Sample records for observed gender difference

  1. Gender differences in microcirculation: Observation using the hamster cheek pouch

    PubMed Central

    Panazzolo, Diogo Guarnieri; da Silva, Lucia Henriques Alves; de Almeida Cyrino, Fátima Zely Garcia; Sicuro, Fernando Lencastre; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estrogen has been shown to play an important protective role in non-reproductive systems, such as the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to observe gender differences in vivo with regard to the increase in macromolecular permeability and leukocyte-endothelium interaction induced by ischemia/reperfusion as well as in microvascular reactivity to vasoactive substances using the hamster cheek pouch preparation. METHODS: Thirty-six male and 36 female hamsters, 21 weeks old, were selected for this study, and their cheek pouches were prepared for intravital microscopy. An increase in the macromolecular permeability of post-capillary venules was quantified as a leakage of intravenously injected fluorescein-labeled dextran, and the leukocyte-endothelium interaction was measured as the number of fluorescent rolling leukocytes or leukocytes adherent to the venular wall, labeled with rhodamin G, during reperfusion after 30 min of local ischemia. For microvascular reactivity, the mean internal diameter of arterioles was evaluated after the topical application of different concentrations of two vasoconstrictors, phenylephrine (?1-agonist) and endothelin-1, and two vasodilators, acetylcholine (endothelial-dependent) and sodium nitroprusside (endothelial-independent). RESULTS: The increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion was significantly lower in females compared with males [19 (17–22) leaks/cm2 vs. 124 (123–128) leaks/cm2, respectively, p<0.001), but the number of rolling or adherent leukocytes was not different between the groups. Phenylephrine-induced arteriolar constriction was significantly lower in females compared with males [77 (73–102)% vs. 64 (55–69)%, p<0.04], but there were no detectable differences in endothelin-1-dependent vasoreactivity. Additionally, arteriolar vasodilatation elicited by acetylcholine or sodium nitroprusside did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSION: The female gender could have a direct protective role in microvascular reactivity and the increase in macromolecular permeability induced by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:24473512

  2. Gender differences in young children's temperament traits: comparisons across observational and parent-report methods.

    PubMed

    Olino, Thomas M; Durbin, C Emily; Klein, Daniel N; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Dyson, Margaret W

    2013-04-01

    Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826

  3. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. PMID:23808917

  4. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system. PMID:25070409

  5. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  6. The effects of acupuncture on the brain networks for emotion and cognition: An observation of gender differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Qiao Qiu; Joshua Claunch; Jian Kong; Erika E. Nixon; Jiliang Fang; Ming Li; Mark Vangel; Kathleen Kin-Sang Hui

    Acupuncture modulates brain activity at the limbic–paralimbic–neocortical network (LPNN) and the default mode network (DMN). Since these brain networks show gender differences when mediating emotional and cognitive tasks, we thus hypothesize that women and men may also respond differently to acupuncture procedure at these brain regions. In order to test this hypothesis, we retrieved the data of 38 subjects, 19

  7. Gender Differences in Owners Interacting with Pet Dogs: An Observational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuela Prato-Previde; Gaia Fallani; Paola Valsecchi

    2006-01-01

    Many studies show that people form strong affectional bonds with their dogs, treating them like family members or children. The present study investigates differences between women and men owners during inter- actions with their dogs, in a situation designed to investigate attachment and, thus, to promote emotional and affective responses: the Ains- worth's Strange Situation. Twenty-five dog owners, 10 men

  8. Gender Differences: a biological perspective

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    you see between men & women? Which of those are biological, which are due to differences in social. Brain differences? · Sex hormones are crucial for many sex differences9/12/12 1 Gender Differences: a biological perspective What physical differences do

  9. Gender differences in familiar voice identification.

    PubMed

    Skuk, Verena G; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2013-02-01

    We investigated gender differences in the identification of personally familiar voices in a gender-balanced sample of 40 listeners. From various types of utterances, listeners had to identify by name 20 speakers (10 female) among a set of 70 possible classmates who were all 12th grade pupils from the same local secondary school. Mean identification rates were 67% from sentences, and around 35% for an isolated /Hello/ or a VCV syllable. Even from non-verbal harrumphs, speakers were identified with an accuracy of 18%, i.e. highly above chance levels. Substantial individual differences were observed between listeners. Importantly, superior overall performance of female listeners was qualified by an interaction between voice gender and listener gender. Male listeners exhibited an own-gender bias (i.e. better identification for male than female voices), whereas female listeners identified voices of both genders at similar levels. Individual own-gender identification biases were correlated with differences in reported contact to a speaker's voice and voice distinctiveness. Overall, the present study establishes a number of factors that account for substantial individual differences in personal voice identification. PMID:23168357

  10. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  11. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  12. Gender differences in implicit prejudice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Ekehammar; Nazar Akrami; Tadesse Araya

    2003-01-01

    In three experiments (n=131), we examined gender differences in implicit (and explicit) racial prejudice employing priming of immigrant and Swedish facial photographs without attention or without awareness. Implicit prejudice was defined as the degree of negativity expressed toward a person described in a subsequent ambiguous story in an impression formation task. We found, contrary to our hypothesis, that women displayed

  13. Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Zhixia

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematics and science have received substantial attention in the education research since the early 1980s when strong evidence for a male advantage was found in various studies. Given that mathematics is required for a variety of careers, the potential cause(s) of this disparity have generated much research, much of it…

  14. [Gender differences on physiological function test].

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mikiko

    2015-04-01

    Recently, clinical findings showed sex differences in the manifestation of the cardiovascular diseases. There are gender differences in cardiac electrophysiologic properties and the incidence of various types of arrhythmias. Long QT syndrome is more common in women than in men, whereas the incidence of Brugada syndrome and J-wave syndrome are male predominant. The gender differences in QT interval are not observed before puberty but become obvious after puberty. ST-levels markedly increase after puberty in men but not in women, which suggested that the sex hormones have an important role for the ECG parameters and arrhythmias. In addition, gender differences were reported in age-related changes in echocardiographic parameters such as left ventricular diastolic function. PMID:25936147

  15. Gender, Gender Roles, and Personality: Gender Differences in the Prediction of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana J. Lengua; Elizabeth A. Stormshak

    2000-01-01

    Path models of the effects of gender, gender roles, and personality variables (achievement and affiliation orientation, locus of control, empathy) on coping and symptoms were tested to explore the risk and protective effects of gender roles and personality on psychological symptoms, and to test whether or not gender roles or personality accounted for gender differences in coping and symptoms. In

  16. Gender Differences Among Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Methods Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Results Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Discussion Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health. PMID:19418342

  17. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Waldron; Christopher McCloskey; Inga Earle

    2005-01-01

    This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable

  18. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Possible Selves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Funk, Jeanne; Elliott, Robert; Bush Ellen Greene

    2000-01-01

    Examined gender differences in global self-esteem at adolescence by investigating the content of and gender differences within high school students' possible selves. Students completed questionnaires on hoped for and feared possible selves and on self-perception. Students were able to access and report a vast array of possible selves. Gender

  19. Gender differences in collaboration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  20. Remembering our origin: gender differences in spatial memory are reflected in gender differences in hippocampal lateralization.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jonas; Herlitz, Agneta; Engman, Jonas; Morell, Arvid; Sjölie, Daniel; Wikström, Johan; Söderlund, Hedvig

    2013-11-01

    Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task performance, and may reflect a spatial strategy that is beneficial in this task. Left-sided activation during the pointing phase might reflect a less efficient post hoc verbal recapitulation of the route. This study is the first to identify neural correlates of the commonly observed male advantage in recalling one's original position, and points to hippocampal lateralization as a possible explanation for this behavioral gender difference. PMID:23938766

  1. Gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Perlick, D; Mattis, S; Stastny, P; Teresi, J

    1992-10-01

    Gender differences in cognition were investigated in schizophrenic inpatients and outpatients using the Dementia Rating Scale. Females displayed greater impairment on Attention and Conceptualization than males. Gender interacted with patient group for construction: females performed worse than males among inpatients and better among outpatients. Results may be related to the atypically early age of onset of females relative to males; attention to sampling and selection biases is needed in evaluating gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:1358186

  2. Examining Gender Differences in Field Sales Organizations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Moncrief; Emin Babakus; David W. Cravens; Mark W. Johnston

    2000-01-01

    The rapid increase of women in the sales world has brought about debates on the role of gender in contemporary sales organizations. The key question is whether gender differences, in and of themselves, create different attitudinal and behavioral relationships. A small but expanding stream of research and the expanded participation of women in many lines of business question whether the

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Gender Differences in Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker-Price, Susan; Claxton, Amy F.

    Sex stereotyping attitudes and behaviors of educators have been cited as particularly important influences on the development of gender differences in childhood and adolescence. Because teachers' attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of gender differences may impact the formation of students' confidence in academic subjects and school in general,…

  4. Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion for Faculty in the Humanities 1977–95

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donna K. Ginther; Kathy J. Hayes

    2003-01-01

    This study uses data from the Survey of Doctorate Recipients to evaluate gender differences in salaries and promotion for academics in the humanities. Over time, gender salary differences can largely be explained by academic rank. Substantial gender differences in promotion to tenure exist after controlling for productivity and demographic characteristics. However, we observe a slight decline in the gender promotion

  5. Gender Differences in Smoking Behavior in a University Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in smoking behavior by observing 292 men and 648 women smoking in a university workplace. Finds that men take longer breaks, smoke more cigarettes, and inhale more often than women. (MW)

  6. Gender differences in retirement savings decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL GERRANS; MARILYN CLARK-MURPHY

    2004-01-01

    As members of the Australian workforce approach retirement, they are being presented with increased choice in their superannuation investments. With increased choice has come greater personal responsibility for ensuring adequate retirement savings. This paper explores gender differences in superannuation investment choices through a range of interactions with individual demographics and in doing so a gender effect can be further refined

  7. Specific Learning Disorder: Prevalence and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed. PMID:25072465

  8. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  9. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n?=?785; f: n?=?358, m: n?=?427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p?=?0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p?=?0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p?=?0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  10. He Said, She Said: Gender Differences in Mother-Adolescent Conversations about Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Boone, Tanya L.; Sigman, Marian; Au, Terry Kit-fong

    2002-01-01

    Examined gender differences in self-reported and observed conversations about sexual issues. Gender differences (more mother-daughter than mother-son) were found in the extent of sexual communication based on adolescents' reports, but no gender differences were found based on mothers' reports, or on observations of conversations. (Author)

  11. Gender differences in caregiving: fact or artifact?

    PubMed

    Miller, B; Cafasso, L

    1992-08-01

    This study applies meta-analysis techniques to the results of 14 descriptive studies of gender differences in caregiving to determine the size and significance of gender differences in caregiving stressors (level of elder impairment and level and type of task involvement) and in caregiver burden. There were essentially no significant gender differences in functional impairment of the frail care recipient, total caregiver involvement in care, or in money management tasks. Female caregivers were more likely to carry out personal care and household tasks and more likely to report greater burden. Given the relatively small size of the effects found, we conclude that future research should focus on the part that gender-role explanations play in assigning meaning to caregiving behaviors. PMID:1427253

  12. [Sex and gender differences in pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Regitz-Zagrosek, V

    2014-09-01

    Many drugs have act differently in women and men. Biological differences between women and men lead to sex differences in pharmacokinetics, i.e., in drug absorption, distribution in tissues, metabolism by liver enzymes, and excretion via the kidney and intestine. In addition there are sex differences in pharmacodynamics, leading to a different efficacy of drugs in women and men. The biological differences between women and men may be caused by sex-specific gene expression, by sex-specific epigenetic modifications, and finally by the effect of sex hormones. In addition, gender plays a role in drug efficacy as a sociocultural dimension that may lead to differences between women and men. Frequently drugs are only tested on animals of one sex and thereby optimized for one sex. This is based on the notion that sex differences are not important for clinical drug effects. Furthermore, to date, sex and gender differences have been underestimated in clinical studies, and phase III studies were not prospectively designed to assess sex differences in drug effects. In addition, women and men use drugs differently with respect to compliance, adherence, and self-medication with over-the-counter drugs. Further, it is known that male and female physicians treat women and men as patients differently. In conclusion, drug therapy is not yet optimized for both genders. However, there is increasing awareness that differences between women and men should be respected in order to provide optimal drugs in optimal doses for both genders. PMID:25030233

  13. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  14. Gender Differences: Let's See Them in Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Judith A.; And Others

    Research has demonstrated differences in the ways in which males and females communicate both in speech and in writing. A study extended previous research on gender differences in written communication to adults. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to 277 people who had completed teacher preparation programs at the University of Tennessee. There…

  15. Gender Differences in Behçet's Disease Associated Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ucar-Comlekoglu, Didar; Sen, H. Nida

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, characterized by oral and genital ulceration, skin lesions, and uveitis as well as vascular, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system involvement. It is prevalent in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the gender differences in clinical manifestations of Behçet's disease, treatment responses, mortality, and morbidity. Behçet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in males from certain geographic regions and particular ethnic groups; however, recent reports indicate more even gender distribution across the world. There are gender differences in clinical manifestations and severity of the disease. Ocular manifestations, vascular involvement, and neurologic symptoms are more frequently reported in male patients whereas oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and arthritis occur more frequently in female patients. The disease can have a more severe course in males, and overall mortality rate is significantly higher among young male patients. PMID:24864195

  16. [Gender-difference in diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Morita, Ai; Ishigaki, Yasushi

    2015-04-01

    Gender-difference is thought to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of glucose metabolism. Imbalances in sex hormones, such as increasing levels of progesterone or testosterone, are associated with systemic insulin resistance. After menopause, women are at an increased risk to develop visceral obesity due to the loss of endogenous ovarian hormone production. On the other hand, insulin resistance caused excess secretion of androgen, leading to menstrual disorder in obese young female. For the better management of glucose intolerance in pregnancy, the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes was revised in Japan. Although glucose intolerance in pregnancy is usually recovered after delivery, the subjects who diagnosed gestational diabetes need to be followed for an early detection of type 2 diabetes development. In addition, gender-differences in living practice and attitude are related to their lifestyle, including diet and exercise, therefore, gender-specific medicine increasingly plays key roles in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:25936148

  17. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    Sex differences on Perry's stages of epistemological development were investigated in a study of 100 freshmen (50 men and 50 women) at a large midwestern university. A semi-structured interview probed six domains related to Perry's theory, including the role of the learner, instructor, and peers in the learning situation, the question of…

  18. Gender differences in tobacco use in Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mara Kaplan; Laura Carriker; Ingrid Waldron

    1990-01-01

    This study has assessed gender differences in smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco for younger adults and their parents in samples from five ethnic groups in Kenya. These samples were from two groups of pastoralists (the Maasai and the Samburu), a group engaged in fishing and farming (the Luo), and two groups of relatively Westernized Kenyans primarily involved in

  19. Gender Differences in Peace Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2009-01-01

    Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to…

  20. Brain Development: Evidence of Gender Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison; Amy Nelson

    Brain development may be one of the most exciting frontiers of the neurosciences, where neuroimaging, genomics, neurobehavioral, longitudinal, and animal research are converging for remarkable discoveries. New medical technologies allowing for structural and functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) and success in mapping the human genome have advanced our understanding of typical and atypical neurodevelopment, including gender differences from infancy into adolescence

  1. Gender Differences in Peace Movement Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marullo, Sam

    Women have been believed to be peacemakers throughout the centuries. Whether this is biologically determined or a socially structured has been a matter of controversy. This study examined gender differences and the social dynamics of peace movement participation. Subjects (N=272) were members of a local nuclear freeze campaign in 1984.…

  2. Gender Differences in the Response to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

  3. Gender Differences in Determinants of Marital Disruption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TIM B. HEATON; ASHLEY M. BLAKE

    1999-01-01

    Because the family is a highly gendered institution, the authors anticipated that characteristics of husbands and wives would have differing influences on marital disruption. Longitudinal data from the National Survey of Families and Households were used to examine the influence of sociodemographic and attitudinal characteristics of each spouse on the likelihood of marital disruption. In general, wives' variables have a

  4. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender

  5. Gender Differences in Colon Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, JoAnn S.; Martin, Michelle Y.; Richardson, Lisa; Kim, Young; Pisu, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite women suffering a disproportionate burden of colon cancer mortality, few studies have examined gender differences in evidence-based treatment, especially in poorer states like Alabama. Objective To describe colon cancer treatment in older patients diagnosed in Alabama by gender. Methods Colon cancer patients 65 years and older diagnosed in 2000–2002 were identified from the Alabama Statewide Cancer Registry (N = 1785). Treatment was identified from Medicare claims for 1999–2003. Outcomes were (1) receipt of surgery and adjuvant 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy (5FU) and (2) 5FU treatment duration (0–4, 5–7, and >7 months). Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) models were used to determine significant gender differences, adjusting for clustering at the reporting hospital level, and controlling for race, age, stage, comorbid conditions, census tract–level socioeconomic variables, and adverse chemotherapy effects (when analyzing 5FU duration). Results Overall, 93.9% of the patients received surgery. Of stage II–III patients undergoing surgery, 60.4% stage III and 25.6% stage II patients received 5FU. Compared with men, women were more likely to have surgery (95.5% vs. 92.2%, p = 0.003), less likely to have 5FU (38.6% vs. 45.2%, p = 0.02), and more likely to have 0–4 months of 5FU (32.9% vs. 24.9%, p = 0.05). Gender differences were significant for having chemotherapy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.78, confidence interval [CI] 0.61–1.00, p = 0.049), but not for having 0–4 months of 5FU when adjusting for adverse effects (aOR 1.36, CI 0.95–1.94, p = 0.09). Conclusions In Alabama, some gender differences in stage-specific colon cancer treatment are worth further scrutiny. PMID:23531098

  6. Gender Differences in Foreign Policy AttitudesA Longitudinal Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Fite; Marc Genest; Clyde Wilcox

    1990-01-01

    Although a number of studies have reported gender differences on attitudes toward the use of force in foreign policy, several recent studies have reported that gender is a weak and non- significant predictor of foreign policy attitudes. The authors find that gender differences are significant even after a variety of demographic controls and that gender is among the most important

  7. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  8. Gender Differences in PTSD Symptoms: An Exploration of Peritraumatic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Irish, Leah A.; Fischer, Beth; Fallon, William; Spoonster, Eileen; Sledjeski, Eve M.; Delahanty, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Females are at higher risk than males for developing posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSS) following exposure to trauma, which may stem from gender differences in initial physiological and psychological responses to trauma. The present study aimed to examine a number of peri- and initial post-traumatic reactions to motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) to determine the extent to which they contributed to gender differences in PTSS. 356 adult MVA survivors (211 males and 145 females) reported on peritraumatic dissociation, perception of life threat and initial PTSS. In addition, heart rate and urinary cortisol levels were collected in-hospital. 6 weeks and 6 months later, PTSS were assessed via clinical interviews. Results suggested that initial PTSS and peritraumatic dissociation were marginally significant mediators at 6-week follow-up and significant mediators at 6-month follow-up, providing partial support for the hypothesis that initial responses to trauma may account for observed gender differences in PTSS development. PMID:20956066

  9. Gender differences in myocardial blood flow dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire S Duvernoy; Christian Meyer; Vanadin Seifert-Klauss; Firat Dayanikli; Ichiro Matsunari; Judith Rattenhuber; Cornelia Höss; Henner Graeff; Markus Schwaiger

    1999-01-01

    ObjectivesThe purpose of the study was to compare myocardial blood flow (MBF) in hyperlipidemic postmenopausal women and age-matched hyperlipidemic men, and to analyze the relationship between cholesterol subfractions and myocardial blood flow in men and women.BackgroundWomen are protected from coronary artery disease (CAD) events until well after menopause, in part due to gender-specific differences in lipid profiles.MethodsTo examine the effect

  10. Gender Differences in Spousal Caregiving in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Mikiko; Kutsumi, Masami; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Background Gender differences in spousal caregivers and their relationship to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were examined. Methods A stratified random sample of 2,020 users of public long-term care insurance in a city of Osaka prefecture, Japan, participated in this study. Responses from 308 spouses (56.2% wives, 43.8% husbands) were analyzed. Variables relating to care experiences, social demographics, and caregivers’ depression were compared by conducting simultaneous analyses of multiple populations. Results Wives caring for husbands had higher depression scores than husbands caring for wives. Wives tended to adopt “emotional support seeking” and “willing commitment” as coping strategies for their caregiving experience. Husband caregivers used more home-care services; however, increased service use had no effect on husbands’ depression. The availability of secondary caregivers reduced depression for caregivers, regardless of gender. Conclusions The effects on depression differed related to the caregiver's gender. Husbands relied more on family or home-care services when caring for their wives, whereas wives provided higher levels of care, positively accepted their role, and did not seek to share caregiving, but sought emotional support. PMID:19176486

  11. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  12. Trends in gender differences in accidents mortality: Relationships to changing gender roles and other societal trends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingrid Waldron; Christopher McCloskey; Inga Earle

    2005-01-01

    This study tests five hypotheses concerning trends in gender differences in accidents mortality and accident-related behavior, using data for the US, UK, France, Italy, and Japan, 1950-98. As predicted by the Convergence Hypothesis, gender differences have decreased for amount of driving, motor vehicle accidents mortality, and occupational accidents mortality. However, for many types of accidents mortality, gender differences were stable

  13. Gender Differences in Rates of Depression among Undergraduates: Measurement Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Kathryn; Marsh, Patricia; Syniar, Gina; Williams, Megan; Addlesperger, Elisa; Kinzler, Mi Hyon; Cowman, Shaun

    2002-01-01

    Two studies tested for gender differences in rates of depression among undergraduates using three conceptualizations of depression. Results provide no evidence of gender differences in rates of depressed mood in either sample. However, in both samples, gender differences in rates of depressive disorder were found, with male students more likely…

  14. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  15. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults. PMID:25929009

  16. Gender Differences for Constructed-Response Mathematics Items

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Pomplun; Lee Capps

    1999-01-01

    The present study explored gender differences in answers to constructed-response mathematics items. Features relevant and irrelevant to the scoring rubric but possibly related to gender differences were identified by a content expert after a review of the literature. Raters were trained to score the identified features for approximately 500 papers evenly divided across two grade levels and between genders. The

  17. Gender Differences in Adult Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. PMID:21392726

  18. Determinants of Individual Differences and Gender Differences in Knowledge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Ackerman; Kristy R. Bowen; Margaret E. Beier; Ruth Kanfer

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences\\/technology, biology\\/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence

  19. Gender differences in tobacco use in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, M; Carriker, L; Waldron, I

    1990-01-01

    This study has assessed gender differences in smoking and the use of smokeless tobacco for younger adults and their parents in samples from five ethnic groups in Kenya. These samples were from two groups of pastoralists (the Maasai and the Samburu), a group engaged in fishing and farming (the Luo), and two groups of relatively Westernized Kenyans primarily involved in commercial occupations (from the Kisii and the Gikuyu ethnic groups). In four of the five study groups, there was little or no difference in the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use in either the younger or older generation. Similarly, in four of the study groups there was little or no gender difference in the prevalence of smoking for the older generation. In contrast, for the younger generation in every study group except the Luo, men were much more likely than women to smoke cigarettes. The attitudes toward tobacco use reported by the younger generation showed similar patterns. In every study group except the Luo, the younger adults reported that smokeless tobacco use was socially acceptable for both men and women, but smoking was acceptable only for men. Many of the younger women reported that they did not smoke because it would not be socially acceptable. The interview data suggest that the social prohibition against women's smoking was one component of more general restrictions on women's behavior, and the absence of restrictions on men's smoking was related to men's greater social power. The Luo were the only study group in which respondents reported that women should have as much influence as men in decision making. Correspondingly, the Luo were the only study group in which most respondents considered it acceptable for women to smoke and women were as likely as men to smoke cigarettes. PMID:2309128

  20. Gender differences in sexuality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M B; Hyde, J S

    1993-07-01

    This meta-analysis surveyed 177 usable sources that reported data on gender differences on 21 different measures of sexual attitudes and behaviors. The largest gender difference was in incidence of masturbation: Men had the greater incidence (d = .96). There was also a large gender difference in attitudes toward casual sex: Males had considerably more permissive attitudes (d = .81). There were no gender differences in attitudes toward homosexuality or in sexual satisfaction. Most other gender differences were in the small-to-moderate range. Gender differences narrowed from the 1960s to the 1980s for many variables. Chodorow's neoanalytic theory, sociobiology, social learning theory, social role theory, and script theory are discussed in relation to these findings. PMID:8346327

  1. Theory of Planned Behavior Explains Gender Difference in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Emanuel, Amber S.; McCully, Scout N.; Gallagher, Kristel M.; Updegraff, John A.

