ or a VCV syllable. Even from non-verbal harrumphs, speakers were identified with an accuracy of 18%, i.e. highly above chance levels. Substantial individual differences were observed between listeners. Importantly, superior overall performance of female listeners was qualified by an interaction between voice gender and listener gender. Male listeners exhibited an own-gender bias (i.e. better identification for male than female voices), whereas female listeners identified voices of both genders at similar levels. Individual own-gender identification biases were correlated with differences in reported contact to a speaker's voice and voice distinctiveness. Overall, the present study establishes a number of factors that account for substantial individual differences in personal voice identification. PMID:23168357

  20. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  1. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  2. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  3. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  4. [Gender difference in cerebrovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Fusao; Kato, Yoko; Kobayashi, Shoutai

    2015-04-01

    We discuss about the gender difference of cerebrovascular disease according to the data of Japan Standard Stroke Registry Study. The male proportion was dominant in cerebrovascular disease except for subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH). According to the data of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, age-adjusted death rate in cerebral infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage were higher in male than in female, however, in SAH the rate was no different between male and female. The incidence of SAH is higher in women than in men, but this gender difference emerges not earlier than age 59. Most cases of SAH were occurring in the ages ranging from 50's in male and 70's in female. The total male-to-female ratio was approximately 1:2. The female proportion was dominant in older patients. PMID:25936150

  5. Gender differences in perceptual-motor performance.

    PubMed

    Tirre, W C; Raouf, K K

    1994-05-01

    Do gender differences exist in perceptual-motor performance, and, if so, are the differences as substantial as those observed in trade/technical knowledge tests? What roles do general cognitive ability and videogame experience have in determining perceptual-motor performance? To address these questions, we administered a battery of computer-based tests requiring multilimb coordination and perceptual matching to a sample of 392 USAF enlistees (72% male). Our main findings were that general cognitive ability had the expected positive main effect on performance and gender and videogame experience had an interactive effect, such that videogame experience benefited men's but not women's performance. The role of experience on perceptual-motor performance merits further attention, especially with regard to gender differences. PMID:8018079

  6. Gender Differences Among Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Methods Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Results Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Discussion Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health. PMID:19418342

  7. Gender Differences in Science: An Expertise Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a new approach to research on gender differences in science that uses the work on expertise in science as a framework for understanding gender differences. Because gender differences in achievement and participation in the sciences are largest in physics, the focus of this review is on physics. The nature of…

  8. Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

    2012-01-01

    Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

  9. Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

    2012-01-01

    Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

  10. Gender differences in collaboration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  11. Gender and Achievement--Understanding Gender Differences and Similarities in Mathematics Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Liru; Manon, Jon

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate overall patterns of gender differences and similarities of test performance in mathematics. To achieve that objective, observed test scores on the Delaware standards-based assessment were analyzed to examine: (1) gender differences and similarities across grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 over 2 years;…

  12. Gender Differences in Neurodevelopment and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727

  13. Cognitive Gender Differences among Israeli Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Ganor, Yael

    1995-01-01

    Examined gender differences in spatial, verbal, and mathematical ability in 11,000 Israeli elementary school children. In each test the variance for boys exceeded girls by 10% to 20%. Consistent cross-grade differences in mean achievement were found only for mathematical ability. These results contradict American findings that show no gender…

  14. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender stereotypes. PMID:25546498

  15. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  16. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  17. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  18. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

  19. Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

  20. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krener, P

    1994-03-01

    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market. PMID:24435498

  1. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  2. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n?=?785; f: n?=?358, m: n?=?427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p?=?0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p?=?0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p?=?0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  3. Gender-related differences in moral judgments.

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, M; Ferrucci, R; Mameli, F; Marceglia, S; Mrakic-Sposta, S; Zago, S; Lucchiari, C; Consonni, D; Nordio, F; Pravettoni, G; Cappa, S; Priori, A

    2010-08-01

    The moral sense is among the most complex aspects of the human mind. Despite substantial evidence confirming gender-related neurobiological and behavioral differences, and psychological research suggesting gender specificities in moral development, whether these differences arise from cultural effects or are innate remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of gender, education (general education and health education) and religious belief (Catholic and non-Catholic) on moral choices by testing 50 men and 50 women with a moral judgment task. Whereas we found no differences between the two genders in utilitarian responses to non-moral dilemmas and to impersonal moral dilemmas, men gave significantly more utilitarian answers to personal moral (PM) dilemmas (i.e., those courses of action whose endorsement involves highly emotional decisions). Cultural factors such as education and religion had no effect on performance in the moral judgment task. These findings suggest that the cognitive-emotional processes involved in evaluating PM dilemmas differ in men and in women, possibly reflecting differences in the underlying neural mechanisms. Gender-related determinants of moral behavior may partly explain gender differences in real-life involving power management, economic decision-making, leadership and possibly also aggressive and criminal behaviors. PMID:19727878

  4. Gender differences in marital communication patterns.

    PubMed

    White, B B

    1989-03-01

    This study examined conflict-resolution interactions of couples, and related marital satisfaction to sequential and nonsequential communication patterns. Couples' satisfaction with marriage has been differentiated on the basis of the degree of coercive versus affiliative communication between partners. Results of this study indicate that this pattern differs, however, for individuals within couples on the basis of gender. Females and males were found to demonstrate different styles of response to dissatisfaction in marriage; men assume a coercive stance toward their partners while women take an affiliative position. Drawing on systemic and gender-difference theoretical perspectives, these patterns are interpreted as attempts by individuals with different world views to resolve conflict. A view is discussed whereby systems and gender differences can be integrated into a unified conceptual formulation upon which to base future development in research and therapeutic interventions. PMID:2703053

  5. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  6. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  7. Persistence in Science: Gender and Program Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisset, Annick; And Others

    This study was conducted to investigate persistence rates and gender differences among science students at John Abbott College (JAC). Issues addressed in the study included the differences between students persisting in and those transferring out of science programs, female representation in science programs at JAC, and the differences, if any,…

  8. Gender Differences in Language Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlandson, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Research exploring language use has identified several language features that differentiate men and women. Research also concludes that men's and women's writing are rated differently as well, with women's writing rated higher on socio-emotional and aesthetic quality and men's writing rated higher on dynamism. Despite these differences, casual…

  9. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Jacqueline M.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated effect of the high skewness typically present in distributions of depressive symptom scores on findings of a gender difference in depression. Skewness allowed a few extreme scores among women to produce significant between-groups differences in untransformed scores even when male and female groups' distributions were otherwise…

  10. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  11. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  12. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    Sex differences on Perry's stages of epistemological development were investigated in a study of 100 freshmen (50 men and 50 women) at a large midwestern university. A semi-structured interview probed six domains related to Perry's theory, including the role of the learner, instructor, and peers in the learning situation, the question of…

  13. Gender differences in crowd perception

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y.; Puri, Amrita M.; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces—crowd perception—is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  14. [Gender-difference in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Morita, Ai; Ishigaki, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    Gender-difference is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism. Imbalances in sex hormones, such as increasing levels of progesterone or testosterone, are associated with systemic insulin resistance. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. On the other hand, insulin resistance caused excess secretion of androgen, leading to menstrual disorder in obese young female. For the better management of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes was revised in Japan. Although glucose intolerance in pregnancy is usually recovered after delivery, the subjects who diagnosed gestational diabetes need to be followed for an early detection of type 2 diabetes development. In addition, gender-differences in living practice and attitude are related to their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, therefore, gender-specific medicine increasingly plays key roles in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25936148

  15. Gender differences and attitudes towards homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Lim, Vivien K G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research is two-fold. First, it examined individuals' attitudes towards homosexuals in Singapore. Second, it also investigated whether gender differences in attitudes towards homosexuals exist. Respondents comprised 365 students and data were collected through the use of questionnaires. Results generally suggested that respondents harboured negative attitudes towards homosexuals. The prevalence of such ambivalent attitudes seemed to suggest that respondents were still generally quite conservative in their attitudes towards gender roles and homosexuality. Our findings also revealed that, generally, women reported that they were more comfortable in working closely with male homosexuals while the reverse was true for men. Implications of our findings were discussed. PMID:12521244

  16. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  17. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  18. Computers and Gender Differences: Achieving Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohlin, Roy N.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses gender differences in the use of computers and the need to achieve greater computer equity. Highlights include curriculum and staff development issues; instructional techniques to encourage computer equity; and a new model of instructional design based on Keller's Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction (ARCS) model that addresses…

  19. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  20. Age and Gender Differences in Peer Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noakes, Melanie A.; Rinaldi, Christina M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine age and gender differences in peer conflict, particularly in regards to conflict issues and resolution strategies reported by children and adolescents. Students from grades 4 and 8 (60 boys, 60 girls) were asked interview questions and given 3 hypothetical scenarios to respond to. Teacher and self-reports…

  1. Gender Differences in the Response to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

  2. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  3. Gender Differences in the Response to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

  4. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  5. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  6. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  7. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  8. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  9. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-01-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377

  10. Gender Differences in Reading Achievement and Early Literacy Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarlane, Lisa M.

    The relationship between gender and reading achievement and gender and early literacy experiences was examined. It was hypothesized that gender differences do not exist in relation to reading achievement, but early literacy experiences do differ in relation to gender. Subjects were students in grades 6, 7, and 8. Results indicate that there are no…

  11. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  12. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  13. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  14. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  15. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  16. Gender Differences in Childhood Lyme Neuroborreliosis

    PubMed Central

    Tveitnes, Dag; Øymar, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Many neurological diseases show differences between genders. We studied gender differences in childhood Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic area of Lyme borreliosis in Norway. Methods. In a population based study, all children (<14 years of age) with symptoms suspicious of LNB, including all children with acute facial nerve palsy, were evaluated for LNB by medical history, clinical examination, blood tests, and lumbar puncture. LNB was diagnosed according to international criteria. Results. 142 children were diagnosed with LNB during 2001–2009. Facial nerve palsy was more common in girls (86%) than in boys (62%) (p < 0.001), but headache and/or neck stiffness as the only symptom was more common in boys (30%) than in girls (10%) (p = 0.003). The girls were younger than boys and had a shorter duration of symptoms, but boys had a higher level of pleocytosis than girls. In a multivariate analysis, both gender and having headache and neck stiffness were associated with a higher level of pleocytosis. Conclusion. Girls and boys have different clinical presentations of LNB, and boys have a higher level of inflammation than girls independent of the clinical presentation. PMID:26576072

  17. Different, Not Better: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Eugene A.; King, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the assessment data, literature and research on gender differences in mathematics. The question of whether boys are better at mathematics has been an issue in education for the past 5 years. The assumption is that there is a biological difference between boys and girls that make boys predisposed to do better in mathematics.…

  18. Gender difference in the incidence of shingles.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, D. M.; Cross, K. W.; Cobb, W. A.; Chapman, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated age- and gender-specific incidence of shingles reported in a large sentinel practice network monitoring a defined population over the years 1994-2001. In total, 5915 male and 8617 female incident cases were studied. For each age group, we calculated the relative risk of females to males presenting with shingles. Incidence rates of chickenpox and herpes simplex were examined similarly. Shingles incidence was greater in females in each age group (except for 15-24 years). Relative risks (female to male) were greatest in age groups 45-64 years (1.48) and 0-14 years (1.43). There were no gender differences in the incidence of chickenpox except in the 15-24 years age group (female excess): for herpes simplex there were female excesses in all age groups. Gender-specific age-standardized incidence rates of shingles were calculated for each year and showed a consistent female excess in each of the 8 years (average annual excess 28%). PMID:14979582

  19. Gender differences in coerced patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. Methods 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. Results When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Conclusions Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions trigger the application of coercive measures in men. Moreover coerced women showed diminished social functioning, and more importantly more severe symptoms from the “excitement/hostile” cluster in contrast to coerced men. National and international recommendation on coercive treatment practices should include appropriate consideration of the evidence of gender differences in clinical presentation and aggressive behaviors found in inpatient populations. PMID:24118928

  20. Role of muscle mass on sprint performance: gender differences?

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Rodriguez, German Vicente; Ara, Ignacio; Olmedillas, Hugo; Chavarren, Javier; González-Henriquez, Juan Jose; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if gender differences in muscle mass explain the gender differences in running and cycling sprint performance. Body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and running (30 and 300 m test) and cycling (Wingate test) sprint performance were assessed in 123 men and 32 women. Peak power (PP) output in the Wingate test expressed per kg of lower extremities lean mass (LM) was similar in males and females (50.4 +/- 5.6 and 50.5 +/- 6.2 W kg(-1), P = 0.88). No gender differences were observed in the slope of the linear relation between LM and PP or mean power output (MP). However, when MP was expressed per kg of LM, the males attained a 22% higher value (26.6 +/- 3.4 and 21.9 +/- 3.2 W kg(-1), P < 0.001). The 30 and 300-m running time divided by the relative lean mass of the lower extremities (RLM = LM x 100/body mass) was significantly lower in males than in females. Although, the slope of the linear relationship between RLM and 300-m running time was not significantly different between genders, the males achieved better performance in the 300-m test than the females. The main factor accounting for gender differences in peak and mean power output during cycling is the muscle mass of the lower extremities. Although, the peak power generating capability of the muscle is similar in males and females, muscle mass only partially explains the gender difference in running sprints, even when expressed as a percentage of the whole body mass. PMID:18084774

  1. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  2. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  3. Gender differences in body dysmorphic disorder.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K A; Diaz, S F

    1997-09-01

    Gender differences in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have received little investigation. This study assessed gender differences in 188 subjects with BDD who were evaluated with instruments to assess demographic characteristics, clinical features of BDD, treatment history, and comorbid Axis I disorders. Ninety-three (49%) subjects were women, and 95 (51%) were men. Men and women did not significantly differ in terms of most variables examined, including rates of major depression, although women were more likely to be preoccupied with their hips and their weight, pick their skin and camouflage with makeup, and have comorbid bulimia nervosa. Men were more likely to be preoccupied with body build, genitals, and hair thinning, use a hat for camouflage, be unmarried, and have alcohol abuse or dependence. Although men were as likely as women to seek nonpsychiatric medical and surgical treatment, women were more likely to receive such care. Men, however, were as likely as women to have cosmetic surgery. Although the clinical features of BDD appear remarkably similar in women and men, there are some differences, some of which reflect those found in the general population, suggesting that cultural norms and values may influence the content of BDD symptoms. PMID:9307619

  4. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  5. Gender Differences in Rates of Depression among Undergraduates: Measurement Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn; Marsh, Patricia; Syniar, Gina; Williams, Megan; Addlesperger, Elisa; Kinzler, Mi Hyon; Cowman, Shaun

    2002-01-01

    Two studies tested for gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates using three conceptualizations of depression. Results provide no evidence of gender differences in rates of depressed mood in either sample. However, in both samples, gender differences in rates of depressive disorder were found, with male students more likely…

  6. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  7. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  8. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults. PMID:25929009

  9. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  10. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  11. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  12. Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

  13. Gender Differences in Dementia Spousal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Pöysti, Minna Maria; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Strandberg, Timo; Savikko, Niina; Tilvis, Reijo Sakari; Eloniemi-Sulkava, Ulla; Pitkälä, Kaisu Hannele

    2012-01-01

    The proportion of male caregivers is rapidly increasing. However, there are few large scale studies exploring gender differences in the burden or coping with caregiving. We investigated this among caregivers of patients with dementia. The study cohort consisted of 335 dyads of wife-husband couples from two studies including dementia patients and their spousal caregivers. Baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE), clinical dementia rating scale (CDR), neuropsychiatric inventory (NPI), cornell depression scale and charlson comorbidity index (CCI) were used to describe patients with dementia, Zarit burden scale and geriatric depression scale were used to measure experienced burden and depression of caregivers. Mean age of caregivers was 78 years. There were no differences in depression, satisfaction with life, or loneliness according to caregivers' gender. Male caregivers had more comorbidities than females (CCI 1.9 versus 1.1, P < 0.001), and the wives of male caregivers had a more severe stage of dementia than husbands of female caregivers (CDR, P = 0.048; MMSE14.0 versus 17.7, P < 0.001). However, the mean Zarit burden scale was significantly lower among male than female caregivers (31.5 versus 37.5; P < 0.001). Lower education of male caregivers tended to be associated with less experienced burden. In conclusion, male caregivers of dementia experienced lower burden than female caregivers despite care recipients' more severe disease. PMID:23056990

  14. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  15. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  16. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  17. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  18. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    PubMed

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives. PMID:25154113

  19. An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective on Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alastair P. C.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record EJ733581), which reviewed the results of 46 meta-analyses of studies investigating gender differences and produced results that supported the gender similarities hypothesis that men and women are similar along most psychological traits. The current authors agree with the gender similarities…

  20. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Self- and Other-Estimates of Multiple Intelligences

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowicz, Agata

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

  1. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    PubMed

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

  2. Prescription Opioid Aberrant Behaviors: A Pilot Study of Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Back, Sudie E.; Payne, Rebecca; Waldrop, Angela E.; Smith, Arthur; Reeves, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Patients prescribed opioids often display one or more aberrant prescription use behaviors (e.g., requesting early refills, borrowing medication from family), which raise concern among health care professionals. Little is known about gender differences in specific types of aberrant behaviors or gender-specific predictors of such behaviors. The current study aimed to begin addressing this gap in the literature Methods A battery of anonymous, self-report assessments was administered to 121 (49 men, 72 women) chronic pain patients enrolled in an outpatient pain management clinic. The majority of participants were Caucasian women with an average age of 51.6 years (SD = 13.2). Results Significantly more men than women were taking a prescribed opioid (91.7% vs. 77.8%, p = .05). Women were significantly more likely than men to hoard unused medication (67.6% vs. 47.7%, p = .04) and to use additional medications to enhance the effectiveness of pain medication (38.8% vs. 20.0%, p = .04). A trend towards men using alternative routes of administration (e.g., crushing and snorting pills) more often than women was observed (8.9% vs. 1.5%, p = .08). Among men, high rates of aberrant prescription use behaviors were associated with current alcohol use and the use of oxycodone and morphine. Among women, use of hydrocodone was associated with high rates of aberrant prescription use behaviors. Discussion Some aberrant prescription use behaviors are common among chronic pain patients and may be gender-specific. Predictors of aberrant prescription use behaviors may also differ by gender. Additional research is needed to help identify aberrant prescription use behaviors that best predict gender-specific risk for developing opioid abuse or dependence. PMID:19542794

  3. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  4. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  5. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  6. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  7. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  8. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    Perfectionism is a dimension which has been studied very little as a separate entity. It is not even considered as a nosological factor. No classification of the medical sciences underlines its importance other than to speak of a personality trait, of an aspect, or of a parameter. Nevertheless, perfectionism is related to multiple disorders such as depression (18, 20, 36), suicide (8, 16, 55), nutritional problems (11, 28), anxiety (3), obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (53), social phobia (2), as well as insomnia (46). Certain authors stress the possible role of perfectionism in the development or the persistence of a substantial number of these disorders (7, 22, 38). Given these facts, it is all the easier to understand the interest shown by clinicians and researchers in the subject. Better detection and evaluation of its impact on behaviour is important in putting therapies in place (6, 53). Relationships between perfectionism and fear of failure have been approached (21, 51, 54). Correlations between perfectionism and high levels of state and trait anxiety have been demonstrated (23). The evaluation of perfectionism has been dealt with very little. Some questionnaires devote a sub-category to it, such as the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Irrational Beliefs Test. However, recently, it has been recognized that perfectionism is a multidimensional construct. Two Multidimensional Perfectionism Scales have been developed and investigated in relative isolation. Frost, Marten, Lahart and Rosenblate defined perfectionism as the setting of excessively high standards for performance associated with critical self-evaluation. Six dimensions are described: concern over making mistakes, high personal standards, parental expectations, parental criticism, doubt about quality of performance and organization. Internal consistency and validity have been established (25, 26). Hewitt and Flett (30, 31, 33, 35) have developed another approach where three dimensions of perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality trait, but it can be used also in taking into account stress and its impact, for instance that of academic performance (29, 37, 39, 58). Conferring on MPS more pertinence in gender differentiation and failure evaluation is an other goal of this research. Through the particular choice of statistical results, sex and sex-failure effects can be demonstrated: a MANOVA underlines sex effect (lambda de Wilks = 0.96, p = 0.001) and sex-failure effect (lambda de Wilks = 0.98, p = 0.05). Structure of MPS is different in four groups (FE: women with failure, FnE: women without failure, ME: men with failure, MnE: men without failure). ANOVA show differences of MPS3, MPS1 and MPS2. Far more promising is the use of LISREL method allowing for the construction of a coherent model of relationships between some dimensions of MPS and Test-Anxiety, approached here with THEE (test d'habileté aux études et à leur évaluation) French abbreviated version (49) of TASTE (Test for Ability to Study and Evaluation). In fact according to the literature of fear of failure, girls score higher on anxiety and procrastination but less on self-confidence. The structural model shows different pathways, more especially between SPP (socially prescribed perfectionism), T2 (sense of incompetence) and T1 (anxiety). SOP (self oriented perfectionism) and SPP (socially prescribed perfectionism) by girls are very much correlated; it seems that they are more subjected to society and its exigencies of studying but consequently they are more at risk of anxiety and a sense of incompetence. SOP (self oriented perfectionism) by boys functions more indiscriminately of SPP (socially prescribed perfectionism) and is negatively correlated with self-incompetence; boys are more self-confident but they usually procrastinate more probably because failure expectancies would be particularly harmful for their self-esteem; consequently, failure should be related to something else than their own capacity; this may be an explanation of the high rate of male dropouts and failure in the first year at the university of Liège; also a factor explaining the female domination at the university. In the same way the first choice of studies is moving towards shorter and less difficult orientation (46). In case of failure the model is very similar according to gender: SOP (self oriented perfectionism) and T1 (anxiety) are directly connected; SOP and SPP are in this case better correlated by boys but the path between SPP, sense of incompetence and anxiety is less significant than in girls. In conclusion, providing some modifications according to semantics, the choice of a four factor solution allows for confirmation of the original structure of MPS and for internal consistency. The different components of MPS vary according to gender: SOP and more OOP discriminate men and women; SPP allows for differentiating women with failure. A structural model enhances the role of perfectionism in the cognitive and behavioural contexts; for instance it clarifies its action on fear of failure and success rates according to gender. PMID:14567164

  9. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  10. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  11. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  12. Gender differences in leadership in the health professions.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Cramer, C

    2000-03-01

    The leadership characteristics and behaviors of men and women differ. As increasing numbers of women enter positions of leadership, understanding of these differences can increase the quality and productiveness of relationships in the workplace. This article describes the evolution of women in leadership, gender differences in leadership style, and the way gender may affect behaviors in the workplace. PMID:10915337

  13. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  14. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  15. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all ?2 p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle (“t-bone”) crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training – for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

  16. Gender Differences in Current Received during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael; Goodman, Theodore; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Low current transcranial electrical stimulation (tCS) is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, and proton density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female) were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20?mm round and 50?mm?×?45?mm were examined at 0.5, 1, and 2?mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a 1-cm sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a 10-fold difference in the amount of current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P?differences in current levels that the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancelous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (P?differences should be considered when planning tCS studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences. PMID:25177301

  17. Gender Differences in Current Received during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael; Goodman, Theodore; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Lyeth, Bruce G

    2014-01-01

    Low current transcranial electrical stimulation (tCS) is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, and proton density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female) were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20?mm round and 50?mm?×?45?mm were examined at 0.5, 1, and 2?mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a 1-cm sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a 10-fold difference in the amount of current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P?differences in current levels that the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancelous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (P?differences should be considered when planning tCS studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences. PMID:25177301

  18. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  19. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  20. Gender and Identity Status Differences in Late Adolescents' Possible Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthis, Kristine S.; Dunkel, Curt S.; Anderson, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The current study examined gender and identity status differences in late adolescents' possible selves. The intent of the study was to clarify conflicts between theory and research on gender differences in identity by investigating the content of participants' possible selves. Participants completed measures of identity and possible selves. The…

  1. Impact of Attitudes of Peers on Language Achievement: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Gaer, Eva; Pustjens, Heidi; Van Damme, Jan; De Munter, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined whether gender differences in language achievement were related not only to gender differences in attitudes toward schooling but also to the attitudes toward schooling of peers (i.e., peers in classes and in schools). The authors used multilevel analysis on data compiled from a longitudinal research project in secondary…

  2. Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

  3. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  4. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  5. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  6. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  7. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  8. Gender Differences in Severity of Writing and Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nielsen, Kathleen H.; Abbott, Robert D.; Wijsman, Ellen; Raskind, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences in mean level of reading and writing skills were examined in 122 children (80 boys and 42 girls) and 200 adults (115 fathers and 85 mothers) who showed behavioral markers of dyslexia in a family genetics study. Gender differences were found in writing and replicated prior results for typically developing children: Boys and men…

  9. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  10. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  11. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  12. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  13. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  14. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy. PMID:20423630

  15. Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge–behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

  16. Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression: Gender-Typed Characteristics or Problem-Solving Skills Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Diane; Alain, Michel; Gosselin, Marie-Josee

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…

  17. Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression: Gender-Typed Characteristics or Problem-Solving Skills Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Diane; Alain, Michel; Gosselin, Marie-Josee

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…

  18. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  19. Gender and culture differences in touching behavior.