    2012-01-01

    A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute’s Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender difference. Males reported greater perceived norms for FVI, but norms did not predict FVI. Gender did not moderate the influence of TPB constructs on FVI. Thus, TPB constructs substantially explained the gender difference. Interventions targeted toward adult males may benefit by promoting favorable attitudes and perceived behavioral control over FVI. PMID:22898607

  2. Mathematics Competitions, Gender, and Grade Level: Does Time Make Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.; Pederson, David G.; Pollard, Graham H.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we draw on data from a large mathematics competition, for the years 1987 to 2000 and use two different but closely related measures to investigate possible gender differences in performance. Our analyses revealed that small gender differences in favour of males persisted but had decreased over time. Consistent with reports from…

  3. Sex appeal advertising: gender differences in Chinese consumers’ responses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fang Liu; Jianyao Li; Hong Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This research was designed in order to explore the gender differences in Chinese consumers’ responses to sex appeal advertising. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Experiments were conducted at a university in South China with a total of 157 commerce students. Four advertisements, designed for the same fictional brand but featuring different genders and different levels of sex appeal, were tested in

  4. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption. PMID:17039402

  5. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    PubMed

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives. PMID:25154113

  6. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  7. Gender Differences in Current Received during Transcranial Electrical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Michael; Goodman, Theodore; Wang, Qiang; Groshong, Bennett; Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Low current transcranial electrical stimulation (tCS) is an effective but somewhat inconsistent tool for augmenting neuromodulation. In this study, we used 3D MRI guided electrical transcranial stimulation modeling to estimate the range of current intensities received at cortical brain tissues. Combined T1, T2, and proton density MRIs from 24 adult subjects (12 male and 12 female) were modeled with virtual electrodes placed at F3, F4, C3, and C4. Two sizes of electrodes 20?mm round and 50?mm?×?45?mm were examined at 0.5, 1, and 2?mA input currents. The intensity of current received was sampled in a 1-cm sphere placed at the cortex directly under each scalp electrode. There was a 10-fold difference in the amount of current received by individuals. A large gender difference was observed with female subjects receiving significantly less current at targeted parietal cortex than male subjects when stimulated at identical current levels (P?differences in current levels that the subjects received. Analysis of the cranial bone showed that the gender difference and the frontal parietal differences are due to differences in cranial bone. Males have more cancelous parietal bone and females more dense parietal bone (P?differences should be considered when planning tCS studies and call into question earlier reports of gender differences due to hormonal influences. PMID:25177301

  8. Gender differences in a clinical trial for prescription opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Devito, Elise E; Dodd, Dorian; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potter, Jennifer Sharpe; Greenfield, Shelly F; Connery, Hilary Smith; Weiss, Roger D

    2013-07-01

    Although gender differences in substance use disorders have been identified, few studies have examined gender differences in prescription drug dependence. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in a large clinical trial for prescription opioid dependence. Despite no pre-treatment differences in opioid dependence severity, women reported significantly greater functional impairment, greater psychiatric severity, and higher likelihood of using opioids to cope with negative affect and pain than men. Women were also more likely than men to have first obtained opioids via a legitimate prescription and to use opioids via the intended route of administration. Men reported significantly more alcohol problems than women. There were no significant gender differences in medication dose, treatment retention, or opioid outcomes. Thus, despite the presence of pre-treatment gender differences in this population, once the study treatment was initiated, women and men exhibited similar opioid use outcomes. PMID:23313145

  9. The stability of individual differences in gender typing: Implications for understanding gender segregation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly K. Powlishta; Lisa A. Serbin; Lora C. Moller

    1993-01-01

    The stability of individual differences has important implications for understanding the origins of gender-typed behaviors. For example, if some children have a stronger preference for same-sex playmates (gender segregation) than do others, then exploring characteristics that may differentiate these children from their peers (e.g., preference for gender-typed toys or teacher proximity) should prove fruitful. Otherwise, research might be focused more

  10. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  11. Early Gender Differences in Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, J. S.; Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in self-regulation in the fall and spring of kindergarten and their connection to gender differences in 5 areas of early achievement: applied problems (math), general knowledge, letter-word identification, expressive vocabulary, and sound awareness. Behavioral self-regulation was measured using both an…

  12. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Beth Oliver; Stephen Green

    2001-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from an action adventure versus a sad film, and to animated previews of a prototypical “male” versus “female” movie. Females were more likely than males to express sadness in response to the sad scene, and gender differences in intensities of sadness increased with age. Children were much more likely

  13. Further results on gender and cognitive differences in help effectiveness

    E-print Network

    Arroyo, Ivon M.

    Further results on gender and cognitive differences in help effectiveness Ivon Arroyo1 , Tom Murray, Amherst Abstract. We explored the effectiveness of help for 350 students of different genders sensitive to the amounts of help fitting their needs than to the level of abstraction. On the other hand

  14. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  15. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  16. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  17. Accessibility of Gender Stereotype Domains: Developmental and Gender Differences in Children.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cindy Faith; Lurye, Leah E; Zosuls, Kristina M; Ruble, Diane N

    2009-06-01

    The present research examined developmental and gender differences in the relative accessibility of different gender stereotype domains. A 1988 Northeastern US sample of 256 children ages 3 to 10 years old provided open-ended descriptions of girls and boys. Responses were coded by domain to examine differences by grade, gender of participant, and gender of target. Analyses revealed that girls and older children provided a higher proportion of stereotypes, and that appearance stereotypes were particularly prevalent in descriptions of girls and activity/trait stereotypes were more prevalent in descriptions of boys. Results are discussed in terms of implications for research on the stereotype knowledge-behavior link and the need for more attention to the role of appearance stereotypes in the gender stereotype literature. PMID:19606278

  18. Gender Differences in Adolescent Depression: Gender-Typed Characteristics or Problem-Solving Skills Deficits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotte, Diane; Alain, Michel; Gosselin, Marie-Josee

    1999-01-01

    Examined gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence related to gender-typed characteristics, problem solving abilities, and stressful life events in Canada. Surveys of high school students indicated that girls reported more depressive symptoms and scored higher on expressivity, whereas boys reported more instrumental attributes.…

  19. Different paths: gender, immigration and political participation.

    PubMed

    Jones-correa, M

    1998-01-01

    "Building on arguments made by Grasmuck and Pessar (1991), Hardy-Fanta (1993), and Hondagneu-Sotelo (1994), among others, this article makes the case for a gendered understanding of immigrant political socialization. Looking at recent Latin American immigrants to New York City, the article argues that immigrant Latino men are more likely to favor continuity in patterns of socialization and organization, and immigrant Latinas are more likely to favor change. This finding helps bridge theoretical and empirical literatures in immigration studies, applying the logic of gender-differentiated decisionmaking to the area of immigrant political socialization and behavior." PMID:12293595

  20. Gender differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of methadone substitution therapy

    PubMed Central

    Graziani, Manuela; Nisticò, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Gender-related differences in the pharmacological effects of drug are an emerging topic. This review examines gender differences in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of methadone, a long-acting opioid agonist that is prescribed as a treatment for opioid dependence and the management of chronic pain. Method: We performed a search in the Medline database from 1990 to 2014 in order to find published literature related to gender differences in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of methadone. Results: None of the studies were carried out with the primary or secondary aim to identify any gender differences in the pharmacokinetic profile of methadone. Importantly; high inter-subjects variability in PK parameters was found also intra female population. The reported differences in volume of distribution could be ascribed to the physiological differences between men and women in body weight and composition, taking into account that the dose of methadone was established irrespective of body weight of patients (Peles and Adelson, 2006). On the other hand, the few studies present in literature found no gender difference in some direct pharmacodynamic parameters. Some reports have suggested that female gender is associated with an increased risk for long-QT-related cardiac arrhythmias in methadone maintenance subjects. Conclusion: Even though it may be too simplistic to expect variability only in one parameter to explain inter-individual variation in methadone response, we believe that a better knowledge of gender-related differences might have significant implications for better outcomes in opioid dependence substitution therapy in women.

  1. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  2. Gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique Garcia Bengoechea; John C Spence; Kerry R McGannon

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited research has been conducted on gender differences in perceived environmental correlates of physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to explore the potential role of gender in the link between perceived environment and PA. METHODS: Using a telephone-administered survey, data was collected on leisure time physical activity (LTPA), perceptions of the neighbourhood environment, and self-efficacy in

  3. Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

  4. Moral Cognition: Explaining the Gender Difference in Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriga, Alvaro Q.; Morrison, Elizabeth M.; Liau, Albert K.; Gibbs, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether gender discrepancy in late adolescents' antisocial behavior may be attributed to gender differences in other moral cognitive variables. Found that mature moral judgment and higher moral self-relevance were associated with lower self-serving cognitive distortion, partially mediating the relationship between those variables and…

  5. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriko Doi; Masumi Minowa

    2003-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working

  6. Gender differences in health perceptions and their predictors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofra Anson; Esther Paran; Lily Neumann; Dov Chernichovsky

    1993-01-01

    This study explored the degree to which risks embedded in the social construction of gender roles and personality traits explained gender differences in health perceptions and reporting among mild hypertensive patients (134 women and 104 men) under the same treatment regime. Compared with men, women were less educated, less likely to be employed, less happy, more distressed, less satisfied with

  7. Gender and Age Differences in Preference for Works of Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salkind, Leni; Salkind, Neil J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines preference for relative degrees of realism or abstraction in works of art as a function of gender and grade level using the Salkind Picture Preference Scale. Results are discussed in light of implications for understanding age and gender differences in preference and the application of such findings to education. (DSK)

  8. Gender Differences in Computer Attitude among Ninth-Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadijevich, Djordje

    2000-01-01

    Examines male and female high school students' attitudes toward computers in relation to gender and computer experience. Findings revealed: males showed a more positive attitude toward computers even when computer experience was controlled; females were less interested in computer science (CS) than males, however no gender differences were found…

  9. Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress Nichole R. Lighthall,1 in the impact of stress on decision behavior, but little is known about the brain mechanisms involved in these gender-specific stress effects. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (f

  10. Frequencies of occupational allergic diseases and gender differences in Finland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lasse Kanerva; Riitta Jolanki; Jouni Toikkanen

    1994-01-01

    In Finland occupational diseases are registered by diagnosis, causative agent, age, occupation, field of work, and gender. This report analyzes in detail the 1991 statistics on gender differences in occupational allergic diseases. A total of 1314 cases of occupational allergic diseases were reported, comprising 14.2% of all registered occupational diseases. The following allergic occupational diseases were encountered: allergic contact dermatitis

  11. Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data

    E-print Network

    Marchiori, Elena

    Gender differences in multiple sclerosis: evidence from brain lesions data Jonce Dimov1 , Inge.huitinga@nin.knaw.nl, c.van.eden@nin.knaw.nl Abstract. Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) brain lesions is here con associations between brain lesions and gender in MS patients. 1 Introduction Multiple sclerosis is a chronic

  12. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  13. Is the gender difference in mental rotation disappearing?

    PubMed

    Masters, M S; Sanders, B

    1993-07-01

    Several investigators have used meta-analysis to compare the results of studies of gender differences on various spatial tests and have concluded that the magnitude of the gender difference in spatial ability is decreasing over time. The present study used meta-analytic techniques to compare the effect size (d) of the gender difference in 14 studies published from 1975 to 1992 which administered the Mental Rotations test to adolescents and young adults. Males scored significantly higher than females in all the studies. Analyses of the d's computed for the studies revealed that the magnitude of the gender difference on the Mental Rotations test has remained stable over time. Neither the Pearson correlation relating the d's to the publication dates of the studies nor the Z test of the linear contrast relating the publication dates of the studies to the effect sizes showed a linear change in the size of the gender difference over time. The finding of a stable gender difference on the Mental Rotations test argues against the general conclusion that the gender difference in spatial ability is decreasing. PMID:8240213

  14. Gender Differences in Adolescent Athletes’ Coping with Interpersonal Stressors in Sport: More Similarities than Differences?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharleen D. Hoar; Peter R. E. Crocker; Nicholas L. Holt; Katherine A. Tamminen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the types of coping strategies adolescent athletes use to manage sport-related interpersonal stress. To explain gender coping differences, the dispositional and situational gender coping hypotheses were explored (Tamres, Janicki, & Helgenson, 2002). Adolescent athletes from Western Canada (N = 524) completed measures of stress appraisal and coping-strategy use in response to a self-selected interpersonal

  15. Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue

    PubMed Central

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

  16. Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. According to the response styles theory (RST), gender differences in depression result, in part, from women’s tendency to ruminate more than men. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate gender differences in rumination in adults (k = 59; N = 14,321); additionally, an analysis of subtypes of rumination – brooding and reflection – was conducted (k = 23). Fixed effects analyses indicated that women scored higher than men in rumination (d = .24, p < .01, SEd = .02), brooding (d = .19, p < .01, SEd = .03) and reflection (d = .17, p < .01, SEd = .03); there was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias across studies for these effect sizes. Although statistically significant, the effect sizes for gender differences in rumination were small in magnitude. Results are discussed with respect to the RST and gender differences in depression. PMID:24089583

  17. Implicit attitudes in sexuality: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men. PMID:16362251

  18. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor [Alternative Development and Research Center (ADRC), GPO BOX 20078, Kathmandu (Nepal)]. E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  19. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada)]. E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G. [Department of Medicine, Respiratory Division, University of British Columbia, VGH Research Pavilion, 390-828 West 10th Avenue, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 1L8 (Canada); James Hogg iCapture Center for Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6Z 1Y6 (Canada); Kennedy, Susan M. [School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  20. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction. PMID:9638088

  1. Differing levels of gender salience in preschool classrooms: effects on children's gender attitudes and intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Lacey J; Liben, Lynn S

    2010-01-01

    Developmental intergroup theory posits that when environments make social-group membership salient, children will be particularly likely to apply categorization processes to social groups, thereby increasing stereotypes and prejudices. To test the predicted impact of environmental gender salience, 3- to 5-year-old children (N = 57) completed gender attitude, intergroup bias, and personal preference measures at the beginning and end of a 2-week period during which teachers either did or did not make gender salient. Observations of peer play were also made at both times. After 2 weeks, children in the high- (but not low-) salience condition showed significantly increased gender stereotypes, less positive ratings of other-sex peers, and decreased play with other-sex peers. Children's own activity and occupational preferences, however, remained unaffected. PMID:21077864

  2. Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

    1990-12-01

    Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

  3. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  4. Gender Differences Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Differential Symptom Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevich, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

  5. Observing Different Microbes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2008-01-01

    In this activity, learners use a microscope to examine three different microbes: bacteria, yeast and paramecia. Educator will need to prepare the yeast solution one day before the activity. This lesson guide includes background information, educator resources and Slide Preparation Cards. A yogurt recipe is included as an extension to this activity.

  6. Gender differences in temperament: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Goldsmith, H Hill; Van Hulle, Carol A

    2006-01-01

    The authors used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mean level and variability of 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament in children ages 3 months to 13 years. Effortful control showed a large difference favoring girls and the dimensions within that factor (e.g., inhibitory control: d = -.41, perceptual sensitivity: d = -0.38) showed moderate gender differences favoring girls, consistent with boys' greater incidence of externalizing disorders. Surgency showed a difference favoring boys, as did some of the dimensions within that factor (e.g., activity: d = 0.33, high-intensity pleasure: d = 0.30), consistent with boys' greater involvement in active rough-and-tumble play. Negative affectivity showed negligible gender differences. PMID:16435957

  7. Gender Differences in Educational Achievement to Age 25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibb, Sheree J.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences in educational achievement were examined in a cohort of 1265 individuals studied from birth to age 25. There was a small but pervasive tendency for females to score better than males on standardised tests and to achieve more school and post-school qualifications. The differences could not be explained by differences in cognitive…

  8. Gender differences in coping with infertility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jordan, C; Revenson, T A

    1999-08-01

    Infertility is a stressor that affects both husbands and wives. The literature suggests that infertility is more stressful for women, although most studies have not included men/husbands. If the experience of infertility is different for women and men, the next question is whether women and men cope differently. Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the empirical evidence (1966-1995) on gender differences in coping with infertility among heterosexual married couples; all studies used a standardized coping measure [The Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (Folkman et al., 1986)]. Significant gender differences were found for half the strategies studied: Women used the strategies of Seeking Social Support, Escape-Avoidance, Planful Problem-Solving, and Positive Reappraisal to a greater degree than their partners. The findings suggest that coping at both the individual and the couple level be considered in the treatment of infertile couples and that gender be considered before planning an intervention. PMID:10495967

  9. Gender differences in psychosocial determinants of adolescent smoking.

    PubMed

    Clayton, S

    1991-03-01

    Because of the social meaning smoking has acquired and because of different trends in male and female initiation rates, it is reasonable to suspect that different psychosocial factors predict smoking in teen-age boys and girls. A literature review revealed external pressures such as peer and parental smoking are important for both boys and girls though their influence may be moderated differentially by age and type of smoking behavior assessed. Some data support the hypothesis that female smoking is associated with self-confidence, social experience, and rebellion, whereas male smoking is associated with social insecurity. Overall, group differences such as gender and socioeconomic status are well-documented in terms of smoking prevalence but underexplored in the area of psychosocial predictors. In this review, gender differences have been documented with sufficient frequency to warrant further attention to develop gender specific components of smoking prevention programs. PMID:2033939

  10. Gender differences during processing of the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Mekarski, J E; Cutmore, T R; Suboski, W

    1996-10-01

    An assertion was made that "There are no sex differences in Stroop interference" (MacLeod, 1991, p. 203) in spite of some evidence to the contrary (e.g., Sarmany, 1977). To resolve the discrepancy, this study examined the nature of gender differences in the context of other variables. 6 men and 8 women were tested, using response speed and errors made as dependent measures. Independent variables were gender, perceptual input (Stroop) task, congruency of stimuli, manual response output, and trial block. Contrary to MacLeod, men were consistently slower than women over trial blocks by some 46 msec., although their error rates did not differ significantly. Response output interacted with gender, with Stroop task, and with trial block. Congruent stimuli were processed faster than incongruent ones. Differences may be ascribed to greater verbal and fine motor abilities of women and greater spatial ability of men. PMID:8902031

  11. The Emergence of Gender Difference in Depressed Mood during Adolescence: The Role of Intensified Gender Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichstrom, Lars

    1999-01-01

    Examined the prevalence of depressive mood in 12,000 Norwegian adolescents, ages 12-20. Found that from age 14 on, girls scored above boys in depressed mood, though no gender difference was found at age 12. The difference was partially explained by increased developmental challenges for girls, including puberty, weight and body dissatisfaction,…

  12. Gender differences in personality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Feingold, A

    1994-11-01

    Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations. PMID:7809307

  13. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hilde Coffé; Catherine Bolzendahl

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359)\\u000a using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals\\u000a that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged\\u000a in direct contact, collective types

  14. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed. PMID:20191095

  15. Gender Differences in Temperament: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Van Hulle, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors used meta-analytical techniques to estimate the magnitude of gender differences in mean level and variability of 35 dimensions and 3 factors of temperament in children ages 3 months to 13 years. Effortful control showed a large difference favoring girls and the dimensions within that factor (e.g., inhibitory control: d = -0.41,…

  16. Men, Women and War: Gender Differences in Attitudes towards War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zur, O.; And Others

    This study showed that war does have an appeal to both men and women, but that appeal is different and is related to the set of moral concerns that are unique to each gender. To assess the different aspects of men's and women's attitudes towards war, a 48-item Likert-type scale was constructed and administered to 148 students. Results showed that…

  17. Gender Differences in the Negative Affective Priming of Aggressive Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edelyn Verona; John J. Curtin

    2006-01-01

    The negative affective priming of aggression was examined across different aversive contexts (general stress exposure and frustration) with a laboratory aggression paradigm that measured the intensity of shocks participants delivered to a putative employee. Participants' emotional responses were gauged via startle eyeblink reactions and self-report mood ratings. Aside from gender differences in overall aggression, men but not women exposed to

  18. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  19. Beyond Depression: Gender Differences in Normal Adolescents' Emotional Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapley, Janice C.; Haviland, Jeannette M.

    1989-01-01

    This study investigates the status of depression among sex-related emotional differences in adolescents and examines the organizational properties of emotion relative to other life experience. Fifth-, seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-grade students reported on experience and situational dynamics of 12 emotions. Gender differences in adolescent…

  20. Ethnic and gender differences in parental expectations and life stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Quang DuongTran; Serge Lee; Sokley Khoi

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents ethnic and gender differences in reported stressful life events (SLE) in a sample of 70 Southeast Asian (SEA) adolescents. The ranking of five SLEs with the highest percentage reportingSome orA Lot of stress showed differences in qualitative life events among Cambodian, Hmong, and Vietnamese adolescents. Cambodians rankedstrict discipline in social life by parents as most stressful. Hmong

  1. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  2. ORIGINAL PAPER Gender differences in activity patterns of American mink

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - riality, sexual dimorphism in body size and different environmental factors. Keywords Mustela visonORIGINAL PAPER Gender differences in activity patterns of American mink Neovison vison in Germany and circadian activity patterns of American mink Neovison vison were studied in a fishpond area in northern

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN LENIENCY TOWARDS POLICE MISCONDUCT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MILAN PAGON; BRANKO LOBNIKAR; DARKO ANELJ

    The article explores the differences in leniency between male and female partici- pants on a sample of 95 police officers and 247 students in Slovenia. The partici- pants read eleven hypothetical scenarios of police misconduct and answered the questions measuring their moral judgments, attitudes, and behavioral intentions regarding the described behaviors. The results showed that at least some differ- ences

  4. Gender and Assessment: Differences, Similarities and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James; Betts, Lucy; Murray, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Background: Recent changes in higher education in the UK have led to much discussion about the performance of men and women students with different methods of assessment. Aim: To see whether or not there were differences between the marks awarded to men and women final-year psychology students as a function of the modes of assessment used. Method:…

  5. Gender Differences in Diabetes-related Lower Extremity Amputations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica E. Peek

    2011-01-01

    Background  Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with much of the economic and social costs related\\u000a to macrovascular and microvascular complications, such as myocardial infarctions, renal failure, and lower extremity amputations.\\u000a While racial\\/ethnic differences in diabetes are well documented, less attention has been given to differences in diabetes\\u000a outcomes by gender.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  Does gender influence

  6. Putting It on the Table: A Mini-Course on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croker, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a high school mini-course called "Gender Bender" (a survey course of the contemporary literature on gender differences) that studied gender issues that were troubling high school students. Describes how the course discussed gender and schooling; gender roles in society; images in the media; dating, marriage, and divorce; and…

  7. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-01-01

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  8. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-03-11

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30-74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3-1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7-1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  9. Nonsocial Play in the Kindergarten Classroom: Gender Differences in Relations with Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Marie-Helene Gavinski; Coplan, Robert; Wichmann, Cherami

    This study examined gender differences in the correlates of different types of nonsocial play behaviors. Seventy-seven kindergarten children (38 males, 39 females) were observed during free play. Behaviors were categorized according to three subtypes of nonsocial play: reticent, solitary-passive, and solitary-active. Additional measures included…

  10. Gender Differences in Mathematics: Does the Story Need to Be Rewritten?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Martin; Krauss, Stefan; Kunter, Mareike

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of high school mathematics typically report small gender differences in favor of boys. The present article challenges this established finding by comparing two competing structural conceptions of mathematical ability. The standard model assumes mathematical ability alone to account for the interindividual differences observed on…

  11. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-12-22

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  12. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  13. Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress

    E-print Network

    Mather, Mara

    Running title: STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION PROCESSING 1 Gender differences in reward-related decision processing under stress Nichole R. Lighthall,*1 Michiko Sakaki,1 Sarinnapha Vasunilashorn,1,2 Lin nichole.lighthall@usc.edu phone: (213) 740-9078 fax: (213) 740-9403 #12;STRESS, GENDER AND DECISION

  14. Gender differences in the perceptions of common cold symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sally Macintyre

    1993-01-01

    Higher rates of reported morbidity among women are sometimes attributed to lower thresholds among women for experiencing and reporting symptoms. Gender differences in the perception of signs and symptoms of minor illness were examined on data from the MRC Common Cold Unit. Volunteers assessed the presence and severity of colds at the end of their stay in the Unit, using

  15. Gender differences and styles in the use of digital games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip Bonanno; P. A. M. Kommers

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the cognitive style of 581 (212 male and 369 female)

  16. Gender Differences in Autobiographical Memory for Childhood Emotional Experiences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope J. Davis

    1999-01-01

    Research to date has paid remarkably little heed to gender differences in autobiographical memory. To redress this, the author examined memory for childhood events in adult men and women remembering back to childhood, and in children themselves. Five studies were conducted, and results revealed that females consistently recalled more childhood memories than males did and were generally faster in accessing

  17. Quantifying Gender Differences in Physical Performance: A Developmental Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank L. Smoll; Robert W. Schutz

    1990-01-01

    The purpose was to quantify the contribution of anthropometric variables to gender differences in performance during childhood and adolescence. Measures of height, percentage body fat, and fat-free body weight were obtained for 2,142 students in Grades 3, 7, and 11 (ages 9, 13, and 17 years), and the subjects were tested on 6 motor tasks. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated

  18. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  19. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  20. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  1. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…

  2. Gender differences in a sample of schizophrenic outpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Usall; S Araya; S Ochoa; E Busquets; A Gost; M Márquez

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to study gender differences in schizophrenia, comparing clinical, social, and illness course characteristics. A sample of 239 schizophrenic (DSM-IV criteria) outpatients were administered the following instruments: service use and demographic questionnaires, the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS), the Disability Assessment Scale (DAS), and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale. The female to male ratio was

  3. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

  4. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  5. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  6. Gender Differences in Suicide Attempters in Hungary: Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandor Fekete; Viktor Voros; Peter Osvath

    To determine gender differences in suicidal behavior and investigate the factors associated with suicide attempts. Methods In the framework of the WHO\\/Euro Multicenter Study on Suicidal Behavior, 1,158 suicide attempts have been registered and analyzed retrospectively in Pécs center, Hungary. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed to compare the characteristics of male and female suicide attempters. Results A

  7. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  8. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  9. Gender Differences in the Organization of Guilt and Shame

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara J. Ferguson; Susan L. Crowley

    1997-01-01

    Lewis [(1971) Shame in Guilt in Neurosis, New York: International Universities Press] argues that guilt and shame represent distinct modes of perceiving and experiencing information about the self that are congruent with gender-linked differences in socialization. We tested predictions from Lewis' model that shame-proneness in adult White females (n = 102), but guilt-proneness in adult White males (n = 99),

  10. Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

  11. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J; Smith, James P; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces-Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the East Coast, and Gansu, a largely agricultural and poor province in the West-in a sense new and old China. Our cognition measures proxy for two different dimensions of adult cognition-episodic memory and intact mental status. On both measures, Chinese women score much lower than do Chinese men, a gender difference that grows among older Chinese cohorts. We relate both these cognition scores to schooling, urban residence, family and community levels of economic resources, and height. We find that cognition is more closely related to mean community resources than to family resources, especially for women, suggesting that in traditional poor Chinese communities there are strong economic incentives to favor boys at the expense of girls. We also find that these gender differences in cognitive ability have been steadily decreasing across birth cohorts as the economy of China grew rapidly. Among cohorts of young adults in China, there is no longer any gender disparity in cognitive ability. This parallels the situation in the United States where cognition scores of adult women actually exceed those of adult men. PMID:24347682

  12. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  13. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  14. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  15. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:20391009