    PubMed

    DiBiase, Rosemarie; Gunnoe, Jaime

    2004-02-01

    The authors used gender and culture to examine the theory that touching behavior is an expression of dominance. Participants were 120 men and women from Italy, the Czech Republic, and the United States. The authors examined both hand touches and nonhand touches. For hand touches, there was a significant gender-by-culture interaction in that Czech men as a group touched more than any of the other groups. For nonhand touches, Czech and Italian women and Italian men as groups touched significantly more than any of the other groups. Taken in cultural context, these results seem to support the dominance theory for touches with the hand but not for nonhand touches. The authors discussed implications and future directions. PMID:14760964

  20. Unpacking Gender Differences in Students' Perceived Experiences in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.

    2009-11-01

    Prior research has shown, at our institution: 1) males outperform females on conceptual assessments (a gender gap), 2) the gender gap persists despite the use of research-based reforms, and 3) the gender gap is correlated with students' physics and mathematics background and prior attitudes and beliefs [Kost, et al. PRST-PER, 5, 010101]. Our follow-up work begins to explore how males and females experience the introductory course differently and how these differences relate to the gender gap. We gave a survey to students in the introductory course in which we investigated students' physics identity and self-efficacy. We find there are significant gender differences in each of these three areas, and further find that these measures are weakly correlated with student conceptual performance, and moderately correlated with course grade.

  1. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone substitution therapy

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Nisticò, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Gender-related differences in the pharmacological effects of drug are an emerging topic. This review examines gender differences in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of methadone, a long-acting opioid agonist that is prescribed as a treatment for opioid dependence and the management of chronic pain. Method: We performed a search in the Medline database from 1990 to 2014 in order to find published literature related to gender differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone. Results: None of the studies were carried out with the primary or secondary aim to identify any gender differences in the pharmacokinetic profile of methadone. Importantly; high inter-subjects variability in PK parameters was found also intra female population. The reported differences in volume of distribution could be ascribed to the physiological differences between men and women in body weight and composition, taking into account that the dose of methadone was established irrespective of body weight of patients (Peles and Adelson, 2006). On the other hand, the few studies present in literature found no gender difference in some direct pharmacodynamic parameters. Some reports have suggested that female gender is associated with an increased risk for long-QT-related cardiac arrhythmias in methadone maintenance subjects. Conclusion: Even though it may be too simplistic to expect variability only in one parameter to explain inter-individual variation in methadone response, we believe that a better knowledge of gender-related differences might have significant implications for better outcomes in opioid dependence substitution therapy in women. PMID:26106330

  2. Gender Differences Regarding Peer Influence and Attitude toward Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzi, Beth M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in acceptance of substance abuse behavior among adolescents, 968 students were administered a questionnaire to assess their perceptions. Results show that both genders felt that boys would be more approving of teenage substance abuse. Most students were disapproving of a teenager driving after drinking. Other…

  3. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  4. Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

  5. Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

  6. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  7. Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue

    PubMed Central

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

  8. The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

    2014-08-12

    Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women's cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

  9. The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women’s cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

  10. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  11. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  12. Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. According to the response styles theory (RST), gender differences in depression result, in part, from women’s tendency to ruminate more than men. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate gender differences in rumination in adults (k = 59; N = 14,321); additionally, an analysis of subtypes of rumination – brooding and reflection – was conducted (k = 23). Fixed effects analyses indicated that women scored higher than men in rumination (d = .24, p < .01, SEd = .02), brooding (d = .19, p < .01, SEd = .03) and reflection (d = .17, p < .01, SEd = .03); there was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias across studies for these effect sizes. Although statistically significant, the effect sizes for gender differences in rumination were small in magnitude. Results are discussed with respect to the RST and gender differences in depression. PMID:24089583

  13. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  14. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  15. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  16. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  17. Gender differences in justice evaluations: Evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, James H; Davison, Robert B; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Conlon, Donald E; McNamara, Gerry; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros C

    2016-02-01

    Justice research examining gender differences has yielded contrasting findings. This study enlists advanced techniques in cognitive neuroscience (fMRI) to examine gender differences in brain activation patterns in response to procedural and distributive justice manipulations. We integrate social role, information processing, justice, and neuroscience literature to posit and test for gender differences in 2 neural subsystems known to be involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events. Results indicate that the relationship between justice information processing and neural activity in areas representing these subsystems is significantly influenced by gender, with greater activation for females than males during consideration of both procedural and distributive justice information. In addition, we find evidence that gender and distributive injustice interact to influence bargaining behavior, with females rejecting ultimatum game offers more frequently than males. Results also demonstrate activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum brain regions during procedural justice evaluation is associated with offer rejection in females, but not in males. Managerial implications based on the study's support for gender differences in justice perceptions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26348480

  18. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158

  19. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

  20. Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:17615903

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Teen Relationship Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hokoda, Audrey; Martin del Campo, Miguel A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that abuse in adolescence can start early and current literature regarding gender differences in Teen Relationship Violence (TRV) is inconsistent. Age and Gender differences in TRV were examined. Measures assessing TRV and its correlates were completed by 231 teens from 7th, 9th, and 11th grade classes. A 2 (gender) by 3 (grade) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects for grade and gender indicating that 7th graders have lower perpetration and victimization of TRV, less anger control, and fewer positive conflict resolution behaviors than 9th and 11th graders. Furthermore, girls perpetrate more physical and emotional abuse while boys perpetrate more sexual abuse. Results have implications for timing and content of prevention programs addressing dating violence in adolescence. PMID:26989341

  2. Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

    1990-12-01

    Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

  3. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  4. Differences in students' perceived classroom experiences by instructor gender, student gender, and persistence in STEM courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlkes, Carol

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are growing and have lucrative job opportunities for college graduates. However, the number of students in STEM majors and the number of those who persist in those majors is declining; there is also a growing gender gap in STEM graduates. This study investigated three perceived classroom experiences in STEM courses and the nature of differences in these experiences by student gender, instructor gender, and by those who persisted or did not persist in STEM majors. A factorial MANOVA was the statistical method by which the differences were explored. The statistical analysis revealed non-significant mean differences in three-way interaction, all two-way interactions, and all main effects. There were not gendered differences in students' perceptions of the opportunities for hands-on learning, the instructor cares about students' success, and the instructor encourages students' contributions. Further research is proposed to continue examination of this topic with a larger data set that is consistent with the literature regarding the population of STEM students and the number of STEM persisters, and the male-gendered nature of STEM fields.

  5. Gender differences in the sexual rating of words.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigated whether gender-based differences in the rating of sexual words still exist in the late 1990s. Men and women evaluated 400 English-language words on the characteristics of sexual charge and sexual ambiguity. Data gathered from these ratings were compared with other factors such as religious involvement, sexual experience, sex guilt, and social desirability. Men and women did not differ in their sexual ratings of the list. However, because the list contained a large number of words that had no sexual content at all, gender differences were examined for ratings of a sample of 30 sexually ambiguous words. As hypothesized, men rated these words as significantly more sexual than women. Significant gender differences were found on a number of sexuality and personality measures. Women were more religious than men, and religiosity was significantly correlated with most of the other measures. Women also had higher social desirability scores, which implies that they may have been responding in a socially desirable manner and were not completely honest. Overall, gender differences followed gender-oriented stereotypes: (a) Women have greater sexual guilt than men, (b) women are less sexually arousable or more "erotophobic," and (c) women are less comfortable answering questions about their sexuality and rating words. PMID:9509376

  6. Gender Differences Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Differential Symptom Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevich, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

  7. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  8. The Emergence of Gender Difference in Depressed Mood during Adolescence: The Role of Intensified Gender Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive mood in 12,000 Norwegian adolescents, ages 12-20. Found that from age 14 on, girls scored above boys in depressed mood, though no gender difference was found at age 12. The difference was partially explained by increased developmental challenges for girls, including puberty, weight and body dissatisfaction,…

  9. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  10. Gender difference in gastro-esophageal reflux diseases.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen sharply in western countries over the past 4 decades. This type of cancer is considered to follow a transitional process that goes from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) to Barrett's esophagus (BE, a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus), a precursor lesion and ultimately adenocarcinoma. This spectrum of GERD is strongly predominant in males due to an unidentified mechanism. Several epidemiologic studies have described that the prevalence of GERD, BE and EAC in women is closely related to reproductive status, which suggests a possible association with the estrogen level. Recently, we revealed in an in vivo study that the inactivation of mast cells by the anti-inflammatory function of estrogen may account for the gender difference in the GERD spectrum. Other studies have described the contribution of female steroid hormones to the gender difference in these diseases. Estrogen is reported to modulate the metabolism of fat, and obesity is a main risk factor of GERDs. Moreover, estrogen could confer esophageal epithelial resistance to causative refluxate. These functions of estrogen might explain the approximately 20-year delay in the incidence of BE and the subsequent development of EAC in women compared to men, and this effect may be responsible for the male predominance. However, some observational studies demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy exerts controversial effects in GERD patients. Nevertheless, the estrogen-related endocrine milieu may prevent disease progression toward carcinogenesis in GERD patients. The development of innovative alternatives to conventional acid suppressors may become possible by clarifying the mechanisms of estrogen. PMID:26855539

  11. Gender difference in gastro-esophageal reflux diseases

    PubMed Central

    Asanuma, Kiyotaka; Iijima, Katsunori; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen sharply in western countries over the past 4 decades. This type of cancer is considered to follow a transitional process that goes from gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) to Barrett’s esophagus (BE, a metaplastic condition of the distal esophagus), a precursor lesion and ultimately adenocarcinoma. This spectrum of GERD is strongly predominant in males due to an unidentified mechanism. Several epidemiologic studies have described that the prevalence of GERD, BE and EAC in women is closely related to reproductive status, which suggests a possible association with the estrogen level. Recently, we revealed in an in vivo study that the inactivation of mast cells by the anti-inflammatory function of estrogen may account for the gender difference in the GERD spectrum. Other studies have described the contribution of female steroid hormones to the gender difference in these diseases. Estrogen is reported to modulate the metabolism of fat, and obesity is a main risk factor of GERDs. Moreover, estrogen could confer esophageal epithelial resistance to causative refluxate. These functions of estrogen might explain the approximately 20-year delay in the incidence of BE and the subsequent development of EAC in women compared to men, and this effect may be responsible for the male predominance. However, some observational studies demonstrated that hormone replacement therapy exerts controversial effects in GERD patients. Nevertheless, the estrogen-related endocrine milieu may prevent disease progression toward carcinogenesis in GERD patients. The development of innovative alternatives to conventional acid suppressors may become possible by clarifying the mechanisms of estrogen. PMID:26855539

  12. Gender differences in fracture risk and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Kudlacek, S; Schneider, B; Resch, H; Freudenthaler, O; Willvonseder, R

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated gender-related differences of bone mineral density and fracture threshold in 136 males (age, 60.7+/-9.3 years) and 337 females (age, 59.7+/-7.8 years) without evidence of secondary osteoporosis. Women and men were examined for total amount of spine fractures and bone mineral density by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of three non-fractured vertebral bodies L1-L5. Females with lumbar fractures (n=96) when compared with non-fracture women (n=241) were older and had lower bone density at their vertebral sites. Males with vertebral fractures (n=52) were older and had a significantly reduced bone mineral density of the spine when compared with healthy males (n=84). When we compared gender-related vertebral fracture rates, we observed a significantly higher prevalence of vertebral fractures in the male population. After matching males and females for age and bone mineral density to exclude an influence of either variable, we compared the prevalence of vertebral fracture risk in both sexes with logistic regression analysis. Data of estimated fracture risk, differed very significantly for sex and bone density at the vertebral site, indicating that men present fracture at a higher bone density level compared with females; in 10% of study population fractures occurred at a QCT level of 105 mg/cm(3) in women and 120 mg/cm(3) in men. The estimated odds ratio for sex of 3.1 (95% CI) means a three-fold increased risk for vertebral fractures compared to males at a given density level. These results underline that a decreased bone mineral density leads to the occurrence of spine fractures in females and males as well. PMID:11063899

  13. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  14. Psychiatric Co-Morbidity and Gender Differences in Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsakanikos, E.; Bouras, Nick; Sturmey, P.; Holt, G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Although gender differences in psychopathology among the general psychiatric population appear to be well documented, such differences have been either ignored or inconsistently investigated among people with intellectual disability (ID). Methods: The study examined psychiatric co-morbidity in 295 men and 295 women with ID and…

  15. Gender Differences in Resistance to Temptation: Theories and Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Irwin W.

    2003-01-01

    Used meta analysis to test predictions from psychoanalytic, parental investment, and differential socialization theories regarding gender differences in ability to resist temptation. Found that although females showed more restraint than males with a very small effect size, there were appreciable differences on forbidden-object tasks and very…

  16. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  17. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  18. Gender Differences in Burnout: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvanova, Radostina K.; Muros, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on male-female differences in burnout has produced inconsistent results regarding the strength and direction of this relationship. Lack of clarity on gender differences in organizationally relevant phenomena, such as work burnout, frequently generates ungrounded speculations that may (mis)inform organizational decisions. To address…

  19. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  20. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  1. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  2. Gender Differences in Third-Party Reports of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gully, Kevin J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Employed a two-factor analysis of variance design to investigate gender differences in recollections of parent-to-parent violence. In two samples females reported more parent-to-parent violence than males. These differences occured independently of self-reported histories of the subjects' own violence. (Author)

  3. Cultural and Gender Differences in Spatial Ability of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo

    This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…

  4. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Influences of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…

  5. Comorbidities in Heart Failure: Are There Gender Differences?

    PubMed

    Hopper, Ingrid; Kotecha, Dipak; Chin, Ken Lee; Mentz, Robert J; von Lueder, Thomas G

    2016-02-01

    Compared to men, women with heart failure (HF) are often older, smoke less, and have more preserved ejection fraction (EF) and hypertensive HF rather than HF of ischemic etiology. Gender-stratified outcomes on comorbidities data in HF are scarce. Women have traditionally been underrepresented in HF trials. Although data suggest that overall prognosis may be better in women, they experience lower quality of life with greater functional impairment from HF compared to men. Gender differences have been reported for comorbid diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, renal dysfunction, anemia, and depression and may explain gender disparity in outcomes. However, possible confounding of comorbidities with known prognostic determinants in HF (such as EF) as well as gender differences in the utilization of medical therapies obscures interpretation. In this review, we will explore the evidence for gender differences in non-cardiovascular comorbidities in HF. Our findings may guide clinicians to individualize HF care, according to best practice, in the hope of improving prognosis for this chronic and debilitating condition. PMID:26829930

  6. Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

  7. Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

  8. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  9. Gender Differences in Using Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…

  10. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  11. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  12. Gender differences in aggression of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Mancke, Falk; Bertsch, Katja; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2015-01-01

    Aggression is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Well-replicated results from the general population indicate that men engage in aggression more frequently than women. This article addresses the question of whether gender also influences aggression in BPD, and whether the neurobiological mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior differ between male and female BPD patients. Data show that most self-reports, interviews and behavioral tasks investigating samples of BPD patients do not find enhanced aggressiveness in male patients, suggesting that BPD attenuates rather than aggravates gender differences usually present in the general population. Neurobiological studies comparing BPD patients with gender-matched healthy controls, however, reveal a number of interesting gender differences: On the one hand, there are well-replicated findings of reduced amygdala and hippocampal gray matter volumes in female BPD patients, while these findings are not shared by male patients with BPD. On the other hand, only male BPD patients exhibit reduced gray matter volume of the anterior cingulate cortex, increased gray matter volume of the putamen, reduced striatal activity during an aggression task, and a more pronounced deficit in central serotonergic responsivity. These neurobiological findings point to a particular importance of impulsivity for the aggression of male BPD patients. Limitations include the need to control for confounding influences of comorbidities, particularly as male BPD patients have been consistently found to show higher percentages of aggression-predisposing comorbid disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder, than female BPD patients. In the future, studies which include systematic comparisons between females and males are warranted in order to disentangle gender differences in aggression of BPD patients with the aim of establishing gender-sensitive treatments where needed. PMID:26401309

  13. Gender differences in gastric cancer incidence in elderly former drinkers.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong Ji; Kim, Hwa Jung; Choi, Nam-Kyong; Hahn, Seokyung; Cho, Yong-Jin; Park, Byung-Joo

    2008-08-01

    Although numerous studies have been done on gastric cancer and alcohol consumption, results from these studies are inconsistent. We conducted a population-based, prospective cohort study to establish a relationship between alcohol and gastric cancer according to gender. The cohort consisted of elderly (>64 years of age) subjects at the baseline of 1993-1998. Baseline information was surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Gastric cancers were identified by the National Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. A follow up of 116,997.1 person-years of the 13,396 subjects revealed 151 newly diagnosed gastric cancers (80 men and 71 women). The risk of gastric cancer was higher by a factor of three among female former drinkers (adjusted relative risk 2.85 [95% confidence interval 1.11-7.32]) compared to current and nondrinkers. Female former drinkers showed greater alcohol consumption than current drinkers (36.5g/week vs. 16.4g/week; P<.0001) and a longer duration of alcohol consumption than did current drinkers (24.5 years vs. 18.46 years; P<.0001). Female subjects with more than 110g of weekly alcohol consumption had an increased risk of developing gastric cancer (adjusted relative risk 2.23 [95% confidence interval 0.79-6.29]), although the result was statistically insignificant. No relationship was observed for male subjects. The relationship between alcohol and gastric cancer differs according to gender. Alcohol consumption may increase the risk of gastric cancer in women, and the risk elevation may persist for several years after drinking ceases. PMID:18579337

  14. Putting It on the Table: A Mini-Course on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croker, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a high school mini-course called "Gender Bender" (a survey course of the contemporary literature on gender differences) that studied gender issues that were troubling high school students. Describes how the course discussed gender and schooling; gender roles in society; images in the media; dating, marriage, and divorce; and…

  15. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  16. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  17. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-01-01

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  18. Gender Differences in Animal Models of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Hagit; Yehuda, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies report higher prevalence rates of stress-related disorders such as acute stress disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women than in men following exposure to trauma. It is still not clear whether this greater prevalence in woman reflects a greater vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology. A number of individual and trauma-related characteristics have been hypothesized to contribute to these gender differences in physiological and psychological responses to trauma, differences in appraisal, interpretation or experience of threat, coping style or social support. In this context, the use of an animal model for PTSD to analyze some of these gender-related differences may be of particular utility. Animal models of PTSD offer the opportunity to distinguish between biological and socio-cultural factors, which so often enter the discussion about gender differences in PTSD prevalence. In this review, we present and discuss sex-differences in behavioral, neurochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological findings that we have collected from several different animal studies related to both basal conditions and stress responses. These models have used different paradigms and have elicited a range of behavioral and physiological manifestations associated with gender. The overall data presented demonstrate that male animals are significantly more vulnerable to acute and chronic stress, whereas females are far more resilient. The stark contradiction between these findings and contemporary epidemiological data regarding human subjects is worthy of further study. The examination of these gender-related differences can deepen our understanding of the risk or the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:21508518

  19. Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta; Liden, Carola; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Berglund, Marika

    2007-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

  20. Gender differences amongst adult arsonists at psychiatric assessment.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Geoff; Sugarman, Philip; Ahmad, Farooq; Edgar, Simon; Hofberg, Kristina; Tewari, Sidharta

    2007-07-01

    Reports of gender differences amongst arsonists at psychiatric assessment are not uncommon, however some are based on relatively small samples. A new retrospective study highlighting gender differences could help to confirm or refute the current state of knowledge. The aim of the current study was to examine gender differences amongst a sample of 167 adult arsonists (129 males and 38 females). Information was collected from clinical records on sociodemographic, family background and childhood factors; adult adjustment; fire setting history; motives; features of pyromania and other offending, from the case notes of a group of arsonists referred to the West Midlands Psychiatry Service over a 24-year period. Female arsonists were older than males and more likely to have a psychiatric diagnosis. Women more frequently had a history of sexual abuse, while men had a more varied criminal background and more substance abuse problems. Our findings largely support previous research, and are discussed in this context, whilst also bringing attention to a more recently developed theory (Action System Model). Significant gender differences amongst arsonists indicates that different emphases in the treatment of male and female arsonists may be advisable, though a reliable evidence base for treatment has yet to be established. PMID:17725237

  1. Gender differences in game responses during badminton match play.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; de la Aleja Tellez, Jose G; Moya-Ramon, Manuel; Cabello-Manrique, David; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate possible gender differences in match play activity pattern [rally duration, rest time between rallies, effective playing time, and strokes performed during a rally] and exercise intensity (heart rate [HR], blood lactate [La], and subjective ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) during 9 simulated badminton matches in male (n = 8) and female (n = 8) elite junior (16.0 ± 1.4 years) players. Results showed significant differences (all p < 0.05; effect size (ES) = 0.80-1.56) between male and female players in the activity pattern of match play, with male players engaged in longer rallies (6.8 ± 4.8 vs. 5.7 ± 3.1 seconds), executing more strokes per rally (6.4 ± 4.8 vs. 4.7 ± 2.8) and resting more between rallies (10.5 ± 8.8 vs. 8.8 ± 7.2 seconds) than female players. No clear differences (all p > 0.05; ES = -0.33 to 0.08) were observed between female or male players in average HR (174 ± 7 vs. 170 ± 9 b·min(-1)), %HRmax (89.2 ± 4.0% vs. 85.9 ± 4.3%), La (2.5 ± 1.3 vs. 3.2 ± 1.8 mmol·L(-1)), and RPE values (14.2 ± 1.9 vs. 14.6 ± 1.8) during match play, although male players spent more time (moderate effect sizes) at intensities between 81 and 90% HRmax (35.3 ± 17.9 vs. 25.3 ± 13.6; p < 0.05; ES = 0.64) in the second game. There seemed to be a trend toward an increased playing intensity (i.e., higher HR, La, and RPE) from the first to the second game, highlighting the higher exercise intensity experienced during the last part of the match. The clear between-gender differences in activity patterns induced only slightly different physiological responses. PMID:23238094

  2. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing. PMID:26135387

  3. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  4. Gender Differences in Children's Experience of Musical Performance Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine musical performance anxiety in children, with a focus on potential gender differences. Twenty-six sixth-grade students performing in a piano recital were monitored continuously on measures of heart rate and behaviour. Participants were interviewed in the months prior to the recital and they completed the…

  5. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  6. The Phantom Gender Difference in the College Wage Premium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, William H. J.

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature seeks to explain why so many more women than men now attend college. A commonly cited stylized fact is that the college wage premium is, and has been, higher for women than for men. After identifying and correcting a bias in estimates of college wage premiums, I find that there has been essentially no gender difference in the…

  7. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  8. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  9. Poles Apart? Gender Differences in Proposals for Sexuality Education Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Are young women and men's preferences for sexuality education content poles apart? This article explores gender differences in senior school students' suggestions for issues sexuality education should cover. Findings are analysed in relation to debate about mixed and single sex classrooms and boys' perceived disinterest in lessons. It is argued…

  10. Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Students towards Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Roli

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines students' pre-college experience with computers. It finds significant gender differences in how students develop interest in computers; exposure to computers at home; availability of computers in high schools; and high-school preparations for college study in a computing field. The paper has a number of implications to improve…

  11. Confidence and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke-Simpson, Amanda; Voyer, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between self-reported confidence ratings, performance on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), and guessing behavior on the MRT. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while rating their confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in…

  12. Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

  13. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' Understanding of the Concept of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Meadow; Graham, Susan A.; McKeough, Anne; Stock, Hayli; Palmer, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in North American preschoolers' biological reasoning about the concept of "life". Four-year-olds (M = 4.6, SD = 3.3 months) and five-year-olds (M = 5.6, SD = 3.8 months) were asked about the function of 13 body parts, organs, and bodily processes. Results indicated that the likelihood of mentioning the…

  14. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  15. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  16. Gender and Modality Differences in Experiencing and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, David J.; Martin, Randal B.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates gender and modality differences in experiencing and emotional expression. All 47 participants watched and responded to questions about an emotionally provocative video. Analyses revealed a higher level of experiencing, and more use of emotional words by women than men. Additionally, experiencing judgments of private responses were…

  17. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  18. Gender Differences in Emotional Language in Children's Picture Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepper, Clary A.; Cassidy, Kimberly Wright

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences in emotional language in children's picture books, using 178 books read to or by preschool children. Males had higher representations on titles, pictures, and central roles, but males and females were associated with equal amounts of emotional language and similar types of emotional words. (SLD)

  19. Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

  20. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  1. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  2. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  3. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed microenterprises in…

  4. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  5. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  6. Solving Graphics Tasks: Gender Differences in Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual-spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined gender differences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in…

  7. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' Understanding of the Concept of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Meadow; Graham, Susan A.; McKeough, Anne; Stock, Hayli; Palmer, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in North American preschoolers' biological reasoning about the concept of "life". Four-year-olds (M = 4.6, SD = 3.3 months) and five-year-olds (M = 5.6, SD = 3.8 months) were asked about the function of 13 body parts, organs, and bodily processes. Results indicated that the likelihood of mentioning the…

  8. Sex Differences in Conformity: Status and Gender Role Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Chrvala, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Examines status and gender role explanations of the tendency for women to conform more than men in group pressure settings. Analysis of age and sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance and when subjects formed impressions of group members' likability. Among younger…

  9. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Literature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clisbee, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of literature explores gender differences in leadership style. As greater numbers of women enter the ranks of leadership and more research is conducted, contradictory findings emerged. Using the qualitative software program Nvivo version 1.2, 36 pieces of qualitative, quantitative, and popular culture literature were summarized,…

  10. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  11. Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

  12. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces—Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West—in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two different dimensions of adult cognition—episodic memory and intact mental status. On both measures, Chinese women score much lower than do Chinese men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts. We relate both these cognition scores to schooling, urban residence, family and community levels of economic resources, and height. We find that cognition is more closely related to mean community resources than to family resources, especially for women, suggesting that in traditional poor Chinese communities there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls. We also find that these gender differences in cognitive ability have been steadily decreasing across birth cohorts as the economy of China grew rapidly. Among cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability. This parallels the situation in the United States where cognition scores of adult women actually exceed those of adult men. PMID:24347682

  13. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  14. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  15. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  16. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  17. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Derek

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

  19. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  20. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Literature Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clisbee, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This analysis of literature explores gender differences in leadership style. As greater numbers of women enter the ranks of leadership and more research is conducted, contradictory findings emerged. Using the qualitative software program Nvivo version 1.2, 36 pieces of qualitative, quantitative, and popular culture literature were summarized,…

  1. Gender Differences in Self-Regulated Online Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukselturk, Erman; Bulut, Safure

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in self-regulated learning components, motivational beliefs and achievement in self-regulated online learning environment. Sample of the study consisted of 145 participants from an online programming course which is based on synchronous and asynchronous communication methods over the Internet. Motivated…

  2. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  3. Gender Differences in Psychosocial Risk Factors among Slovenian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomori, Martina; Zalar, Bojan; Plesnicar, Blanka Kores

    2000-01-01

    Investigates risk factors in Slovenian high school students (N=4,590) and assesses gender differences in the frequency of their occurrence. Results show that female levels of depression were higher and self-esteem levels were lower when compared to their male counterparts. (MKA)

  4. Beliefs about Men: Gender Differences among Colleges Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about men. Women were significantly more likely…

  5. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  6. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…

  7. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  8. Gender Differences in the Perception and Acceptance of Online Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Shun

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the gender differences in the acceptance of…

  9. College Student Beliefs about Women: Some Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeely, Andrea; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2005-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about women. Men were significantly more likely…

  10. Gender Differences in the Perception and Acceptance of Online Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Wang, Yi-Shun

    2008-01-01

    With the proliferation of online games, understanding users' intention to play online games has become a new issue for academics and practitioners. Prior studies have investigated the factors affecting behavioural intention to play online games. However, little research has been conducted to investigate the gender differences in the acceptance of…

  11. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  12. Gender Differences in High School Grades and ACT Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Lei; And Others

    This study investigated gender differences on the ACT English and mathematics scores by controlling both high school course taking patterns and high school subject matter course grades. A sample of 5100 ACT test takers (44% male) from the 1989-1990 academic year was selected for this study. Data were analyzed separately for juniors and seniors.…

  13. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

  14. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptomatology and Egocentrism in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent egocentrism and depressive symptomatology in Canadian adolescents. Major findings were adolescent females regard themselves higher in uniqueness and self-consciousness than adolescent males; social class relates significantly to adolescent egocentrism; and gender differences emerge with…

  15. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  16. Gender Differences in an On-Line Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, E.; Lally, V.

    1999-01-01

    Explores gender differences in the use of computer-mediated communication in a specific learning context by a small group of postgraduate distance learners and their tutors at the University of Sheffield. Uses content analysis of online dialog to investigate learning and socioemotional behavior. (Author/LRW)

  17. Gender Differences in Factors Influencing Students towards Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varma, Roli

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines students' pre-college experience with computers. It finds significant gender differences in how students develop interest in computers; exposure to computers at home; availability of computers in high schools; and high-school preparations for college study in a computing field. The paper has a number of implications to improve…

  18. Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

  19. Gender Differences in the Academic Ethic and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Kyong Hee; Pino, Nathan W.; Smith, William L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates gender differences in the academic ethic and academic achievement among college students. The authors used the survey data collected from students attending Georgia Southern University, a unit of the University System of Georgia and one of two regional universities in the state. Results from the analysis indicate that…

  20. Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

  1. Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

  2. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Derek

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

  3. Gender Differences in Children's Experience of Musical Performance Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine musical performance anxiety in children, with a focus on potential gender differences. Twenty-six sixth-grade students performing in a piano recital were monitored continuously on measures of heart rate and behaviour. Participants were interviewed in the months prior to the recital and they completed the…

  4. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptomatology and Egocentrism in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent egocentrism and depressive symptomatology in Canadian adolescents. Major findings were adolescent females regard themselves higher in uniqueness and self-consciousness than adolescent males; social class relates significantly to adolescent egocentrism; and gender differences emerge with…

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  6. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  7. Gender Differences in Mathematics: Does the Story Need to Be Rewritten?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Martin; Krauss, Stefan; Kunter, Mareike

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on…

  8. Gender Related Differences in Kidney Injury Induced by Mercury

    PubMed Central

    Hazelhoff, María H.; Bulacio, Romina P.; Torres, Adriana M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if there are sex-related differences in the acute kidney injury induced by HgCl2 since female rats express lower levels of renal Oat1 and Oat3 (transporters involved in renal uptake of mercury) as compared with males. Control males and females and Hg-treated male and female Wistar rats were employed. Animals were treated with HgCl2 (4 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneal (i.p.)) 18 h before the experiments. HgCl2 induced renal impairment both in male and female rats. However, female rats showed a lower renal impairment than male rats. The observed increase in kidney weight/body weight ratio seen in male and female rats following HgCl2 treatment was less in the female rats. Urine volume and creatinine clearance decreased and Oat5 urinary excretion increased in both males and females, but to a lesser degree in the latter. Urinary alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and histological parameters were modified in male but not in female rats after HgCl2 administration. These results indicate that the lower Oat1 and Oat3 expression in the kidney of females restricts Hg uptake into renal cells protecting them from this metal toxicity. These gender differences in renal injury induced by mercury are striking and also indicate that Oat1 and Oat3 are among the main transporters responsible for HgCl2-induced renal injury. PMID:22949877

  9. Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

  10. Gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Lepr(fa) rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Takeshi; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Sasase, Tomohiko; Kimura, Shuichi; Tong, Bin; Yamada, Takahisa

    2014-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Lepr(fa) (SDT fatty) rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity. PMID:24892034

  11. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takeshi; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty) rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity. PMID:24892034

  12. Gender differences in incidence and outcomes of urothelial and kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Ilaria; Klatte, Tobias; Fajkovic, Harun; de Martino, Michela; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2015-10-01

    A gender discrepancy exists in the incidence of both urothelial and kidney carcinomas, with more men presenting with these cancers than women. Men have a threefold greater risk of developing bladder cancer than women, but female gender has been identified as an independent adverse prognostic factor for both recurrence and progression of this disease. In particular, women with bladder cancer are often diagnosed with a higher tumour stage than men. Conclusive data on the influence of gender on outcomes of patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma are currently lacking, although men seem to have a higher disease incidence, whereas survival outcomes might be independent of gender. Patients with renal cell carcinoma are more often men and they typically have larger tumours and higher stage and grade disease than women with this cancer. Smoking habits, tumour biology, occupational risk factors and sex steroid hormones and their receptors could have a role in these observed gender disparities. The majority of data support the theory that gender influences incidence and prognosis of urothelial and kidney cancers; men and women are different genetically and socially, making the consideration of gender a key factor in the clinical decision-making process. Thus, the inclusion of this variable in validated prognostic tables and nomograms should be discussed as a matter of importance. PMID:26436686

  13. Gender Differences of Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Emily Y; Kong, Melissa H

    2016-03-15

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinically relevant arrhythmia and increases the risk of thromboembolism and stroke; however, these risks are not the same for women and men. This review examines the evidence and clinical significance of increased thromboembolic risk in women with AF. The balance of results from over 30 recent studies suggests that female gender is an independent stroke risk factor in AF, and the inclusion of female gender in stroke risk stratification models, such as CHA2DS2-VASc, has improved risk assessment. Reasons for the increased thrombogenicity in women remain incompletely elucidated, but biological factors including increased hypertension, renal dysfunction, and hyperthyroidism in female patients with AF; cardiovascular remodeling; increased hypercoagulability, and estrogen hormone replacement therapy in women have been proposed. More importantly, gender differences exist in medical management of patients with AF, and compared with men, women have been found to have greater thromboembolic risk when not on anticoagulants, but may benefit from greater risk reduction when systemically anticoagulated. In conclusion, increased clinician awareness of these gender differences may help to improve the management of patients with AF. PMID:26923085

  14. Gender differences in zebrafish responses to cocaine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    López Patiño, Marcos A; Yu, Lili; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Zhdanova, Irina V

    2008-09-01

    The acute responses to cocaine and its withdrawal contribute to cocaine dependence and potentiate relapse, with gender being one of the genetic factors affecting the outcome. Here we report that in both male and female zebrafish (Danio rerio, AB strain), an initial low-dose cocaine treatment (1.5 muM, immersion) does not acutely change their behavior. The cocaine withdrawal, however, is associated with an anxiety-like state that develops earlier in female zebrafish but is more robust and persistent in males, and can be acutely attenuated by cocaine administration. This is not a result of gender differences in the expression of anxiety-like state, since behavioral responses to an anxiogenic drug, FG-7142, are similar in male and female zebrafish. The basal brain dopamine (DA) levels and the expression of dopamine transporter mRNA (zDAT) show no significant sexual dimorphism. Acute cocaine exposure does not significantly change DA or zDAT. Withdrawal from repeated cocaine administration results in an overall reduction in zDAT, as well as an increase in DA levels. Neither treatment leads to significant gender differences in brain DA or zDAT. The common and gender-specific effects of cocaine on zebrafish, a well-characterized model of vertebrate development and genetics, should help in understanding the mechanisms involved in the anxiety associated with cocaine withdrawal and provide new opportunities in search for therapeutic solutions. PMID:18499199

  15. Israel 2000: immigration and gender differences in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the association between immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and gender and alcohol consumption among a representative sample of young adults in Israel 2000. Previous studies that were conducted on FSU immigrants to Israel indicate higher consumption than that of resident Israelis and immigrants of earlier periods. The current study aims to assess alcohol consumption among FSU and resident Israelis five years later to determine whether the discrepancy in alcohol consumption stays consistent or reduces. In addition, gender differences in alcohol consumption among the Israeli society were examined as well, as a special case of socio-culture differences. The data came from the 2000 national survey of drinking in Israel. Of 5,004 Jewish Israelis, 532 were immigrants from the FSU who arrived since 1989, and 4,472 were resident Israelis. The FSU group was compared with resident Israelis, and males were compared to females on several drinking variables. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Demographics and cultural variables as main effects or in interaction with FSU and gender were controlled. The FSU group was significantly more likely to report drinking in the last twelve months plus drinking in the last thirty days than resident Israelis. Women's reported drinking in the last twelve months was one fourth of men's and during the past thirty days was one fifth of men's. Further investigation on the associations between the success of FSU acculturation in the Israeli society and drinking patterns as well as attitudes toward women and gender differences in alcohol consumption may provide explanations for gender and immigration gaps in alcohol consumption. PMID:16019974

  16. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?lmaz, Serkan; Ery?lmaz, Ali

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

  17. Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  18. Shame and Gender Differences in Paths to Youth Suicide: Parents' Perspective.

    PubMed

    Werbart Törnblom, Annelie; Werbart, Andrzej; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors, suicidal behavior, and help-seeking patterns differ between young women and men. We constructed a generic conceptual model of the processes underlying youth suicide, grounded in 78 interviews with parents in 52 consecutive cases of suicide (19 women, 33 men) identified at forensic medical autopsy and compared by sex. We found different forms of shame hidden behind gender-specific masks, as well as gender differences in their paths to suicide. Several interacting factors formed negative feedback loops. Finding no way out, the young persons looked for an "emergency exit." Signs and preparations could be observed at different times but recognized only in retrospect. Typically, the young persons and their parents asked for professional help but did not receive the help they needed. We discuss parents' experiences from the theoretical perspective on gender identity and developmental breakdown. Giving voice to the parents' tacit knowledge can contribute to better prevention and treatment. PMID:25810465

  19. Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-10-12

    Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD?IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD?IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. PMID:26225436

  20. Exploring gender differences in the working lives of UK hospital consultants

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Karen; Spilsbury, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internationally, increasing numbers of women are practising medicine. Gender differences in doctors’ working hours, specialty choices and communication styles are well documented, but studies often neglect contextual factors such as the role of socialised gender expectations on behaviours in the workplace and the medical profession. These may be important as recent studies have reported gender differences in doctors’ activity rates that cannot be explained by specialty or contracted hours, suggesting other sources of variation. This study sought to explore the working lives of hospital doctors and how their work is negotiated according to gender and context. Design Gender differences in the day-to-day work of hospital specialists (consultants) in the NHS were investigated using a qualitative approach, including observation and interview methods. Data were analysed inductively using qualitative observation and interview methods. Setting Two NHS hospital trusts in England. Participants Data were collected from 13 participants working in a variety of specialties and in a range of clinical and non-clinical settings. Main outcome measures Various behaviours, attitudes and experiences were explored, such as doctor–patient communication, interactions with colleagues and workload. Results Influences at both individual and situational levels, appear to affect differentially the work of male and female doctors. Female consultants described awareness of the impact of behaviours on relationships with colleagues, and their interactions appeared to be more carefully performed. Nurses and other colleagues tend to demonstrate less cooperation with female consultants. Gender differences also exist in patient communication, feelings of work–family conflict and barriers to career progression. Conclusions These variations in hospital consultants’ work may have implications for both the quantity and quality of care provided by male and female consultants. This is timely and of importance to the medical workforce as the gender composition approaches parity. PMID:25567767

  1. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  2. Gender differences in fibromyalgia and other related syndromes.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2002-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, poor sleep, and tenderness on palpation at multiple sites called tender points. It occurs mostly among women; only about 10% of patients are men. Two recent studies showed that women had significantly more common fatigue, morning fatigue, "hurt all over," a greater total number of symptoms, as well as a greater number of tender points. Gender differences have also been reported in other related syndromes such as tension headache, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and temporomandibular disorder. Although the mechanisms of gender differences in these illnesses are not fully understood, they are likely to involve an interaction between biology, psychology, and sociocultural factors. PMID:11974674

  3. Computerizing the Mental Rotations Test: are gender differences maintained?

    PubMed

    Monahan, John S; Harke, Maureen A; Shelley, Jonathon R

    2008-05-01

    A computerized version of the Revised Mental Rotations Test using touch-screen technology was tested and compared with the paper-and-pencil version. One hundred ninety-two participants--133 women and 59 men--took the paper-and-pencil version; 91 participants--47 women and 44 men--took the touch-screen version. Standard scores x test half and the entire test, proportion of errors x type, and proportion correct x alternative type were calculated. The expected gender differences occurred in standard scores and proportion correct x alternative type for both test versions. Men performed better than women in all instances, but gender difference effect sizes (measured by Cohen's d) were reduced from large for the paper-and-pencil version to medium for the computerized version. Scores declined at least nominally from the first to the second half of both versions, and significantly for women taking the paper-and-pencil version. PMID:18522051

  4. Gender differences in patellofemoral load during the epee fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition. PMID:25630246

  5. Gender Differences Related to Attitudes Toward Suicide and Suicidal Behavior.

    PubMed

    Poreddi, Vijayalakshmi; Thimmaiah, Rohini; Ramu, Rajalakshmi; Selvi, Sugavana; Gandhi, Sailaxmi; Ramachandra; Math, Suresh Bada

    2016-02-01

    This descriptive study examined gender differences related to attitudes toward suicide among randomly selected urban residents. Data was collected using a standardized questionnaire through face-to-face interview. Our findings revealed that men hold more pro preventive attitudes to help persons with suicidal thoughts (80.3 %, p = 0.05) and agreed that suicidal attempts are impulsive (78.6 %, p = 0.01). However, they hold permissive attitude to help persons with incurable diseases and expressing death wishes to die (66 %, p = 0.05). A majority of men (78.6 %) than women agreed that "suicidal attempt is essentially a cry for help" (? (2) = 11.798, p = 0.05). These gender differences need to be taken into consideration when developing appropriate programs to prevent suicide. Further, decriminalizing the law, high-quality research and raising awareness about suicide prevention among the general population is crucial in developing countries like India. PMID:26293749

  6. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.