  16. Gender differences in depressive symptoms among older Korean American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yuri; Kim, Giyeon; Chiriboga, David A

    2011-01-01

    Despite consistent reports over many years of a greater prevalence of depression among women, mechanisms underlying the gender difference remain unclear. Mechanisms relevant to immigrant elderly populations are virtually unexplored. The present study examined gender variations in depressive symptoms using a community sample of 230 older Korean American immigrants (M(age) = 69.8; standard deviation = 7.05) in Florida. We were interested in examining not only mean differences but gender differences in the impact of demographic variables (age, marital status, and education), health constraints (chronic conditions and functional disability), and personal resources (sense of control, social network, and acculturation) on depressive symptoms. Consistent with previous literature, women scored higher on depressive symptoms than men. In a hierarchical regression model, women and those with more chronic conditions, greater functional disability, and lower sense of control were found to have more depressive symptoms. The interaction of gender-by-chronic conditions was found to be significant, and further analysis indicated that the association of chronic conditions with mental well-being was stronger for women. The findings suggest that among older Korean immigrants, women are at particular risk of declining psychological well-being in the face of physical health problems and call attention to the need for interventions designed to promote their physical and mental health. PMID:21213190

  17. Gender Differences in Smoking Following an Implicit Mood Induction

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Sherry A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking is significantly associated with negative affect, which may play an especially important role in the smoking behavior of women. The purpose of this laboratory study was to examine the role of gender in the relationship of negative mood and smoking maintenance for male and female smokers following an implicit mood induction using music. Methods: Ninety adult smokers (50% female) completed a laboratory session during which they were randomly assigned to a negative mood induction, a positive mood induction, or a neutral mood condition. Latency to smoke and number of cigarettes smoked were assessed during an ad libitumsmoking period following the mood induction. Results: Female smokers began smoking more quickly following the negative mood induction when compared with males. There were no gender differences in the number of cigarettes smoked or for cravings to smoke by mood condition. Conclusions: This study demonstrated gender differences in the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior following an implicit and subtle mood manipulation. A better understanding of gender differences in smoking behavior can provide valuable information about mechanisms that maintain smoking behavior and guide treatment development to help adults quit smoking. PMID:21908458

  18. Gender differences in self-esteem: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kling, K C; Hyde, J S; Showers, C J; Buswell, B N

    1999-07-01

    Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed. PMID:10414226

  19. Gender Differences in Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristen C. Kling; Janet Shibley Hyde; Carolin J. Showers; Brenda N. Buswell

    1999-01-01

    Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In Analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II,

  20. Exploring gender differences in the working lives of UK hospital consultants

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Karen; Spilsbury, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internationally, increasing numbers of women are practising medicine. Gender differences in doctors’ working hours, specialty choices and communication styles are well documented, but studies often neglect contextual factors such as the role of socialised gender expectations on behaviours in the workplace and the medical profession. These may be important as recent studies have reported gender differences in doctors’ activity rates that cannot be explained by specialty or contracted hours, suggesting other sources of variation. This study sought to explore the working lives of hospital doctors and how their work is negotiated according to gender and context. Design Gender differences in the day-to-day work of hospital specialists (consultants) in the NHS were investigated using a qualitative approach, including observation and interview methods. Data were analysed inductively using qualitative observation and interview methods. Setting Two NHS hospital trusts in England. Participants Data were collected from 13 participants working in a variety of specialties and in a range of clinical and non-clinical settings. Main outcome measures Various behaviours, attitudes and experiences were explored, such as doctor–patient communication, interactions with colleagues and workload. Results Influences at both individual and situational levels, appear to affect differentially the work of male and female doctors. Female consultants described awareness of the impact of behaviours on relationships with colleagues, and their interactions appeared to be more carefully performed. Nurses and other colleagues tend to demonstrate less cooperation with female consultants. Gender differences also exist in patient communication, feelings of work–family conflict and barriers to career progression. Conclusions These variations in hospital consultants’ work may have implications for both the quantity and quality of care provided by male and female consultants. This is timely and of importance to the medical workforce as the gender composition approaches parity. PMID:25567767

  1. Observer gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red-backed salamanders

    E-print Network

    Marsh, David

    . All rights reserved. The scientific study of animal behaviour assumes that observations aboutObserver gender and observation bias in animal behaviour research: experimental tests with red online 27 October 2004; MS. number: A9684) Most studies of animal behaviour are based on direct

  2. Taiwanese adolescents' gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yang, Kyeongra; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore gender differences in knowledge and attitudes towards menstruation among Taiwanese adolescents. This study was a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional comparison study conducted in Taiwan. A total of 287 female and 269 male students at a junior high school participated in the study. The results showed that almost all the students had heard about menstruation and most of them had received menstrual information at school. However, their knowledge about menstruation was not accurate. Moreover, the male students expressed more negative attitudes towards menstruation than the female students. Taboos were heard by most students and, although many female students doubted the reality of the taboos they had heard, they observed them anyway. The study calls for an evaluation of sex education and suggests more open discussions about menstruation among young people in those education sessions. In addition, school nurses and obstetrical/gynecological nurses should be involved more in adolescents' sexual education. PMID:17470187

  3. Gender differences in sleep disordered breathing: implications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Won, Christine; Guilleminault, Christian

    2015-04-01

    There are gender differences in the upper airway function and respiratory stability in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Hormones are implicated in some gender-related differences, and these differences between men and women appear to mitigate as age increases. In addition, changes in the airway and lung function during pregnancy can contribute to snoring and OSA that might have an adverse effect on the mother and fetus. The limited data available suggest that although the prevalence and severity of OSA may be lower in women, the consequences of the disease are similar, if not worse. Women with OSA may have greater risk for hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, be more likely to develop comorbid conditions such as anxiety and depression and have increased mortality. Therefore, treatment options specifically targeting female presentations and pathophysiology of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) are expected to result in improved outcomes in women. PMID:25739831

  4. Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  5. Gender differences in reported symptoms for acute myocardial infarction: Impact on prehospital delay time interval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrika Meischke; Mary Pat Larsen; Mickey S Eisenberg

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective observational study using database registry of consecutive patients admitted to 16 King County hospital Coronary Care Units (CCU) was conducted to assess gender differences in symptom presentation for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and investigate how symptom presentation relates to prehospital delay time interval from acute symptom onset to emergency department (ED) presentation. Between January 1991 and February 1993,

  6. Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

  7. Gender differences in mate selection preferences: a test of the parental investment model.

    PubMed

    Feingold, A

    1992-07-01

    Evolutionary-related hypotheses about gender differences in mate selection preferences were derived from Triver's parental investment model, which contends that women are more likely than men to seek a mate who possesses nonphysical characteristics that maximize the survival or reproductive prospects of their offspring, and were examined in a meta-analysis of mate selection research (questionnaire studies, analyses of personal advertisements). As predicted, women accorded more weight than men to socioeconomic status, ambitiousness, character, and intelligence, and the largest gender differences were observed for cues to resource acquisition (status, ambitiousness). Also as predicted, gender differences were not found in preferences for characteristics unrelated to progeny survival (sense of humor, "personality"). Where valid comparisons could be made, the findings were generally invariant across generations, cultures, and research paradigms. PMID:1388281

  8. Differences Between and Within Genders in Gender Role Orientation According to Age and Level of Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonia Calvo-Salguero; José Miguel Ángel García-Martínez; Adelaida Monteoliva

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the masculinity and femininity in a Spanish sample made up of 164 adult workers (88 men and 76 women).\\u000a To be specific, the objective was to demonstrate whether age and level of education were related to differences in masculinity\\u000a and femininity, both when comparing between the two genders and when the comparisons are made within the same

  9. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students. PMID:23842785

  10. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions. PMID:17075236

  11. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals. PMID:22928352

  12. Gender differences in patellofemoral load during the epee fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition. PMID:25630246

  13. Gender differences in religiosity and functional health in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, Janice Bell

    2003-01-01

    This secondary analysis of a random, community survey of 271 people over 65 years old examined gender differences in religious coping, importance of faith, and frequency of prayer for their relationship on eight categories of functional physical and mental health, as measured by the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Short-Form 36. Mental health was the only outcome related to the spiritual indices for both genders but used differently. Frequency of prayer, a behavioral indicator, was positively related to mental health for men. Reliance on religious coping and a high importance of one's faith were positively related to mental health for women. The results indicated that cognitive coping responses were associated with lower anxiety and depression for women, whereas behavioral spiritual responses were the relevant variables for male mental health in this sample of elders. PMID:14694322

  14. Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

  15. Gender Differences among Adolescents with Gambling-Related Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Ellenbogen; Jeffrey Derevensky; Rina Gupta

    2007-01-01

    Data from five recent studies using self-reports were merged to explore gender differences in the characteristics of adolescent\\u000a problem gambling, including comorbidity with other youth problems. The sample consisted of 2,750 male and 2,563 female participants.\\u000a Male problem gamblers were more likely than females to report signs of psychological difficulties while females were more\\u000a likely to note behavioural problems as

  16. Gender Differences in Integration of Images in Visuospatial Memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Lawton; David W. Hatcher

    2005-01-01

    We examined gender differences in mental integration of images in visuospatial short-term memory. College students were asked\\u000a to imagine the combined abstract shape that would be formed by integrating two separate shapes briefly shown on a computer\\u000a screen. The shapes were presented in four conditions: (1) simultaneously at the center of the screen, (2) simultaneously side-by-side,\\u000a (3) sequentially at the

  17. Gender-based Differences in Business Travelers'Lodging Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken W. McCleary; Pamela A. Weaver; Li Lan

    1994-01-01

    This article explores gender-based differences in hotel-selection and service-use preferences, based on a survey of 250 male and female business travelers. As one might expect, both men and women consider basic services, such as clean, comfortable rooms and free local phone service, to be important. But businesswomen consider security, in-room services and amenities (such as hair dryers and minibars), and

  18. Gender-related differences in rectal temperature in human neonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emese Nagy

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the gender-related differences in human neonates' body temperature. Rectal temperatures of 101 newborns (52 girls and 49 boys) were measured using a calibrated glass-mercury thermometer five times during their first 5 days of life. Results show that the temperature of males, averaged over 5 days, was significantly lower (37.068°C) than that of

  19. Gender differences in correlates of colorectal cancer screening among black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Kathryn A.; Pollack, Craig E.; Phelan, Darcy F.; Markakis, Diane; Bone, Lee; Shapiro, Gary; Wenzel, Jennifer; Howerton, Mollie; Johnson, Lawrence; Garza, Mary A.; Ford, Jean G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities by gender. Little research has focused primarily on gender differences among older black individuals, and reasons for existing gender differences remain poorly understood. Methods We used baseline data from the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration Screening Trial. Participants were recruited from November 2006 to March 2010. In-person interviews were used to assess self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior. Up-to-date colorectal cancer screening was defined as self-reported colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy in the past 10 years or fecal occult blood testing in the past year. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between gender and self-reported screening, adjusting for covariates. The final model was stratified by gender to examine factors differentially associated with screening outcomes for males and females. Results The final sample consisted of 1,552 female and 586 male black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore, Maryland. Males were significantly less likely than females to report being up-to-date with screening (77.5% versus 81.6%, p=0.030), and this difference was significant in the fully adjusted model (Odds Ratio: 0.72 95%Confidence Interval: 0.52–0.99). The association between having a usual source of care and receipt of cancer screening was stronger among males compared to females. Conclusions While observed differences in CRC screening were small, several factors suggest gender-specific approaches may be used to promote screening adherence among black Medicare beneficiaries. Impact Given disproportionate colorectal cancer mortality between white and black Medicare beneficiaries, gender-specific interventions aimed at increasing CRC screening may be warranted among older black patients. PMID:23629519

  20. Investigation of gender difference in thermal comfort for Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Lan, Li; Lian, Zhiwei; Liu, Weiwei; Liu, Yuanmou

    2008-03-01

    Gender difference in thermal comfort for Chinese people was investigated through two laboratory experiments. Both subjective assessment and objective measurement were taken during the experiment. Skin temperature (17 points) and heart rate variability (HRV) were measured in one of the experiment. Our results show that there are gender differences in thermal comfort for Chinese people. Correlation of thermal sensation votes and air temperature and vapor pressure shows that females are more sensitive to temperature and less sensitive to humidity than males. Subjective assessment, skin temperature and HRV analysis suggest that females prefer neutral or slightly warmer condition, due to their constantly lower skin temperature and the fact that mean skin temperature is a good predictor of sensation and discomfort below neutrality. Female comfortable operative temperature (26.3 degrees C) is higher than male comfortable operative temperature (25.3 degrees C), although males and females have almost the same neutral temperature and that there is no gender difference in thermal sensation near neutral conditions. PMID:17994246

  1. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    PubMed

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects. PMID:11234250

  2. Gender differences in factors influencing electrocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy in severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Shinji; Omura, Soichiro; Inoue, Hiroko; Ejima, Emiko; Shimozono, Koutatsu; Hayashi, Makiko; Mori, Takahiro; Takenaka, Katsuhiko; Kawamura, Natsumi; Numaguchi, Kotaro; Mori, Etsuo; Asoh, Akemi; Nakamura, Toshihiro; Hiyamuta, Koji

    2014-09-01

    We investigated gender differences in factors influencing the electrocardiographic (ECG) findings of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). The functional and geometric responses of the left ventricle to chronic pressure overload, such as hypertension and AS, have been reported to be different between men and women. However, gender differences in the factors influencing the ECG findings of LVH in pressure overload remain unknown. We conducted a retrospective observational study in consecutive patients with severe AS (aortic valve area (AVA) assessed by cardiac catheterization <1.0 cm(2)) without concomitant significant aortic regurgitation, mitral stenosis and/or regurgitation, conduction disturbance, or myocardial infarction (n = 35 males, 68 females). The ECG criteria were classified into three categories: (1) high voltage by the Sokolow-Lyon index associated with ST-T wave changes (with no digitalis therapy); (2) high voltage alone; and (3) normal. Groups 1 and 2 were defined as LVH on ECG. We compared the ECG findings in relation to the AS severity between genders. Women were older, but there were no significant differences in the prevalence of hypertension, AVA index (AVAI), mean pressure gradient or peak velocity across the AV, LV mass index (LVMI) derived from echocardiography or the distribution of ECG categories between genders. A multiple logistic regression analysis including age, gender, hypertension, AVAI, mean pressure gradient, and LVMI revealed that the LVMI (P = 0.001) and AVAI (P = 0.0434) were significantly related to the distribution of ECG categories. LVMI significantly predicted LVH on ECG in both genders, but AVAI was a predictive factor in only women. ECG LVH in patients with severe AS may be mainly reflected by LVMI in men and by both LVMI and AVAI in women. Factors other than AVA, such as end-stage disease and/or complicating factors such as hypertension, may underlie the observed differences in ECG findings of LVH between men and women. PMID:23979264

  3. [Gender-Specific Differences in Obstructive Lung Diseases].

    PubMed

    Koper, I

    2015-06-01

    Asthma is a common disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. Sex differences in asthma vary with age. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in females appears to be increasing.There is increasing clinical evidence for sex differences in incidence, morbidity, and mortality of obstructive lung disease. The purpose of this review is to define sex differences in epidemiology, symptom profiles, and management. This provides valuable information which could aid the management of asthma and COPD. There is still a high amount of research in gender medicine to do. PMID:25822009

  4. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Incident Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Emily B.; Bayliss, Elizabeth A.; Daugherty, Stacie L.; Steiner, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men with diabetes. Previous cross-sectional studies of prevalent diabetes have found that women are less likely to meet ADA and AHA guidelines for control of cardiovascular risk factors (hemoglobin A1c, LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure), but have not studied the critical period immediately after diagnosis. Methods To assess gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors at the time of diabetes diagnosis (baseline) and one year later (follow-up), we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 6,547 individuals with incident diabetes in an integrated care delivery system. We assessed mean cardiovascular risk factor values by gender and adjusted odds ratios of attaining ADA goals. Findings Compared with men, at baseline women had lower hemoglobin A1c (7.9% vs. 8.2%, P<0.001), higher LDL cholesterol (118.9 vs. 111.5 mg/dL, P < 0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (131.9 vs. 130.5 mmHg, P<0.001), and lower diastolic blood pressure (79.1 vs. 79.7 mmHg, P=0.006). At follow-up, the hemoglobin A1c gender gap had closed (6.9% vs. 6.9%, P=0.39), and the gender gaps had decreased for blood pressure (129.8/77.0 vs. 128.9/77.6, P=0.009) and LDL cholesterol (104.0 vs 98.2 mg/dL, P<0.001). These associations varied by age. Adjusted odds ratios showed similar relationships. Conclusions In this cohort of individuals with incident diabetes, men and women had important differences in risk factor control at the time of diabetes diagnosis. These differences varied by age, and decreased over time. PMID:24439948

  5. Gender differences and cognitive correlates of mathematical skills in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2009-05-01

    Published information concerning the influence of gender on mathematical ability tests has been controversial. The present study examines the performance of school-aged boys and girls from two age groups on several mathematical tasks and analyzes the predictive value of a verbal fluency test and a spatial test on those mathematical tasks. More specifically, our research attempts to answer the following two questions: (1) Are gender differences in mathematical test performance among children interrelated with age and (2) do verbal and spatial nonmathematical tests mediate gender effects on mathematical test performance? Two hundred and seventy-eight 7- to 10-year-old children and 248 13- to 16-year-olds were selected from schools in Colombia and Mexico (231 boys and 295 girls). The age effect was found to be significant for all measures, with scores improving with age. Results showed that boys and girls in both age groups scored similarly in most subtests, but that differences emerged in the performance of mental mathematical operations and in resolving arithmetical problems. In the latter - but not in mental math - older boys outperformed older girls, whereas no gender differences were observed in the younger groups. After controlling for age, it was found that the spatial test was, indeed, a significant mediator of gender effects, while the verbal task was not. PMID:18608220

  6. An empirical study of gender differences in online gambling.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions. PMID:23097131

  7. Gender differences in the prevalence, clinical features and response to cabergoline in hyperprolactinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annamaria Colao; Paolo Cappabianca; Francesco Briganti; Rosario Pivonello; Antongiulio Faggiano; Bernadette Biondi; Gaetano Lombardi

    2003-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in tumor size are supposed to exist in hyperprolactinemia since micro- adenomas are more commonly found in women and macroadenomas in men. Whether this reflects only a delay in diagnosis in men or a true gender difference in tumor pathogenesis is still unclear. Objective: To prospectively analyze gender differences in the presentation and response to cabergoline treatment

  8. Behavioral and Physiological Findings of Gender Differences in Global-Local Visual Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roalf, David; Lowery, Natasha; Turetsky, Bruce I.

    2006-01-01

    Hemispheric asymmetries in global-local visual processing are well-established, as are gender differences in cognition. Although hemispheric asymmetry presumably underlies gender differences in cognition, the literature on gender differences in global-local processing is sparse. We employed event related brain potential (ERP) recordings during…

  9. Perceived Career Barriers and Coping among Youth in Israel: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipshits-Braziler, Yuliya; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated gender and ethnic differences in the perception of different types of career barriers among young adults in relation to their views of themselves as individuals (Personal Career Barriers) and their views of their gender and ethnic group (Group Career Barriers). This study also explored gender and ethnic differences in the…

  10. Gender Differences in the Longitudinal Impact of Exposure to Violence on Mental Health in Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zona, Kate; Milan, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence of gender differences in psychopathology during adolescence, but little research has investigated gender differences in trauma-related symptoms. Exposure to violence is a commonly experienced potentially traumatic event among urban adolescents, and the few studies examining gender differences in its mental health impact have…

  11. Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation: An fMRI Study of Cognitive Reappraisal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kateri McRae; Kevin N. Ochsner; Iris B. Mauss; John J. D. Gabrieli; James J. Gross

    2008-01-01

    Despite strong popular conceptions of gender differences in emotionality and striking gender differences in the prevalence of disorders thought to involve emotion dysregulation, the literature on the neural bases of emotion regulation is nearly silent regarding gender differences (Gross, 2007; Ochsner & Gross, in press). The purpose of the present study was to address this gap in the literature. Using

  12. Gender differences in habitual activity in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Selvadurai, H; Blimkie, C; Cooper, P; Mellis, C; Van Asperen, P P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: (1) To compare habitual activity levels in prepubescent and pubescent boys and girls with different degrees of CF lung disease severity and healthy controls. (2) To assess the relation between habitual activity levels and measures of fitness, lung function, nutrition, pancreatic status, and quality of life. Methods and Results: A total of 148 children (75 girls and 73 boys) with CF and matched controls were studied. Regardless of disease severity, there were no differences in habitual activity between prepubescent boys and girls with CF. Pubescent boys with CF were significantly more active than girls with the same degree of disease severity. There were no significant differences in habitual activity between prepubescent children with CF and controls. Pubescent children with mild CF were significantly more active than controls, but those with moderate to severe disease were less active than controls. The best correlates with habitual activity levels were anaerobic power, aerobic capacity, and quality of life. In children with moderate to severe disease, nutrition status correlated significantly with activity levels. The impact of pancreatic status on activity levels and other measures of fitness was most apparent in pubescent girls. Conclusion: Gender differences in habitual activity were evident only after the onset of puberty. The impact of pancreatic insufficiency on measures of fitness and habitual activity was greatest in pubescent females. The reason for this gender difference may be an interplay of genetic, hormonal, and societal factors and is the focus of a longitudinal study. PMID:15383436

  13. Gender differences in medical students’ motives and career choice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The main subject is the influence of gender and the stage of life on the choice of specialty in medical education. In particular we looked at the influence of intrinsic and external motives on this relationship. The choice of specialty was divided into two moments: the choice between medical specialties and general practice; and the preference within medical specialties. In earlier studies the topic of motivation was explored, mostly related to gender. In this study stage of life in terms of living with a partner -or not- and stage of education was added. Methods A questionnaire concerning career preferences was used. The online questionnaire was sent to all student members of the KNMG (Royal Dutch Medical Association). 58% of these students responded (N?=?2397). Only 1478 responses could be used for analyses (36%). For stipulating the motives that played a role, principal components factor analysis has been carried out. For testing the mediation effect a set of regression analyses was performed: logistic regressions and multiple regressions. Results Although basic findings about gender differences in motivations for preferred careers are consistent with earlier research, we found that whether or not living with a partner is determinant for differences in profession-related motives and external motives (lifestyle and social situation). Furthermore living with a partner is not a specific female argument anymore, since no interactions are found between gender and living with a partner. Another issue is that motives are mediating the relationship between, living with a partner, and the choice of GP or medical specialty. For more clarity in the mediating effect of motives a longitudinal study is needed to find out about motives and changing circumstances. Conclusions The present study provides a contribution to the knowledge of career aspirations of medical students, especially the impact of motivation. Gender and living with a partner influence both choices, but they are not interacting, so living with a partner is similarly important for male and female students in choosing their preferences. Moreover, external and intrinsic motives mediate this relationship to a greater of lesser degree. First stage students are influenced by life-style and intrinsic motives in their choice of general practice. For second stage students, the results show influences of life-style motives next to profession-related motives on both moments of choice. PMID:22913471

  14. Different Ways of ‘Seeing’: How Gender Differences in Information Processing Influence the Content Analysis of Narrative Texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Kiecker; Kay M. Palan; Charles S. Areni

    2000-01-01

    This manuscript examines the potential of bias in qualitative research due to coder gender. It reports a study of gender differences in coding by males and females based on a coding assignment involving written narratives completed by 18 males and 17 females. The study found gender differences in their coding the presence\\/absence of 10 themes related to gift exchanges and

  15. Bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Brazil: differences between genders during puberty.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cynthia; Dourado, Inês; Ximenes, Ricardo; Miranda, Janaína; Alexander, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Gender differences in susceptibility to infectious diseases have been observed in various studies. A survey was performed in a bancroftian filariasis endemic area in the city of Olinda, Brazil. All residents aged 5 years or older were examined by thick blood film. People aged 9 to 16 years were interviewed and also tested for filarial antigenaemia. Data were analyzed by contingency table methods and regression models. The risk of microfilaraemia for males was significantly higher. Among those aged 9 to 16 years, the analysis of gender and filariasis by age showed that boys from 15 to 16 years had a higher risk of infection than girls. No association was found between menarche and filariasis in girls. The data suggest that variations between gender in filariasis could result, at least in part, from an increase in susceptibility of men. This epidemiologic feature needs to be considered while formulating elimination plans. PMID:15895172

  16. Gender differences in memory for object and word locations.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Postma, Albert; Vecchi, Tomaso

    2006-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that gender differences in visuo-spatial working memory (VSWM) are larger in tasks requiring active elaboration of the material. In the present study we explored this issue by using an object relocation task, with both verbal and visual stimuli. The involvement of active processes was manipulated through the type of transformation required on the stimulus and through the introduction of different kinds of interference. In the three experiments reported, participants were shown either words or cartoon object icons in different locations and had to relocate them in either the same format or in the opposite one (object icons could be transformed into words and vice versa). Males outperformed females in the most demanding conditions, in which object icons and words were presented together in the encoding phase, and both had to be transformed in the recall phase; or when more demanding interferences were used. Our data suggest that the retention strategy was similar for the two groups and that the gender effect is related to a selective female difficulty associated with the increase in active VSWM processing. These findings further support the hypothesized distinction between the passive and active components of VSWM and illustrate the role that this distinction might play in accounting for individual differences. PMID:16608754

  17. Gender differences in the anatomy of the distal femur.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, R J; Levine, A; Fitzgerald, S J; Kolaczko, J; DeMaio, M; Marcus, R E; Cooperman, D R

    2011-03-01

    Recently, gender-specific designs of total knee replacement have been developed to accommodate anatomical differences between males and females. We examined a group of male and female distal femora matched for age and height, to determine if there was a difference in the aspect ratio (mediolateral distance versus anteroposterior distance) and the height of the anterior flange between the genders. The Hamann-Todd Collection provided 1207 skeletally mature cadaver femora. The femoral length, the anteroposterior height, height of the lateral and medial flanges and the mediolateral width were measured in all the specimens. The mechanical axis of the femur, the cut articular width and the aspect ratio were assessed. Statistical analysis of the effect of gender upon the aspect ratio and the lateral and medial flanges was undertaken, controlling for age, height and race. The mean aspect ratio of male femora was 1.21 (SD 0.07) and of female femora it was 1.16 (SD 0.06) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between male and female specimens in the mean size of the lateral flange (6.57 mm (SD 2.57) and 7.02 mm (SD 2.36), respectively; p = 0.099) or of the medial flange (3.03 mm (SD 2.47) and 3.56 mm (SD 2.32), respectively; p = 0.67). Future work in the design of knee prostheses should take into account the overall variability of the anatomy of the distal femur. PMID:21357958

  18. Gender Differences in Smoking Behaviors in an Asian Population

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Kuo, Ken N.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender-sensitive tobacco control policies are being challenged, and new directions are being sought because public health efforts have reduced cigarette consumption more substantially among men than among women. To better target women, it would help to identify the protective cultural factors that promote resiliency in women and discourage them from smoking. Whereas western cultures have generated a great deal of gender-specific research and programs on the prevention of smoking in women, Asian cultures have not. Taking a personal and sociocultural perspective, this study examines the effect of gender on smoking behaviors in Taiwan. Methods In a 2004 cross-sectional random-sampled interview survey, 827 adult men and 90 adult women smokers in Taiwan were queried about the time they began smoking, maintenance of their habits, and their readiness to change. Results The male/female smoking rate ratio was 9.5 (45.7% vs. 4.8%). Men smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than women (18 vs. 11). We found Taiwanese women started smoking around 20 years old, much later than their western counterparts. We also found that whereas the smoking behavior of the men was very sensitive to social environment and structural factors, that of women revolved around their desire to control their weight and handle their emotions. Conclusions Differences in the smoking behavior of men and women are a result of a different sociocultural environment and the life trajectories and social circumstances embedded within it. Comprehensive tobacco control policies need to be tailored to not just smoking behavior alone or one population alone but to the determinants of smoking behavior in specific groups, for example, women. Even when targeting women, some effort may be needed on targeting women of different ethnicities, for instance, Asian women in whom the prevalence is increasing at alarming rates. PMID:18681817

  19. EB 2006 Refresher Course - Gender Differences in Physiology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Martha L. Blair (University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry Department of Pharmacology and Physiology)

    2006-04-01

    An abundance of recent research indicates that there are multiple differences between males and females both in normal physiology, and in the pathophysiology of disease. This refresher course will provide an overview of this new information, with the goal of providing teachers of medical students with the background necessary to include the most important aspects of sex-based differences in their medical student curricula. The presentations will discuss both male and female physiology, and will address sex-based differences due to the actions of both androgens and the ovarian steroid hormones. The presentation topics include gender differences in the normal physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, the musculoskeletal system, the central nervous system, and the immune system.

  20. Gender Differences in Paediatric Patients of the Swiss Inflammatory Bowel Disease Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Denise; Buehr, Patrick; Koller, Rebekka; Rueger, Vanessa; Heyland, Klaas; Nydegger, Andreas; Spalinger, Johannes; Schibli, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Gender differences in paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequently reported as a secondary outcome and the results are divergent. To assess gender differences by analysing data collected within the Swiss IBD cohort study database since 2008, related to children with IBD, using the Montreal classification for a systematic approach. Methods Data on gender, age, anthropometrics, disease location at diagnosis, disease behaviour, and therapy of 196 patients, 105 with Crohn's disease (CD) and 91 with ulcerative or indeterminate colitis (UC/IC) were retrieved and analysed. Results The crude gender ratio (male : female) of patients with CD diagnosed at <10 years of age was 2.57, the adjusted ratio was 2.42, and in patients with UC/IC it was 0.68 and 0.64 respectively. The non-adjusted gender ratio of patients diagnosed at ?10 years was 1.58 for CD and 0.88 for UC/IC. Boys with UC/IC diagnosed <10 years of age had a longer diagnostic delay, and in girls diagnosed with UC/IC >10 years a more important use of azathioprine was observed. No other gender difference was found after analysis of age, disease location and behaviour at diagnosis, duration of disease, familial occurrence of IBD, prevalence of extra-intestinal manifestations, complications, and requirement for surgery. Conclusion CD in children <10 years affects predominantly boys with a sex ratio of 2.57; the impact of sex-hormones on the development of CD in pre-pubertal male patients should be investigated. PMID:25349830

  1. Gender differences in instrumental learning among secondary school students in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the extent of gender differences, and discusses the role of gender in musical instrument learning. It focuses on the collective instrumental experiences of 1493 Chinese students (774 boys and 719 girls attending grades 7–13) within Western and non?Western musical traditions in Hong Kong. The discussion draws attention to gender differences in the learning of Chinese and Western

  2. Gender Differences in Time Use among Adolescents in Developing Countries: Implications of Rising School Enrollment Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Cynthia B.; Grant, Monica; Ritchie, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    This comparative analysis of gender differences in time use among adolescents uses surveys from five developing countries and is motivated by an interest in gender role socialization and gendered patterns of behavior during adolescence. Exploring differences in work (both noneconomic household work and labor market work) and leisure time among…

  3. WORKING PAPER N 2009 -36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    WORKING PAPER N° 2009 - 36 Estimating gender differences in access to jobs: Females trapped: Gender, discrimination, wages, quantiles, job assignment model, glass ceiling PARIS-JOURDAN SCIENCES SUPÉRIEURE halshs-00575011,version1-9Mar2011 #12;Estimating Gender Differences in Access to Jobs: Females

  4. Gender Differences in Students' and Parents' Evaluative Criteria when Selecting a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phylis M.; Warwick, Jacquelyn

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of gender differences between students and between parents based on the perceived financial, social, psychological, physical, and functional risks associated with college selection. Nineteen criteria associated with these risks were evaluated for significant gender differences as well as for their level of importance by gender in the…

  5. Gender differences in health: a Canadian study of the psychosocial, structural and behavioural determinants of health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret Denton; Steven Prus; Vivienne Walters

    2004-01-01

    Gender-based inequalities in health have been frequently documented. This paper examines the extent to which these inequalities reflect the different social experiences and conditions of men's and women's lives. We address four specific questions. Are there gender differences in mental and physical health? What is the relative importance of the structural, behavioural and psychosocial determinants of health? Are the gender

  6. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Gender Differences in Sexuality, 1993-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Jennifer L.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 Oliver and Hyde conducted a meta-analysis on gender differences in sexuality. The current study updated that analysis with current research and methods. Evolutionary psychology, cognitive social learning theory, social structural theory, and the gender similarities hypothesis provided predictions about gender differences in sexuality. We…

  7. Gender differences in scholastic achievement: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Voyer, Daniel; Voyer, Susan D

    2014-07-01

    A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. PMID:24773502

  8. Gender Differences in Child and Adolescent Social Withdrawal: A Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Barstead, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    In a manuscript entitled, “Bashful boys and coy girls: A review of gender differences in childhood shyness” Doey et al. (2013) suggest that shyness and its related constructs pose a greater developmental risk for boys compared to girls. They support this claim by citing empirical evidence suggesting that shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively by important others (i.e., parents, peers, and teachers) and that the relationship between internalizing problems and anxious withdrawal is stronger for boys compared to girls. The principal aim of our commentary is to provide a critical examination of Doey et al.’s conclusions vis-à-vis gender differences in child and adolescent shyness. In this response, we begin by providing important theoretical background regarding shyness and its related constructs. Next, we critically examine the two main arguments the authors use in support of their conclusion through a review of existing empirical and theoretical work as well as the presentation of data from The Friendship Project. These data were analyzed with the specific purpose of providing an empirical test of the hypotheses implicit in Doey et al.’s primary arguments: 1) shy and anxiously withdrawn boys are responded to more negatively than girls and 2) the association between anxious withdrawal and internalizing problems is stronger for boys compared to girls. Our results indicate mixed support for these two claims. Finally, we conclude by suggesting new directions for future researchers interested in clarifying the relationship between gender and both the correlates and outcomes of childhood shyness. PMID:25709144

  9. Gender Differences in the Correlates of Adolescents' Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Andrew W.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents' gender-specific cannabis use rates and their correlates were examined. Data were obtained via a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2004 in British Columbia, Canada, funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. School districts were invited to participate, and schools within consenting districts were recruited. In total, 8,225 students (50% male)from Grades 7 to 12 participated. About 73% were “White” and 47% had used cannabis in their lifetime. Cannabis users were grouped according to their frequency of use: “never users” “frequent users” or “heavy users” Male heavy cannabis users (14.3% of boys) were more likely to be in Grade 9 or higher; be Aboriginal; report poorer economic status; never feel like an outsider; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with family, friends, and school compared with boys that never used. Female heavy users (8.7% of girls) were more likely to be in a higher grade; report poorer economic status, mental health, and academic performance; frequently use alcohol and tobacco; and have lower satisfaction with their school compared with female never users. Three important gender differences in the multivariate analysis of the correlates of cannabis use were noted: school grade (for boys only), Aboriginal status (for boys only), and mental health (for girls only). Despite the limitations of relying on self-reports, a subset of youth appears to be at risk for excessive cannabis use that may impair life opportunities and health. The gender differences may be important in the design and implementation of prevention or treatment programs for adolescents. PMID:18696378

  10. Demystifying Gender Differences in Mentoring: Theoretical Perspectives and Challenges for Future Research on Gender and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Angela M.; Cady, Steven; Foxon, Marguerite J.

    2006-01-01

    Issues of gender and mentoring are explored through several theoretical lenses--similarity-attraction paradigm, power dependence, social exchange, biological, and psychological theories--to provide a more comprehensive view of mentoring from a gender-based perspective. Issues related to gender and mentoring presented in past mentoring research and…

  11. Gender Differences in Core Symptomatology in Autism Spectrum Disorders across the Lifespan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tessa Taylor Rivet; Johnny L. Matson

    Although gender disparity in ASD has been long documented, research addressing gender related to core ASD symptomatology (e.g.,\\u000a domains, severity, breadth, etc.) is scant. The present research examined gender differences in ASD symptomatology in three\\u000a populations: infants and toddlers at risk for developmental disability, children and adolescents, and adults with intellectual\\u000a disability (ID). No significant gender differences in ASD symptoms

  12. Gender differences in moral orientation: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jaffee, S; Hyde, J S

    2000-09-01

    C. Gilligan's (1982) critique of L. Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning and her assertion that two modes of moral reasoning (justice and care) exist have been the subject of debate within the field of psychology for more than 15 years. This meta-analysis was conducted to review quantitatively the work on gender differences in moral orientation. The meta-analysis revealed small differences in the care orientation favoring females (d = -.28) and small differences in the justice orientation favoring males (d = .19). Together, the moderator variables accounted for 16% of the variance in the effect sizes for care reasoning and 17% of the variance in the effect sizes for justice reasoning. These findings do not offer strong support for the claim that the care orientation is used predominantly by women and that the justice orientation is used predominantly by men. PMID:10989620

  13. Gender and age differences in parent-child emotion talk.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Ana; Tenenbaum, Harriet R

    2015-03-01

    This study examined gender differences in emotion word use during mother-child and father-child conversations. Sixty-five Spanish mothers and fathers and their 4- (M = 53.50, SD = 3.54) and 6-year-old (M = 77.07, SD = 3.94) children participated in this study. Emotion talk was examined during a play-related storytelling task and a reminiscence task (conversation about past experiences). Mothers mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers. During the play-related storytelling task, mothers of 4-year-old daughters mentioned a higher proportion of emotion words than did mothers of 4-year-old sons, whereas fathers of 4-year-old daughters directed a higher proportion of emotion words than did fathers of 4-year-old sons during the reminiscence task. No gender differences were found with parents of 6-year-old children. During the reminiscence task daughters mentioned more emotion words with their fathers than with their mothers. Finally, mothers' use of emotion talk was related to whether children used emotion talk in both tasks. Fathers' use of emotion talk was only related to children's emotion talk during the reminiscence task. PMID:25387786

  14. Gender Differences in Perception of Romance in Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jie; Zhang, John X.; Xie, Jing; Zou, Zhiling; Huang, Xiting

    2013-01-01

    Women often complain that their partners are not romantic enough. This raises the question: how romance is recognized and evaluated in a love relationship? However, there has been essentially no empirical research bearing on this issue. The present set of studies examined possible gender differences in perceptions of romance and the associated neural mechanisms in Chinese college students. In Study 1, 303 participants (198 women, 105 men) were administrated a questionnaire consisting of 60 sentences and required to rate the romance level of each sentence. Results showed higher rating scores in males than females for low romance items, but not for high or medium romance items. In Study 2, 69 participants (37 women, 32 men) were recruited to judge the degree of romance in sentences presented on a computer screen one by one. Compared with females, males again showed higher scores and responded more slowly only to low romance items. In Study 3, 36 participants (18 women, 18 men) currently in love with someone were scanned with functional MRI while they did the romance judgment task from Study 2. Compared with females, greater brain activation was found for males in the frontal lobe, precentral gyrus, precuneus and parahippocampal gyrus for low romance items. The results provide the first piece of evidence for gender differences in romance perception, suggesting enhanced cognitive processing in males when evaluating the degree of romance in romantic scenes. PMID:24146853

  15. When does the Gender Difference in Rumination Begin? Gender and Age Differences in the Use of Rumination by Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Jose; Isobel Brown

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional non-clinical sample of 1,218 adolescents, aged 10–17 years, completed measures of stress, rumination, and\\u000a depression to allow tests of the response style theory of S. Nolen-Hoeksema [J Res Adolesc 4:519–534, 1994] in adolescents,\\u000a in particular whether increasing levels of stress and rumination in early adolescence are predictive of the onset of the gender\\u000a difference in depression. Overall, females

  16. Brain Switches Utilitarian Behavior: Does Gender Make the Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Fumagalli, Manuela; Vergari, Maurizio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Marceglia, Sara; Mameli, Francesca; Ferrucci, Roberta; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Zago, Stefano; Sartori, Giuseppe; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Barbieri, Sergio; Cappa, Stefano; Priori, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Decision often implies a utilitarian choice based on personal gain, even at the expense of damaging others. Despite the social implications of utilitarian behavior, its neurophysiological bases remain largely unknown. To assess how the human brain controls utilitarian behavior, we delivered transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPC) and over the occipital cortex (OC) in 78 healthy subjects. Utilitarian judgment was assessed with the moral judgment task before and after tDCS. At baseline, females provided fewer utilitarian answers than males for personal moral dilemmas (p?=?.007). In males, VPC-tDCS failed to induce changes and in both genders OC-tDCS left utilitarian judgments unchanged. In females, cathodal VPC-tDCS tended to decrease whereas anodal VPC-tDCS significantly increased utilitarian responses (p?=?.005). In males and females, reaction times for utilitarian responses significantly decreased after cathodal (p<.001) but not after anodal (p?=?.735) VPC-tDCS. We conclude that ventral prefrontal tDCS interferes with utilitarian decisions, influencing the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of each option in both sexes, but does so more strongly in females. Whereas cathodal tDCS alters the time for utilitarian reasoning in both sexes, anodal stimulation interferes more incisively in women, modifying utilitarian reasoning and the possible consequent actions. The gender-related tDCS-induced changes suggest that the VPC differentially controls utilitarian reasoning in females and in males. The gender-specific functional organization of the brain areas involved in utilitarian behavior could be a correlate of the moral and social behavioral differences between the two sexes. PMID:20111608

  17. Gender differences, polypharmacy, and potential pharmacological interactions in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Carina Duarte; Engroff, Paula; Ely, Luísa Scheer; de Araújo Zago, Luísa Faria; Schroeter, Guilherme; Gomes, Irenio; De Carli, Geraldo Attilio; Morrone, Fernanda Bueno

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze pharmacological interactions among drugs taken by elderly patients and their age and gender differences in a population from Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the database provided by the Institute of Geriatric and Gerontology, Porto Alegre, Brazil. The database was composed of 438 elderly and includes information about the patients' disease, therapy regimens, utilized drugs. All drugs reported by the elderly patients were classified using the Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification System. The drug-drug interactions and their severity were assessed using the Micromedex® Healthcare Series. RESULTS: Of the 438 elderly patients in the data base, 376 (85.8%) used pharmacotherapy, 274 were female, and 90.4% of females used drugs. The average number of drugs used by each individual younger than 80 years was 3.2±2.6. Women younger than 80 years old used more drugs than men in the same age group whereas men older than 80 years increased their use of drugs in relation to other age groups. Therefore, 32.6% of men and 49.2% of women described at least one interaction, and 8.1% of men and 10.6% of women described four or more potential drug-drug interactions. Two-thirds of drug-drug interactions were moderate in both genders, and most of them involved angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, loop and thiazide diuretics, and ?-blockers. CONCLUSION: Elderly patients should be closely monitored, based on drug class, gender, age group and nutritional status. PMID:22086515

  18. [Aspirin in cardiovascular prevention: does the approach differ by gender?].

    PubMed

    Temizhan, Ahmet

    2007-12-01

    Although aspirin is effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome and in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease among both men and women, its use in primary prevention remains controversial. The gender-specific meta-analysis demonstrates that the specific types of benefit of aspirin therapy differ between women and men in primary prevention. For primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in women, aspirin therapy significantly reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular events primarily by its effect on reducing the risk of stroke. In contrast, in men; aspirin therapy significantly reduced the risk of the composite of cardiovascular events predominantly by reducing the risk of myocardial infarction. The reasons for any sex-based differences in the efficacy of aspirin for primary prevention are unclear and require further exploration. PMID:18160359

  19. Gender differences in recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374

  20. Kinematic differences between gender specific and traditional knee implants.

    PubMed

    Saevarsson, Stefan K; Sharma, Gulshan B; Ramm, Heiko; Lieck, Robert; Hutchison, Carol R; Werle, Jason; Matthiasdottir, Sigrun; Montgomery, Spencer J; Romeo, Carolina I; Zachow, Stefan; Anglin, Carolyn

    2013-10-01

    In the ongoing debate about gender-specific (GS) vs. traditional knee implants, there is limited information about patella-specific outcomes. GS femoral component features should provide better patellar tracking, but techniques have not existed previously to test this accurately. Using novel computed tomography and radiography imaging protocols, 15 GS knees were compared to 10 traditional knees, for the 6 degrees of freedom of the patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joints throughout the range of motion, plus other geometric measures and quality of life (QOL). Significant differences were found for patellar medial/lateral shift, where the patella was shifted more laterally for the GS femoral component. Neither group demonstrated patellar maltracking. There were no other significant differences in this well-functioning group. PMID:23623459

  1. Clinical epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: assessing sex and gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Rocca, Walter A

    2014-01-01

    With the aging of the population, the burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rapidly expanding. More than 5 million people in the US alone are affected with AD and this number is expected to triple by 2050. While men may have a higher risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an intermediate stage between normal aging and dementia, women are disproportionally affected with AD. One explanation is that men may die of competing causes of death earlier in life, so that only the most resilient men may survive to older ages. However, many other factors should also be considered to explain the sex differences. In this review, we discuss the differences observed in men versus women in the incidence and prevalence of MCI and AD, in the structure and function of the brain, and in the sex-specific and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD. In medical research, sex refers to biological differences such as chromosomal differences (eg, XX versus XY chromosomes), gonadal differences, or hormonal differences. In contrast, gender refers to psychosocial and cultural differences between men and women (eg, access to education and occupation). Both factors play an important role in the development and progression of diseases, including AD. Understanding both sex- and gender-specific risk and protective factors for AD is critical for developing individualized interventions for the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24470773

  2. Gender differences in emotion expression in children: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Chaplin, Tara M; Aldao, Amelia

    2013-07-01

    Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences and moderators of differences in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant but very small gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = -.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = -.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = -.20) and adolescence (g = -.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = -.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children's healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

  3. Cross-National Patterns of Gender Differences in Mathematics: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Linn, Marcia C.

    2010-01-01

    A gender gap in mathematics achievement persists in some nations but not in others. In light of the underrepresentation of women in careers in science, technology, mathematics, and engineering, increasing research attention is being devoted to understanding gender differences in mathematics achievement, attitudes, and affect. The gender

  4. Cyberbullying Experience and Gender Differences among Adolescents in Different Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and…

  5. The Benefits and Drawbacks of Gender Typing: How Different Dimensions are Related to Psychological Adjustment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew D. DiDonato; Sheri A. Berenbaum

    2011-01-01

    The benefits versus costs of gender typing are not clear: Is adjustment optimal when people identify and act in strongly gendered\\u000a ways or when they embrace characteristics of both sexes? Previous findings are inconsistent, in part because they are derived\\u000a from different conceptualizations of gender typing. A comprehensive understanding of the mental health consequences of gender\\u000a typing requires recognition of

  6. Gender Differences in Attitudes Toward Science and Technology Among Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhale, Anu A.; Rabe-Hemp, Cara; Woeste, Lori; Machina, Kenton

    2014-12-01

    In the USA, women have consistently been proportionally underrepresented in science and technology (S&T). In these disciplines, as students move from high schools to colleges to graduate programs, qualified women drop out at higher rates than do men, resulting in a striking loss of talented students. Attitude toward a discipline is one of the major factors in students' choice of majors. As a result, attitudes toward S&T are issues with longstanding attention and interest in education research. Retention of female students in S&T majors remains a major concern. The purpose of the study was to investigate attitudes toward S&T including attitudes toward female participation in S&T, among S&T majors, and examine differences by gender and class standing. Such an investigation would provide deeper insights to help devise strategies to retain women in S&T majors.

  7. Managing an academic career in science: What gender differences exist and why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Gayle Patrice

    The present study examines the career trajectories of academic scientists during the period from 1993 to 2001 to explore gender differences in mobility. Data from the National Science Foundation's Survey of Doctorate Recipients are used to examine and compare gender differences in the odds of promotion. The effects of age, marital and family status, duration of time to complete doctorate, academic discipline, cumulative number of publications and time in the survey are considered as explanatory variables. Event history analyses are conducted for all scientists, for scientists in four major academic disciplines and for scientists in various academic ranks. While no overall gender differences were observed in the odds of promotion, several important similarities and differences were evident. Expectedly, publications had a significant and positive relationship with advancement for both women and men. The role of parent influenced promotions quite differently for women and men. Contrary to expectations based on prior research, academic women scientists who were mothers advanced at similar rates as women without children. Consistent with expectations based on traditional roles, married men and men with children generally advanced more quickly than single or childless men, respectively. Two surprising patterns emerged among subgroups of women. Marriage was associated with greater odds of advancement for women engineers and motherhood was associated with greater odds of advancement for among assistant professors. Possible explanations for these findings are presented.

  8. Gender Differences in Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors: A Review of Meta-Analytic Results and Large Datasets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer L. Petersen; Janet Shibley Hyde

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors are typically believed to be large, yet recent evidence suggests that some gender differences in sexuality are much smaller than common knowledge would suggest. This article reviews gender differences in sexual attitudes and behaviors as reported by major meta-analyses and large datasets. In particular, this article reviews gender differences in heterosexual intercourse, masturbation,

  9. Gender Differences in the Accuracy of Self-Evaluations of Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia Beyer; E. Bowden

    1990-01-01

    Research has shown that gender differences in self-perceptions exist. However, interpretational ambiguities make it impossible to determine whether these gender differences are due to the operation of biases. The present research investigated whether gender differences in biased self-perceptions exist by assessing the accuracy of posttask self-evaluations of performance. In accordance with self-consistency theory, it was hypothesized that Ss' expectancies affect

  10. Gender Differences in the Interpersonal Consequences of Early-Onset Depressive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen D. Rudolph; Gary W. Ladd; Lisa. Dinella

    2007-01-01

    Although research has identified gender differences in the interpersonal antecedents of depressive symptoms in youth, little is known about gender differences in the interpersonal consequences of depression. The goal of the present research was to examine gender differences in the influence of early-onset depressive symptoms on adolescent friendships and self-perceived peer acceptance. Third-graders (N = 382) participated in a multiwave

  11. [Gender differences of Pomacea canaliculata in cold tolerance].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Guo, Jing; Xu, Wu-Bing; Zhang, Jia-En; Zhao, Ben-Liang; Luo, Ming-Zhu

    2014-06-01

    In order to understand whether Pomacea canaliculata exhibits gender differences in cold resistance, the survival rate and supercooling point of both P. canaliculata females and males were investigated at low temperature. The changes in physiological and biochemical indices in the body of P. canaliculata before and after the winter were also examined. The results showed that the mean supercooling point of females was -6.83 degrees C, which was significantly lower than that of the males (-6.26 degrees C). With the arrival of winter, the amounts of bound water, glycerol, lipid and glycogen of P. canaliculata increased, while the amount of free water decreased. These indices except glycerol showed significant differences between males and females. More than 90% non-acclimated snails could survive at the temperature of 10 degrees C for 7 days. The survival rate of snails exhibited significant differences in sex and shell height after being transferred at 5 degrees C for 7 days. In addition, more females were recorded during field investigation. Based on these results, we concluded that the females had higher cold tolerance than the males. This finding would provide some references for further investigation of ecological adaptation, natural sex ratio and cold tolerance mechanisms of P. canaliculata. PMID:25223040

  12. Threading "Stitches" to Approach Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North, Connie E.

    2010-01-01

    As LGBTQI (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer/questioning, and intersex) issues become increasingly integrated into multicultural education discourses, we as educators need to examine the implications of our pedagogies for teaching about gender and sexual identities. This article explores my teaching of non-conforming gender identities in…

  13. Sympathy and Personal Distress: Development, Gender Differences, and Interrelations of Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates developmental change and gender differences in sympathy and personal distress reactions in children. Examines interrelations among indexes used to assess sympathy and personal distress. (PCB)

  14. Feature selection gait-based gender classification under different circumstances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabir, Azhin; Al-Jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a gender classification based on human gait features and investigates the problem of two variations: clothing (wearing coats) and carrying bag condition as addition to the normal gait sequence. The feature vectors in the proposed system are constructed after applying wavelet transform. Three different sets of feature are proposed in this method. First, Spatio-temporal distance that is dealing with the distance of different parts of the human body (like feet, knees, hand, Human Height and shoulder) during one gait cycle. The second and third feature sets are constructed from approximation and non-approximation coefficient of human body respectively. To extract these two sets of feature we divided the human body into two parts, upper and lower body part, based on the golden ratio proportion. In this paper, we have adopted a statistical method for constructing the feature vector from the above sets. The dimension of the constructed feature vector is reduced based on the Fisher score as a feature selection method to optimize their discriminating significance. Finally k-Nearest Neighbor is applied as a classification method. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach is providing more realistic scenario and relatively better performance compared with the existing approaches.