  7. Gender Differences in Outcomes of Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Harness-Brumley, Cayce L.; Elliott, Alan C.; Rosenbluth, Daniel B.; Raghavan, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a common life-shortening genetic disease in which women have been described to have worse outcomes than males, particularly in response to respiratory infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, as advancements in therapies have improved life expectancy, this gender disparity has been challenged. The objective of this study is to examine whether a gender-based survival difference still exists in this population and determine the impact of common CF respiratory infections on outcomes in males versus females with CF. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 32,766 patients from the United States Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry over a 13-year period. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall mortality and pathogen based survival rates in males and females. Results: Females demonstrated a decreased median life expectancy (36.0 years; 95% confidence interval [CI] 35.0–37.3) compared with men (38.7 years; 95% CI 37.8–39.6; p<0.001). Female gender proved to be a significant risk factor for death (hazard ratio 2.22, 95% CI 1.79–2.77), despite accounting for variables known to influence CF mortality. Women were also found to become colonized earlier with several bacteria and to have worse outcomes with common CF pathogens. Conclusions: CF women continue to have a shortened life expectancy relative to men despite accounting for key CF-related comorbidities. Women also become colonized with certain common CF pathogens earlier than men and show a decreased life expectancy in the setting of respiratory infections. Explanations for this gender disparity are only beginning to be unraveled and further investigation into mechanisms is needed to help develop therapies that may narrow this gender gap. PMID:25495366

  8. Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

  9. Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

  10. Gender Differences in Leg Stiffness and Stiffness Recruitment Strategy During Two-Legged Hopping

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; Arnold, Brent L.; Carcia, Christopher R.; Granata, Kevin P.

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared leg stiffness (KVERT), muscle activation, and joint movement patterns between 11 men and 10 women during hopping. Physically active and healthy men and women performed continuous 2-legged hopping at their preferred rate and at 3.0 Hz. Compared with men, women demonstrated decreased KVERT; however, after the authors normalized for body mass, gender differences in KVERT were eliminated. In comparison with men, women also demonstrated increased quadriceps and soleus activity, as well as greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratios. There were no significant gender differences for joint movement patterns (p > .05). The relationship between the observed gender differences in muscle recruitment and the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women requires further study. PMID:15730945

  11. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  12. Gender differences in brain activation on a mental rotation task.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Bledsoe, Jesse; Zhu, David C

    2012-10-01

    Few neuroimaging studies have explored gender differences on mental rotation tasks. Most studies have utilized samples with both genders, samples mainly consisting of men, or samples with six or fewer females. Graduate students in science fields or liberal arts programs (20 males, 20 females) completed a mental rotation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). When a pair of cube figures was shown, the participant made a keypad response based on whether the pair is the same/similar or different. Regardless of gender, the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left precuneus were activated when a subject tried to solve the mental rotation task. Increased activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus, the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus region, and the left middle occipital gyrus was found for men as compared to women. Better accuracy and shorter response times were correlated with an increased activation in the bilateral intraparietal sulcus. No significant brain activity differences related to mental rotation were found between academic majors. These findings suggest that networks involved in visual attention appear to be more strongly activated in the mental rotation tasks in men as compared to women. It also suggests that men use a more automatic process when analyzing complex visual reasoning tasks while women use a more top-down process. PMID:22651549

  13. Gender differences in chemosensory perception and event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Jonas K; Nordin, Steven

    2004-09-01

    The present study investigated chemosensory gender differences by means of ratings of total nasal chemosensory intensity, unpleasantness and sensory irritation and simultaneous recordings of chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs) for three concentrations of the olfactory/trigeminal stimulus pyridine in 19 women and 17 men, all young adults. Results show that, compared to men, women gave higher intensity and unpleasantness ratings, in particular for the highest stimulus concentration. The gender differences in perceived intensity are reflected in the signal-to-noise ratio of the individual CSERP averages, revealing more identifiable early components (P1, N1) in women than in men. The late positive component, labeled P2/P3, displayed larger amplitudes at all electrode sites and shorter latencies at Cz, in women compared to men. The effects of increased pyridine concentration on perception (larger in women) and CSERPs (similar across gender) imply that the two measures involve partially different neural processing. CSERP component identifiability is proposed here as a general means of assessing signal-to-noise ratio of the CSERPs. PMID:15337687

  14. Brain responses mediating idiom comprehension: gender and hemispheric differences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Murdaugh, Donna L; Wolfe, Kelly R; Kumar, Sandhya L

    2012-07-27

    Processing figurative language, such as idioms, is unique in that it requires one to make associations between words and non-literal meanings that are contextually appropriate. At the neural level, processing idiomatic phrases has been linked to recruitment of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC), the left temporal cortex, superior medial prefrontal gyrus (MPFC), and the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG). This functional MRI study examined the brain responses associated with processing idiomatic compared to literal sentences. In addition, gender differences in neural responses associated with language comprehension were also explored. In an fMRI scanner, thirty-six healthy adult volunteers viewed sentences that were either literal or idiomatic in nature, and answered subsequent comprehension questions. This sentence comprehension tasks activated mainly prefrontal language areas (LIFG, LSFG, and RMFG). Consistent with previous findings, idiomatic sentences showed increased response in LIFG. These results are discussed in the backdrop of the graded salience hypothesis. Furthermore, we found gender differences in brain activation and functional connectivity during this task. Women showed greater overall activation than men when comprehending literal and idiomatic sentences; whereas men had significantly greater functional connectivity between LIFG and LMTG than women across tasks. Overall, the findings of this study highlight the gender differences in neural responses associated with figurative language comprehension. PMID:22634066

  15. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ? the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions ? is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  16. Gender differences at birth and differences in fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Crawford, M A; Doyle, W; Meadows, N

    1987-08-01

    The discrepancy between the number of boys and girls born has been interpreted as a natural selection response to differential survival prospects. There also exists a discrepancy in birth weight, length, head circumference at birth of boys and girls; on the other hand, placental weights were not so strongly biased by the sex of the fetus. Metabolic differences between the sexes are clearly recognized in adults. It is therefore argued that the anthropometric differences at birth, examples of which are presented in this paper, can only be achieved if the products of conception are also expressing a sexual bias in metabolism and physiology. It would then be this bias which would determine the efficiency of the implantation and growth processes and lead to rates of survival to birth. The speculation arising from this and the experimental manipulation of the sex ratio is that the physiological component most likely to be involved would be the lipid compartment with its strong sex difference. PMID:3667908

  17. Gender differences in crack users who are research volunteers.

    PubMed

    Dudish, S A; Hatsukami, D K

    1996-09-01

    This study compared gender differences in a non-treatment sample of crack cocaine users interested in participating in a research study on addiction. Data was collected from initial telephone screening interviews of women and men responding to cocaine research recruitment in a midwest urban environment over a two-year period. Female respondents (n = 88) were age- and race-matched with men interviewed over the same time period, for a total sample size of 176. Mean age of the female sample was 33 years and the majority were African-American. Basic demographics were similar for both genders. Respondents had first used cocaine at 24 years of age and currently smoked 2 g cocaine/day for 5 days/week, a rate higher than that found in many treatment samples. Women were found to have significantly higher rates of cigarette smoking, headaches and history of suicidal ideation, and significantly more women reported emergency room visits following crack use than did men. Equal numbers of men and women had been convicted of a crime (56%), with significantly fewer women reporting having committed a crime involving violence. Nearly all respondents (94%) reported that crack use had negative effects on their value systems, and significant numbers of both genders reported involvement with bartering crack and sex. Two-thirds of women able to become pregnant used no method of birth control and the use of barrier methods was infrequent. Forty-two percent admitted to using cocaine during pregnancy. These data indicate that while patterns of crack use per se do not differ between women and men in this sample, community outreach programs may benefit from focusing on other associated behaviors that do show differences between genders. PMID:8889404

  18. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

  19. An examination of gender differences in DPOAE phase delay measurements in normal-hearing human adults.

    PubMed

    Bowman, D M; Brown, D K; Kimberley, B P

    2000-04-01

    This study examined gender differences in f(1)- and f(2)-sweep distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) phase delay measures in 60 normal-hearing human adults. Phase delay measures were obtained at six different f(2) frequencies ranging from 1.1 to 6.0 kHz (f(2)/f(1) ratios were 1.1-1.3). Primary levels for f(2) were 45 and 50 dB SPL (f(1)f(2)). Gender differences have been observed in normal-hearing human adults in both auditory brainstem response (ABR) and f(1)-sweep DPOAE studies. Gender differences in delay have been attributed to differences in the average length of the cochlea, where female cochleas are 13% shorter than male cochleas. Previously, the authors have proposed that the f(1)-sweep phase delay estimate is predominantly composed of a level-independent transport time to the site of DPOAE generation and a small proportion of the level and frequency-dependent filter build-up time. The f(2)-sweep delay also contains the transport time, however, it is predominantly composed of the filter build-up time. Therefore, delay differences between stimulation paradigms are equal to a proportion of the filter build-up time. In this study, mean f(1)- and f(2)-sweep delays were significantly longer in male ears than female ears at 1.1 kHz (45 and 50 dB). At 50 dB, f(1)-sweep phase delay measures were 18% longer in male ears (6.5 ms) than female ears (5.5 ms). Mean f(2)-sweep delays were 23% longer in male ears (10.0 ms) than female ears (8.1 ms). This gender difference was not observed when the isolated filter build-up time was calculated from the DPOAE phase delay difference. These observations may therefore be attributed to a gender-related anatomical difference in cochlear length. PMID:10748323

  20. Gender differences in reasons to quit smoking among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Struik, Laura L; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Bottorff, Joan L; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L

    2014-08-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed self-report questionnaires in 2010-2011 from 113 female and 83 male smokers aged 14-19 years participating in AdoQuest, a longitudinal cohort study of the natural course of the co-occurrence of health-compromising behaviors in children. Overall, the findings indicate that reasons to quit in boys and girls appear to be generally similar, although this finding may relate to a lack of gender-oriented items in the ARFQ scale. There is a need for continued research to develop and test reasons to quit scales for adolescents that include gender-oriented items. PMID:23863971

  1. Gender differences in psychopathy links to drug use.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between 2 criminally relevant constructs, (a) psychopathy and its factors and (b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and the antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation of drug use among women. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26571339

  2. Gender Differences in Psychopathy Links to Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2015-01-01

    While the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between two criminally-relevant constructs, a) psychopathy and its factors and b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and in women, Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. PMID:26571339

  3. Free Alcohol Use and Consequences: Gender Differences Among Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Blocker, Jill; McCoy, Thomas P.; Sutfin, Erin; Champion, Heather; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine gender differences in obtaining free alcohol, high-risk drinking, and consequences. Methods Web-based surveys were administered annually (2003–2005) to random samples of undergraduates (N=10,729). Results Gender, race, age under 21, sorority/fraternity membership, lower disposable income, and relationship status were significant predictors of obtaining free alcohol. Frequent obtainers had greater odds of heavy episodic drinking and consequences compared to infrequent obtainers. Females were less likely to report heavy episodic drinking; however, frequently obtaining females were more likely to report heavy episodic drinking. Conclusions Approximately 25% of undergraduates frequently obtained free alcohol. Females obtained more often, had higher odds of high-risk drinking, and experienced fewer consequences compared to males. PMID:22488395

  4. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use of either nest or song perch sites in vegetation analyses can result in misleading, or at least incomplete, descriptions of a species' habitat. Habitat interpretations for Willow Flycatchers (and perhaps for many passerines) are a function of the gender-specific behavior of the birds observed and the scale of vegetation measurement.

  5. An empirical study of gender differences in online gambling.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions. PMID:23097131

  6. Gender differences in preattentive processing of facial expressions: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Yang, Yaping; Wang, Pei; Sun, Gang; Zhao, Lun

    2013-07-01

    To investigate gender differences in pre-attentive processing of facial expressions we recorded the expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) in the deviant-standard-reverse oddball paradigm. For female participants, sad faces elicited larger EMMN than happy faces, but this difference disappeared in the left hemisphere. For male participants, EMMN was not modulated by facial expressions, regardless of in the left or right hemispheres. While the source analysis indicated that for both genders prefrontal activations were observed for sad EMMN, more sources were involved for male than female participants. For happy EMMN, the current sources were located in the occipital lobe and parietal lobe for females and the temporal lobe and the frontal lobe for males. The present findings emphasized the importance of considering gender as a factor in the study of the pre-attentive processing of facial expressions. PMID:23371479

  7. An exploration of gender differences in tertiary mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane M.

    1989-02-01

    Data from 400 students in a tertiary mathematics course were analysed to explore gender differences on a number of variables associated with learning mathematics. It was concluded that while differences did occur on variables associated with confidence, self-concept, test anxiety and quantitative ability indicating a detrimental effect for women, compensating behaviour by women, including increased assignment work and tutorial attendance, resulted in comparable final course performance for women and men. These findings are discussed in light of participation rates of women in mathematics.

  8. Gender differences in a mouse model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Naji-Esfahani, H; Vaseghi, G; Safaeian, L; Pilehvarian, A-A; Abed, A; Rafieian-Kopaei, M

    2016-02-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain is one of the major problems for cancer patients. Although paclitaxel and cisplatin are widely used in women, most laboratory studies of chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain have been conducted on male animals. The current study examined the gender differences in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain in mice. Neuropathic pain was induced by intraperitoneal injection of paclitaxel (2?mg/kg) for five consecutive days and cisplatin (1?mg/kg) for seven consecutive days. Cold allodynia was evaluated by measuring the paw withdrawal frequency and duration of paw licking in mice; however, mechanical allodynia was assessed by von Frey filaments. Neuropathic pain began to manifest after a few days (P?differences were observed between the two genders in the manifestation of paclitaxel-induced mechanical allodynia. Interestingly, no gender differences were observed in cisplatin-induced cold and mechanical allodynia tests. In conclusion, gender differences play a major role in neuropathic pain induced by paclitaxel. The differences between male and female animals should be considered in future studies and the findings should be generalized to humans with caution. PMID:25732574

  9. Gender differences in HIV disclosure, stigma, and perceptions of health.

    PubMed

    Geary, Cindy; Parker, Warren; Rogers, Susan; Haney, Erica; Njihia, Carolyne; Haile, Amaha; Walakira, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    HIV disclosure is a gateway to HIV prevention - particularly among couples living in regions severely affected by the HIV epidemic. This cross-sectional study utilizes data collected from 862 people living with HIV across three countries (Ethiopia, Mozambique, and Uganda) in 2011 to determine the role of partner disclosure on self-reported health perceptions and changes in sexual risk behavior. The study's secondary aims are to understand whether or not internalized stigma mediates this relationship and if there is a different pattern of results by gender. The multivariate analysis reveals that the three key HIV-related independent variables, belonging to a support group, doing volunteer work, and disclosing to one's spouse or partner, were significantly associated with lower levels of internalized stigma. Internalized stigma was associated with self-perceptions of poorer health for both women and men, with women reporting higher levels of internalized stigma than men. Disclosure to spouse was positively associated with perceptions of better health for women but not for men. For men, doing HIV-related volunteer work and disclosing their status to their spouse were positively associated with self-reported changes in sexual risk behavior, although stigma was not found to mediate this relationship. Findings from this study suggest that disclosure and stigma have gender-specific effects on individual well-being and changes in sexual risk behaviors. As such, programs must address gender inequity in disclosure patterns and stigma to enhance prevention efforts. PMID:24921155

  10. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  11. Advances in understanding gender difference in cardiometabolic disease risk.

    PubMed

    Onat, Altan; Karadeniz, Yusuf; Tusun, Eyyup; Yüksel, Hüsniye; Kaya, Ayşem

    2016-04-01

    Gender differences exist in cardiovascular or metabolic disease risk, beyond the protective effect of estrogens, mostly burdening the postmenopausal female. We aimed to review herein sex differences in pro-inflammatory states, the independence of inflammation from insulin resistance, differences in high-density lipoprotein dysfunction, in gene-environment interactions, and in the influence of current and former smoking on cardiometabolic risk. Sex differences in absorption of long-chain fatty acids are highlighted. Differences exist in the first manifestation of cardiovascular disease, men being more likely to develop coronary heart disease as a first event, compared to women who have cerebrovascular disease or heart failure as a first event. Autoimmune activation resulting from pro-inflammatory states, a fundamental mechanism for numerous chronic diseases in people prone to metabolic syndrome, is much more common in women, and these constitute major determinants. Therapeutic approaches to aspects related to sex difference are briefly reviewed. PMID:26849352

  12. Gender differences in caregiving among family - caregivers of people with mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Nidhi; Chakrabarti, Subho; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    All over the world women are the predominant providers of informal care for family members with chronic medical conditions or disabilities, including the elderly and adults with mental illnesses. It has been suggested that there are several societal and cultural demands on women to adopt the role of a family-caregiver. Stress-coping theories propose that women are more likely to be exposed to caregiving stressors, and are likely to perceive, report and cope with these stressors differently from men. Many studies, which have examined gender differences among family-caregivers of people with mental illnesses, have concluded that women spend more time in providing care and carry out personal-care tasks more often than men. These studies have also found that women experience greater mental and physical strain, greater caregiver-burden, and higher levels of psychological distress while providing care. However, almost an equal number of studies have not found any differences between men and women on these aspects. This has led to the view that though there may be certain differences between male and female caregivers, most of these are small in magnitude and of doubtful clinical significance. Accordingly, caregiver-gender is thought to explain only a minor proportion of the variance in negative caregiving outcomes. A similar inconsistency characterizes the explanations provided for gender differences in caregiving such as role expectations, differences in stress, coping and social support, and response biases in reporting distress. Apart from the equivocal and inconsistent evidence, there are other problems in the literature on gender differences in caregiving. Most of the evidence has been derived from studies on caregivers of elderly people who either suffer from dementia or other physical conditions. Similar research on other mental illnesses such as schizophrenia or mood disorders is relatively scarce. With changing demographics and social norms men are increasingly assuming roles as caregivers. However, the experience of men while providing care has not been explored adequately. The impact of gender on caregiving outcomes may be mediated by several other variables including patient-related factors, socio-demographic variables, and effects of kinship status, culture and ethnicity, but these have seldom been considered in the research on gender differences. Finally, it is apparent that methodological variations in samples, designs and assessments between studies contribute a great deal to the observed gender differences. This review highlights all these issues and concludes that there is much need for further research in this area if the true nature of gender differences in family-caregiving of mental illnesses is to be discerned. PMID:27014594

  13. Gender differences in stem cell population are induced by pregnancy.

    PubMed

    El-Badri, Nagwa S; Groer, Maureen

    2012-10-01

    Gender differences in stem cell population have recently been identified. Blood and tissue samples from women showed consistent elevation of hematopoietic stem cell populations, mesenchymal stem cell populations and endothelial progenitor cells compared to men of similar ages. We and others have shown an increase in hematopoietic stem cell population in pregnant and multiparous women compared to nulliparous women. We propose that pregnancy exposes women to increased levels of stem cells from many sources not available for nulliparous women or for men. During pregnancy, maternal fetal microchimerism results from trafficking of fetal and maternal blood across the placenta. Physiological changes in the maternal blood cellular milieu are also recognized during pregnancy and in the early post partum due to the presence of unique pregnancy associated tissues and hormones. These include the placenta, the amniotic fluid and cord blood. These tissues are highly enriched for different populations of stem cells including hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells. Recent studies showed accelerated healing in women affected by cardiovascular insults and stroke, in part due to faster tissue regeneration and stem cell activity. We propose that gender differences in stem cell population are caused in part due to maternal exposure to fetal and unique pregnancy associated tissues, which are significantly enriched in different stem cell populations. PMID:22832210

  14. Gender differences in macroprolactinomas: a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2016-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined as failure to achieve prolactin normalisation and >50% reduction in tumour volume with cabergoline (3.5?mg/week dose for minimum 6 months duration). The baseline characteristics of 100 patients (56 females and 44 males) with macroprolactinoma were analysed. Drug responsiveness was analysed in 88 treatment naive patients, excluding 12 post-primary trans-sphenoidal surgery cases. We found that females (30.29±10.39 years) presented at younger mean age than males (35.23±9.91 years) (P<0.01). The most common presenting symptom was hypogonadism (oligo-amenorrhoea/infertility) in females (96.15%) and symptoms of mass effect (headache and visual field defects) in males (93.18%). Baseline mean prolactin levels were significantly lower in females (3094.36±6863.01?ng/ml) than males (7927.07±16?748.1?ng/ml) (P<0.001). Maximal tumour dimension in females (2.49±1.48?cm) was smaller than males (3.93±1.53?cm) (P<0.001). In 88 treatment naïve patients, 27.77% females and 35.29% males had resistant tumours (P=0.48). On subgrouping as per maximum tumour dimension (1.1-2?cm, 2.1-4?cm and >4?cm), gender difference in response rate was insignificant. In conclusion, macroprolactinomas are equally prevalent in both sexes. Macroprolactinomas in males predominantly present with symptoms of mass effects, as against females who present with symptoms of hypogonadism. Males harbor larger tumours but are equally cabergoline responsive as those in females. PMID:26682970

  15. Gender differences in macroprolactinomas: a single centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Shruti; Lila, Anurag R; Patt, Hiren; Yerawar, Chaitanya; Goroshi, Manjunath; Bandgar, Tushar; Shah, Nalini S

    2015-01-01

    Macroprolactinomas are the most common functional pituitary tumours. Hypotheses proposed to explain predominance of large tumours in males are: i) diagnostic delay, as hyperprolactinaemia remains under recognised in males and ii) gender-specific difference in tumour proliferation indices. Our study objectives are to compare gender differences in clinical, biochemical, radiological features, management outcomes and cabergoline responsiveness in macroprolactinomas. Drug resistance was defined as failure to achieve prolactin normalisation and >50% reduction in tumour volume with cabergoline (3.5?mg/week dose for minimum 6 months duration). The baseline characteristics of 100 patients (56 females and 44 males) with macroprolactinoma were analysed. Drug responsiveness was analysed in 88 treatment naive patients, excluding 12 post-primary trans-sphenoidal surgery cases. We found that females (30.29±10.39 years) presented at younger mean age than males (35.23±9.91 years) (P<0.01). The most common presenting symptom was hypogonadism (oligo-amenorrhoea/infertility) in females (96.15%) and symptoms of mass effect (headache and visual field defects) in males (93.18%). Baseline mean prolactin levels were significantly lower in females (3094.36±6863.01?ng/ml) than males (7927.07±16?748.1?ng/ml) (P<0.001). Maximal tumour dimension in females (2.49±1.48?cm) was smaller than males (3.93±1.53?cm) (P<0.001). In 88 treatment naïve patients, 27.77% females and 35.29% males had resistant tumours (P=0.48). On subgrouping as per maximum tumour dimension (1.1–2?cm, 2.1–4?cm and >4?cm), gender difference in response rate was insignificant. In conclusion, macroprolactinomas are equally prevalent in both sexes. Macroprolactinomas in males predominantly present with symptoms of mass effects, as against females who present with symptoms of hypogonadism. Males harbor larger tumours but are equally cabergoline responsive as those in females. PMID:26682970

  16. Multidimensional assessment of empathic abilities: neural correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Derntl, Birgit; Finkelmeyer, Andreas; Eickhoff, Simon; Kellermann, Thilo; Falkenberg, Dania I; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2010-01-01

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct and comprises the ability to perceive, understand and feel the emotional states of others. Gender differences have been reported for various aspects of emotional and cognitive behaviors including theory of mind. However, although empathy is not a single ability but a complex behavioral competency including different components, most studies relied on single aspects of empathy, such as perspective taking or emotion perception. To extend those findings we developed three paradigms to assess all three core components of empathy (emotion recognition, perspective taking and affective responsiveness) and clarify to which extent gender affects the neural correlates of empathic abilities. A functional MRI study was performed with 12 females (6 during their follicular phase, 6 during their luteal phase) and 12 males, measuring these tasks as well as self-report empathy questionnaires. Data analyses revealed no significant gender differences in behavioral performance, but females rated themselves as more empathic than males in the self-report questionnaires. Analyses of functional data revealed distinct neural networks in females and males, and females showed stronger neural activation across all three empathy tasks in emotion-related areas, including the amygdala. Exploratory analysis of possible hormonal effects indicated stronger amygdala activation in females during their follicular phase supporting previous data suggesting higher social sensitivity and thus facilitated socio-emotional behavior. Hence, our data support the assumption that females and males rely on divergent processing strategies when solving emotional tasks: while females seem to recruit more emotion and self-related regions, males activate more cortical, rather cognitive-related areas. PMID:19914001

  17. Gender Differences in Smoking Among U.S. Working Adults

    PubMed Central

    Syamlal, Girija; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Dube, Shanta R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Although gender differences in cigarette smoking in the U.S. population have been documented, information on these differences among working adults is limited. Purpose To describe the current smoking prevalence by gender among working U.S. adults and examine gender differences in smoking by occupation. Methods The 2004–2011 National Health Interview Survey data for adults aged ?18 years that were working in the week prior to the interview (N=132,215) were analyzed in 2013. Current cigarette smokers were those who smoked at least 100 cigarettes in their lifetime and currently smoke every day or some days. Results During 2004–2011, an estimated 22.8% of men workers and 18.3% of women workers were current smokers. Of the current smokers, women workers had higher odds of being an everyday smoker (prevalence OR [POR]=1.17, 95% CI=1.09, 1.26); having poor self-rated emotional health (POR=1.28, 95% CI=1.15, 1.41); and having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (POR=2.45, 95% CI=2.14, 2.80), heart disease (POR=1.27, 95% CI=1.12, 1.45), and current asthma (POR=2.21, 95% CI=1.96, 2.49) compared with men workers. Women in “supervisors, construction, and extraction” (38.9%) occupations and men in “extraction” (40.5%) occupations had the highest smoking prevalence. Conclusion Among working adults, women had lower prevalence of smoking than men, yet women who smoke were more likely than men to have adverse health outcomes, including self-rated poorer physical and emotional health. PMID:25049215

  18. Perceived Career Barriers and Coping among Youth in Israel: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…

  19. Replicating a self-affirmation intervention to address gender differences: Successes and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren E.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Miyake, Akira

    2012-02-01

    We previously reported on the success of a psychological intervention implemented to reduce gender differences in achievement in an introductory college physics course. In this prior study, we found that the gender gap on exams and the FMCE among students who completed two 15-minute self-affirmation writing exercises was significantly reduced compared to the gender gap among students who completed neutral writing exercises. In a follow-up study we replicated the self-affirmation intervention in a later semester of the same course, with the same instructor. In this paper, we report the details and preliminary results of the replication study, where we find similar patterns along exams and course grades, but do not observe these patterns along the FMCE. We begin to investigate the critical features of replicating educational interventions, finding that replicating educational interventions is challenging, complex, and involves potentially subtle factors, some of which we explore and others that require further research.

  20. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  1. Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

    2006-01-01

    Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

  2. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  3. Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

    2006-01-01

    Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

  4. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  5. Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

    2014-07-01

    A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

  6. Gender Differences in Baroreflex Sensitivity after Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Stenger, M. B.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Lee, S. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Two potential contributing factors to post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance are decreases in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and sympathetic nervous system response. The purpose of this study was to examine the shape of the BRS curve and sympathetic response to a wide range of blood pressures (BP) before and during 6 head-down bed rest (BR). METHODS: Normal volunteers were tested one day before BR (20M, 1 0F) and near BR days 30 (20M, 10F), 60 (16M, 8F), and 90 (1 0M, 5F). BP was pharmacologically manipulated by 10-min infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) at 3 increasing concentrations with a 20-min rest between PE and SNP. Electrocardiogram and continuous finger blood pressure were recorded. A blood sample was drawn at the end of each infusion to measure plasma norepinephrine levels. The spontaneous baroreflex slope (SBS), a measure of BRS, was calculated as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP (SBP) and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. The data included saturated responses at the upper but not the lower end of the BP range. Mean response curves were constructed using second-order mixed model analysis. Results are based on term significance in the models. RESULTS RR: RR was lower during BR than pre BR (p<0.001). Pre BR males were modeled by a linear RR response to SBP (p=0.000) while females had a quadratic response which saturated at high SBP (p=0.019). By day 30, both genders were modeled by a linear response; compared to males, females had an attenuated (lower slope) RR response to changes in SBP (p=0.031). SBS: SBS vs SBP analysis showed a lower SBS during BR (p<0.001) when compared to pre BR. Females had a higher SBS than males pre BR (p=0.006). Females exhibited saturating SBS at higher SBP (p=0.016) on day 30, while males were modeled by a linear SBS response to SBP (p=0.035). NE: Females had different NE response to diastolic BP than males pre BR (p=0.035) and on day 30 (p=0.005). CONCLUSION: NE, RR and SBS responses to BP are affected by gender and BR. Not only do gender and BR baseline differences exist, but gender and BR also influence the slope and saturation of the BRS curves. Attenuated and saturating RR and SBS responses, as well as differences in baseline values, may contribute to the higher rates of orthostatic intolerance in women and after bed rest.

  7. The emergence of gender differences in physical aggression in the context of conflict between young peers.

    PubMed

    Hay, Dale F; Nash, Alison; Caplan, Marlene; Swartzentruber, Jan; Ishikawa, Fumiko; Vespo, Jo Ellen

    2011-06-01

    It is well known that a gender difference in physical aggression emerges by the preschool years. We tested the hypothesis that the gender difference is partly due to changing tactics in peer interaction. Observations of girls' and boys' social initiatives and reactions to opportunities for conflict were made, using the Peer Interaction Coding System (PICS) in four independent samples of children between 9 and 36 months of age, which were aggregated to form a summary data set (N= 323), divided into two age bands (below or above 24 months of age). Linear mixed-model analyses revealed significant age by gender interactions in the use of bodily force in response to peers' initiatives and in the tendency to use bodily force at later stages of conflicts with peers. The gender difference in use of force was not explained by differences in the use of verbal tactics. These cross-sectional findings suggest that girls are initially more likely than boys to use reactive aggression, but then desist, whereas boys increase their use of force to defend their territory and possessions. The difference between older and younger girls likely reflects girls' abilities to regulate their behaviour in response to social challenges and the fact that girls are explicitly socialized to yield to peers' demands. PMID:21592146

  8. Gender difference in calcification diseases: is it the result of gender-specific ways of nano-bacterial expansion?

    PubMed

    Schwartsburd, P M; Agababov, R; Vainshtein, M

    2013-11-01

    Gender difference has been reported for frequency of the calcification diseases in urogenital system: according to published statistics data, they are more numerous in males. We suggest that the male increasing is due to nanobacterial infections and ways of their dissemination. There are specific gender-dependent ways for these infections which bring infection to the different target organs, namely: urinary tract, kidney, prostate in men and placenta in women. Identification of the suggested microbial pathogens and investigation of sex-determined pathways for the dissemination are the following steps to get ascertaining events of gender reasons for different calcification diseases. PMID:24018282

  9. Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

  10. Gender Difference Does Not Mean Genetic Difference: Externalizing Improves Performance in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    The fear of underperforming owing to stereotype threat affects women's performance in tasks such as mathematics, chess, and spatial reasoning. The present research considered mental rotation and explored effects on performance and on regulatory focus of instructions pointing to different explanations for gender differences. Two hundred and one…

  11. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  12. Gender Salary Differences in Economics Departments in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Ana Maria; Takahashi, Shingo

    2011-01-01

    By using unique survey data, we conduct a detailed study of the gender salary gap within economics departments in Japan. Despite the presence of rigid pay scales emphasizing age and experience, there is a 7% gender salary gap after controlling for rank and detailed personal, job, institutional and human capital characteristics. This gender salary…

  13. Gender-Based Motivational Differences in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Sonja; Räikkönen, Eija; Ikonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Because of a deeply gendered history of craft education in Finland, technology education has a strong gender-related dependence. In order to motivate girls into pursuing technological studies and to enable them to see their own potential in technology, gender sensitive approaches should be developed in technology education. This study explores…

  14. Gender-Based Motivational Differences in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Sonja; Räikkönen, Eija; Ikonen, Pasi

    2015-01-01

    Because of a deeply gendered history of craft education in Finland, technology education has a strong gender-related dependence. In order to motivate girls into pursuing technological studies and to enable them to see their own potential in technology, gender sensitive approaches should be developed in technology education. This study explores…

  15. Gender differences in perception of romance in Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  16. Gender and racial differences in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Jen-Jung; Fallon, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the worldwide epidemic of obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common cause of elevated liver enzymes. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver injury ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which may progress to advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Individuals with NAFLD, especially those with metabolic syndrome, have higher overall mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and liver-related mortality compared with the general population. According to the population-based studies, NAFLD and NASH are more prevalent in males and in Hispanics. Both the gender and racial ethnic differences in NAFLD and NASH are likely attributed to interaction between environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors. Using genome-wide association studies, several genetic variants have been identified to be associated with NAFLD/NASH. However, these variants account for only a small amount of variation in hepatic steatosis among ethnic groups and may serve as modifiers of the natural history of NAFLD. Alternatively, these variants may not be the causative variants but simply markers representing a larger body of genetic variations. In this article, we provide a concise review of the gender and racial differences in the prevalence of NAFLD and NASH in adults. We also discuss the possible mechanisms for these disparities. PMID:24868321

  17. Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  18. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  19. Gender and age differences in parent-child emotion talk.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

    2015-03-01

    This study examined gender differences in emotion word use during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Emotion talk was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Mothers mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers. During the play-related storytelling task, mothers of 4-year-old daughters mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did mothers of 4-year-old sons, whereas fathers of 4-year-old daughters directed a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers of 4-year-old sons during the reminiscence task. No gender differences were found with parents of 6-year-old children. During the reminiscence task daughters mentioned more emotion words with their fathers than with their mothers. Finally, mothers' use of emotion talk was related to whether children used emotion talk in both tasks. Fathers' use of emotion talk was only related to children's emotion talk during the reminiscence task. PMID:25387786

  20. Gender difference in walleye PCB concentrations persists following remedial dredging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Jude, David J.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.; Noguchi, George E.

    2009-01-01

    Eleven male walleyes (Sander vitreus) and 10 female walleyes from the Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron) population were caught during the spawning run at Dow Dam (Midland, Michigan) in the Tittabawassee River during April 1996, and individual whole-fish polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) determinations were made. Total PCB concentrations averaged 7.95 and 3.17??mg/kg for males and females, respectively. As part of the Natural Resource Damage Assessment remediation process, contaminated sediments from the Saginaw River, the main tributary to Saginaw Bay, were removed during 2000 and 2001. Total PCB concentrations of 10 male and 10 female walleyes caught at Dow Dam during April 2007 averaged 1.58 and 0.55??mg/kg, respectively. Thus, dredging of the Saginaw River appeared to be effective in reducing PCB concentrations of Saginaw Bay adult walleyes, as both males and females decreased in PCB concentration by more than 80% between 1996 and 2007. However, the ratio of male PCB concentration to female PCB concentration did not decline between 1996 and 2007. This persistent gender difference in PCB concentrations was apparently due to a gender difference in habitat utilization coupled with a persistent spatial gradient in prey fish PCB concentrations from the Saginaw River to Lake Huron.

  1. Gender Differences in Adolescent Premarital Sexual Permissiveness in Three Asian Cities: Effects of Gender-Role Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Xiayun, Zuo; Chaohua, Lou; Ersheng, Gao; Yan, Cheng; Hongfeng, Niu; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender is an important factor in understanding premarital sexual attitudes and behaviors. Many studies indicate that males are more likely to initiate sexual intercourse and have more permissive perceptions about sex than females. Yet few studies have explored possible reasons for these gender differences. With samples of unmarried adolescents in three Asian cities influenced by Confucian cultures, this paper investigates the relationship between underlying gender norms and these differences in adolescents’ premarital sexual permissiveness. Methods 16,554 unmarried participants aged 15–24 were recruited in the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, a collaborative survey conducted in 2006–2007 in urban and rural areas of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, with 6204, 6023 and 4327 from each city respectively. All of the adolescents were administered face-to-face interviews, coupled with Computer Assisted Self Interview (CASI) for sensitive questions. Scales on gender-role attitudes and on premarital sexual permissiveness for both male and female respondents were developed and applied to our analysis of the data. Multi-linear regression was used to analyze the relationship between gender-role attitudes and sexual permissiveness. Results Male respondents in each city held more permissive attitudes towards premarital sex than did females with both boys and girls expressing greater permissiveness to male premarital sexual behaviors. Boys also expressed more traditional attitudes to gender roles (condoning greater inequality) than did girls in each city. Adolescents’ gender-role attitudes and permissiveness to premarital sex varied considerably across the three cities, with the Vietnamese the most traditional, the Taiwanese the least traditional, and the adolescents in Shanghai in the middle. A negative association between traditional gender roles and premarital sexual permissiveness was only found among girls in Shanghai and Taipei. In Shanghai, female respondents who held more traditional gender role attitudes were more likely to exercise a double standard with respect to male as opposed to female premarital sex (OR=1.18). This relationship also applied to attitudes of both girls and boys in Taipei (OR=1.20 and OR=1.22, respectively). Conclusions Although with variation across sites, gender differences in premarital sexual permissiveness and attitudes to gender roles among adolescents were very significant in each of the three Asian cities influenced by Confucian-based values. Traditional gender norms may still be deeply rooted in the three cities, especially among females, while it is important to advocate gender equity in adolescent reproductive health programs, the pathway of traditional gender norms in influencing adolescent reproductive health outcomes must be understood, as must differences and similarities across regions. PMID:22340852

  2. Gender Differences in Paediatric Patients of the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Denise; Buehr, Patrick; Koller, Rebekka; Rueger, Vanessa; Heyland, Klaas; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes; Schibli, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender differences in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently reported as a secondary outcome and the results are divergent. To assess gender differences by analysing data collected within the Swiss IBD cohort study database since 2008, related to children with IBD, using the Montreal classification for a systematic approach. Methods Data on gender, age, anthropometrics, disease location at diagnosis, disease behaviour, and therapy of 196 patients, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 91 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) were retrieved and analysed. Results The crude gender ratio (male : female) of patients with CD diagnosed at <10 years of age was 2.57, the adjusted ratio was 2.42, and in patients with UC/IC it was 0.68 and 0.64 respectively. The non-adjusted gender ratio of patients diagnosed at ?10 years was 1.58 for CD and 0.88 for UC/IC. Boys with UC/IC diagnosed <10 years of age had a longer diagnostic delay, and in girls diagnosed with UC/IC >10 years a more important use of azathioprine was observed. No other gender difference was found after analysis of age, disease location and behaviour at diagnosis, duration of disease, familial occurrence of IBD, prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations, complications, and requirement for surgery. Conclusion CD in children <10 years affects predominantly boys with a sex ratio of 2.57; the impact of sex-hormones on the development of CD in pre-pubertal male patients should be investigated. PMID:25349830

  3. Gender Differences in Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Third- through Eighth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fearrington, Jamie Y.; Parker, Patricia D.; Kidder-Ashley, Pamela; Gagnon, Sandra G.; McCane-Bowling, Sara; Sorrell, Christy A.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found gender differences in certain areas of academic achievement, such as reading and math. Fewer studies have examined gender disparities in writing skills. The current study explored gender differences in written expression performance. Participants were 1,240 male and female students in third through eighth grade,…

  4. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  5. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms during Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence…

  6. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

  7. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

  8. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  9. Gender Differences in Large-Scale Math Assessments: PISA Trend 2000 and 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to determine and explain differential gender performance on large-scale mathematics assessments. A well-agreed-on conclusion is that gender differences are contextualized and vary across math domains. This study investigated the pattern of gender differences by item domain (e.g., Space and Shape, Quantity) and item type…

  10. Gender differences in science achievement: Do school effects make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Deidra J.; Fraser, Barry J.

    The problem of the underrepresentation of girls in science in Australian schools is often attributed to their poor performance. Yet the role of both the home and the school in affecting female science achievement is rarely examined empirically. The comprehensiveness of the Second International Science Study database provided an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of gender differences in science achievement. Although previous studies of gender differences in science achievement have relied on methodology that has not adequately accounted for the school effects, this study used the design effect and hierarchical linear modeling (multilevel analysis) to explore whether there were significant gender differences. The relative contribution of schools to student achievement was examined, and school-level differences were found to contribute significantly toward explaining variations in student performance. Although statistically significant sex differences were found in physics achievement for 10-year-old, 14-year-old, and year-12 students, school effects were much more powerful in explaining student differences (9-19%) when compared with gender (3%).

  11. Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  12. Gender Differences in Risk Aversion Among Chinese University Students.

    PubMed

    Lam, Desmond

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines gender differences in risk aversion among Chinese university students. Chinese females are proposed to be more risk averse and require a higher risk premium when faced with a gamble option in the gain-domain frame as compared to Chinese males. Two groups of 100 participants each (male = 100 and female = 100 in total) were recruited to fill up questionnaires that included items relating to objective probability lotteries. Within each group, it was found that Chinese males and females did not differ in their risk aversion. However, results show that Chinese males tend to react more readily to rising risk premium by taking up options with higher expected values when compared to Chinese females. Current findings will have useful implications to marketers (particularly, promoters of gambling products) and problem gambling counselors. PMID:25112219

  13. Gender Differences in Recreational Sports Participation among Taiwanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  14. Gender differences in sepsis: cardiovascular and immunological aspects.

    PubMed

    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2014-01-01

    During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena. PMID:24193307

  15. Gender differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity.

    PubMed

    Uhart, Magdalena; Chong, Rachel Y; Oswald, Lynn; Lin, Ping-I; Wand, Gary S

    2006-06-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether there are gender differences in hormonal response patterns to HPA axis activation. To this end, two methods of activating the HPA axis were employed: a standardized psychological stress test and a pharmacological challenge. Healthy subjects (mean age 23.4 years, SD 7.0 years) completed a naloxone challenge and/or the modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). For the naloxone challenge, two baseline blood samples were obtained. Placebo was then administered (0 min), followed by increasing doses of intravenous naloxone (50, 100, 200 and 400 microg/kg) at 30-min intervals. Post-placebo blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 180 min. The TSST consisted of 5 min of public speaking followed by 5 min of mental arithmetic exercises. Three baseline and five post-TSST blood samples were drawn. Eighty subjects (53 male, 27 female) underwent the TSST. Following the psychological stressor, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol responses were significantly greater in male subjects compared to female subjects (z=-2.34, p=0.019 and z=-2.12, p=0.034, respectively). Seventy-two subjects (52 male, 20 female) underwent HPA axis activation induced by naloxone. In contrast to the TSST, cortisol responses to the naloxone challenge were significantly greater in female subjects compared to male subjects (z=4.11, p<0.001). Forty-one subjects (25 male, 16 female) completed both the TSST and naloxone challenge. In this subset, ACTH and cortisol responses to the TSST did not differ significantly by gender, although the effect size was moderate to large. Adrenocorticotropin and cortisol responses to the naloxone challenge were significantly greater in female subjects compared to male subjects (z=2.29, p=0.022 and z=4.34, p<0.001, respectively). In summary, male subjects had greater HPA axis responses to a psychological stressor than female subjects, and females had greater hormonal reactivity than males to pharmacological stimulation with naloxone. Such differences are of interest as potential contributors to gender differences in health risks. PMID:16616815

  16. Gender Differences in Depression and Anxiety Among Atopic Dermatitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mina, Shaily; Jabeen, Masarat; Singh, Shalini; Verma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dermatological patients invariably suffer one or the other psychological problems which may escalate to the extent of a mental disorder. One of the most common dermatological disorders is atopic dermatitis (AD), but the literature has limited data on gender differences for psychiatric morbidity in such patients. Aims: To evaluate and compare gender differences in the prevalence of depression and anxiety in AD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was done in an outpatient clinic of Dermatology at a Tertiary Care Center. AD subjects giving informed consent were evaluated on a brief semi-structured performa for collecting demographic and clinical information. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used to assess the presence of psychiatric symptoms in these patients. Descriptive analysis was done for the socio-demographic profile and independent sample t-test, Chi-square and Cramer's V test was carried out to find in-between group differences for males and females. Results: A total of 81 patients were included in the final analysis (males = 36, females = 45) with no significant difference in mean age between male and female subjects (36.14 ± 17.62 and 33.98 ± 14.49 years, respectively; P = 0.54). When including moderate to severe grade of depression or anxiety, the current study found prevalence rates of 15% and 12% respectively. Females had significantly more anxiety and depression scores than males (P = 0.04 and P = 0.03 respectively). Conclusions: There is a female preponderance of depression and anxiety disorder in AD patients. PMID:25814727

  17. Gender Differences in Bed Rest: Preliminary Analysis of Vascular Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Martin, David S.; Freeman-Perez, Sondra A.; Phillips, Tiffany; Ribeiro, L. Christine

    2008-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a recognized consequence of spaceflight. Numerous studies have shown that women are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight as well as bed rest, the most commonly used ground-based analog for spaceflight. One of the possible mechanisms proposed to account for this is a difference in vascular responsiveness between genders. We hypothesized that women and men would have differing vascular responses to 90 days of 6-degree head down tilt bed rest. Additionally, we hypothesized that vessels in the upper and lower body would respond differently, as has been shown in the animal literature. Thirteen subjects were placed in bedrest for 90 days (8 men, 5 women) at the Flight Analogs Unit, UTMB. Direct arterial and venous measurements were made with ultrasound to evaluate changes in vascular structure and function. Arterial function was assessed, in the arm and leg, during a reactive hyperemia protocol and during sublingual nitroglycerin administration to gauge the contributions of endothelial dependent and independent dilator function respectively. Venous function was assessed in dorsal hand and foot veins during the administration of pharmaceuticals to assess constrictor and dilator function. Both gender and day effects are seen in arterial dilator function to reactive hyperemia, but none are seen with nitroglycerin. There are also differences in the wall thickness in the arm vs the leg during bed rest, which return toward pre-bed rest levels by day 90. More subjects are required, especially females as there is not sufficient power to properly analyze venous function. Day 90 data are most underpowered.