  15. Age and gender differences in seven tests of functional mobility

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Annie A; Menant, Jasmine C; Tiedemann, Anne C; Lord, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine age and gender differences in seven tests of functional mobility. Methods The study included 50 young participants aged 20 to 39 years, and 684 older participants aged 75 to 98 years. Functional mobility measures included the coordinated stability test, the near tandem balance test, the six metre walk test, the sit to stand test with five repetitions, the alternate step test and the stair ascent and descent tests. Results Older participants performed significantly worse than the younger participants in all of the functional mobility tests (p < 0.001), with the older women performing worse than the older men in all of the tests (p < 0.05). Significant correlations were found within the older group among all the functional mobility tests scores (r = 0.24–0.87, p < 0.001), and between functional mobility performance and age (r = 0.14–0.35, p < 0.001). People with arthritis and stroke performed worse than people without these conditions in these tests. Conclusion This study provides a normative database for performance of young and older community-dwelling people in a battery of validated and reliable functional mobility tests. The results confirm age-related differences in functional mobility between young and older adults. PMID:19642991

  16. Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Feng; Ian Spence; Jay Pratt

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a previously unknown gender difference in the distribution of spatial attention, a basic capacitythatsupportshigher-levelspatialcognition.More remarkably, we found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender dispar- ity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition. After only 10 hr of training with an ac-

  17. Gender Differences in Large-Scale Math Assessments: PISA Trend 2000 and 2003

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ou Lydia Liu; Mark Wilson

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to determine and explain differential gender performance on large-scale mathematics assessments. A well-agreed-on conclusion is that gender differences are contextualized and vary across math domains. This study investigated the pattern of gender differences by item domain (e.g., Space and Shape, Quantity) and item type (e.g., multiple-choice items, open constructed-response items). The U.S. portion of the

  18. Gender Differences in the Structure of Career-Related Aspects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; Givon, Michal

    One of the sources for the observed differences between the occupational choices and preferences of women and men may be the way in which they perceive the considerations or aspects which are taken into account in the process of career decision making. That is, the different meanings men and women attribute to the various aspects may give rise to…

  19. Gender Differences in Public and Private Drinking Contexts: A Multi-Level GENACIS Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Jason C.; Roberts, Sarah C.M.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Korcha, Rachael; Ye, Yu; Nayak, Madhabika B.

    2010-01-01

    This multi-national study hypothesized that higher levels of country-level gender equality would predict smaller differences in the frequency of women’s compared to men’s drinking in public (like bars and restaurants) settings and possibly private (home or party) settings. GENACIS project survey data with drinking contexts included 22 countries in Europe (8); the Americas (7); Asia (3); Australasia (2), and Africa (2), analyzed using hierarchical linear models (individuals nested within country). Age, gender and marital status were individual predictors; country-level gender equality as well as equality in economic participation, education, and political participation, and reproductive autonomy and context of violence against women measures were country-level variables. In separate models, more reproductive autonomy, economic participation, and educational attainment and less violence against women predicted smaller differences in drinking in public settings. Once controlling for country-level economic status, only equality in economic participation predicted the size of the gender difference. Most country-level variables did not explain the gender difference in frequency of drinking in private settings. Where gender equality predicted this difference, the direction of the findings was opposite from the direction in public settings, with more equality predicting a larger gender difference, although this relationship was no longer significant after controlling for country-level economic status. Findings suggest that country-level gender equality may influence gender differences in drinking. However, the effects of gender equality on drinking may depend on the specific alcohol measure, in this case drinking context, as well as on the aspect of gender equality considered. Similar studies that use only global measures of gender equality may miss key relationships. We consider potential implications for alcohol related consequences, policy and public health. PMID:20623016

  20. Racial/Ethnic and Gender Differences in Individual Workplace Injury Risk Trajectories: 1988–1998

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. I examined workplace injury risk over time and across racial/ethnic and gender groups to observe patterns of change and to understand how occupational characteristics and job mobility influence these changes. Methods. I used hierarchical generalized linear models to estimate individual workplace injury and illness risk over time (“trajectories”) for a cohort of American workers who participated in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1988–1998). Results. Significant temporal variation in injury risk was observed across racial/ethnic and gender groups. At baseline, White men had a high risk of injury relative to the other groups and experienced the greatest decline over time. Latino men demonstrated a pattern of lower injury risk across time compared with White men. Among both Latinos and non-Latino Whites, women had lower odds of injury than did men. Non-Latino Black women's injury risk was similar to Black men's and greater than that for both Latino and non-Latino White women. Occupational characteristics and job mobility partly explained these differences. Conclusions. Disparities between racial/ethnic and gender groups were dynamic and changed over time. Workplace injury risk was associated with job dimensions such as work schedule, union representation, health insurance, job hours, occupational racial segregation, and occupational environmental hazards. PMID:18235072

  1. Gender differences in self-assessments at the application interface

    E-print Network

    Campero Molina, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have shown that supply side sorting processes at the job application interface contribute to both vertical and horizontal gender job segregation. A prominent set of theories focused on the supply side stress ...

  2. Loud speech over noise: some spectral attributes, with gender differences.

    PubMed

    Ternström, Sten; Bohman, Mikael; Södersten, Maria

    2006-03-01

    In seeking an acoustic description of overloaded voice, simulated environmental noise was used to elicit loud speech. A total of 23 adults, 12 females and 11 males, read six passages of 90 s duration, over realistic noise presented over loudspeakers. The noise was canceled out, exposing the speech signal to analysis. Spectrum balance (SB) was defined as the level of the 2-6 kHz band relative to the 0.1-1 kHz band. SB averaged across many similar vowel segments became less negative with increasing sound pressure level (SPL), as described in the literature, but only at moderate SPL. At high SPL, SB exhibited a personal "saturation" point, above which the high-band level no longer increased faster than the overall SPL, or even stopped increasing altogether, on average at 90.3 dB (@30 cm) for females and 95.5 dB for males. Saturation occurred 6-8 dB below the personal maximum SPL, regardless of gender. The loudest productions were often characterized by a relative increase in low-frequency energy, apparently in a sharpened first formant. This suggests a change of vocal strategy when the high spectrum can rise no further. The progression of SB with SPL was characteristically different for individual subjects. PMID:16583909

  3. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  4. Children's Reasoning about Gender-Atypical Preferences in Different Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conry-Murray, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Two age groups of children, 5- and 6-year-olds (n = 30) and 8- and 9-year-olds (n = 26), made judgments about which of two items a character should choose: a gender-typical item or a gender-atypical item that was preferred by the character. Judgments were made about situations where the character was (a) in a familiar public setting and (b) in a…

  5. Gender Differences in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Autism and Fragile X Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicole J. Rinehart; Kim M. Cornish; Bruce J. Tonge

    \\u000a Gender is an important factor to consider in understanding the clinical presentation, management, and developmental trajectory\\u000a of children with neuropsychiatric disorders. While much is known about the clinical and neurobehavioural profiles of boys\\u000a with neuropsychiatric disorders, surprisingly little is known about girls. The aim of this chapter was to review our understanding\\u000a of gender by considering the most prevalent childhood

  6. On difference and capital: gender and the globalization of production.

    PubMed

    Bair, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This article is both a review of, and an intervention in, the literature on gender and the globalization of production. Via a discussion of six key texts analyzing export-oriented manufacturing, ranging from Maria Mies's Lace Makers of Narsapur to Melissa Wright's Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism, I show that, over time, the focus has shifted from an emphasis on the feminization of manufacturing as a defining feature of globalization to an appreciation of the diverse and contingent ways in which gender matters for offshore production. While this recent scholarship highlights variability in gendered labor regimes at the global-local nexus, I argue that it is also critically important to ask what is similar about the many locations on the global assembly line that have been studied. Specifically, we must look to how gender, as a set of context-specific meanings and practices, works within the macrostructure of the global economy and its systemic logic of capital accumulation. In other words, while capitalism does not determine the concrete modalities of gender that exist in a given locale, it is essential for explaining the gendered dimension of transnational production as a patterned regularity of contemporary globalization. PMID:20827855

  7. Gender \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Lecarme

    2002-01-01

    The concept of polarity (Meinhof 1912) stands for a widely recognized principle said to be operative in the Afroasiatic languages, the core case being the polarity patterns of gender reversals in Cushitic. As is quite well-known, only internal plurals seem to keep the same gender as the base singular form in Somali: d?in (m)'tortoise'\\/ diin-?-n (m)'tortoises'(see section 3.2.2). Other plurals,

  8. Exploring Gender Differences in Colon Cancer Screening Knowledge and Health Beliefs among African Americans

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    Exploring Gender Differences in Colon Cancer Screening Knowledge and Health Beliefs among African University-Purdue University Indianapolis, IN 46204 Mentor: Susan M. Rawl African Americans are diagnosed of the study was to examine gender differences among 817 African American primary care patients who are overdue

  9. Gender Differences In Learning Style Specific To Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Milgram, Donna

    This webpage features an article by Donna Milgram of IWITTS that explores the gender differences in teaching science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). There are gender differences in learning styles specific to science, math, engineering and technology (STEM) that teachers of these subjects should keep in mind when developing lesson plans and teaching in the classroom.

  10. Understanding Gender Differences in Anxiety: The Mediating Effects of Instrumentality and Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalta, Alyson K.; Chambless, Dianne L.

    2012-01-01

    Developing a better understanding of modifiable psychological factors that account for gender differences in anxiety may provide insight into interventions that can be used to target these risk processes. The authors developed a mediational model to examine the degree to which gender differences in anxiety are explained by instrumentality and…

  11. Gender Differences in Learning Styles of Cree, Dene and Metis Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamaoka, Katsuo

    Gender differences in various aspects of cognitive ability may be related to cultural sex roles. This paper examines gender differences in learning styles among three groups of Canada Natives. Canfield's Learning Styles Inventory, Form E, was administered to 280 Cree, Dene, and Metis (mixed-blood) students in Grades 7-9 in northern Saskatchewan…

  12. Gender Differences in Writing Self-Beliefs of Elementary School Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Pajares; M. David Miller; Margaret J. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the nature of gender differences in the writing self-beliefs of elementary school students in Grades 3, 4, and 5 (N = 363). Girls were judged superior writers, but there were no gender differences in writing self-efficacy after controlling for writing aptitude. However, girls expressed that they were better writers than were other boys or girls in their

  13. Handsome Wants as Handsome Does: Physical Attractiveness and Gender Differences in Revealed Sexual Preferences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Aura McClintock

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n?=?14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I

  14. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

  15. On sex\\/gender related similarities and differences in fMRI language research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anelis Kaiser; Sven Haller; Sigrid Schmitz; Cordula Nitsch

    2009-01-01

    Again and again, attempts have been made to find correlates of sex\\/gender differences in the human brain. Despite the insistence with which differences have been stated, empirical results have not been unequivocal: evidence for and against the influence of sex in the makeup of men's and women's brains has been presented. This article focuses on the relevance of sex\\/gender related

  16. Gender differences in self reported long term outcomes following moderate to severe traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Colantonio; Jocelyn E Harris; Graham Ratcliff; Susan Chase; Kristina Ellis

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of research on health outcomes after a traumatic brain injury is focused on male participants. Information examining gender differences in health outcomes post traumatic brain injury is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in symptoms reported after a traumatic brain injury and to examine the degree to which these symptoms are problematic

  17. Gender differences in perceptions of emotionality: The case of close heterosexual relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Sprecher; Constantine Sedikides

    1993-01-01

    Previous research suggests some support for the stereotype that women are the more emotional gender, but very little research has examined whether women are more emotional than men in the context of close relationships. We examined gender differences in reports of emotions experienced and expressed in close heterosexual relationships. A sample of 197 couples (at different stages of relationship involvement),

  18. Gender Differences in Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression and Behavior Problems in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvete, Esther; Cardenoso, Olga

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed gender differences in cognitive variables as an explanation for gender differences in depression and behavior problems; 856 adolescents (491 females and 365 males), aged 14-17, completed the Irrational Beliefs Scale for Adolescents, the Social Problem Solving Inventory--Revised Short Form, the adolescent version of the Burnett…

  19. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  20. Does Type of Disease Matter? Gender Differences Among Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease Spouse Caregivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Hooker; Margaret Manoogian-O; Deborah J. Monahan; Leslie D. Frazier; Kim Shifren

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of study: Mental health outcomes are widely re- ported among spouse caregivers, with wives generally faring worse than husbands. We hypothesized that gender differ- ences would not be as strong in a cognitively intact group be- cause caring for cognitively intact spouses may involve less severe reciprocity losses. We also examined gender differ- ences in coping strategies within each

  1. Are Gender Differences in Perceived and Demonstrated Technology Literacy Significant? It Depends on the Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohlfeld, Tina N.; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.; Barron, Ann E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines gender differences related to Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy using two valid and internally consistent measures with eighth grade students (N = 1,513) from Florida public schools. The results of t test statistical analyses, which examined only gender differences in demonstrated and perceived ICT skills,…

  2. A meta-analysis on gender differences in negotiation outcomes and their moderators.

    PubMed

    Mazei, Jens; Hüffmeier, Joachim; Freund, Philipp Alexander; Stuhlmacher, Alice F; Bilke, Lena; Hertel, Guido

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis investigates gender differences in economic negotiation outcomes. As suggested by role congruity theory, we assume that the behaviors that increase economic negotiation outcomes are more congruent with the male as compared with the female gender role, thereby presenting challenges for women's negotiation performance and reducing their outcomes. Importantly, this main effect is predicted to be moderated by person-based, situation-based, and task-based influences that make effective negotiation behavior more congruent with the female gender role, which should in turn reduce or even reverse gender differences in negotiation outcomes. Using a multilevel modeling approach, this meta-analysis includes 123 effect sizes (overall N = 10,888, including undergraduate and graduate students as well as businesspeople). Studies were included when they enabled the calculation of an effect size reflecting gender differences in achieved economic negotiation outcomes. As predicted, men achieved better economic outcomes than women on average, but gender differences strongly depended on the context: Moderator analysis revealed that gender differences favoring men were reduced when negotiators had negotiation experience, when they received information about the bargaining range, and when they negotiated on behalf of another individual. Moreover, gender differences were reversed under conditions of the lowest predicted role incongruity for women. In conclusion, gender differences in negotiations are contextually bound and can be subject to change. Future research is needed that investigates the underlying mechanisms of new moderators revealed in the current research (e.g., experience). Implications for theoretical explanations of gender differences in negotiation outcomes, for gender inequalities in the workplace, and for future research are discussed. PMID:25420223

  3. Gender Differences in Emotion Expression in Children: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Aldao, Amelia

    2012-01-01

    Emotion expression is an important feature of healthy child development that has been found to show gender differences. However, there has been no empirical review of the literature on gender and facial, vocal, and behavioral expressions of different types of emotions in children. The present study constitutes a comprehensive meta-analytic review of gender differences, and moderators of differences, in emotion expression from infancy through adolescence. We analyzed 555 effect sizes from 166 studies with a total of 21,709 participants. Significant, but very small, gender differences were found overall, with girls showing more positive emotions (g = ?.08) and internalizing emotions (e.g., sadness, anxiety, sympathy; g = ?.10) than boys, and boys showing more externalizing emotions (e.g., anger; g = .09) than girls. Notably, gender differences were moderated by age, interpersonal context, and task valence, underscoring the importance of contextual factors in gender differences. Gender differences in positive emotions were more pronounced with increasing age, with girls showing more positive emotions than boys in middle childhood (g = ?.20) and adolescence (g = ?.28). Boys showed more externalizing emotions than girls at toddler/preschool age (g = .17) and middle childhood (g = .13) and fewer externalizing emotions than girls in adolescence (g = ?.27). Gender differences were less pronounced with parents and were more pronounced with unfamiliar adults (for positive emotions) and with peers/when alone (for externalizing emotions). Our findings of gender differences in emotion expression in specific contexts have important implications for gender differences in children’s healthy and maladaptive development. PMID:23231534

  4. Gender differences in self-conscious emotional experience: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Higgins, Ashley; Allison, Carlie; Morton, Lindsay C

    2012-09-01

    The self-conscious emotions (SCE) of guilt, shame, pride, and embarrassment are moral emotions, which motivate adherence to social norms and personal standards and emerge in early childhood following the development of self-awareness. Gender stereotypes of emotion maintain that women experience more guilt, shame, and embarrassment but that men experience more pride. To estimate the magnitude of gender differences in SCE experience and to determine the circumstances under which these gender differences vary, we meta-analyzed 697 effect sizes representing 236,304 individual ratings of SCE states and traits from 382 journal articles, dissertations, and unpublished data sets. Guilt (d = -0.27) and shame (d = -0.29) displayed small gender differences, whereas embarrassment (d = -0.08), authentic pride (d = -0.01), and hubristic pride (d = 0.09) showed gender similarities. Similar to previous findings of ethnic variations in gender differences in other psychological variables, gender differences in shame and guilt were significant only for White samples or samples with unspecified ethnicity. We found larger gender gaps in shame with trait (vs. state) scales, and in guilt and shame with situation- and scenario-based (vs. adjective- and statement-based) items, consistent with predictions that such scales and items tend to tap into global, nonspecific assessments of the self and thus reflect self-stereotyping and gender role assimilative effects. Gender differences in SCE about domains such as the body, sex, and food or eating tended to be larger than gender differences in SCE about other domains. These findings contribute to the literature demonstrating that blanket stereotypes about women's greater emotionality are inaccurate. PMID:22468881

  5. Gender Differences in Mathematics Achievement Between Canadian and Asian Education Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Ma

    1995-01-01

    Gender-related issues were examined in four education systems (British Columbia, Ontario, Hong Kong, and Japan) based on algebra and geometry achievement data of Population A (13-year-olds) and Population B (high school seniors) from the Second International Mathematics Study (SIMS). The results showed (a) no significant interaction effects between gender and education system, (b) no significant gender differences in algebra, and

  6. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1?year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1?year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12?months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12?months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12?months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12?months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12?months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  7. Gender Role Development in Japanese Culture: Diminishing Gender Role Differences in a Contemporary Society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Sugihara; Emiko Katsurada

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the Japanese Gender Role Index (JGRI) and Japanese men's and women's self-ratings on the scale. Two hundred ninety-six Japanese words that describe masculine and feminine characteristics were gathered. Examination of endorsements by 200 Japanese participants indicated 66 items as socially desirable characteristics for either men or women in the society. The validation process, including

  8. Gender Differences in Learning Styles: Nurturing a Gender and Style Sensitive Computer Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Wilfred Wing Fat; Yuen, Allan Hoi Kau

    2010-01-01

    The gender digital divide has been widely discussed and researched over the years. Previous studies have focused on a number of factors such as computer attitude, computer anxiety, computer self-efficacy, and computer experience. This study empirically tested the sensitivity of a learning style instrument, the "Gregorc Style Delineator" (GSD), to…

  9. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Tolerance to Short Arm Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fong, Kevin J.; Arya, Maneesh; Paloski, William H.

    2007-01-01

    In preparation for the NASA Artificial Gravity (AG) pilot study, the tolerability of the proposed AG parameters was tested in 11 ambulatory human subjects (6m, 5w) by exposing each to a short arm centrifuge trial. Subjects were oriented in the supine position (but inclined 6deg head down) on one arm of the centrifuge, and the rotation rate (30.6-33.4 rpm) and radial position of the feet were set to produce 2.5G of equivalent gravitational load at the force plate directly beneath the feet, 1G at the level of the mediastinum, and approximately 0.55G at the labyrinth. Amongst the 6 men participating in this preliminary study, 5 completed at least 60 minutes of the trial successfully with no adverse sequelae. However, amongst the female cohort the test was stopped by the medical monitor before 60 min in all but one case, with pre-syncope listed as the reason for termination in all cases. Mean time before abort of the centrifuge run amongst the women was 33.2 +/- 20.97 min. It is known that women have a greater predisposition to syncope during orthostatic stress, under normal tilt table conditions, during LBNP, and following space flight. The reasons for this difference are the subject of some debate, but anthropometric factors, the vasoactive effects of sex hormones, gender differences in susceptibility to motion sickness, catecholamine levels, ability to augment total peripheral resistance in response to orthostatic stress, and structural differences in cardiac anatomy and physiology have all been suggested. This finding led to the exclusion of women from the AG pilot study. Clearly if AG is to be employed as a multi-system countermeasure it must provide physiological protection at rotation rates within the tolerance limits of all potential astronauts. Further investigation of the responses of women to centrifugation will be necessary to determine how to adjust AG parameters for tolerance by female subjects before a more detailed investigation of the appropriate dose in terms of G load, rotation rate, exposure duration and frequency can be performed.

  10. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  11. Gender differences in brain structure and resting-state functional connectivity related to narcissistic personality

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenjing; Cun, Lingli; Du, Xue; Yang, Junyi; Wang, Yanqiu; Wei, Dongtao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Although cognitive and personality studies have observed gender differences in narcissism, the neural bases of these differences remain unknown. The current study combined the voxel-based morphometry and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) analyses to explore the sex-specific neural basis of narcissistic personality. The VBM results showed that the relationship between narcissistic personality and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differed between sexes. Narcissistic scores had a significant positive correlation with the rGMV of the right SPL in females, but not in males. Further analyses were conducted to investigate the sex-specific relationship between rsFC and narcissism, using right SPL/frontal eye fields (FEF) as the seed regions (key nodes of the dorsal attention network, DAN). Interestingly, decreased anticorrelations between the right SPL/FEF and areas of the precuneus and middle frontal gyrus (key nodes of the the default mode network, DMN) were associated with higher narcissistic personality scores in males, whereas females showed the opposite tendency. The findings indicate that gender differences in narcissism may be associated with differences in the intrinsic and dynamic interplay between the internally-directed DMN and the externally-directed TPN. Morphometry and functional connectivity analyses can enhance our understanding of the neural basis of sex-specific narcissism. PMID:26109334

  12. A single-unit design structure and gender differences in the swimming world championships.

    PubMed

    Pushkar, Svetlana; Issurin, Vladimir B; Verbitsky, Oleg

    2014-09-29

    Four 50 meter male/female finals - the freestyle, butterfly, breaststroke, and backstroke - swum during individual events at the Swimming World Championships (SWCs) can be defined in four clusters. The aim of the present study was to use a single-unit design structure, in which the swimmer was defined at only one scale, to evaluate gender differences in start reaction times among elite swimmers in 50 m events. The top six male and female swimmers in the finals of four swimming stroke final events in six SWCs were analyzed. An unpaired t-test was used. The p-values were evaluated using Neo-Fisherian significance assessments (Hurlbert and Lombardi, 2012). For the freestyle, gender differences in the start reaction times were positively identified for five of the six SWCs. For the backstroke, gender differences in the start reaction times could be dismissed for five of the six SWCs. For both the butterfly and breaststroke, gender differences in the start reaction times yielded inconsistent statistical differences. Pooling all swimmers together (df = 286) showed that an overall gender difference in the start reaction times could be positively identified: p = 0.00004. The contrast between the gender differences in start reaction times between the freestyle and backstroke may be associated with different types of gender adaptations to swimming performances. When the natural groupings of swimming stroke final events were ignored, sacrificial pseudoreplication occurred, which may lead to erroneous statistical differences. PMID:25414754

  13. Content-specific gender differences in emotion ratings from early to late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; von Gunten, Armin; Danuser, Brigitta

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of gender differences in emotion has attracted much attention given the potential ramifications on our understanding of sexual differences in disorders involving emotion dysregulation. Yet, research on content-specific gender differences across adulthood in emotional responding is lacking. The aims of the present study were twofold. First, we sought to investigate to what extent gender differences in the self-reported emotional experience are content specific. Second, we sought to determine whether gender differences are stable across the adult lifespan. We assessed valence and arousal ratings of 14 picture series, each of a different content, in 94 men and 118 women aged 20 to 81. Compared to women, men reacted more positively to erotic images, whereas women rated low-arousing pleasant family scenes and landscapes as particularly positive. Women displayed a disposition to respond with greater defensive activation (i.e., more negative valence and higher arousal), in particular to the most arousing unpleasant contents. Importantly, significant interactions between gender and age were not found for any single content. This study makes a novel contribution by showing that gender differences in the affective experiences in response to different contents persist across the adult lifespan. These findings support the "stability hypothesis" of gender differences across age. PMID:24111725

  14. Gender Differences in Response to Emotional Stress: An Assessment Across Subjective, Behavioral, and Physiological Domains and Relations to Alcohol Craving

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Hong, Kwangik; Bergquist, Keri; Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    Background Women and men are at risk for different types of stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for depression and anxiety and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders. The present study examines gender differences in emotional and alcohol craving responses to stress that may relate to this gender divergence in disorders. Method Healthy adult social drinkers (27 men, 27 women) were exposed to individually developed and calibrated stressful, alcohol-related, and neutral-relaxing imagery, 1 imagery per session, on separate days and in random order. Subjective emotions, behavioral/bodily responses, cardiovascular arousal [heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP)], and self-reported alcohol craving were assessed. Results Women reported and displayed greater sadness and anxiety following stress than men and men had greater diastolic BP response than women. No gender differences in alcohol craving, systolic BP or HR were observed. Subjective, behavioral, and cardiovascular measures were correlated in both genders. However, for men, but not women, alcohol craving was associated with greater subjective emotion and behavioral arousal following stress and alcohol cues. Conclusions These data suggest that men and women respond to stress differently, with women experiencing greater sadness and anxiety, while men show a greater integration of reward motivation (craving) and emotional stress systems. These findings have implications for the gender- related divergence in vulnerability for stress-related disorders, with women at greater risk for anxiety and depression than men, and men at greater risk for alcohol-use disorders than women. PMID:18482163

  15. Gender differences in blood pressure regulation following artificial gravity exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Joyce; Goswami, Nandu; Kostas, Vladimir; Zhang, Qingguang; Ferguson, Connor; Moore, Fritz; Stenger, Michael, , Dr; Serrador, Jorge; W, Siqi

    Introduction. Before countermeasures to space flight cardiovascular deconditioning are established, gender differences in cardiovascular responses to orthostatic stress, in general, and to orthostatic stress following exposure to artificial gravity (AG), in particular, need to be determined. Our recent determination that a short exposure to AG improved the orthostatic tolerance limit (OTL) of cardiovascularly deconditioned subjects drives the current effort to determine mechanisms of that improvement in men and in women. Methods. We determined the OTL of 9 men and 8 women following a 90 min exposure to AG compared to that following 90 min of head down bed rest (HDBR). On both days (21 days apart), subjects were made hypovolemic (low salt diet plus 20 mg intravenous furosemide) and orthostatic tolerance was determined from a combination of head up tilt and increasing lower body negative pressure until presyncope. Mean values and correlations with OTL were determined for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (Finometer), middle cerebral artery flow velocity (DWL), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Novametrics) and body segmental impedance (UFI THRIM) at supine baseline, during orthostatic stress to presyncope and at supine recovery. Results. Orthostatic tolerance of these hypovolemic subjects was significantly greater following AG than following HDBR. Exposure to AG increased cardiac output in both men and women and increased stroke volume in women. In addition, AG decreased systolic blood pressure in men, but not women, and increased cerebral flow in women, but not men. In both men and women, AG exposure decreased peripheral resistance and decreased cerebrovascular resistance in women. Men’s heart rate rose more at the end of OTL on their AG, compared to their HDBR, day but women’s fell. Presyncopal stroke volume reached the same level on each day of study for both men and women. Conclusions. In the present study, men and women demonstrated significantly different strategies for regulating blood pressure and cerebral flow both at rest and during orthostatic stress on the day in which they had undergone exposure to AG. Since, in both men and women, a single, acute bout of AG exposure improved orthostatic tolerance, the feasibility of short exposures to AG during longer spaceflights or prior to entry into a gravitational (Earth or Mars) environment, should be explored. Given the known beneficial effects of AG on other organ systems, the present study indicates that the positive effect of artificial gravity on cardiac output make AG a likely candidate for sustaining cardiovascular conditioning upon return to gravity. Supported by KY NASA EPSCoR Grant #NNX07AT58A, KY State Matching Grants, NASA JSC Human Research Program and NASA Ames Research Center.

  16. Gender Difference of Confidence in Using Technology for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have found male students to have more confidence in using technology for learning than do female students. Males tend to have more positive attitudes about the use of technology for learning than do females. According to the Women's Foundation (2006), few studies examined gender relevant research in Hong Kong. It also appears that no…

  17. Gender Differences in the Polysomnographic Features of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KRISTINE S. THORNLEY; PATRICK J. HANLY

    We examined the influence of gender on the polysomnographic features of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in a retrospective study of 830 patients with OSA diagnosed by overnight polysomnogra- phy (PSG). The severity of OSA was determined from the apnea- hypopnea index (AHI) for total sleep time (AHI TST ), and was clas- sified as mild (5 to 25 events\\/h), moderate

  18. Gender Differences in Human–Animal Interactions: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold A. Herzog

    2007-01-01

    I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,

  19. College Freshman Stress and Weight Change: Differences by Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economos, Christina D.; Hildebrandt, M. Lise; Hyatt, Raymond R.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine how stress and health-related behaviors affect freshman weight change by gender. Methods: Three hundred ninety-six freshmen completed a 40-item health behavior survey and height and weight were collected at baseline and follow-up. Results: Average weight change was 5.04 lbs for males, 5.49 lbs for females. Weight gain was…

  20. Gender Differences: Effects of Stress on Expressed and Received Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia; Marshall, Linda L.

    Abuse between intimates has begun to be examined. Recent research has studied the incidence and causes of violence in marriages and in premarital relationships. A study was conducted to examine the level of intimate violence, patterns of violence for each gender, and the relationship of stress to violence in adult relationships. Study participants…

  1. Gender Differences in Major Federal External Grant Programs. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosek, Susan D.; Cox, Amy G.; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Kofner, Aaron; Ramphal, Nishal; Scott, Jon; Berry, Sandra H.

    2005-01-01

    The Wyden amendment to the National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 2002 sought to determine whether federally funded educational programs other than sports comply with Title IX, which prohibits gender discrimination. At the request of NSF, this report analyzes administrative data from fiscal years 2001 through 2003 describing the…

  2. Gender-Associated Differences in Emergency Department Pain Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen A Raftery; Rebecca Smith-Coggins; Alice HM Chen

    1995-01-01

    Study objective: To determine whether patient or provider gender is associated with the number, type, and strength of medications received by emergency department patients with headache, neck pain, or back pain. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Stanford University Hospital ED. Participants: Patients 18 years and older who arrived at the ED with a chief complaint of headache, neck pain, or

  3. Gender Differences in Repetitive Language in Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, M. M.; Abbeduto, L.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Verbal perseveration (i.e. excessive self-repetition) is a characteristic of male individuals with fragile X syndrome; however, little is known about its occurrence among females or its underlying causes. This project examined the relationship between perseveration and (1) gender, (2) cognitive and linguistic ability, and (3) language…

  4. Gender differences in executive functions following traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Marwitz; Katrina Lesher; William C. Walker; Tamara Bushnik

    2007-01-01

    The present study used the National Institute on Disability Rehabilitation and Research (NIDRR) funded Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) database to examine the effect of gender on presentation of executive dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and variables that might impact the course and degree of recovery. The Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST) was chosen as a measure of

  5. Classroom Environment, Achievement Goals and Maths Performance: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was assessed as…

  6. Young Children Surfing: Gender Differences in Computer Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya

    2009-01-01

    Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender

  7. Gender Identity and Adjustment: Understanding the Impact of Individual and Normative Differences in Sex Typing

    PubMed Central

    Lurye, Leah E.; Zosuls, Kristina M.; Ruble, Diane N.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship among gender identity, sex typing, and adjustment has attracted the attention of social and developmental psychologists for many years. However, they have explored this issue with different assumptions and different approaches. Generally the approaches differ regarding whether sex typing is considered adaptive versus maladaptive, measured as an individual or normative difference, and whether gender identity is regarded as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In this chapter, we consider both perspectives and suggest that the developmental timing and degree of sex typing, as well as the multidimensionality of gender identity, be considered when examining their relationship to adjustment. PMID:18521861

  8. Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms During Adolescence: The Contributions of Weight-Related Concerns and Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Christine A.; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence was evaluated using data from Waves I and II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The theoretical model under examination was primarily informed by the gender-additive model of gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence proposed by Stice and Bearman (2001). In the model, it was posited that BMI would be associated with perceiving oneself as overweight, which would then lead to a higher probability of dieting, which would be associated with greater depressive symptoms. Participants were 10,864 male and female adolescents. Gender did not moderate any of the model pathways, but mediation analysis indicated that gender differences in changes in depressive symptoms were mediated by perceived weight status and dieting. Findings suggest that one explanation for girls’ higher depressive symptoms in adolescence relative to boys is girls’ greater tendencies to perceive themselves as overweight and to diet. PMID:22675240

  9. An Investigation of Age and Gender Differences in Physical Self-Concept among Turkish Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asci, F. Hulya

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates age and gender differences in physical self-concept of Turkish university students. The Physical Self-Perception Profile was administered to participants for assessing physical self-concept. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for gender, but no significant main effect for year in school. Univariate…

  10. Stress and Emotional Reactivity as Explanations for Gender Differences in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charbonneau, Anna M.; Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined whether certain types of stressful events and how individuals respond to these events would explain gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents. We hypothesized that certain stressful events would mediate the relationship between gender and depressive symptoms. We also hypothesized that…

  11. Teacher Perceptions of Gender-Based Differences among Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Tracy D.

    2009-01-01

    Far fewer males than females work in elementary education today. This deficit may represent an unacceptable balance in elementary teacher gender demographics. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions of gender-based differences among elementary school teachers. In this mixed-methods study, 217 elementary teachers in four public…

  12. Gender-job satisfaction differences across Europe : An indicator for labour market modernization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lutz C. Kaiser

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The primary objective of this study is to test whether gender differences in job satisfaction are assignable to variations in labour market and welfare state regimes in the light of gender-related labour market modernization. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Using data derived from the European Household Community Panel (EHCP) and covering 14 member states of the European Union the study constructs

  13. The Different Worlds of Academia: A Horizontal Analysis of Gender Equality in Swedish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silander, Charlotte; Haake, Ulrika; Lindberg, Leif

    2013-01-01

    Women are underrepresented in advanced positions in higher education in Europe. This study takes a horizontal perspective and focuses on the relationship between gender and discipline in order to combine research on gender in higher education with theories of disciplinary differences in academic cultures. The study points out substantial…

  14. Using Departmental Surveys to Assess Computing Culture: Quantifying Gender Differences in the Classroom

    E-print Network

    Newhall, Tia

    in the Classroom Lisa Meeden and Tia Newhall Computer Science Swarthmore College Swarthmore, PA 19081 meeden classroom and lab environments, and showed that there are gender differ- ences in students' perceptions Gender Issues, Classroom Culture, Computer Science Edu- cation Permission to make digital or hard copies

  15. Gender Differences in Employment Among Drug Court Participants: The Influence of Peer Relations and Friendship Network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Staton-Tindall; Jamieson L. Duvall; Carrie B. Oser; Carl G. Leukefeld; J. Matthew Webster

    2008-01-01

    The research literature has identified gender differences in employment with substance-using women less likely to obtain and maintain employment when compared to men. The purpose of this study was to examine the association among gender, employment, peer relations, and friendship network among a sample of substance-using offenders in 2 drug court programs. This study examined the extent to which peer

  16. Gender Differences in Predicting High-Risk Drinking among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Dina J.; Siebert, Darcy Clay; Delva, Jorge; Smith, Michael P.; Howell, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in college students' high-risk drinking as measured by an estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) based on gender, height, weight, self-reported number of drinks, and hours spent drinking. Using a developmental/contextual framework, high-risk drinking is conceptualized as a function…

  17. Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient availability

    E-print Network

    Villar-Salvador, Pedro

    -offs for male and female plants (Obeso, 2002). For instance, female trees of the dioecious tree Juniperus between genders in dioecious species. However, little is known about the gender responses of dioecious demands and have to deal with different selective pressures in dioe- cious species. Female plants often

  18. Parent-Child Relationships during Middle Childhood: Gender Differences in Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Beth A.; Zboyan, Holly A.

    This study examined gender differences in interactional style between parents and children, focusing on gender socialization and emotional expression. The subjects were 38 mother-child and father-child dyads from intact families, of which about 75 percent were Caucasian; 15 percent, Hispanic; and 10 percent, African American or Asian. Parents…

  19. The Relations of Gender and Personality Traits on Different Creativities: A Dual-Process Theory Account

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei-Lun Lin; Kung-Yu Hsu; Hsueh-Chih Chen; Jenn-Wu Wang

    2012-01-01

    In the present study we examine the ways in which gender and personality traits are related to divergent thinking and insight problem solving. According to the dual-process theory account of creativity, we propose that gender and personality traits might influence the ease and choice of the processing mode and, hence, affect 2 creativity measures in different ways. Over 300 participants'

  20. Gender Differences in Strain, Negative Emotions, and Coping Behaviors: A General Strain Theory Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung Joon Jang

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically evaluates Broidy and Agnew's propositions, in which they apply general strain theory to explain gender differences in crime and deviance, by analyzing data from a national survey of adult African Americans. First, African American women were more likely to report strains related to physical health, interpersonal relations, gender roles in the family, and less likely to mention

  1. Where to Work? The Role of the Household in explaining Gender Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ira N. Gang; Ralitza Dimova

    2006-01-01

    With the use of panel data constructed from the 1995 and 1997 Bulgarian Integrated Household Surveys, this paper explores the sectoral reallocation of labour by gender. In Bulgaria, men and women started the transition on an almost equal standing, allowing us to concentrate our attention on the impact of individual and household characteristics in explaining gender differences in the labour

  2. Where to Work? The Role of the Household in Explaining Gender Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralitza Dimova; Ira N. Gang

    2006-01-01

    With the use of panel data constructed from the 1995 and 1997 Bulgarian Integrated Household Surveys, this paper explores the sectoral reallocation of labour by gender. In Bulgaria, men and women started the transition on an almost equal standing, allowing us to concentrate our attention on the impact of individual and household characteristics in explaining gender differences in the labour

  3. Brain source localization of MMN, P300 and N400: aging and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Tsolaki, Anthoula; Kosmidou, Vasiliki; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis Yiannis; Tsolaki, Magda

    2015-04-01

    The localization of neuronal generators during an ERP study, using a high-density electroencephalogram (HD-EEG) equipment was made on three Evoked Related Potential (ERP) components, i.e., the Mismatch Negativity (MMN), the P300 and the N400. Furthermore, the ERP characteristics, their field distribution and the area of their maximum field intensity were extracted and compared between young and elderly, as well as between females and males. A two tone oddball experiment was conducted, involving 27 young adults and 18 elderly, healthy and right handed, and HD-EEG data were acquired. These data were then subjected to auditory ERPs extraction and thorough statistical analysis. The derived experimental results revealed significant age-related differences to both the latencies and the amplitudes of the MMN and the P300 and the topographic distribution of the HD-EEG amplitudes. Additionally, a shift in the maximum intensities from frontal to temporal lobe with aging appeared in the case of the P300, whereas no effect was observed for the MMN component. No statistical significant differences (p>0.05) due to age was found in N400 characteristics. Finally, gender-related differences were significant in the response time of the subjects, finding males response faster. The level and the location of the maximum intensity of sources also differed between genders, especially in young subjects. These findings justify the enhanced potential of HD-EEG data to accurately reflect the age and gender dependencies at the three components of simple auditory ERPs and pave the way for the investigation of neurodegenerative pathologies, such as the Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25445998

  4. Age and Gender Related Differences in Human Parotid Gland Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Alaka; Wang, Jianghua; Zhou, Hui; Melvin, James E.; Wong, David T.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The present study evaluated differences in gene expression associated with age and gender in the human parotid gland. Design Parotid gland tissue was analyzed using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® HGU133plus2.0 array. Results Differential gene expression, defined as a statistically significant difference with a 1.5 fold or greater change, was detected in 787 gene probe sets; 467 (~59%) showed higher expression in females. Several genes associated with saliva secretion were differentially expressed in male and female parotid glands including vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 VAMP3, synaptosomal-associated protein SNAP23, RAS oncogene family member RAB1A and the syntaxin binding protein STXBP1. Evaluation of gene expression in the youngest and the oldest female subjects revealed that the expression of 228 probe sets were altered during aging; 155 genes were up-regulated in the aged female parotid gland. However, of the genes that were altered during aging, 22 of the 30 probes (73%) classified as being associated with immune responses were down-regulated in the aged parotid gland. A panel of differentially expressed, age- and gender-related genes was selected for validation by quantitative, real-time RT-PCR. Comparable differences in gene expression were detected by both Affymetrix array and quantitative, real-time RT-PCR methods. Conclusions Our data suggest that salivary gland function may be adversely affected in the aged population due, at least in part, to the altered regulation of several categories of genes. Moreover, the gender specific differences in gene expression identified in the present study correlate with the previously observed sexual dimorphism in salivary gland function. PMID:18571147

  5. Neuromuscular efficiency of the rectus abdominis differs with gender and sport practice.

    PubMed

    David, Pascal; Mora, Isabelle; Pérot, Chantal

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to distinguish the abilities of the rectus abdominis (RA) muscle according to gender and sport training by means of neuromuscular parameters extracted from electromyography (EMG)-torque relationships. Thirty-eight healthy students, divided into 4 groups (i.e., 8 male runners, 10 female gymnasts, 12 male controls, and 8 female controls) were asked to perform 6 seconds of isometric trunk flexions at 20%, 25%, 75%, and 100% of their maximal voluntary contraction. Flexion torque and surface EMG of the RA muscle were recorded simultaneously to construct a EMG-torque relationship. Under maximal and submaximal conditions, an index of neuromuscular efficiency (NME) was determined to characterize the capacity of the RA muscle to develop a torque. At each level of contraction, the area of data scattering (ADS), reflecting torque and EMG fluctuations, was computed to express the capacity to maintain a constant target torque. Flexion torque, NME, and ADS values differed significantly between genders, but when data were related to anthropometric characteristics, no difference was observed. Although runners were not distinguished from male controls, gymnasts had higher flexion torque, higher NME, and lower ADS values than female controls had. These differences should reflect neural and muscular adaptations linked to the specificity of gymnastic training. These findings revealed different functional abilities of the RA muscle, according to gender and sport practices. The indices of neuromuscular capacities used in this study could constitute complementary tools to athletic trainers and professionals in sports medicine for evaluating and following, during sport-specific training programs, the abdominal muscle performance implied in force transfers with a lower cost and lower risks of back pain. PMID:18978621

  6. Gender differences on documented trauma histories: inpatients admitted to a military psychiatric unit for suicide-related thoughts or behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cox, Daniel W; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Szeto, Edwin H; Greene, Farrah N; Engel, Charles; Wynn, Gary H; Bradley, John; Grammer, Geoffrey

    2011-03-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among men and women in the United States Military. Using a retrospective chart review design, the current study investigated gender differences on documented traumas for people admitted to a military inpatient psychiatric unit for suicide-related thoughts or behaviors (N = 656). Men more often had no documented lifetime traumas and women more often had 2 or more trauma types. Women had significantly more documented incidences of childhood sexual abuse, adulthood sexual assault, adulthood physical assault, and pregnancy loss. The gender gap in documented trauma types for childhood and adulthood traumas persisted even after adjusting for demographic variables, psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid trauma types (i.e., trauma types other than the one being used as the dependent variable). Given the observed gender differences in documented traumas, professionals working with military women admitted for suicide-related thoughts or behaviors need to consider trauma in the context of treatment. PMID:21346489

  7. DIFFERENT DISPARITIES OF GENDER AND RACE AMONG THE THROMBOTIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA AND HEMOLYTIC-UREMIC SYNDROMES

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Deirdra R.; Vesely, Sara K.; Kremer Hovinga, Johanna A.; Lämmle, Bernhard; George, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) represent multiple disorders with diverse etiologies. We compared the gender and race of 335 patients enrolled in the Oklahoma TTP-HUS Registry across 21 years for their first episode of TTP or HUS to appropriate control groups. The relative frequency of women and white race among patients with TTP-HUS associated with a bloody diarrhea prodrome and the relative frequency of women with quinine-associated TTP-HUS were significantly greater than their control populations. The relative frequency of women and black race among patients with idiopathic TTP and TTP associated with severe ADAMTS13 deficiency was significantly greater than their control populations. The relative frequency of black race among patients who had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) preceding TTP was significantly greater than among a population of patients with SLE, and the relative frequency of black race among patients with other autoimmune disorders preceding TTP was significantly greater than their control population. No significant gender or race disparities were present among patients with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, TTP associated with pregnancy, or TTP associated with drugs other than quinine. The validity of these observations is supported by the enrollment of all consecutive patients across 21 years from a defined geographic region, without selection or referral bias. These observations of different gender and race disparities among the TTP-HUS syndromes suggest the presence of different risk factors and may serve as starting points for novel investigations of pathogenesis. PMID:20799358

  8. Gender differences in the correlates of self-referent word use: authority, entitlement, and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fast, Lisa A; Funder, David C

    2010-02-01

    Past research shows that self-focused attention is robustly positively related to depression, and women are more likely than men to self-focus in response to depressed mood (e.g., R. Ingram, 1990; S. Nolen-Hoeksema, 1987). The goal of the current study was to further delineate gender differences in the correlates of self-focus as measured through the frequency of spontaneous use of self-referencing words. The frequency of such word use during a life history interview was correlated with self-reports, observations by clinically trained interviewers, and personality judgments by acquaintances. Results indicated that the relationship between self-reference and observations of depressive symptoms was stronger for women than men, and the relationship between self-reference and narcissistic authority and entitlement was stronger for men than for women. Acquaintance ratings supported these correlates. These findings illuminate the importance of using multiple measures and paying attention to gender differences in research on self-focus. PMID:20433621

  9. Handsome wants as handsome does: physical attractiveness and gender differences in revealed sexual preferences.

    PubMed

    McClintock, Elizabeth Aura

    2011-01-01

    In this article I evaluate the effect of physical attractiveness on young adults' sexual and romantic outcomes to reveal gender differences in acted preferences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a probability sample of young adults (n = 14,276), I investigate gender differences in desired sexual partner accumulation, relationship status, and timing of sexual intercourse. I find gender differences in sexual and romantic strategies consistent with those predicted by the double standard of sexuality and evolutionary theory. Specifically, compared to men, women pursue more committed relationships, fewer sexual partners, and delayed sexual intercourse. PMID:22329089

  10. Gender differences in injury severity risks in crashes at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Obeng, K

    2011-07-01

    This paper analyzes gender differences in crash risk severities using data for signalized intersections. It estimates gender models for injury severity risks and finds that driver condition, type of crash, type of vehicle driven and vehicle safety features have different effects on females' and males' injury severity risks. Also, it finds some variables which are significantly related to females' injury severity risks but not males' and others which affect males' injury severity risks but not females'. It concludes that better and more in-depth information about gender differences in injury severity risks is gained by estimating separate models for females and males. PMID:21545886

  11. Gender and Cultural Differences in Consumer Ethics in a Consumer-Retailer Interaction Context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Rao; Adel A. Al-Wugayan

    2005-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in researching consumer ethics in marketing, investigating gender differences in cross-cultural settings in a relational context has not been researched. This research attempts to fill this void. Different degrees of retailer-customer relationships were simulated through four carefully constructed scenarios. Empirical data were gathered in two contrasting cultures. Significant gender and cross-cultural differences with regard to customer

  12. Differences in the Glucuronidation of Resveratrol and Pterostilbene: Altered Enzyme Specificity and Potential Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, Ryan W.; Gomez Garcia, Angela M.; Meyskens, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in grapes, berries and other plants, has been proposed as an ideal chemopreventative agent due to its plethora of health promoting activities. However, despite its lofty promise as a cancer prevention agent its success in human clinical trials has been limited due to its poor bioavailability. Thus, interest in other natural polyphenols is intensifying including the naturally occurring dimethylated analog of resveratrol, pterostilbene. The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) family of enzymes plays a vital role in the metabolism of both resveratrol and pterostilbene. The current study sought to elucidate the UGT family members responsible for the metabolism of pterostilbene and to examine gender differences in the glucuronidation of resveratrol and pterostilbene. We demonstrate that UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 are mainly responsible for pterostilbene glucuronidation although UGT1A8, UGT1A9 and UGT1A10 also had detectable activity. Intriguingly, UGT1A1 exhibits the highest activity against both resveratrol and pterostilbene despite altered hydroxyl group specificity. Using pooled human liver microsomes, enzyme kinetics were determined for pterostilbene and resveratrol glucuronides. In all cases females were more efficient than males, indicating potential gender differences in stilbene metabolism. Importantly, the glucuronidation of pterostilbene is much less efficient than that of resveratrol, indicating that pterostilbene will have dramatically decreased metabolism in humans. PMID:23965644

  13. Gender differences in stimulated cytokine production following acute psychological stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aric A. Prather; Judith E. Carroll; Jacqueline M. Fury; Kevin K. McDade; Diana Ross; Anna L. Marsland

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that acute psychological stress modulates inflammatory competence; however, not all findings are consistent. Gender is one factor that may impact magnitude of response. To explore this possibility, we examined the effects of acute mental stress on lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? among a relatively healthy sample of midlife men

  14. Gender differences in consumers' perception of online consumer reviews

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soonyong Bae; Taesik Lee

    2011-01-01

    Since the early days of the Internet, gender gap has existed in using the Internet, and it is particularly evident for online\\u000a shopping. Females perceive higher level of risk for online shopping, and as a result, they tend to hesitate to make purchase\\u000a online. Online consumer reviews can effectively mitigate such perceived risk by females and thereby attract them to

  15. Effects of Game Type on Children's Gender-Based Peer Preferences: A Naturalistic Observational Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Boyatzis; Michael Mallis; Ileana Leon

    1999-01-01

    Children's propensity for interacting with peersof their own gender is a robust phenomenon, evidentacross many contexts. This study investigated howchildren's gender-based peer preferences varied as a function of a contextual variable —type of children's game. Using naturalisticobservations, 242 first- to third-graders (identicalnumbers of boys and girls, mostly White andmiddle-class) were observed playing two games that varied in theirphysicality and competitiveness;

  16. Playing an Action Video Game Reduces Gender Differences in Spatial Cognition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Feng, Jing

    This paper from Jing Feng, Ian Spence and Jay Pratt discusses gender differences in spatial cognition. The team "found that playing an action video game can virtually eliminate this gender difference in spatial attention and simultaneously decrease the gender disparity in mental rotation ability, a higher-level process in spatial cognition." Two spatial reasoning experiments are described in the paper. This research may be helpful for instructors and technical programs looking to improve female students' spatial abilities. The document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

  17. Gender and Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Lower Extremity Mechanics during Treadmill Running

    PubMed Central

    Phinyomark, Angkoon; Hettinga, Blayne A.; Osis, Sean T.; Ferber, Reed

    2014-01-01

    Female runners have a two-fold risk of sustaining certain running-related injuries as compared to their male counterparts. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the sex-related differences in running kinematics is necessary. However, previous studies have either used discrete time point variables and inferential statistics and/or relatively small subject numbers. Therefore, the first purpose of this study was to use a principal component analysis (PCA) method along with a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to examine the differences in running gait kinematics between female and male runners across a large sample of the running population as well as between two age-specific sub-groups. Bilateral 3-dimensional lower extremity gait kinematic data were collected during treadmill running. Data were analysed on the complete sample (n?=?483: female 263, male 220), a younger subject group (n?=?56), and an older subject group (n?=?51). The PC scores were first sorted by the percentage of variance explained and we also employed a novel approach wherein PCs were sorted based on between-gender statistical effect sizes. An SVM was used to determine if the sex and age conditions were separable and classifiable based on the PCA. Forty PCs explained 84.74% of the variance in the data and an SVM classification accuracy of 86.34% was found between female and male runners. Classification accuracies between genders for younger subjects were higher than a subgroup of older runners. The observed interactions between age and gender suggest these factors must be considered together when trying to create homogenous sub-groups for research purposes. PMID:25137240

  18. A construct-driven investigation of gender differences in a leadership-role assessment center.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Neil; Lievens, Filip; van Dam, Karen; Born, Marise

    2006-05-01

    This study examined gender differences in a large-scale assessment center for officer entry in the British Army. Subgroup differences were investigated for a sample of 1,857 candidates: 1,594 men and 263 women. A construct-driven approach was chosen (a) by examining gender differences at the construct level, (b) by formulating a priori hypotheses about which constructs would be susceptible to gender effects, and (c) by using both effect size statistics and latent mean analyses to investigate gender differences in assessment center ratings. Results showed that female candidates were rated notably higher on constructs reflecting an interpersonally oriented leadership style (i.e., oral communication and interaction) and on drive and determination. These results are discussed in light of role congruity theory and of the advantages of using latent mean analyses. PMID:16737354

  19. Anatomical, gender, and physiological differences in prolactin secretion from individual pituitary cells of chickens 

    E-print Network

    Lopez, Marisol Emma

    1995-01-01

    differences in PRL secretion using the reverse hemolytic plaque assay, which measures hormone secretion at the level of individual cells. We report that increased PRL secretion due to gender (females greater than males), anatomic distribution (cephalic...