  18. Erroneous gender differences in axillary skin surface/sweat pH.

    PubMed

    Burry, J S; Coulson, H F; Esser, I; Marti, V; Melling, S J; Rawlings, A V; Roberts, G; Mills, A K

    2001-04-01

    Assessing accurately the pH of axillary eccrine sweat is of vital importance in the antiperspirant industry. Eccrine sweat pH is a critical parameter in determining the effectiveness of antiperspirants; antiperspirant salts dissolve in sweat and diffuse into the sweat glands, where the resultant acidic solution hydrolyses in more alkaline sweat forming an amorphous metal hydroxide gel, thereby restricting the flow of eccrine sweat. Comparison of the skin surface and sweat pH of males and females reported in the literature shows that, although consistent male/female differences have been observed on the forearm, determination of significant gender-based pH differences across other sites are less conclusive. Studies on the back and infra-mammary regions exhibited significant gender differences in skin surface pH, whereas those on the forehead, cheek, neck and inguinal area showed no such difference. With regard to the axilla specifically, four studies have been reported, three showing no significant difference in axillary skin surface pH and one indicating that females have an eccrine sweat pH of 7 and males have a sweat pH of 5.6. This paper describes a series of carefully controlled studies aimed at assessing potential gender differences in eccrine sweat and skin surface pH following exposure to a variety of temperature, humidity and time conditions. The results highlight the importance of controlling precisely the time of investigation, site of measurement and, most importantly, the necessity to pre-equilibrate samples in 40 mmHg carbon dioxide (equivalent to arterial CO(2) tension (pCO2)) before determining sweat pH. When these parameters are controlled no gender differences in axillary sweat or skin surface pH are observed. Large differences in eccrine sweat and skin surface pH are found, however, between the vault (hairy region) and fossa (non-hairy region) of the axilla. PMID:18498454

  19. Differences in gender and performance in off-road triathlon.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to examine performance trends and compare elite male and female athletes at the off-road triathlon (1.5-km swim, 30-km mountain biking, and 11-km trail running) world championships since its inception in 1996, and (2) to compare gender-related differences between off-road triathlon and conventional road-based triathlon. Linear regression analyses and ANOVA were used to examine performance trends and differences between the sexes. Elite male performance times stabilized over the 2005-2009 period, whereas elite female performance times continued to improve, especially for the run leg. Differences in performance times between the sexes were less marked in swimming than in mountain biking and running, whereas differences in power output were more marked for mountain biking than for swimming and running. In addition, differences in cycling between the sexes were greater for off-road than conventional on-road triathlon. The specific aspects of mountain biking (e.g. level and terrain) may partly explain the significant differences between the sexes recorded in cycling for off-road triathlon. Future studies will need to focus on the physiological bases of off-road triathlon and how they differ from conventional triathlon. PMID:21038168

  20. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children.

    PubMed

    Fucic, A; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L; Aerts, D; Biot, P; Katsonouri, A; Cerna, M; Knudsen, L E; Castano, A; Rudnai, P; Gutleb, A; Ligocka, D; Lupsa, I-R; Berglund, M; Horvat, M; Halzlova, K; Schoeters, G; Koppen, G; Hadjipanayis, A; Krskova, A; Középesy, S; Arendt, M; Fischer, M E; Janasik, B; Gurzau, A E; Gurzau, E S; Grandér, M; Larsson, K; Jajcaj, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Sepai, O; Exley, K; Bartolome, M; Cutanda, F; Mazej, D; Nielsen, J K S; Snoj-Tratnik, J; Schwedler, G; Fiddicke, U; Seiwert, M; Govarts, E; Den Hond, E; Koch, H M; Lopez, A; Joas, A; Joas, R

    2015-08-01

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age-sex groups: boys (6-8 years, 9-10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6-7 years, 8-9 years, 10-11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10-0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80-39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6-7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10-11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. PMID:25529752

  1. Gender differences in the presence of drugs in violent deaths

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Connor M.; Rogers, Richard G.; Williams, George W.; Boardman, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To investigate differences in the presence of drugs, by gender, when considering deaths attributable to homicides and suicides. Design Logistic regression analysis of mortality data collected by the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System. Participants and setting A total of 5791 Colorado decedents who died of violent causes from 2004 to 2009. Measurement Forensic pathologist autopsy data on drug presence at time of death, coded as present, not present or missing. Findings Postmortem presence of drugs is associated strongly with the specific cause of violent death. Compared with suicide decedents, homicide decedents are significantly more likely to test positive for amphetamines [odds ratio (OR): 1.79; confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 2.39], marijuana (OR: 2.03; CI: 1.60, 2.58) and cocaine (OR: 2.60; CI: 2.04, 3.31), and are less likely to test positive for opiates (OR: 0.27; CI: 0.18, 0.39) and antidepressants (OR: 0.17; CI: 0.10, 0.28). When other drugs are controlled for the influence of alcohol is abated dramatically. The patterns of drug prevalence associated with homicide (particularly marijuana) are stronger among males; the patterns of drug prevalence associated with suicide are stronger among females. Conclusions Suicide and homicide decedents are characterized by varying patterns of licit and illicit drug use that differ by gender. Drugs associated with homicide (marijuana, cocaine and amphetamines) are stronger among males, while drugs associated with suicide are stronger among females (antidepressants and opiates). Taking these differences into consideration may allow for targeted interventions to reduce violent deaths. PMID:23017242

  2. Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and…

  3. Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and…

  4. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2015-08-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  5. Gender Differences in High-school Students' Views about Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Patricia H.; Slawinski Blessing, Jennifer; Schwartz, Stephanie

    2006-03-01

    This study examined gender differences in 79 high-school students’ attitudes towards their science classes, their perceptions of science and scientists, and their views about majoring in science. The study identified some of the subtleties underlying females’ low participation in, and interest in, science documented in previous research. Four themes emerged from responses on the rating scales and questionnaire. First, even when females planned to major in science, they were more interested than males in the people-oriented aspects of their planned majors. Second, biology was the one exception to females’ low interest in science. Third, females often planned a science major mainly because they needed a science background in order to enter a health profession such as medicine or physical therapy. Fourth, females generally found science uninteresting and the scientific lifestyle (as perceived by them) unattractive. Implications for teaching science were discussed.

  6. Gender Differences in Directional Brain Responses to Infant Hunger Cries

    PubMed Central

    De Pisapia, Nicola; Bornstein, Marc H.; Rigo, Paola; Esposito, Gianluca; De Falco, Simona; Venuti, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Infant cries are a critical survival mechanism that draw the attention of adult caregivers, who can then satisfy the basic needs of otherwise helpless infants. Here, we used functional neuroimaging to investigate the effects of infant hunger cries on brain activity of adults who were in a cognitively non-demanding mental state of awake rest. We found that the brains of males and females, independent of parental status (parent or non parent), reacted differently to infant cries. Specifically, dorsal medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate areas, known to be involved in mind-wandering (the stream of thought typical of awake rest), remained active in men during exposure to infant cries, whereas in women activity in these regions decreased. These results reveal gender-dependent modulation of brain responses to infant requests to be fed, and specifically they indicate that women interrupt mind-wandering when exposed to the sounds of infant hunger cries, whereas men carry on without interruption. PMID:23282991

  7. [Morphometric assessment of gender differences in human constitution].

    PubMed

    Ba?bakov, S E; Bakhareva, N S; Chuprunova, N S; She?kh-Zade, Iu R

    2014-01-01

    In 154 girls and 58 young men aged 17-21 years, a new body mass index (BMI2 = M/H3), body form index (BFI=S/M2/3), body build index IBBI = (M/H3)1/2], and body fatness index (BFI = M/HC2) were determined; in which C, H, M, S correspond to the wrist circumference, body height, body mass and body area. It was shown that all the indices mentioned demonstrated highly significant gender differences if calculation of each of them was based, not on the body mass, but on a conventional body volume obtained by division of the factual body mass by the average statistical body density corresponding to 1.064 kg/dm3 in men and 1.034 kg/dm3 in women. PMID:25282828

  8. Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: assessing sex and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24470773

  9. Absence of Gender Differences in the Fatigability of the Forearm Muscles During Intermittent Isometric Handgrip Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Joaquin U.; Scheuermann, Barry W.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have reported women to have a greater resistance to fatigue than men during sustained handgrip exercise, however, observed gender differences in fatigue has been shown to be a function of contraction type. The purpose of the present study was to determine if gender differences exist in forearm muscle fatigue during intermittent handgrip contractions. Women [n = 11, 23.5 ± 1.5 (SE) yr] and men (n = 11, 24.1 ± 1.5 yr) performed intermittent isometric handgrip contractions at a target force of 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for 5 s followed by 5 s rest until task failure. Rate of fatigue was calculated from MVCs taken every 2 min during exercise, and recovery of muscle strength was measured in 5 min increments until 45 min post-task failure. Forearm muscle strength was less for women than men (W: 341.5 ± 11.9 N; M: 480.2 ± 28.0 N; p ? 0.05). No gender difference was present in time to task failure (W: 793.3 ± 92.5 s; M: 684.8 ± 76.3 s) or in the decrease in muscle force generating capacity at task failure (W: -47.6 ± 1.0%; M: -49.9 ± 1.3%). Rate of muscle fatigue was found to be similar between women and men (W: -3.6 ± 0.5 %·min-1; M: -4.3 ± 0.6 %·min-1) and no gender difference was found in the recovery of muscle strength following task failure. In summary, no gender difference was found in the fatigability of the forearm muscles during intermittent submaximal handgrip contractions, independent of muscle strength. Key pointsThe aim of the present study was to determine if gender differences exist in forearm muscle fatigue during intermittent isometric handgrip contractions.Both unmatched and matched for strength gender comparisons found women and men to exhibit a similar exercise tolerance, rate of fatigue, and recov-ery of handgrip force following repeated forearm muscle contractions.These results indicate that maximal handgrip strength is not a key determinant of exercise toler-ance during intermittent isometric forearm exercise performed at a moderate relative contraction inten-sity. PMID:24149231

  10. Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…

  11. Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Linn, Marcia C.

    2010-01-01

    A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender…

  12. Gender Differences in the Use and Benefit of Advanced Learning Technologies for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arroyo, Ivon; Burleson, Winslow; Tai, Minghui; Muldner, Kasia; Woolf, Beverly Park

    2013-01-01

    We provide evidence of persistent gender effects for students using advanced adaptive technology while learning mathematics. This technology improves each gender's learning and affective predispositions toward mathematics, but specific features in the software help either female or male students. Gender differences were seen in the students' style…

  13. Gender Differences in Instrumental Learning among Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7-13) within Western and non-Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender…

  14. Neural Correlates of Gender Differences in Reputation Building

    PubMed Central

    Garbarini, Francesca; Boero, Riccardo; D'Agata, Federico; Bravo, Giangiacomo; Mosso, Cristina; Cauda, Franco; Duca, Sergio; Geminiani, Giuliano; Sacco, Katiuscia

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in cooperative choices and their neural correlates were investigated in a situation where reputation represented a crucial issue. Males and females were involved in an economic exchange (trust game) where economic and reputational payoffs had to be balanced in order to increase personal welfare. At the behavioral level, females showed a stronger reaction to negative reputation judgments that led to higher cooperation than males, measured by back transfers in the game. The neuroanatomical counterpart of this gender difference was found within the reward network (engaged in producing expectations of positive results) and reputation-related brain networks, such as the self-control network (engaged in strategically resisting the temptation to defect) and the mentalizing network (engaged in thinking about how one is viewed by others), in which the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the medial (M)PFC respectively play a crucial role. Furthermore, both DLPFC and MPFC activity correlated with the amount of back transfer, as well as with the personality dimensions assessed with the Big-Five Questionnaire (BFQ-2). Males, according to their greater DLPFC recruitment and their higher level of the BFQ-2 subscale of Dominance, were more focused on implementing a profit-maximizing strategy, pursuing this target irrespectively of others' judgments. On the contrary, females, according to their greater MPFC activity and their lower level of Dominance, were more focused on the reputation per se and not on the strategic component of reputation building. These findings shed light on the sexual dimorphism related to cooperative behavior and its neural correlates. PMID:25180581

  15. Gender differences in BOLD activation to face photographs and video vignettes.

    PubMed

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Zhu, David C

    2009-07-19

    Few neuroimaging studies have reported gender differences in response to human emotions, and those that have examined such differences have utilized face photographs. This study presented not only human face photographs of positive and negative emotions, but also video vignettes of positive and negative social human interactions in an attempt to provide a more ecologically appropriate stimuli paradigm. Ten male and 10 female healthy right-handed young adults were shown positive and negative affective social human faces and video vignettes to elicit gender differences in social/emotional perception. Conservative ROI (region of interest) analysis indicated greater male than female activation to positive affective photos in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, all in the right hemisphere. No significant ROI gender differences were observed to negative affective photos. Male greater than female activation was seen in ROIs of the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus to positive social videos. Male greater than female activation occurred in only the left middle temporal ROI for negative social videos. Consistent with previous findings, males were more lateralized than females. Although more activation was observed overall to video compared to photo conditions, males and females appear to process social video stimuli more similarly to one another than they do for photos. This study is a step forward in understanding the social brain with more ecologically valid stimuli that more closely approximates the demands of real-time social and affective processing. PMID:19428627

  16. An examination of gender differences in the American Fisheries Society peer-review process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handley, Grace; Frantz, Cynthia M; Kocovsky, Patrick; DeVries, Dennis R.; Cooke, Steven J.; Claussen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of gender differences in outcomes throughout the peer review process of American Fisheries Society (AFS) journals. For each manuscript submitted to four AFS journals between January 2003 and December 2010, we collated information regarding the gender and nationality of authors, gender of associate editor, gender of reviewers, reviewer recommendations, associate editor's decision, and publication status of the manuscript. We used hierarchical linear modeling to test for differences in manuscript decision outcomes associated with author, reviewer, and associate editor gender. Gender differences were present at some but not every stage of the review process and were not equal among the four journals. Although there was a small gender difference in decision outcomes, we found no evidence of bias in editors’ and reviewers’ recommendations. Our results support the conclusion that the current single-blind review system does not result in bias against female authors within AFS journals.

  17. The Changing Gender Differences in Life Expectancy in Chinese Cities 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jie; Li, Tong; Zhang, Cheng-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the gender difference in life expectancy in Chinese urban people and explore the age-specific and cause-specific contributions to the changing gender differences in life expectancy. Methods Data of life expectancy and mortality were obtained from “Annual statistics of public health in China.” The gender difference was analyzed by decomposition method, including age-specific decomposition and cause-specific decomposition. Results Women lived much longer than men in Chinese urban areas, with remarkable gains in life expectancy since 2005, respectively. The gender difference reached a peak in 2007. Mortality difference between men and women in the 60–79 age group made the largest contributions to the gender gap in life expectancy in all 6 years. Among causes of death, cancers, circulatory diseases and respiratory diseases made the largest contributions to the gender gap. 33–38% of the gender gap were caused by cancers, among which lung cancer contributed 0.6 years of the overall gap. The contribution of cancers to the gender gap reduced over time, mostly influenced by the narrowing effect of liver cancer on gender gap. Traffic accidents and suicide were the external causes influencing the gender gap, contributing 10–16% of the overall difference. Conclusion Public health efforts to reduce excess mortalities for cancers, circulatory disease, respiratory diseases, and suicide among men in particular might further narrow the gender gap in life expectancy in Chinese cities. PMID:25875494

  18. Exploring gender differences with different gain calculations in astronomy and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willoughby, Shannon D.; Metz, Anneke

    2009-07-01

    To investigate differences in learning gains by gender, we collected data in large introductory astronomy and biology courses. Male astronomy students had significantly higher pre- and post-test scores than female students on the astronomy diagnostic test. Male students also had significantly higher pretest and somewhat higher post-test scores than female students on a survey instrument designed for an introductory biology course. For both courses, males had higher learning gains than female students only when the normalized gain measure was utilized. No differences were found with any other measures, including other gain calculations, overall course grades, or individual exams. Implications for using different learning gain measures in science classrooms, as well as for research on learning differences by gender are discussed.

  19. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  20. Race/Gender/Age Differences in College Mathematics Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, William; Plata, Maximino

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes data on math performance in three developmental courses using chi-square analysis. Finds that enrollment patterns in math courses were related to ethnicity and age but not gender. Relationships were found between pass-fail frequencies and gender, age, and ethnicity, and between grades and ethnicity in two of the three developmental…

  1. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  2. Toward an Understanding of Gender Differences in Inferring Sexual Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Maurice J.; Nave, Christopher S.; Lowe, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that, after brief opposite-gender interactions, men perceive women more sexually than women perceive men (e.g., Abbey, 1982). This study examined interpersonal perceptions following dyadic cross-gender interactions between unacquainted individuals. Of particular concern were perceptions of sexual traits, interaction qualities,…

  3. Gender Differences in Therapist Responses to Client Sexual Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schover, Leslie R.

    Sexual feelings between therapist and client have been a source of theoretical controversy since the beginnings of modern psychotherapy. Psychotherapists' (N=72) verbal behavior, affective reactions, and clinical judgments in response to audiotapes of client sexual material were investigated. Therapist gender, client gender, and type of sexual…

  4. Toy Story: Illustrating Gender Differences in a Motor Skills Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Jennifer L.; Hebl, Michelle R.; Mendoza, Miriam

    2004-01-01

    To challenge students' stereotypes about gendered performance on motor skills tasks, we developed a classroom active learning demonstration. Four 3-person, same-gender teams received either a Barbie(r) doll or a Transformer(r), and team members dressed the Barbie or manipulated the Transformer from a tank to a robot as quickly as possible, with…

  5. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  6. Beliefs about Smoking among Adolescents--Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Wendell C.; Ayars, Candace L.; Gladney, Alicia P.; Peters, Ron J., Jr.; Roy, Jacquilin R.; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    1999-01-01

    Study identifies gender and ethnic beliefs about cigarette smoking and abstention from smoking. The development of the moral/ethical theme is discussed along with the study results. Recommendations are presented for future research to clarify influences for smoking and not smoking by gender and ethnic group among adolescents. (Author/GCP)

  7. Prevalence of Dating Violence and Victimization: Regional and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart, Beverly S.; Nannini, Dawn K.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Stanley, Linda R.; Wayman, Jeffrey C.

    2007-01-01

    This report examines (1) the prevalence of dating violence victimization from a national sample of rural adolescents and (2) patterns by gender and region. Analyses are based on 20,274 adolescents who reported violence victimization using the Community Drug and Alcohol Survey. The relationship of dating violence with gender and region was assessed…

  8. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  9. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2011-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

  10. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-08-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent psychological adjustment. Adolescents were surveyed in the spring of 2006, and again one year later. Gender differences in media use were observed with boys spending more time playing video games than girls and girls spending more time talking on the phone than boys. Strikingly, none of the types of media examined was associated with depression or anxiety. Moreover, media use acted as a protective factor for boys. Boys who spent relatively more time playing video games and watching television had the lowest levels of anxiety, especially those from alcoholic homes. The opposite pattern emerged for girls. PMID:21359124

  11. Heavy metals in laughing gulls: Gender, age and tissue differences

    SciTech Connect

    Gochfeld, M. |; Belant, J.L.; Shukla, T.; Benson, T.; Burger, J. |

    1996-12-01

    The authors examined concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury, manganese, selenium, and chromium in feathers, liver, kidney, heart, and muscle of known-aged laughing gulls (Larus atricilla) that hatched in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey and were collected at John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York 1 to 7 years later. Concentrations differed significantly among tissues, and tissue entered all the regression models explaining the greatest variation in metal levels. Age of bird contributed significantly to the models for lead, cadmium, selenium, and chromium. Although there were significant gender differences in all body measurements except wing length, there were few differences in metal levels. Males had significantly higher lead levels in feathers, and females had significantly higher selenium levels in heart and muscle tissue. For lead, 3-year olds had the highest levels in the heart, liver, and kidney, and levels were lower thereafter. Mercury levels in feathers and heart decreased significantly with age. Cadmium levels increased significantly with age for feathers, heart, liver, and muscle, although there was a slight decrease in the 7-year olds. Selenium levels decreased significantly with age for all tissues. Chromium levels increased with age for liver and heart.

  12. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  13. Gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms in older adults.

    PubMed

    Back, Joung Hwan; Lee, Yunhwan

    2011-01-01

    With rapid population aging, increasing attention is given to the mental health of older people. This study examined the association between SES and depressive symptoms in older adults. The study population consisted of a representative community sample of 4165 persons aged 65 and older from Wave 1 of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale was used to measure the extent of depressive symptoms. Socioeconomic indicators included education, household income, and net worth. Analyses were conducted by gender, using multiple linear regression analysis, to identify independent effects of socioeconomic variables on depressive symptoms, controlling for demographics and health-related variables. There was an inverse association between higher levels of socioeconomic factors and depressive symptoms in the study population. A clear difference in the association between depressive symptoms and socioeconomic factors by gender was observed. In the multivariate analysis, wealth was significantly associated with depressive symptoms in men, whereas education and income was so in women. Gender disparities in depressive symptoms across social gradients suggest the need for gender-sensitive investments in health and social services for the disadvantaged segments of the older population. PMID:20947184

  14. Socioeconomic Differences in Adolescent Health-Related Behavior Differ by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Pitel, Lukas; Madarasová Gecková, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Many studies of adolescent health-related behaviors have assessed the effects of gender and parental socioeconomic position (SEP) but not their mutual modification. We investigated socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviors among Slovak adolescents and the potential modification of those differences by gender. Methods Data were collected in 2006 (n = 3547; 49.4% boys; mean [SD] age, 14.3 [0.6] years; response rate, 93.5%). The sample comprised students in the eighth and ninth grades of randomly selected elementary schools in Slovakia. Gender-specific prevalence rates for 9 types of health-related behaviors, including nutritional behavior, physical activity and substance use, were calculated for 3 socioeconomic groups, which were defined by the highest educational level attained by both parents. Gender differences in socioeconomic gradients for health-related behaviors were tested. Results Socioeconomic differences were found in nutritional behavior, physical activity, and smoking. Adolescents with lower parental education behaved less healthily. The largest relative socioeconomic difference was no daily vegetable consumption among girls (90.3% of those with high SEP vs 95.2% of those with middle SEP; odds ratio, 2.33). Regarding no daily fruit consumption, differences among girls were 1.51 times and 1.92 times as large as those among boys for children with medium and low SEP, respectively, as compared with those with high SEP. Conclusions Socioeconomic differences in health-related behavior were small, especially for nutritional behavior and physical activity. Interventions that aim to improve health-related behaviors among adolescents with lower SEP should focus on these 2 behaviors, particularly on healthy nutrition in girls with low SEP. PMID:23604059

  15. Do gender differences in audio-visual benefit and visual influence in audio-visual speech perception emerge with age?

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Magnus; Behne, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Gender and age have been found to affect adults’ audio-visual (AV) speech perception. However, research on adult aging focuses on adults over 60 years, who have an increasing likelihood for cognitive and sensory decline, which may confound positive effects of age-related AV-experience and its interaction with gender. Observed age and gender differences in AV speech perception may also depend on measurement sensitivity and AV task difficulty. Consequently both AV benefit and visual influence were used to measure visual contribution for gender-balanced groups of young (20–30 years) and middle-aged adults (50–60 years) with task difficulty varied using AV syllables from different talkers in alternative auditory backgrounds. Females had better speech-reading performance than males. Whereas no gender differences in AV benefit or visual influence were observed for young adults, visually influenced responses were significantly greater for middle-aged females than middle-aged males. That speech-reading performance did not influence AV benefit may be explained by visual speech extraction and AV integration constituting independent abilities. Contrastingly, the gender difference in visually influenced responses in middle adulthood may reflect an experience-related shift in females’ general AV perceptual strategy. Although young females’ speech-reading proficiency may not readily contribute to greater visual influence, between young and middle-adulthood recurrent confirmation of the contribution of visual cues induced by speech-reading proficiency may gradually shift females AV perceptual strategy toward more visually dominated responses. PMID:26236274

  16. Gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Dongjun; Zou, Feng; Li, Hao; Luo, Yanyan; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Yijun

    2016-04-01

    According to embodied emotion theory, facial manipulations should modulate and initiate particular emotions. However, whether there are gender differences in emotion experience perception under different facial muscle manipulations is not clear. Therefore, we conducted two behavioral experiments to examine gender differences in emotional perception in response to facial expressions (sad, neutral, and happy) under three conditions: (1) holding a pen using only the teeth (HPT), which facilitates the muscles typically associated with smiling; (2) holding a pen using only the lips (HPL), which inhibits the muscles typically associated with smiling; and (3) a control condition - hold no pen (HNP). We found that HPT made the emotional feelings more positive, and that the change degree of female's ratings of sad facial expressions between conditions (HPL to HPT) was larger than males'. These results suggested cognition can be affected by the interaction of the stimuli and the body, especially the female. PMID:26845450

  17. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  18. Affective Differences Between Psychopathy Variants and Genders in Adjudicated Youth.

    PubMed

    Gill, Andrew D; Stickle, Timothy R

    2016-02-01

    The present study used Model-Based Cluster analysis to identify primary and secondary psychopathy variants in a mixed-gender sample of 150 adjudicated adolescents (60 % male; M?=?15.2 years old). Distinct primary and secondary psychopathy groups emerged and were entered into a structural equation path model for the purpose of predicting group differences in emotional experiences reported between youth assigned to each variant. Youth characterized by secondary psychopathy reported experiencing significantly more frequent and more intense negative affect than their primary psychopathy counterparts. Frequency and intensity of affect also mediated the association between psychopathy variants and symptoms of depression, in which the secondary psychopathy group endorsed significantly more symptoms of major depression than the primary psychopathy group. Overall, these results suggest that different causal processes and affective experiences may underlie distinct trajectories to primary and secondary psychopathy variants in adjudicated adolescents. As such, youths comprising the secondary subtype of psychopathy may be more aptly considered "callous and emotional," compared with the primary subtype who present as prototypically callous and unemotional. PMID:25727716

  19. SVM Method used to Study Gender Differences Based on Microelement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Yang; Yuan, Liu; Jun, Du; Bin, Tang

    [objective] Intelligent Algorithm of SVM is used for studying gender differences based on microelement data, which provide reference For the application of Microelement in healthy people, such as providing technical support for the investigation of cases.[Method] Our Long-term test results on hair microelement of health people were consolidated. Support vector machine (SVM) is used to classified model of male and female based on microelement data. The radical basis function (RBF) is adopted as a kernel function of SVM, and the model adjusts C and σ to build the optimization classifier, [Result] Healthy population of men and women of manganese, cadmium and nickel are quite different, The classified model of Microelement based on SVM can classifies the male and female, the correct classification ratio set to be 81.71% and 66.47% by SVM based on 7 test date and 3 test data selection. [conclusion] The classified model of microelement data based on SVM can classifies male and female.

  20. Normal SPECT thallium-201 bull's-eye display: gender differences

    SciTech Connect

    Eisner, R.L.; Tamas, M.J.; Cloninger, K.; Shonkoff, D.; Oates, J.A.; Gober, A.M.; Dunn, D.W.; Malko, J.A.; Churchwell, A.L.; Patterson, R.E.

    1988-12-01

    The bull's-eye technique synthesizes three-dimensional information from single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images into two dimensions so that a patient's data can be compared quantitatively against a normal file. To characterize the normal database and to clarify differences between males and females, clinical data and exercise electrocardiography were used to identify 50 males and 50 females with less than 5% probability of coronary artery disease. Results show inhomogeneity of the S TI distributions at stress and delay: septal to lateral wall count ratios are less than 1.0 in both females and males; anterior to inferior wall count ratios are greater than 1.0 in males but are approximately equal to 1.0 in females. Washout rate is faster in females than males at the same peak exercise heart rate and systolic blood pressure, despite lower exercise time. These important differences suggest that quantitative analysis of single photon emission computed tomographic S TI images requires gender-matched normal files.

  1. Item type, occlusion, and gender differences in mental rotation.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Randi A; Voyer, Daniel; Lesmana, Maryani

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the role of item type in mental rotation. In each experiment, participants completed two computerized mental rotation tasks, one with blocks as stimuli and one with human figures as stimuli. The tasks were formatted either as a multiple-choice psychometric test (Experiment 1) or as a same-different type task (Experiment 2). Aside from the expected replication of a decreased effect of occlusion on women's accuracy when processing human figures compared to block figures, it was hypothesized that response times would increase when processing the complex but familiar human figures, compared to the simple but unfamiliar block figures. In Experiment 1, the results relevant to occlusion were replicated. However, the presence of a speed-accuracy trade-off suggested that participants processed human figures faster but less accurately than block figures. In Experiment 2, both men and women performed faster and more accurately when processing occluded human figures than when processing nonoccluded human figures. The effect of item type, its potential link to embodied cognition, and the role of strategy selection on gender differences in mental rotation are discussed. PMID:26325234

  2. GENDER BASED DIFFERENCES IN ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basic differences in male versus female reproductive physiology lead to differentials in their respective susceptibilities to chemical insult as evidenced by a variety of observations. As individuals undergo maturation from prenatal sex differentiation through pubertal developme...

  3. Sympathy and Personal Distress: Development, Gender Differences, and Interrelations of Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates developmental change and gender differences in sympathy and personal distress reactions in children. Examines interrelations among indexes used to assess sympathy and personal distress. (PCB)

  4. Identifying gender differences in reported occupational information from three U.S. population-based case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Armenti, Karla R.; Baris, Dalsu; Blair, Aaron; Cerhan, James R.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cozen, Wendy; Davis, Faith; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Hartge, Patricia; Karagas, Margaret R.; Johnson, Alison; Purdue, Mark P.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Schwartz, Kendra; Schwenn, Molly; Severson, Richard; Silverman, Debra T.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests that gender-blind assessment of exposure may introduce exposure misclassification, but few studies have characterized gender differences across occupations and industries. We pooled control responses to job-, industry-, and exposure-specific questionnaires (modules) that asked detailed questions about work activities from three US population-based case-control studies to examine gender differences in work tasks and their frequencies. Methods We calculated the ratio of female to male controls that completed each module. For four job modules (assembly worker, machinist, health professional, janitor/cleaner) and for subgroups of jobs that completed those modules, we evaluated gender differences in task prevalence and frequency using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U-tests, respectively. Results The 1,360 female and 2,245 male controls reported 6,033 and 12,083 jobs, respectively. Gender differences in female:male module completion ratios were observed for 39 of 45 modules completed by ?20 controls. Gender differences in task prevalence varied in direction and magnitude. For example, female janitors were significantly more likely to polish furniture (79% vs. 44%), while male janitors were more likely to strip floors (73% vs. 50%). Women usually reported more time spent on tasks than men. For example, the median hours per week spent degreasing for production workers in product manufacturing industries was 6.3 for women and 3.0 for men. Conclusions Observed gender differences may reflect actual differences in tasks performed or differences in recall, reporting, or perception, all of which contribute to exposure misclassification and impact relative risk estimates. Our findings reinforce the need to capture subject-specific information on work tasks. PMID:24683012

  5. Children's Reasoning about Gender-Atypical Preferences in Different Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Two age groups of children, 5- and 6-year-olds (n = 30) and 8- and 9-year-olds (n = 26), made judgments about which of two items a character should choose: a gender-typical item or a gender-atypical item that was preferred by the character. Judgments were made about situations where the character was (a) in a familiar public setting and (b) in a…

  6. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  7. Gender differences in psychosocial predictors of texting while driving.

    PubMed

    Struckman-Johnson, Cindy; Gaster, Samuel; Struckman-Johnson, Dave; Johnson, Melissa; May-Shinagle, Gabby

    2015-01-01

    A sample of 158 male and 357 female college students at a midwestern university participated in an on-line study of psychosocial motives for texting while driving. Men and women did not differ in self-reported ratings of how often they texted while driving. However, more women sent texts of less than a sentence while more men sent texts of 1-5 sentences. More women than men said they would quit texting while driving due to police warnings, receiving information about texting dangers, being shown graphic pictures of texting accidents, and being in a car accident. A hierarchical regression for men's data revealed that lower levels of feeling distracted by texting while driving (20% of the variance), higher levels of cell phone dependence (11.5% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (6.5% of the variance) and impulsivity (2.3%) of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=42%). A separate regression for women revealed that higher levels of cell phone dependence (10.4% of the variance), risky behavioral tendencies (9.9% of the variance), texting distractibility (6.2%), crash risk estimates (2.2% of the variance) and driving confidence (1.3% of the variance) were significantly associated with more texting while driving (total model variance=31%.) Friendship potential and need for intimacy were not related to men's or women's texting while driving. Implications of the results for gender-specific prevention strategies are discussed. PMID:25463963

  8. Gender differences in children's problem behaviours in competitive play with friends.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Rosie; Hart, Martha; Jacobs, Lorna; Hughes, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Disruptive behaviour disorders are much more common in boys than girls (Office of National Statistics, 1999); in contrast, gender differences in normative problem behaviours are poorly understood. To address this issue, 228 6-year-olds (134 boys, 94 girls) were each observed playing a board game with a same-gender friend. Ratings of aggression, disruption, arousal and negativity were used to index problem behaviours. Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the latent factor had the same metric for boys and girls, but a mean that was approximately half a standard deviation higher for boys than girls. In addition, the association between the latent factor and teachers' ratings of total difficulties was significantly stronger for boys than girls. PMID:21592147

  9. Gender Differences in Educational Achievement within Racial and Ethnic Groups. ERIC Digest Number 164.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education, New York, NY.

    Educational Testing Service (ETS) research highlights more similarities than variations in gender differences among student racial/groups, though variations exist in how the differences are manifested. This digest presents highlights from Richard Coley's findings in "Differences in the Gender Gap: Comparisons across Racial/Ethnic Groups in…

  10. Gender Differences in Motivational-Cognitive Patterns of Self-Regulated Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemivirta, Markku

    Many of the reasons offered for the difference between boys and girls in certain kinds of cognitive tasks have been attributed to biology. However, other factors need to be considered, and so the role that motivation and learning play in gender differences is addressed in this paper. The focus rests on gender differences, both in the individual…

  11. Gender differences in public and private drinking contexts: a multi-level GENACIS analysis.

    PubMed

    Bond, Jason C; Roberts, Sarah C M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B

    2010-05-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women's compared to men's drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID:20623016

  12. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID:20623016

  13. Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won; Odlaug, Brian L; Buchanan, Stephanie N; Potenza, Marc N

    2009-01-01

    Age at illness onset has significant clinical implications for psychiatric disorders. Prior research has not systematically examined age at illness onset and its relationship to the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling (PG). Among a sample of 322 consecutive subjects with current DSM-IV PG, those with late-onset (at or after age 55 years) PG were compared to those with earlier onsets (at or prior to age 25, 26-54 years old) on measures of PG severity, co-occurring disorders, social and legal problems, and family history. Forty-two (13.4%) subjects reported onset of PG at or after age 55 years, 63 (19.6%) reported onset prior to age 25 years, and the majority (n=217; 67.4%) reported onset between the ages of 26 and 54 years. The late-onset group were less likely to declare bankruptcy (p=.029) or have credit card debt attributable to gambling (p=.006). Late-onset PG subjects were significantly more likely to have an anxiety disorder (p<.001) and significantly less likely to have a father (p=.025) or a mother (p=.048) with a gambling problem. Exploratory analyses identified an age-by-gender interaction with respect to treatment-seeking, with more pronounced age-related shortening in the duration between problem onset and treatment seeking observed in men. Age at onset of PG is associated with multiple important clinical features. Long durations of PG prior to treatment-seeking indicate the need for improved prevention efforts among individuals with early PG onset. Late-onset PG is relatively common and has distinct clinical characteristics suggesting that this population might benefit from unique prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:18499125

  14. Are There Gender Differences in Arrest Trajectories among Adult Drug Abuse Treatment Participants?

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Michael; Huang, David; Evans, Elizabeth; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2010-12-01

    This paper examines the arrest trajectories of adult men and women, drawn from a sample of clients admitted to substance abuse treatment. Growth-mixture modeling was used to identify distinctive trajectories in arrests for men and women between ages 18 and 45. In addition, the characteristics of men and women in each of the trajectory groups were compared by gender, arrest trajectory, and the interaction of gender and arrest trajectory. Findings indicated that while the shape of the five trajectories was similar for men and women, higher percentages of men than women were in the High trajectory group (12.5% vs. 8.5%), the Moderate group (27.9% vs. 20.9%), and Slow Increase group (25.5% vs. 20.6%), with more women than men being in the Low group (34.1% vs. 27.1%). Although arrests declined as men and women aged, there did not appear to be many individuals who had terminated their criminal career by age 45. Overall, more similarities than differences were observed in the characteristics of men and women across trajectories. Additional research should examine whether the causal factors influencing arrest trajectories differ by gender. PMID:21052519

  15. Savvy Sellers: Dealing Drugs, Doing Gender, and Doing Difference.

    PubMed

    Ludwick, Micheline D; Murphy, Sheigla; Sales, Paloma

    2015-05-01

    We present findings from two exploratory studies of San Francisco Bay Area women involved in illicit drug sales who saw both advantages and disadvantages to being women in traditionally male-dominated drug economies. We interviewed 160 sellers of street drugs and 50 sellers of prescription drugs during 2006-2009. Women perceived gender as a cover and managed their vulnerabilities by performing gendered actions and at times going against traditional gender expectations to protect themselves in harsh drug markets. The intersecting factors of race and type of drug sold played a crucial role, revealing the complex nature of women's social location in their drug-selling worlds. Study limitations are noted. PMID:26086305

  16. Gender differences in multiple sclerosis epidemiology and treatment response.

    PubMed

    Magyari, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women in Denmark and Danish women's risk of developing MS has more than doubled in 25 years, while it has remained virtually unchanged for men. The explanation for these epidemiological changes should be sought in the environment, as genetics only explain a small part of the MS risk as the changes are too rapid to be explained by gene alterations. The rapid increase of MS incidence likely reflects unidentified changes in the environment and probably gene-environmental interactions. My PhD thesis work was conceived and designed to investigate the relevant exposures in different periods of life that may have contributed to the increasing female to male ratio of cases of multiple sclerosis in Denmark. To study this, we investigated the effect of numerous biological, social, physical and chemical environmental factors available from population-based registries in a case-control approach. Pregnancy may have a biological protective effect against developing MS in women, lasting for about five years. The protective effect is probably due to the modulation of the immune system by pregnancy. Our data on social behaviour changes regarding educational level, income, and relationship stability did not indicate reversed causality as a significant contributor to the lower number of childbirths in the five years before onset. Fewer pregnancies are one possible explanation we found for the increasing incidence of MS in women in our study. The trend towards fewer childbirths in the female population over decades may contribute to the increasing sex ratio and female incidence of MS. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed in educational level and the sanitary conditions in youth are not associated with the risk of MS, and cannot contribute to the increasing epidemiological disparity between the genders over the last decades. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the MS risk neither in puberty nor in adulthood. The apparent protective effect of childbirth does not appear to reflect postnatal child exposure. The only factor that may show association with a higher MS risk in women is working in agriculture but it was based on very small numbers and cannot contribute quantitatively to the incidence of MS in women. Women are generally more prone to autoimmune diseases than men, but significant increased occurrence of some other autoimmune diseases was only found in male MS cases in the period before clinical onset. None of the investigated autoimmune diseases occurred less frequently in MS patients than in control persons. Treatment response to interferon-β, expressed in relapse rate was independently influenced by gender and the presence of NAbs, but it seems that the presence of NAbs does not affect the treatment effect differently in women and men. The results indicate that men's and women's treatment response to interferon-β is similar. Females had a higher frequency of relapses than males. Our study did not reveal only one reason for the incidence increase, but as MS is multifactorial it is presumed that the incidence increase is caused by more than one factor, because women's lifestyle has undergone tremendous changes in the last half century. Our study contributes to clarification of this issue, with the role of pregnancies on the risk of MS. It is accepted that sex hormones have a clear immunologic involvement in the female predominance in MS, but there is no knowledge yet to explain the changes over time. PMID:26931196

  17. An Exploratory Study of Gender Effect on Student Presentation Evaluations: Does Gender Similarity Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to examine the potential effects of the gender similarity between the presenter and evaluator on the presentation evaluation scores obtained with an evaluation form. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from marketing students at two universities in the USA. A rubric and separate survey instrument were used…

  18. Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

  19. Differing Levels of Gender Salience in Preschool Classrooms: Effects on Children's Gender Attitudes and Intergroup Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Lacey J.; Liben, Lynn S.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed…

  20. Gender differences, work stressors and musculoskeletal disorders in weaving industries.

    PubMed

    Nag, Anjali; Vyas, H; Nag, P K

    2010-01-01

    A study was undertaken to identify the work stressors among male and female weavers (N=516) in powerloom and handloom and examine the association of work stressors with the prevalence of work related musculo-skeletal disorders (MSDs). Physical and psychosocial stresses of work, job diagnostics, hazards of workplace, working environment and MSDs prevalence were assessed. There is high prevalence of MSDs among weavers. Female weavers in powerloom and handloom were more prone to developing MSDs in upper back (OR 1.8; p<0.05 and OR 2.1; p<0.01) and lower back (OR 1.9; p<0.05 and OR 1.8; p<0.05). Male weavers were more prone to developing pain in the knee (OR 2.9; p<0.001), and hand (OR 2.2; p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that job duration >10 yr (OR 3.7, p<0.05), manual material handling (OR 3, p<0.05), and poor machinery safety (OR 11, p<0.05), contributed to occurrence of MSDs amongst powerloom weavers. Among the handloom weavers, age >25 yr (OR 3.2, p<0.05), poor machinery design (OR 2.2, p<0.01), mental overload (OR 5.7, p<0.001), skill requirement to perform jobs (OR 20.7, p<0.05) had significant influence in the occurrence of pain. Gender differences exist in the prevalence of MSDs and the perception of work and psycho-social stresses among the weavers. PMID:20562510

  1. Gender Differences in Gifted Children's Spatial, Verbal, and Quantitative Reasoning Abilities in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Ling

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings have indicated that the reasoning abilities of gifted students are associated with gender differences. However, the factors affecting the emergence of gender differences, including age, remain to be studied. The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether the spatial, verbal and quantitative reasoning abilities of gifted…

  2. Gender Differences in Gifted Students' Advice on Solving the World's Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malin, Jenessa; Makel, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in interests and preferences are among the currently accepted potential explanations for the underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. In an attempt to analyze the development of such preferences, gender differences expressed in essays written by gifted elementary students…

  3. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  4. Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

  5. Gender Differences in Learning Styles of Cree, Dene and Metis Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    Gender differences in various aspects of cognitive ability may be related to cultural sex roles. This paper examines gender differences in learning styles among three groups of Canada Natives. Canfield's Learning Styles Inventory, Form E, was administered to 280 Cree, Dene, and Metis (mixed-blood) students in Grades 7-9 in northern Saskatchewan…

  6. Gender Differences in Body Fat Utilization During Weight Gain, Loss, or Maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter outlines the known gender differences in fat gain, loss, and maintenance, and perhaps more importantly, highlights how little is known about the subject. The effects of gender differences on body fat distribution, fat use as an energy source, and exercise-related fat loss are discussed...

  7. Gender Differences in Memory Processing: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials to Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillem, F.; Mograss, M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on memory processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral data and ERPs were recorded in 16 males and 10 females during a recognition memory task for faces. The behavioral data results showed that females performed better than males. Gender differences on ERPs were evidenced over anterior…

  8. Gender Differences in Measuring Adolescent Drug Abuse and Related Psychosocial Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzet, Andria, M.; Winters, Ken C.; Stinchfield, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Although gender issues have been addressed in clinical drug abuse literature, very little research has focused on gender differences in terms of the psychometric properties of assessment instruments. If boys and girls interpret instruments differently, the accuracy of clinical evaluation, referral, and treatment decisions based on these measures…

  9. School Engagement and Language Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Gender Differences across Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de gaer, Eva; Pustjens, Heidi; Van Damme, Jan; De Munter, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated (1) gender differences in the longitudinal development of language achievement and school engagement (i.e., effort for language, attitude toward learning tasks, interest in learning tasks, and relationship with teachers) across secondary school (Grades 7-12, ages 12-18) and (2) gender differences in the association…

  10. Gender Difference in CALL Programs for English as a Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kuo, Ming-Mu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of gender differences on the application of CALL programs for second language acquisition. Gender difference is an important theme in linguistic education because it influences the design of curriculum, teaching method, instructional strategy, and students' learning processes. This study applied…

  11. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

  12. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  13. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  14. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Study of Leader Effectiveness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonaros, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…

  15. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  16. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Posttraumatic Growth: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vishnevsky, Tanya; Cann, Arnie; Calhoun, Lawrence G.; Tedeschi, Richard G.; Demakis, George J.