  20. Gender differences in the association of sleep apnea and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Jordan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Kritikou, Ilia; Basta, Maria; Bixler, Edward O

    2015-07-01

    Over the last 15years, many studies have established an association of sleep apnea with inflammation and metabolic aberrations. However, no controlled studies have examined potential gender effects in this association. We recruited 120 middle-aged, predominantly non-obese mild-to-moderate sleep apneics and controls (62 males, 58 females). All participants underwent a clinical history, physical examination, and 1-night 8-h polysomnography recording and provided a single fasting blood sample for assessment of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, and adiponectin levels. Among non-sleep apneics, females had higher levels of TNFR1 (p=0.01), CRP (p=0.005), leptin (p<0.001), and adiponectin (p<0.001) compared to males, independent of age and body mass index. When analyzed separately by gender, sleep apneic men had elevated TNFR1 (p=0.04), CRP (p=0.06) and IL-6 (p=0.11) relative to control men; in sleep apneic females, only CRP was elevated (p=0.04). Furthermore, CRP was associated with apnea severity in a dose-response manner (p-linear=0.04 in both genders) and was independently associated with comorbid hypertension in apnea (p-linear=0.005 for women; p-linear=0.09 for men). In conclusion, although women have naturally higher levels of inflammatory and metabolic markers than men, sleep apneic men appear to have a more severe inflammatory profile compared to women. Our findings suggest that these markers should be analyzed and interpreted separately in men and women, and that a single measure of plasma CRP appears to be a clinically-useful marker of apnea severity and comorbid cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:25535861

  1. Profile of serum bile acids in noncholestatic volunteers: gender-related differences in response to fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Trottier, J; Caron, P; Straka, R J; Barbier, O

    2011-08-01

    Fenofibrate belongs to the group of hypolipidemic fibrates that act as activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), which is a regulator of bile acid synthesis, metabolism, and transport. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of fenofibrate on the circulating bile acid profile in humans. A study population of 200 healthy individuals comprising both genders completed a 3-week intervention with fenofibrate, and 17 bile acid species were measured in serum samples drawn before and after fenofibrate treatment. Fenofibrate caused significant reductions in levels of chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) (-26.4%), ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) (-30.5%), lithocholic (LCA) (-18.4%), deoxycholic (DCA) (-22.3%), and hyodeoxycholic (HDCA) (-19.2%) acids. A gender-related difference was observed in the responses of various bile acids, and the total bile acid concentration was significantly reduced only in men (-18.6%), whereas it remained almost unchanged in women (+0.36%). This difference suggests that fenofibrate would be more efficient at reducing bile acid toxicity in men than in women in cholestatic liver diseases. PMID:21716269

  2. Gender differences in steady-state levels of oxidative damage to DNA in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Proteggente, Anna R; England, Timothy G; Rehman, Almas; Rice-Evans, Catherine A; Halliwell, Barry

    2002-02-01

    Oxidative damage to DNA has often been used as a biomarker for oxidative stress and more specifically for cancer risk. Indeed, the measurement of oxidative damage to DNA, particularly of 8-hydroxyguanine (8OHG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG), has been adopted as a method for establishing the effects of antioxidant supplementation towards protection from certain cancers, cardiovascular and neuro-degenerative diseases, both in patients and healthy individuals. However, reported levels of 8OHdG or 8OHG vary considerably, possibly due to the different methodologies used, and only few data are available for the non-smoking and the female population. In this paper, steady-state levels of oxidative damage to DNA measured in a group of 20 males and 19 females are reported. Significant gender differences in levels of modified DNA bases such as 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FAPy guanine), 8-hydroxyadenine (8OHA) and 5-hydroxycytosine (5OHC), measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), were observed. The results are discussed in relation to the Vitamin C and iron status of the subjects and to the existing, yet limited, literature data. The role of gender in predisposition to oxidative damage to DNA needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11999383

  3. A field study on thermal comfort in an Italian hospital considering differences in gender and age.

    PubMed

    Del Ferraro, S; Iavicoli, S; Russo, S; Molinaro, V

    2015-09-01

    The hospital is a thermal environment where comfort must be calibrated by taking into account two different groups of people, that is, patients and medical staff. The study involves 30 patients and 19 medical staff with a view to verifying if Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) index can accurately predict thermal sensations of both groups also taking into account any potential effects of age and gender. The methodology adopted is based on the comparison between PMV values (calculated according to ISO 7730 after having collected environmental data and estimated personal parameters) and perceptual judgments (Actual Mean Vote, AMV), expressed by the subjects interviewed. Different statistical analyses show that PMV model finds his best correlation with AMV values in a sample of male medical staff under 65 years of age. It has been observed that gender and age are factors that must be taken into account in the assessment of thermal comfort in the hospital due to very weak correlation between AMV and PMV values. PMID:25959333

  4. Gender differences in leisure-time physical activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Renato Azevedo; Cora Luiza Pavin Araújo; Felipe Fossati Reichert; Fernando Vinholes Siqueira; Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva; Pedro Curi Hallal

    2007-01-01

    Summary.\\u000a Objectives:  To explore the association between gender and leisure-time physical activity in a population-based sample of adults living\\u000a in Brazil. To study a variety of variables possibly associated with physical activity levels.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  A multistage sampling of households was undertaken in Pelotas, a medium-sized Southern Brazilian city. Leisure-time physical\\u000a activity was measured using the long version of the International Physical Activity

  5. Gender differences in brain activity evoked by visceral pain in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kano; S J Coen; A D Farmer; Q Aziz

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionFemales are more likely than males to suffer from many chronic pain conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders. However, due to the limited number of studies, information available about gender-differences in normal human central processing of visceral pain is still preliminary. We investigated whether gender differences exist in brain response to visceralpain in a large cohort of healthy volunteers.MethodsSixteen males and

  6. Gender Differences in Positive and Negative Feelings Between Adolescents and Their Fathers and Mothers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vicky Phares; Kimberly Renk; Amy M. Duhig; Sherecce Fields; Jamilia Sly

    2009-01-01

    Given the connections between feelings and well-being within the family, we addressed gender differences and similarities\\u000a of feelings within the family. We explored adolescents’, mothers’, and fathers’ positive and negative affect within a community\\u000a sample of 224 families from the southeast of the United States. Adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 19 years. Findings suggest\\u000a more gender differences in positive

  7. Gender differences in food choice: The contribution of health beliefs and dieting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Wardle; Anne M. Haase; Andrew Steptoe; Maream Nillapun; Kiriboon Jonwutiwes

    2004-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in health behaviors have been reported in many studies but causal mechanisms have been neglected.Purpose and Methods: This study examines 4 food choice behaviors in a large sample of young adults from 23 countries and tests 2 possible explanatory\\u000a mechanisms for the gender differences—women’s greater likelihood of dieting and women’s greater beliefs in the importance\\u000a of healthy

  8. Sex and gender differences in cardiovascular drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Seeland, Ute; Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera

    2012-01-01

    This chapter outlines sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the most frequently used drugs in cardiovascular diseases, e.g., coronary artery disease, hypertension, heart failure. Retrospective analysis of previously published drug trials revealed marked sex differences in efficacy and adverse effects in a number of cardiovascular drugs. This includes a higher mortality among women taking digoxin for heart failure, more torsade de pointes arrhythmia in QT prolonging drugs and more cough with ACE inhibitors. Trends towards a greater benefit for women and/or female animals have been observed in some studies for endothelin receptor antagonists, the calcium channel blocker amlodipine, the ACE-inhibitor ramipril and the aldosterone antagonist eplerenone. However, reproduction of these results in independent studies and solid statistical evidence is still lacking. Some drugs require a particularly careful dose adaptation in women: the beta-blocker metoprolol, the calcium channel blocker verapamil, loop-, and thiazide diuretics. In conclusion, sex differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have to be taken into account for cardiovascular drug therapy in women. PMID:23027453

  9. Evaluation of gender differences on mitochondrial bioenergetics and apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Alberto; Hiona, Asimina; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Seo, Arnold Y.; Hofer, Tim; Kouwenhoven, Evelyn; Kalani, Rizwan; Prolla, Tomas A.; Barja, Gustavo; Leeuwenburgh., Christiaan

    2007-01-01

    Summary It has been postulated that the differences in longevity observed between organisms of different sexes within a species can be attributed to differences in oxidative stress. It is generally accepted that differences are due to the higher female estrogen levels. However, in some species males live the same or longer despite their lower estrogen values. Therefore, in the present study, we analyze key parameters of mitochondrial bioenergetics, oxidative stress and apoptosis in the B6 (C57Bl/6J) mouse strain. There are no differences between males and females in this mouse strain, although estrogen levels are higher in females. We did not find any differences in heart, skeletal muscle and liver mitochondrial oxygen consumption (State 3 and State 4) and ATP content between male and female mice. Moreover, mitochondrial H2O2 generation and oxidative stress levels determined by cytosolic protein carbonyls and concentration of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine in mitochondrial DNA were similar in both sexes. In addition, markers of apoptosis (caspase-3, caspase-9 and mono- and oligonucleosomes: the apoptosis index) were not different between male and female mice. These data show that there are no differences in mitochondrial bioenergetics, oxidative stress and apoptosis due to gender in this mouse strain according with the lack of differences in longevity. These results support the Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Ageing, and indicate that oxidative stress generation independent of estrogen levels determines ageing rate. PMID:17118599

  10. Gender Differences in Salary in a Recent Cohort of Early-Career Physician-Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Jagsi, Reshma; Griffith, Kent A.; Stewart, Abigail; Sambuco, Dana; DeCastro, Rochelle; Ubel, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Since prior studies have suggested that male physicians earn more than their female counterparts, the authors examined whether this disparity exists in a recently hired cohort. Method In 2010-11, the authors surveyed recent recipients of National Institutes of Health (NIH) mentored career development (i.e., K08 or K23) awards, receiving responses from 1,275 (75% response rate). For the 1,012 physicians with academic positions in clinical specialties who reported salary, they constructed linear regression models of salary considering gender, age, race, marital status, parental status, additional doctoral degree, academic rank, years on faculty, specialty, institution type, region, institution NIH funding rank, K-award type, K-award funding institute, K-award year, work hours, and research time. They evaluated the explanatory value of spousal employment status using Peters-Belson regression. Results Mean salary was $141,325 (95% confidence interval [CI] 135,607-147,043) for women and $172,164 (95% CI 167,357-176,971) for men. Male gender remained an independent, significant predictor of salary (+$10,921, P < 0.001) even after adjusting for specialty, academic rank, work hours, research time, and other factors. Peters-Belson analysis indicated that 17% of the overall disparity in the full sample was unexplained by the measured covariates. In the married subset, after accounting for spousal employment status, 10% remained unexplained. Conclusions The authors observed, in this recent cohort of elite, early-career physician researchers, a gender difference in salary that was not fully explained by specialty, academic rank, work hours, or even spousal employment. Creating more equitable procedures for establishing salary at academic institutions is important. PMID:24072109

  11. Gender differences in nutritional status and feeding patterns among infants in the Gaza Strip.

    PubMed Central

    Schoenbaum, M; Tulchinsky, T H; Abed, Y

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study examined gender variation in nutritional treatment and anthropometric status of infants in the Gaza Strip. Numerous studies have documented gender differences in health status in developing areas, generally finding boys to be at an advantage over girls. Social and economic characteristics in Gaza suggest that one might expect preferential treatment of boys there. METHODS. The study used data on two samples of infants 0 to 18 months of age collected from five health centers in Gaza. A variety of different analytic methods were used to look for gender differences in feeding patterns, prevalence of malnutrition, and anthropometric status. RESULTS. Although some differences in nutritional treatment and anthropometric outcome for infants of different socioeconomic status and between the earlier and later samples were found, no consistent gender differences were revealed. CONCLUSIONS. The findings are consistent with several different explanations. First, expectations of finding gender differences may have been unfounded. Alternatively, such differences may have existed previously but have been eliminated through successful public health intervention, rising levels of education, and economic development. PMID:7604921

  12. Gender Differences in Clinical Outcomes among HIV-Positive Individuals on Antiretroviral Therapy in Canada: A Multisite Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Cescon, Angela; Patterson, Sophie; Chan, Keith; Palmer, Alexis K.; Margolese, Shari; Burchell, Ann N.; Cooper, Curtis; Klein, Marina B.; Machouf, Nima; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Tsoukas, Chris; Hogg, Robert S.; Raboud, Janet M.; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cohort data examining differences by gender in clinical responses to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) remain inconsistent and have yet to be explored in a multi-province Canadian setting. This study investigates gender differences by injection drug use (IDU) history in virologic responses to ART and mortality. Methods Data from the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC) collaboration, a multisite cohort study of HIV-positive individuals initiating ART after January 1, 2000, were included. This analysis was restricted to participants with a follow-up HIV-RNA plasma viral load measure and known IDU history. Weibull hazard regression evaluated time to virologic suppression (2 consecutive measures <50 copies/mL), rebound (>1000 copies/mL after suppression), and all-cause mortality. Sensitivity analyses explored the impact of presumed ART use in pregnancy on virologic outcomes. Results At baseline, women (1120 of 5442 participants) were younger (median 36 vs. 41 years) and more frequently reported IDU history (43.5% vs. 28.8%) (both p<0.001). Irrespective of IDU history, in adjusted multivariable analyses women were significantly less likely to virologically suppress after ART initiation and were at increased risk of viral load rebound. In adjusted time to death analysis, no differences by gender were noted. After adjusting for presumed ART use in pregnancy, observed gender differences in time to virologic suppression for non-IDU, and time to virologic rebound for IDU, became insignificant. Conclusions HIV-positive women in CANOC are at heightened risk for poor clinical outcomes. Further understanding of the intersections between gender and other factors augmenting risk is needed to maximize the benefits of ART. PMID:24391803

  13. Liking and identifying emotionally expressive music: age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Patrick G; Glenn Schellenberg, E; Stalinski, Stephanie M

    2011-09-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than for young boys, but both genders reached adult-like levels by age 11. High-arousal emotions (happiness and fear) were better identified than low-arousal emotions (peacefulness and sadness), and this advantage was exaggerated among younger children. Whereas children of all ages preferred excerpts depicting high-arousal emotions, adults favored excerpts depicting positive emotions (happiness and peacefulness). A preference for positive emotions over negative emotions was also evident among females of all ages. As identification accuracy improved, liking for positively valenced music increased among 5- and 8-year-olds but decreased among 11-year-olds. PMID:21530980

  14. Gender differences in reactions to the sexualization of athletes.

    PubMed

    Nezlek, John B; Krohn, William; Wilson, Dannon; Maruskin, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Participants rated a series of photographs that depicted well-known male and female athletes in a sexualized fashion or not. In general, sexualized targets were perceived as more attractive but as less competent than non-sexualized targets, and for ratings of competence, sexualization effects were greater for female targets. Sexualization had no effects on women's perceptions of the competence of male targets, whereas for men, sexualization affected their perceptions of the competence of both male and female targets, although the influence of sexualization was stronger for female targets than it was for male targets. These findings suggest that the gender of the target and of the perceiver needs to be considered when evaluating the influences of sexualization. The implications of these findings are discussed within the context of objectification theory, which has focused on the objectification of women by women. PMID:25258333

  15. Examining gender differences on FCI performance in algebra and calculus based physics courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutzer, Kimberley; Boudreaux, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to asses student understanding of Newtonian principles. Studies have shown a marked difference in the performance of men and women on both pre- and post-tests [1,2] and also indicate that experiential based instruction may lead to a reduction in this gender gap [1,3]. This poster presents FCI data collected at Western Washington University. Initial analysis of gender differences are consistent with those reported nationally. We also discuss factors that may contribute to the differences in performance and propose instructional strategies that are designed to address the gender gap. [4pt] [1] M. Lorenzo, et. al., ``Reducing the gender gap in the physics classroom,'' AJP 74(2), 118-122 (2006) [0pt] [2] J. Docktor and K. Heller, ``Gender Differences in Both Force Concept Inventory and Introductory Physics Performance,'' Proceedings at the 2008 PERC [0pt] [3] S. Pollack, et. al., ``Reducing the gender gap in the physics classroom: How sufficient is interactive engagement?'' PRST-PER 3 (2007)

  16. Sexual Orientation and Gender Differences in Markers of Inflammation and Immune Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rosario, Margaret; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Background Sexual minorities have documented elevated risk factors that can lead to inflammation and poor immune functioning Purpose Investigate disparities in C-Reactive protein and Epstein Barr Virus by gender and sexual orientation. Methods We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine disparities in CRP (N=11,462) and EBV (N=11,812). Results Among heterosexuals, women had higher levels of CRP and EBV than men. However, sexual-minority men had higher levels of CRP and EBV than heterosexual men and sexual minority women. Lesbians had lower levels of CRP than heterosexual women. Conclusions Gender differences in CRP and EBV found between men and women who identify as 100% heterosexual were reversed among sexual minorities and not explained by known risk factors (e.g. victimization, alcohol and tobacco use, BMI). More nuanced approaches to addressing gender differences in sexual orientation health disparities that include measures of gender nonconformity and minority stress are needed. PMID:24347405

  17. Parent–Child Interaction and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Adaptation to Stepfamilies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel Vuchinich; E. Mavis Hetherington; Regina A. Vuchinich; W. Glenn Clingempeel

    1991-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in early adolescents' adaptation to mother-custody stepfamilies and extended previous work that found that girls have more difficulties adjusting to these stepfamilies than do boys. Parent–child interaction was compared in mother-custody stepfamilies and intact families, with a focus on gender-of-child effects on parent–stepparent behavior toward child and child behavior toward parent–stepparent. A 2-wave longitudinal, within-family

  18. Gender differences in three dimensional gait analysis data from 98 healthy Korean adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Cho; J. M. Park; O. Y. Kwon

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. The research hypothesis was that healthy adults would walk differently according to their gender when walked barefoot at their comfortable speed. The aim of this study was to prove the hypothesis in healthy Korean adults.Design. Between-gender statistical comparisons of the gait analysis data including spatiotemporal, three-dimensional joint kinematic and kinetic data.Background. There have been few attempts to identify the

  19. A Study of Factors Promoting Success in Computer Science Including Gender Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda Cantwell Wilson

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine factors that promote success in an introductory college computer science course and to determine what, if any, differences appear between genders on those factors. The model included math background, attribution for success\\/failure, self-efficacy, encouragement, comfort level in the course, work style preference, previous programming exp- erience, previous non-programming computer experience, and gender as possible

  20. An Exploration of Gender Differences on the Reasons for Living Inventory among Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Segal; Tracy N. Needham

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated gender differences on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) specifically among older adults, a population known to have the highest suicide rate among all age groups, with older men being disproportionately at risk. Community-dwelling women (n = 175; M age = 69.0 years; 81% Caucasian) and men (n = 145; M age = 69.5 years; 76% Caucasian) completed the RFL. Results showed no significant gender

  1. Gender and trade within the household: Observations from rural guatemala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth G. Katz

    1995-01-01

    A household model proposed by Carter and Katz (1992) assumes that resource exchanges and the division of expenditure responsibilities among household members are directly observable, and important to their individual and collective responses to new opportunities and constraints. This paper illustrates that it is possible to observe the complex processes that characterize the domestic economy by examining several examples of

  2. Gender differences in thermal comfort and mental performance at different vertical air temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Feng, Yue; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a thermal environment where air temperature closer to the ground was lower compared to that above on thermal comfort and mental performance in both sexes. Temperatures at the upper and lower parts of the body were controlled independently using a climatic box placed in a climatic chamber. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 males and 8 females) were exposed to the four conditions with various temperature differences between the upper (25 degrees C) and lower part of the body (16, 19, 22, or 25 degrees C). Skin temperature and subjective votes were measured, and two kinds of task using a computer were performed during exposure. Skin temperature on the back for females was higher than that for males during exposure, and the decrease in thigh skin temperature for females under lower air temperature conditions was significantly larger than that for males. A significant difference in thermal comfort at the beginning of the exposure was indicated between genders, especially in the 16 and 19 degrees C conditions, so females became aware of thermal discomfort before males. Although the score of mental performance based on perceptual speed for females was higher than that for males, there was no significant effect from the different vertical air temperatures. The effect of the unequal thermal environment, where air temperature closer to the ground was lower than above, on skin temperature and thermal discomfort for females was significantly higher compared to males. PMID:19701649

  3. Gender Differences in Acute Tobacco Withdrawal: Effects on Subjective, Cognitive, and Physiological Measures

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Boyd, Susan; Moolchan, Eric T.; Waters, Andrew J.; Lerman, Caryn; Pickworth, Wallace B.