    2010-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the direction and magnitude of gender differences in self-reported posttraumatic growth. Results from 70 studies (N = 16,076) revealed a small to moderate gender difference (g = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.21 -0.32), with women reporting more posttraumatic growth than men. Moderator analyses were then conducted to…

  17. Gender Differences in Predicting Antisocial Behaviors: Developmental Consequences of Physical and Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEachern, Amber D.; Snyder, James

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship of early physical and relational aggression to later peer rejection and overt and covert antisocial behaviors. Significant gender differences were found indicating physically aggressive boys were more likely than girls to experience later peer rejection. Early physical aggression was…

  18. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  19. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  20. Gender Differences in Leadership Style: A Study of Leader Effectiveness in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonaros, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in leadership style and the influence of these differences on perceived leader effectiveness in higher education. Leadership style is defined in gendered terms, which include traditionally agentic styles for men and communal styles for women, and therefore transformational and transactional leadership styles…

  1. Employment and Earning Differences for Community College Graduates: Intersection of Gender and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goho, James

    2004-01-01

    The economic benefits of postsecondary education are well established. However, there still seem to be differences in employment outcomes by gender or equity status. This exploratory research examined employment differences at the intersection of gender and equity status. Data were derived from a graduate survey and institutional records of a…

  2. An Examination of Gender Differences in Respect To Pupils' Recognition of Science Concept Definitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, P. P.; Paterson, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Reports an investigation of the effect of gender on ability to recognize simple definitions of concept words in science, as indicated by differences in test scores and in students' free writing "definitions" of physical science concept words. Significant gender differences favoring boys were found for students (n=1,635) of six Tasmanian high…

  3. Understanding Gender Differences in Context: Implications for Young Children's Everyday Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews recent UK-based research that has prioritised children's accounts of their experiences of their daily lives, and focuses on gender differences in these accounts of family life, friendships, use of public space, use of out-of-school care, popular culture and consumption, and children's views of gender differences--drawing…

  4. Gender Differences in Performance on Multiple-Choice and Constructed Response Mathematics Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Mary; Engelhard, George, Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Gender differences in performance on multiple-choice and constructed-response items in mathematics were studied with 3592 11th graders taking a high school graduation examination. Results suggest that gender differences in mathematics may be linked to content and item format, thus supporting the usefulness of a many-faceted Rasch model for…

  5. Gender Differences in Mathematical Problem Solving Patterns: A Review of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng

    2007-01-01

    A large body of literature reports that there are gender differences in mathematical problem solving favouring males. Strategy use, as a reflection of different patterns in mathematical problem solving between genders, is found to be related to cognitive abilities, together with psychological characteristics and mediated by experience and…

  6. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Tolerance to Short Arm Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Kevin J.; Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for the NASA Artificial Gravity (AG) pilot study, the tolerability of the proposed AG parameters was tested in 11 ambulatory human subjects (6m, 5w) by exposing each to a short arm centrifuge trial. Subjects were oriented in the supine position (but inclined 6deg head down) on one arm of the centrifuge, and the rotation rate (30.6-33.4 rpm) and radial position of the feet were set to produce 2.5G of equivalent gravitational load at the force plate directly beneath the feet, 1G at the level of the mediastinum, and approximately 0.55G at the labyrinth. Amongst the 6 men participating in this preliminary study, 5 completed at least 60 minutes of the trial successfully with no adverse sequelae. However, amongst the female cohort the test was stopped by the medical monitor before 60 min in all but one case, with pre-syncope listed as the reason for termination in all cases. Mean time before abort of the centrifuge run amongst the women was 33.2 +/- 20.97 min. It is known that women have a greater predisposition to syncope during orthostatic stress, under normal tilt table conditions, during LBNP, and following space flight. The reasons for this difference are the subject of some debate, but anthropometric factors, the vasoactive effects of sex hormones, gender differences in susceptibility to motion sickness, catecholamine levels, ability to augment total peripheral resistance in response to orthostatic stress, and structural differences in cardiac anatomy and physiology have all been suggested. This finding led to the exclusion of women from the AG pilot study. Clearly if AG is to be employed as a multi-system countermeasure it must provide physiological protection at rotation rates within the tolerance limits of all potential astronauts. Further investigation of the responses of women to centrifugation will be necessary to determine how to adjust AG parameters for tolerance by female subjects before a more detailed investigation of the appropriate dose in terms of G load, rotation rate, exposure duration and frequency can be performed.

  7. Gender differences in personality traits across cultures: robust and surprising findings.

    PubMed

    Costa, P T; Terracciano, A; McCrae, R R

    2001-08-01

    Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures. PMID:11519935

  8. Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Higgins, Ashley; Allison, Carlie; Morton, Lindsay C

    2012-09-01

    The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = -0.27) and shame (d = -0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = -0.08), authentic pride (d = -0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate. PMID:22468881

  9. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Children: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = −.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = −.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = −.20) and adolescence (g = −.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = −.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

  10. Gender Inequalities in Higher Education: Extent, Development and Mechanisms of Gender Differences in Enrolment and Field of Study Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorz, Markus; Schindler, Steffen; Walter, Jessica G.

    2011-01-01

    In the course of educational expansion, gender differences in access to higher education have decreased substantially in many European countries. In Germany women are currently over-represented in upper secondary education and more frequently attain a general qualification for university entrance. Despite those advantages, women still enrol in…

  11. Can Gender Differences Be Evaluated in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) Model of Focal Cerebral Ischemia?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Stephanie J; Kirsch, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Wenri; Grafe, Marjorie R; West, G Alex; del Zoppo, Gregory J; Traystman, Richard J; Hurn, Patricia D

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences, sex steroid effects, and sex-specific candidate therapeutics in ischemic stroke have been studied in rodents but not in nonhuman primates. In this feasibility study (n = 3 per group), we developed a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia in adult male and female rhesus macaques that consistently includes white matter injury. The animals also were used to determine whether gender-linked differences in histopathologic outcomes could be evaluated in this model in future, larger preclinical trials. Histologic brain pathology was evaluated at 4 d after 90 min of reversible occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). MCA occlusion was accomplished by using a transorbital approach and temporary placement of an aneurysm clip. Male and female rhesus macaques 7 to 11 y of age were studied. Baseline and intraischemic blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2, and rectal temperatures were not different among groups. The variability in injury volume was comparable to that observed in human focal cerebrovascular ischemia and in other nonhuman primate models using proximal MCA occlusion. In this small sample, the volume of injury was not different between male and female subjects, but observed variability was higher in female caudate nucleus, putamen, and hemisphere. This report is the first to compare cerebral ischemic outcomes in female and male rhesus macaques. The female rhesus macaque ischemic stroke model could be used after rodent studies to provide preclinical data for clinical trials in women. PMID:19149416

  12. Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

  13. Talk Show Viewing Motives: Does Gender Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, Stacy L.; Rapert, Kevin D.

    A study explored the relationship between gender and talk show viewing motives. Students (109) from 6 randomly selected introductory communication classes in a midwestern university, 30 people belonging to a non-traditional student organization called "Oasis," and 8 residents of a retirement home were given Rubin's instrument to assess their talk…

  14. Schooling and Industrialization in China: Gender Differences in School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    The rapid decrease in gender inequality in education over the past several decades in China has drawn significant attention in the existing literature. Several factors have been proposed or examined to explain this decrease. However, few studies have examined this topic from the perspective of the changing job structure and skill requirements in…

  15. Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

  16. Gender Differences in the Motivational Processing of Facial Beauty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Boaz; Ariely, Dan; Mazar, Nina; Chi, Won; Lukas, Scott; Elman, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Gender may be involved in the motivational processing of facial beauty. This study applied a behavioral probe, known to activate brain motivational regions, to healthy heterosexual subjects. Matched samples of men and women were administered two tasks: (a) key pressing to change the viewing time of average or beautiful female or male facial…

  17. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Stephen E.; Poulin, John; Silver, Paula

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender-related beliefs about the causes of substance abuse, the power of various substances, the prevalence of substance use, and the effectiveness of various interventions. Results show that women were more likely to attribute causality to biological or environmental factors and to believe prevention and treatment were more effective.…

  18. Gender Differences: Effects of Stress on Expressed and Received Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia; Marshall, Linda L.

    Abuse between intimates has begun to be examined. Recent research has studied the incidence and causes of violence in marriages and in premarital relationships. A study was conducted to examine the level of intimate violence, patterns of violence for each gender, and the relationship of stress to violence in adult relationships. Study participants…

  19. Gender Differences in Developmental Dyscalculia Depend on Diagnostic Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Goswami, Usha; Szucs, Denes

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning difficulty specific to mathematics learning. The prevalence of DD may be equivalent to that of dyslexia, posing an important challenge for effective educational provision. Nevertheless, there is no agreed definition of DD and there are controversies surrounding cutoff decisions, specificity and gender…

  20. Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…

  1. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Serkan; Eryilmaz, Ali

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender…

  2. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  3. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  4. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  5. Gender Differences in African American Attitudes toward Gay Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Juan; Lemelle, Anthony J., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Used data from the 1993 National Black Politics Study to examine the way gender worked in explaining African American attitudes toward gay men. Results indicated that African American females expressed more positive attitudes toward homosexual men than did African American males, and of the variables examined (including age, church attendance,…

  6. Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

  7. Gender Differences in Kindergarteners' Robotics and Programming Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood is a critical period for introducing girls to traditionally masculine fields of science and technology before more extreme gender stereotypes surface in later years. This study looks at the TangibleK Robotics Program in order to determine whether kindergarten boys and girls were equally successful in a series of building and…

  8. Schooling and Industrialization in China: Gender Differences in School Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2014-01-01

    The rapid decrease in gender inequality in education over the past several decades in China has drawn significant attention in the existing literature. Several factors have been proposed or examined to explain this decrease. However, few studies have examined this topic from the perspective of the changing job structure and skill requirements in…

  9. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  10. Gender differences in familial aggregation of objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of health-risk factors have been shown to cluster within families. However, there have been few studies that have assessed the degree of correlation between parent and child physical activity levels. It is also unclear if gender of parent or child influences this relationship. PURPOSE: To d...

  11. The weaker sex? Exploring lay understandings of gender differences in life expectancy: A qualitative study☆

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in gender and health, ‘lay’ perceptions of gender differences in mortality have been neglected. Drawing on semi-structured interview data from 45 men and women in two age cohorts (born in the early 1950s and 1970s) in the UK, we investigated lay explanations for women's longer life expectancy. Our data suggest that respondents were aware of women's increased longevity, but found this difficult to explain. While many accounts were multifactorial, socio-cultural explanations were more common, more detailed and less tentative than biological explanations. Different socio-cultural explanations (i.e. gendered social roles, ‘macho’ constraints on men and gender differences in health-related behaviours) were linked by the perception that life expectancy would converge as men and women's lives became more similar. Health behaviours such as going to the doctor or drinking alcohol were often located within wider structural contexts. Female respondents were more likely to focus on women's reproductive and caring roles, while male respondents were more likely to focus on how men were disadvantaged by their ‘provider’ role. We locate these narratives within academic debates about conceptualising gender: e.g. ‘gender as structure’ versus ‘gender as performance’, ‘gender as difference’ versus ‘gender as diversity’. PMID:18558455

  12. Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

    Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present study, men and women demonstrated significantly different strategies for regulating blood pressure and cerebral flow both at rest and during orthostatic stress on the day in which they had undergone exposure to AG. Since, in both men and women, a single, acute bout of AG exposure improved orthostatic tolerance, the feasibility of short exposures to AG during longer spaceflights or prior to entry into a gravitational (Earth or Mars) environment, should be explored. Given the known beneficial effects of AG on other organ systems, the present study indicates that the positive effect of artificial gravity on cardiac output make AG a likely candidate for sustaining cardiovascular conditioning upon return to gravity. Supported by KY NASA EPSCoR Grant #NNX07AT58A, KY State Matching Grants, NASA JSC Human Research Program and NASA Ames Research Center.

  13. A Single-Unit Design Structure and Gender Differences in the Swimming World Championships

    PubMed Central

    Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B.; Verbitsky, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences. PMID:25414754

  14. Gender Differences in Patients with Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Multi-Center Registry from Tokyo CCU Network

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Yoshikawa, Tsutomu; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Ueda, Tetsuro; Isogai, Toshiaki; Sakata, Konomi; Nagao, Ken; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takayama, Morimasa

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical features of gender differences in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics of male and female patients with TC. Methods We obtained the clinical information of 368 patients diagnosed with TC (84 male, 284 female) from the Tokyo CCU Network database collected from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012; the Network is comprised of 71 cardiovascular centers in the Tokyo (Japan) metropolitan area. We attempted to characterize clinical differences during hospitalization, comparing male and female patients with TC. Results There were no significant differences in apical ballooning type, median echocardiography ejection fraction, serious ventricular arrhythmias (such as ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation), or cardiovascular death between male and female patients. Male patients were younger than female patients (median age at hospitalization for male patients was 72 years vs. 76 years for female patients; p = 0.040). Prior physical stress was more common in male than female patients (50.0% vs.31.3%; p = 0.002), while emotional stress was more common in female patients (19.0% vs. 31.0%; p = 0.039). Severe pump failure (defined as Killip Class > III) (20.2% vs. 10.6%; p = 0.020) and cardiopulmonary supportive therapies (28.6% vs. 12.7%, p < 0.001) were more common in male than female patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender (odds ratio = 4.32, 95% CI = 1.41–13.6, p = 0.011) was an independent predictor of adverse composite cardiac events, including cardiovascular death, severe pump failure, and serious ventricular arrhythmia. Conclusions Cardiac complications in our dataset appeared to be more common in male than female patients with TC during their hospitalization. Further investigation is required to clarify the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed gender differences. PMID:26317750

  15. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  16. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  17. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence proposed by Stice and Bearman (2001). In the model, it was posited that BMI would be associated with perceiving oneself as overweight, which would then lead to a higher probability of dieting, which would be associated with greater depressive symptoms. Participants were 10,864 male and female adolescents. Gender did not moderate any of the model pathways, but mediation analysis indicated that gender differences in changes in depressive symptoms were mediated by perceived weight status and dieting. Findings suggest that one explanation for girls’ higher depressive symptoms in adolescence relative to boys is girls’ greater tendencies to perceive themselves as overweight and to diet. PMID:22675240

  18. Adolescent Gender Differences in Alcohol Problem Behaviors and the Social Contexts of Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treiman, Katherine A.; Beck, Kenneth H.

    1996-01-01

    This study of over 1300 high school students examined gender differences in the social context of drinking associated with 4 alcohol problem behaviors (high intensity drinking, binge drinking, driving while intoxicated, and riding with an intoxicated driver). Student surveys revealed significant multivariate interaction effects between gender and…

  19. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  20. More Alike than Meets the Eye: Perceived Gender Differences in Subjective Experience and Its Display.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Joel T.; Shulman, Gregory A.

    1988-01-01

    Investigates perceived gender differences in subjective experience and its outward display. Finds that males and females are viewed as more alike in their internal feelings than in their overt display of feelings, and that the gender viewed as having more hidden feelings varies with the situation. (FMW)

  1. Gender Differences in Instrumental Learning among Secondary School Students in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7-13) within Western and non-Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender…

  2. Examining Gender Differences in the Nature and Context of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyunkag

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on gender differences in intimate partner violence (IPV), producing inconsistent results. Some studies report that men were victimized by IPV as much as women were, whereas others find that IPV was predominantly perpetrated by men against women. The nature and context of IPV may be crucial to understanding gender…

  3. Gender Differences in Predicting High-Risk Drinking among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in college students' high-risk drinking as measured by an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) based on gender, height, weight, self-reported number of drinks, and hours spent drinking. Using a developmental/contextual framework, high-risk drinking is conceptualized as a function…

  4. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Female and Male Co-Interactants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, Thomas; And Others

    After 177 college students in 49 groups participated in group tasks, their perceptions of those groups and individuals in the groups were analyzed for gender differences. In the discriminant analysis of the three interpretable factors for perception of groups (group cohesiveness, power, and personality), gender was a predictor of an individual's…

  5. Gender Differences in Risk for Intimate Partner Violence among South African Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Jesse D.; Stein, Dan J.; Williams, David R.; Seedat, Soraya

    2011-01-01

    Despite a high prevalence of intimate partner violence in South Africa, few epidemiological studies have assessed individual risk factors and differential vulnerability by gender. This study seeks to analyze gender differences in risk for intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration according to childhood and adult risk factors in a…

  6. Who Gets Market Supplements? Gender Differences within a Large Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucet, Christine; Durand, Claire; Smith, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the gender pay gap among university faculty by analyzing gender differences in one component of faculty members' salaries--"market premiums." The data were collected during the Fall of 2002 using a survey of faculty at a single Canadian research university. Correspondence analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed…

  7. Gender and the Work-Family Interface: Exploring Differences across the Family Life Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinengo, Giuseppe; Jacob, Jenet I.; Hill, E. Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the work-family interface across six family life stages using a global sample of IBM employees in 79 countries (N = 41,813). Family life stage was constructed using the age of respondent and age of youngest child. Results revealed that having young children at home was the critical catalyst for gender…

  8. Gender-Based Salary Differences in African American Senior Student Affairs Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Study examined representation and salary differences related to gender for African American Senior Student Affairs Officers (SSAOs). Data from a national survey revealed gender and institutional size significantly affect mean SSAO salary for African American respondents. African American women SSAOs make significantly less than African American…

  9. Gender Differences in Achievement in a Large, Nationally Representative Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Caroline; Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hajovsky, Daniel B.; Kaufman, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate developmental gender differences in academic achievement areas, with the primary focus on writing, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-21 years) of the "Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Second Edition, Brief Form," norming sample (N = 1,574). Path analytic models with gender

  10. The Different Worlds of Academia: A Horizontal Analysis of Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Charlotte; Haake, Ulrika; Lindberg, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in advanced positions in higher education in Europe. This study takes a horizontal perspective and focuses on the relationship between gender and discipline in order to combine research on gender in higher education with theories of disciplinary differences in academic cultures. The study points out substantial…

  11. Gender Differences in the Development of Dieting from Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrom, Lars

    2009-01-01

    This study examines gender differences in the development of dieting among a representative sample of 1,368 Norwegian boys and girls. The respondents were followed over 3 time points from ages 13/14 to 20/21. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted showing that girls' dieting scores increased while boys' scores remained constant. Gender…

  12. Gender Differences in Contextual Predictors of Urban, Early Adolescents' Subjective Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Moallem, B. Isabel; Vacek, Kimberly R.; Blackmon, Sha'kema; Coyle, Laura D.; Gomez, Kenia L.; Lamp, Kristen; Langrehr, Kimberly J.; Luginbuhl, Paula; Mull, Megan K.; Telander, Kyle J.; Steele, J. Corey

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) were examined in 168 urban adolescents. School satisfaction predicted life satisfaction for boys; for girls, family satisfaction predicted life satisfaction and neighborhood satisfaction predicted negative affect. Self-esteem predicted positive affect for both genders, but friends…

  13. Perceived Relevance of Gender-Specific Differences in Gastrointestinal Medicine and Surgery: Results of a Survey

    PubMed Central

    Oertelt-Prigione, Sabine; Klinger, Carsten; Rau, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background The recognition of the relevance of sex and gender differences in medicine has significantly increased in the last 20 years. Nonetheless, the implementation of these aspects into clinical practice still remains to be attained. In particular, while sex differences – which refer to biological attributes – are widely accepted, gender concepts – which include sociocultural and psychological properties – are frequently treated with diffidence. Methods In December 2012 and January 2013, all members of the German Society for General and Abdominal Surgery (DGAV) were invited to participate in an online-based survey to determine the relevance and incorporation of sex and gender aspects in gastrointestinal medicine and surgery. Results 493 (13.4%) of the 3,689 members of the DGAV participated in the survey. More than 50% of the participants reported including sex and gender aspects into consultation, diagnosis, and management at least occasionally. However, 44% reported no knowledge of the formal definition of ‘gender medicine’, suggesting potential differences in the perception of the notion of gender. Conclusion The participants of the survey demonstrated vast knowledge about sex differences, while gender attributes were generally neglected. Since gender features are critically relevant for prevention as well as during medical consultation, we suggest this area as a potential target for further training initiatives. PMID:26286374

  14. Gender Differences in Externalising Problems among Preschool Children: Implications for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer Jun-Li

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in student achievement have been widely studied. Considering the long-term effects of externalising behaviour problems on children's later academic performance, it can be conjectured that gender disparities in student achievement may be rooted in developmental characteristics in early childhood. As an effort towards contributing…

  15. Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

  16. Dynamic Gender Differences in a Post-Socialist Labor Market: Russia, 1991-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Theodore P.; Mayorova, Olga

    2006-01-01

    We examine how the shift from state socialism affects gender inequality in the labor market using multivariate models of employment exit, employment entry, job mobility and new job quality for 3,580 Russian adults from 1991 through 1997. Gender differences changed in a complex fashion. Relative to men, women gained greater access to employment,…

  17. Addressing Gender Differences in Computer Ability, Attitudes and Use: The Laptop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin

    2006-01-01

    The impact of gender on computer related attitudes, ability, and use has been actively documented, but little research has been done examining how to modify and reduce imbalances. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ubiquitous computing (24-hour access to a laptop and the Internet) on gender differences in pre-service teachers…

  18. Teacher Perceptions of Gender-Based Differences among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tracy D.

    2009-01-01

    Far fewer males than females work in elementary education today. This deficit may represent an unacceptable balance in elementary teacher gender demographics. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, 217 elementary teachers in four public…

  19. Gender Differences in Predicting High-Risk Drinking among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in college students' high-risk drinking as measured by an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) based on gender, height, weight, self-reported number of drinks, and hours spent drinking. Using a developmental/contextual framework, high-risk drinking is conceptualized as a function…

  20. Gender Difference in Integrated Science Achievement among Pre Service Teachers in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afuwape, Moses O.; Oludipe, Daniel I.

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated science achievement of graduating pre-service teachers over a period of 3 years was examined for gender differences. Data were drawn from students' (126 male and 127 female) final year results from a college of education in Nigeria. Findings revealed that the gender gap in integrated science achievement, among the sample data, could…