    2009-01-01

    Gender differences in tobacco withdrawal are of considerable clinical importance, but research findings on this topic have been mixed. Methodological variation in samples sizes, experimental design, and measures across studies may explain the inconsistent results. The current study examined whether male (n = 101) and female (n = 102) smokers (?15 cigarettes/day) differed in abstinence-induced changes on a battery of self-report measures (withdrawal, affect, craving), cognitive performance tasks (attention, psychomotor performance), and physiological responses (heart rate, blood pressure, brain electroencephalogram). Participants attended 2 counterbalanced laboratory sessions, 1 following 12 hr of abstinence and the other following ad libitum smoking. Results showed that women reported greater abstinence-induced increases in negative affect, withdrawal-related distress, and urge to smoke to relieve withdrawal distress. In contrast, both genders reported similar abstinence-induced changes in positive affect and urge to smoke for pleasure. Men and women exhibited generally similar abstinence-induced changes in physiological and cognitive performance measures. In addition, gender did not moderate the association between withdrawal symptoms and baseline measures of smoking behavior and dependence. Abstinence-induced changes in withdrawal distress mediated the effect of gender on latency until the 1st cigarette of the day at trend levels (p < .10). These findings suggest that there are qualitative gender differences in the acute tobacco withdrawal syndrome that may underlie gender-specific smoking patterns. PMID:17295582

  4. Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents: Gender Differences in Protective Familial Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lac, Andrew; Unger, Jennifer B.; Basáñez, Tatiana; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2013-01-01

    Given the important contextual function of family dynamics and traditional gender roles in Latino cultures, parental influences on substance use among Latino adolescents may differ across genders. This study examined associations between family factors (parental monitoring, parent–child communication, family cohesion, and familism) and marijuana use among 1,369 Latino adolescents in Southern California. Students from seven schools completed surveys in 9th and 11th grades. Longitudinal hierarchical linear regression analyses evaluated the associations between family factors in 9th grade and lifetime marijuana use in 11th grade, as well as gender differences in these associations. Girls reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental communication, and familism than boys did, but there were no gender differences in family cohesiveness. In a regression model controlling for covariates and previous marijuana use, parent–child communication and family cohesion in 9th grade were each uniquely predictive of lower levels of marijuana consumption in 11th grade. Gender was a statistical moderator, such that higher levels of parent–child communication predicted lower marijuana use among boys, whereas girls’ use was relatively low regardless of parent–child communication levels. Results are discussed in the light of the concurrent socialization processes of family and gender in Latino culture and its relation to preventing delinquent behaviors such as marijuana use. PMID:20977294

  5. Marijuana use among Latino adolescents: gender differences in protective familial factors.

    PubMed

    Lac, Andrew; Unger, Jennifer B; Basáñez, Tatiana; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Given the important contextual function of family dynamics and traditional gender roles in Latino cultures, parental influences on substance use among Latino adolescents may differ across genders. This study examined associations between family factors (parental monitoring, parent-child communication, family cohesion, and familism) and marijuana use among 1,369 Latino adolescents in Southern California. Students from seven schools completed surveys in 9th and 11th grades. Longitudinal hierarchical linear regression analyses evaluated the associations between family factors in 9th grade and lifetime marijuana use in 11th grade, as well as gender differences in these associations. Girls reported higher levels of parental monitoring, parental communication, and familism than boys did, but there were no gender differences in family cohesiveness. In a regression model controlling for covariates and previous marijuana use, parent-child communication and family cohesion in 9th grade were each uniquely predictive of lower levels of marijuana consumption in 11th grade. Gender was a statistical moderator, such that higher levels of parent-child communication predicted lower marijuana use among boys, whereas girls' use was relatively low regardless of parent-child communication levels. Results are discussed in the light of the concurrent socialization processes of family and gender in Latino culture and its relation to preventing delinquent behaviors such as marijuana use. PMID:20977294

  6. Gender differences when parenting children with autism spectrum disorders: a multilevel modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leah; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P; Petalas, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Parenting a child with autism may differentially affect mothers and fathers. Existing studies of mother-father differences often ignore the interdependence of data within families. We investigated gender differences within-families using multilevel linear modeling. Mothers and fathers of children with autism (161 couples) reported on their own well-being, and their child's functioning. Mothers reported higher levels of distress compared with fathers, and child behavior problems predicted psychological distress for both mothers and fathers. We found little evidence of child functioning variables affecting mothers and fathers differently. Gender differences in the impact of child autism on parents appear to be robust. More family systems research is required to fully understand these gender differences and the implications for family support. PMID:23307420

  7. Individual Differences in Adolescent Health Symptoms: The Effects of Gender and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, G.S.; Pritchard, M.E.; Revalee, B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that adult men and women experience different types and severities of physical and psychological health symptoms. This study examined whether in the case of adolescents these reported gender differences in physical and psychological health symptoms could actually be the result of differences in coping styles. Five…

  8. Gender differences in the junior secondary (grade 7) mathematics curriculum in Hong Kong

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Cheung

    1989-01-01

    This article seeks to examine gender differences across the mathematics curriculum in the various topic areas and mathematical abilities. It is suggested that a profile of these differences, when compared with students at different grade levels or across curricula, would be more fruitful for classroom teachers and curriculum developers. Breakdown and discriminant function statistics reveal that boys performed better than

  9. Gender Differences in Physical Activity and Determinants of Physical Activity in Rural Fifth Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trost, Stewart G.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study examined whether differences in social-cognitive determinants of activity behavior could account for gender differences in physical activity. Fifth graders (n=365) provided information on afterschool physical activity and determinants of activity behavior. Only differences in self-efficacy and participation in community sports accounted…

  10. Heterosexuals' attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory M. Herek

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the basis for differences among heterosexuals in their reactions to gay people, with special emphasis on the issue of gender differences. Three studies conducted with students at six different universities revealed a consistent tendency for heterosexual males to express more hostile attitudes than heterosexual females, especially toward gay men. The same social psychological variables appear to underlie

  11. Gender differences in minor morbidity among full time employees of a British university

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, C.; Hunt, K.; Macintyre, S.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To examine gender differences in minor morbidity among men and women working in similar circumstances, and to test whether the relation between reported working conditions and health is similar for men and women. DESIGN: Multivariate analysis of data collected from a postal questionnaire distributed to full time employees in white collar jobs within a single organisation. SETTING: A British university. PARTICIPANTS: 1641 employees (1009 men and 632 women) working full time in white collar occupations in the university. MAIN RESULTS: Overall, female university employees reported more "physical" symptoms (2.0 v 1.7, p < 0.001) and more "malaise" symptoms (1.4 v 1.1, p < 0.001) than male employees, but mean scores on a measure of minor psychiatric morbidity did not differ by gender. Poor perceived working conditions (and particularly lack of job stimulation, job drain and poor physical conditions) were consistently related to all three measures of minor morbidity, and these variables accounted for most of the variance in these health measures in this sample. When the analysis controlled for occupational grade, perceived working conditions and orientation to gender roles, there was no difference between men and women for any of the health measures. The relations for the predictor variables were generally the same for men and women (and there were no interactions with gender for any of the work related variables). CONCLUSIONS: Although small gender differences in recent experience of malaise and physical symptoms remain when examining men and women in as similar working circumstances as possible, these differences are cumulatively eroded by taking account of occupational grade, reported working conditions and orientation to gender. These results lend support to a differential exposure, rather than a differential vulnerability, model of gender differences in health.   PMID:10562864

  12. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN FACULTY EXPERIENCES OF INTERPERSONAL CLIMATE AND PROCESSES FOR ADVANCEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phyllis Bronstein; Lori Farnsworth

    1998-01-01

    Gender discrimination in academia was examined by means of a climate survey at a research university, which asked faculty about their experiences, observations, and satisfaction within their work environment. Overall, responses indicated that most faculty felt satisfied with key aspects of their environment, and many felt they had experienced, or observed, little or no discrimination. However, among those who did

  13. Age- and gender-related differences in the cortical anatomical network

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Gaolang; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Carbonell, Felix; Chen, Zhang J.; He, Yong; Evans, Alan C.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroanatomical differences due to aging and gender have been well documented and these differences may be associated with differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, little is known about the dynamic organization of anatomical connectivity within the cerebral cortex, which may underlie population differences in brain function. In this study, we investigated age- and sex- effects on the anatomical connectivity patterns of 95 normal subjects ranging in age from 19 to 85 years. Using the connectivity probability derived from diffusion MRI tractography, we characterized the cerebral cortex as a weighted network of connected regions. This approach captures the underlying organization of anatomical connectivity for each subject at a regional level. Advanced graph theoretical analysis revealed that the resulting cortical networks exhibited “small-world” character, i.e. efficient information transfer both at local and global scale. In particular, the precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus were consistently observed as centrally connected regions, independent of age and sex. Further analysis revealed a reduction in overall cortical connectivity with age. There were also changes in the underlying network organization that resulted in decreased local efficiency, and also a shift of regional efficiency from the parietal and occipital to frontal and temporal neocortex in older brains. In addition, women showed greater overall cortical connectivity and the underlying organization of their cortical networks was more efficient, both locally and globally. There were also distributed regional differences in efficiency between sexes. Our results provide new insights into the substrates that underlie behavioral and cognitive differences in aging and sex. PMID:20016083

  14. Gender-mediated differences in vertical transmission of a nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Virto, Cristina; Zárate, Carlos A; López-Ferber, Miguel; Murillo, Rosa; Caballero, Primitivo; Williams, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    With the development of sensitive molecular techniques for detection of low levels of asymptomatic pathogens, it becoming clear that vertical transmission is a common feature of some insect pathogenic viruses, and likely to be essential to virus survival when opportunities for horizontal transmission are unfavorable. Vertical transmission of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) is common in natural populations of S. exigua. To assess whether gender affected transgenerational virus transmission, four mating group treatments were performed using healthy and sublethally infected insects: i) healthy males (H?) × healthy females (H?); ii) infected males (I?) × healthy females (H?); iii) healthy males (H?) × infected females (I?) and iv) infected males (I?) × infected females (I?). Experimental adults and their offspring were analyzed by qPCR to determine the prevalence of infection. Both males and females were able to transmit the infection to the next generation, although female-mediated transmission resulted in a higher prevalence of infected offspring. Male-mediated venereal transmission was half as efficient as maternally-mediated transmission. Egg surface decontamination studies indicated that the main route of transmission is likely transovarial rather than transovum. Both male and female offspring were infected by their parents in similar proportions. Incorporating vertically-transmitted genotypes into virus-based insecticides could provide moderate levels of transgenerational pest control, thereby extending the periods between bioinsecticide applications. PMID:23940671

  15. Cyberbullying experience and gender differences among adolescents in different educational settings.

    PubMed

    Heiman, Tali; Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying refers to a negative activity aimed at deliberate and repeated harm through the use of a variety of electronic media. This study examined the Internet behavior patterns and gender differences among students with learning disabilities who attended general education and special education classes, their involvement in cyberbullying, and the relationships among being cyberbullied, their responses, and their coping strategies. The sample consisted of 149 students with learning disabilities (LD) attending general education classes, 116 students with comorbid LD attending special education classes, and 242 typically achieving students. All the students, studying in middle and high schools, completed a self-report cyberbullying questionnaire. Findings indicate that although no significant differences emerged in the amount of surfing hours and students' expertise in the use of the Internet, students attending special education classes are more likely to be cybervictims and cyberperpetrators; girls are more likely to be cybervictims, whereas boys are more likely to be cyberperpetrators. These results contribute to our understanding of students' involvement in cyberbullying and can serve as a basis for developing preventive programs as well as intervention programs for students and for educational school teams. PMID:23784784

  16. Gender differences in association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphism and resting-state EEG activity.

    PubMed

    Volf, N V; Belousova, L V; Knyazev, G G; Kulikov, A V

    2015-01-22

    Human brain oscillations represent important features of information processing and are highly heritable. Gender has been observed to affect association between the 5-HTTLPR (serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region) polymorphism and various endophenotypes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of 5-HTTLPR on the spontaneous electroencephalography (EEG) activity in healthy male and female subjects. DNA samples extracted from buccal swabs and resting EEG recorded at 60 standard leads were collected from 210 (101 men and 109 women) volunteers. Spectral EEG power estimates and cortical sources of EEG activity were investigated. It was shown that effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on electrical activity of the brain vary as a function of gender. Women with the S/L genotype had greater global EEG power compared to men with the same genotype. In men, current source density was markedly different among genotype groups in only alpha 2 and alpha 3 frequency ranges: S/S allele carriers had higher current source density estimates in the left inferior parietal lobule in comparison with the L/L group. In women, genotype difference in global power asymmetry was found in the central-temporal region. Contrasting L/L and S/L genotype carriers also yielded significant effects in the right hemisphere inferior parietal lobule and the right postcentral gyrus with L/L genotype carriers showing lower current source density estimates than S/L genotype carriers in all but gamma bands. So, in women, the effects of 5-HTTLPR polymorphism were associated with modulation of the EEG activity in a wide range of EEG frequencies. The significance of the results lies in the demonstration of gene by sex interaction with resting EEG that has implications for understanding sex-related differences in affective states, emotion and cognition. PMID:25450956

  17. Gender Differences in the Attitude and Strategy towards Weight Control among Government Employees in Penang, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Aina Mardiah, B; Hazizi, AS; Nasir, MT Mohd; Zaitun, Y; Jan, JM Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: This was a cross-sectional study on the gender differences in weight-control behavior. The strategies used, weight status, weight satisfaction, and proportion of individuals attempting to lose weight among 233 government employees (104 men and 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building in Penang, Malaysia, were assessed. Methods: Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and body fat percentage were measured to determine the subjects’ body weight status. A questionnaire covering the following items was used to assess weight-control behavior: social support, self-monitoring, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, planning, preparation/buying, portion control, social interactions, and cognitive behavioral strategies. Results: About 50% of the subjects were classified as overweight. Based on percent body fat percentage, 70% of them were classified as having unhealthy levels of body fat. Women were found to be more dissatisfied with their current weight, and were more likely to attempt weight reduction compared to men. Women reported higher levels of social support for dieting and had better expectations for diet and exercise (P < 0.05). They also reported higher use of weight control strategies. For self-monitoring, although no gender-dependent differences (P > 0.05) were observed, women reported more frequent self-monitoring of diet, whereas men reported more frequent self-monitoring of exercise. Conclusion: Health care professionals and researchers should be aware of the different strategies used by men and women in order to plan and/or implement community-wide weight management programmes. PMID:23113119

  18. Negotiating Gender Roles: Gender Differences in Assertive Negotiating Are Mediated by Women’s Fear of Backlash and Attenuated When Negotiating on Behalf of Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily T. Amanatullah; Michael W. Morris

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose that gender differences in negotiations reflect women’s contextually contingent impression management strategies. They argue that the same behavior, bargaining assertively, is construed as congruent with female gender roles in some contexts yet incongruent in other contexts. Further, women take this contextual variation into account, adjusting their bargaining behavior to manage social impressions. A particularly important contextual variable

  19. Differences by Gender, Ethnicity, and Acculturation in the Efficacy of the keepin' it REAL Model Prevention Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Kulis; SCOTT T. YABIKU; FLAVIO F. MARSIGLIA; Tanya Nieri; Ashley Crossman

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether the efficacy of keepin' it REAL, a model program for substance use prevention in schools, was moderated by gender, ethnicity, and acculturation. Gender differences in program efficacy may arise through boys' higher risk of drug use, inadequate attention to girls' developmental issues, or cultural factors like polarized gender expectations. Data came from a randomized trial in

  20. Sex, Lies and fMRI—Gender Differences in Neural Basis of Deception

    PubMed Central

    Falkiewicz, Marcel; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Grabowska, Anna; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    Deception has always been a part of human communication as it helps to promote self-presentation. Although both men and women are equally prone to try to manage their appearance, their strategies, motivation and eagerness may be different. Here, we asked if lying could be influenced by gender on both the behavioral and neural levels. To test whether the hypothesized gender differences in brain activity related to deceptive responses were caused by differential socialization in men and women, we administered the Gender Identity Inventory probing the participants’ subjective social sex role. In an fMRI session, participants were instructed either to lie or to tell the truth while answering a questionnaire focusing on general and personal information. Only for personal information, we found differences in neural responses during instructed deception in men and women. The women vs. men direct contrast revealed no significant differences in areas of activation, but men showed higher BOLD signal compared to women in the left middle frontal gyrus (MFG). Moreover, this effect remained unchanged when self-reported psychological gender was controlled for. Thus, our study showed that gender differences in the neural processes engaged during falsifying personal information might be independent from socialization. PMID:22952631

  1. Sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey S. Mogil; Andrea L. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    It is a clinical reality that women make up the large majority of chronic pain patients, and there is now consensus from laboratory experiments that when differences are seen, women are more sensitive to pain than men. Research in this field has now begun to concentrate on finding explanations for this sex difference. Although sex differences in sociocultural, psychological, and

  2. Exploring Gender Differences across Elementary, Middle, and High School Students' Science and Math Attitudes and Interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGrand, Julie

    The issue of female underrespresentation in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology careers and courses has been well researched over the last several decades. However, as gender gaps in achievement close and representation becomes more equitable in certain academic domains, research has turned to social and cultural factors to explain why fewer women persist in STEM studies and careers than men. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in science and math attitudes and interests from elementary school, to middle school, to high school. To examine possible gender-specific shifts in students' interest and attitudes in science and math, 136 students from a suburban, public school district were surveyed at the elementary school level (N=31), middle school level (N=54), and high school level (N=51) and various constructs were used to assess the responses in accordance with expectancy-value theory. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, a random sample of students from each grade level then participated in focus groups, and corollary themes were identified. Results from a logistical regression analysis and Mann-Whitney Test indicated that significant gender differences exist for interest, efficacy, expectancy, and value within science domains (p<.05), although these differences are not the same at each grade level or for each scientific discipline. Significant gender differences in mathematics are present only at the elementary school level.

  3. Gender differences in perception of workplace sexual harassment among future professionals

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amitav; Sharma, Bhavana

    2011-01-01

    Background: Indian society is in a stage of rapid social transition. As more women enter the workforce, stresses vis-à-vis the genders are to be expected in patriarchal society to which most of our population belongs. Earlier studies in Western societies have revealed gender differences in perception of what constitutes sexual harassment. Aim: Elicit gender differences, if any, in the workplace sexual harassment among future professionals. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study among the students of professional colleges. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 students of both sexes were randomly selected from four professional colleges. Data collection was done on a structured questionnaire by interview. Statistical Analysis: Internal consistency of the questionnaire was tested by Crohnbach's ? coefficient. Associations between gender and perceptions were explored with Chi-square, Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval, where applicable. Results: The differences in perception on what constitutes sexual harassment among the genders were statistically significant on many measures (P<0.01). Conclusions: Men and women differ in their awareness as to what constitute sexual harassment. Men were more lacking in awareness regarding sexual harassment. PMID:22969176

  4. Gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition of teachers in the A university.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Mika; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Tanioka, Tetsuya; Okuda, Kikuko; Chiba, Shinichi; Tomotake, Masahito; King, Beth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the gender differences of the influential factors on the mental health condition among university teachers in the A university in Japan. A questionnaire survey was mailed to 924 university teachers in Japan, with a survey return rate of 43.8% (N=405). The General Health Questionnaire 28 (GHQ-28), Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), the Japanese version of the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) and the Work Situation Questionnaire (WSQ) developed by the authors were administered to subjects. The GHQ-28 total score and all of sub-score of the woman was significantly higher than men. In the correlated factor of mental health, level of job satisfaction and job control, social support of significant others was observed in the both sexes. However, gender differences was observed in the coping style. Some copings including self-distraction and self-blame were related to the men, but the woman was related to the substance use. University teachers had some gender differences in the factors affecting their mental health condition. In order to improve university teacher's mental health condition, it is necessary to increase their level of job satisfaction and feeling of job control in the workplace. Especially, it was considered women's coping using substance use was important. PMID:25817285

  5. An Examination of Attitudinal Differences Concerning Teenage Sexuality: The Impact of Gender and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, E. A.; Gilman, David

    This study examines whether responses to questions concerning teenage sexual activity and teenage pregnancy differ by gender and by the marital status of the respondent's parents. A questionnaire was completed by 231 students attending a college in the Midwest. A number of significant differences were found in the analysis. Subjects from intact…

  6. Dealing with Differences: Taking Action on Class, Race, Gender, and Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Angele; Llewellyn, Marilyn

    This study/action guide was developed from a project on difference and prejudice that was implemented in a Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) high school in 1994 and evaluated through surveys and in-depth interviews. The book provides a basic introduction to difference and prejudice organized about issues of class, race, gender, and disability in the…

  7. Gender differences in TBT accumulation and transformation in Thais clavigera after aqueous and dietary exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinhong Wang; Chao Fang; Huasheng Hong; Wen-Xiong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In this study, female and male Thais clavigera whelks were exposed to aqueous and dietary (using oysters as the prey) tributyltin (TBT) for up to 45 days, followed by a 30-day depuration, in order to examine the gender differences in TBT accumulation and transformation. The metabolites of TBT [dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT)] were also measured in different tissues of

  8. Gender Differences in Social Cognitive Learning at a Technological Project Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Wong, Wan-Tzu; Lin, Hung-Chang; Yau, Che-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the differences between male and female students in technology project design. The major gender differences discussed in this study include the problem discovering and solving abilities, maneuverability, and inquiry attitude among middle grade students. In the project design, students were required to design and…

  9. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: The Case of University Students in England and Wales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert McNabb; Sarmistha Pal; Peter Sloane

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of gender differences in educational attainment using data for all university graduates. We find that, although women students perform better on average than their male counterparts, they are significantly less likely to obtain a first class degree. There is no evidence that this is because of differences in the types of subject male and female

  10. Gender-Related and Grade-Related Differences in Writing Topics in Chinese and Canadian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, C. Brian; Ollila, Lloyd; Baxter, Kristin; Guo, Song Zheng

    1997-01-01

    This study examined Canadian and Chinese first, fourth, and seventh graders to determine sex-related, culture-related, and age-related differences in writing topics. Children were asked to pretend they were animals and write stories about the animals' adventures. Both countries showed gender and age differences in choice of animals which reflected…

  11. Gender Differences in Language Use: An Analysis of 14,000 Text Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Matthew L.; Groom, Carla J.; Handelman, Lori D.; Pennebaker, James W.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in the ways that men and women use language have long been of interest in the study of discourse. Despite extensive theorizing, actual empirical investigations have yet to converge on a coherent picture of gender differences in language. A significant reason is the lack of agreement over the best way to analyze language. In this…

  12. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURIAL INTENTIONS AND BUSINESS START-UP ACTIVITIES (SUMMARY)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gry Agnete Alsos; Stijn Bruyneel; Sara Carter

    2007-01-01

    In spite of growing rates of participation in new venture creation among women, women remain substantially underrepresented among entrepreneurs in Western countries and in Scandinavian countries in particular. Research has found more similarities than differences between the male and female entrepreneurs. However, these findings do not explain the gender differences in the propensity to take part in entrepreneurial activities. The

  13. Gender Differences in Two Decision-Making Tasks in a Community Sample of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    In adolescence, externalized problems such as risk taking and antisocial behavior are more frequent in boys. This suggests that there are differences in the way boys and girls evaluate risk and make decisions during this period. To explore decision making and highlight possible gender differences, 124 adolescents at a junior secondary school…

  14. Exploring Sex and Gender Differences in Sleep Health: A Society for Women's Health Research Report

    PubMed Central

    Mallampalli, Monica P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  15. Exploring sex and gender differences in sleep health: a Society for Women's Health Research Report.

    PubMed

    Mallampalli, Monica P; Carter, Christine L

    2014-07-01

    Previous attempts have been made to address sleep disorders in women; however, significant knowledge gaps in research and a lack of awareness among the research community continue to exist. There is a great need for scientists and clinicians to consider sex and gender differences in their sleep research to account for the unique biology of women. To understand the role of sex differences in sleep and the state of women's sleep health research, the Society for Women's Health Research convened an interdisciplinary expert panel of well-established sleep researchers and clinicians for a roundtable meeting. Focused discussions on basic and clinical research along with a focus on specific challenges facing women with sleep-related problems and effective therapies led to the identification of knowledge gaps and the development of research-related recommendations. Additionally, sex differences in sleep disorders were noted and discussed in the context of underlying hormonal differences. Differences in sleep behavior and sleep disorders may not only be driven by biological factors but also by gender differences in the way women and men report symptoms. Progress has been made in identifying sex and gender differences in many areas of sleep, but major research gaps in the areas of epidemiology, sleep regulation, sleep quality, diagnosis, and treatment need to be addressed. Identifying the underlying nature of sex and gender differences in sleep research has potential to accelerate improved care for both men and women facilitating better diagnosis, treatment, and ultimately prevention of sleep disorders and related comorbid conditions. PMID:24956068

  16. Gender Differences in Public Relations Students' Career Attitudes: A Benchmark Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Betty; Waugh, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    Explores students' perceptions of gender issues in public relations. Finds that there were no statistically significant differences in male and female students' desires to perform managerial activities, but there were statistically significant differences in several areas (i.e. female students expect to earn less money starting out and to be…

  17. Physiological evidence of gender differences in word recognition: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Walla; Bernd Hufnagl; Gerald Lindinger; Lüder Deecke; Wilfried Lang

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic field recordings were made in order to describe brain processes during a word recognition experiment. We investigated 26 healthy young subjects (14 females) and focused on gender differences related to recognition performance and brain activity. From about 200 ms to 350 ms after word onset the event-related field (ERF) patterns differed significantly between women and men, although the mean

  18. Age and Gender Differences in the Appropriateness of Intimate Behaviour Between Parents and Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Prevos

    Previous research reported gender and age differences in the appropriateness of intimate touch between parents and children. In this study, the approval ratings for children sleeping and bathing with their parents have been investigated. Participants were anonymous visitors to the Monash University website, completing a survey to rate the appropriateness of different types of intimate behaviour between parents and children.

  19. Gender Differences Associated with Adolescent Substance Abuse: Comparisons and Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toray, Tamina; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined gender differences in etiology, referral, and treatment for substance abuse in adolescents (n=930) in treatment. Major differences were found between males and females; suicide attempts, physical/sexual abuse, and family drug history were higher for females than for males. Males and females were similar in their patterns of drug abuse.…

  20. Gender differences in sport involvement: Applying the eccles' expectancy-value model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacquelynne S. Eccles; Rena D. Harold

    1991-01-01

    With the growth of the field of sport psychology has come a growing interest and concern over gender differences in achievement and participation in various sports. Why do girls and boys differ from one another in their participation rates and participation patterns in sports? Over the past 10 years, Eccles and her colleagues have put together a theoretical model for

  1. Gender Differences When Parenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leah; Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard P.; Petalas, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Parenting a child with autism may differentially affect mothers and fathers. Existing studies of mother-father differences often ignore the interdependence of data within families. We investigated gender differences within-families using multilevel linear modeling. Mothers and fathers of children with autism (161 couples) reported on their own…

  2. School Context and Gender Differences in Mathematical Performance among School Graduates in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessudnov, Alexey; Makarov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematical performance have received considerable scrutiny in the fields of sociology, economics and psychology. We analyse a large data-set of high school graduates who took a standardised mathematical test in Russia in 2011 (n = 738,456) and find no substantial difference in mean test scores across boys and girls.…

  3. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN EMAIL AND INSTANT MESSAGING: A STUDY OF UNDERGRADUATE BUSINESS INFORMATION SYSTEMS STUDENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER C. DEBRAND; JEFFREY J. JOHNSON

    2008-01-01

    This study examined gender differences concerning the use and perceived usefulness of email and instant messaging software. Participants were asked to rate both media in terms of frequency and usefulness. The findings provide evidence that women perceive email as more useful than men do when communicating with people who were geographically distant. Aside from that difference, this study suggests that

  4. Selecting Films for Sex Research: Gender Differences in Erotic Film Preference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erick Janssen; Deanna Carpenter; Cynthia A. Graham

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in sexual responsiveness to erotic films that had been selected for their differential appeal for men and women. A secondary objective was to identify variables that influence sexual arousal and explore whether these variables differ for men and women. Fifteen men (M age = 26 yrs) and 17 women (M

  5. Intentional Families: Fictive Kin Ties between Cross-Gender, Different Sexual Orientation Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraco, Anna

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the nature of intentional family relationships between friends of different genders and different sexual orientations. Drawing on in-depth interviews with 46 members of 23 friendship dyads, I first make the case that the friends considered one another family and I specify the criteria they use for making such designations. I…

  6. Gender Differences in Both Tails of the Distribution of Numerical Competencies in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonnemann, Jan; Linkersdörfer, Janosch; Hasselhorn, Marcus; Lindberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematical achievement have been examined in a wide range of age groups but only a few studies addressed this issue in preschool children. We compared preschool girls (n?=?570) and boys (n?=?524) from Germany with regard to numerical competencies. Differences in overall group means and the frequency of representation at…

  7. How Do Epistemological Beliefs Differ by Gender and Socio-Economic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Sule; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores the differences in students' epistemological beliefs by gender and socio-economic status (SES). The Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004) was adapted and administered to 1230 seventh grade students. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed differences in…

  8. Gender Differences in Emotional Risk for Self- and Other-Directed Violence among Externalizing Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Naomi; Javdani, Shabnam; Finy, M. Sima; Verona, Edelyn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Women and men generally differ in how frequently they engage in other- and self-directed physical violence and may show distinct emotional risk factors for engagement in these high-impact behaviors. To inform this area, we investigated gender differences in the relationship of emotional tendencies (i.e., anger, hostility, and anhedonic…

  9. Gender Differences in the Daily Physical Activities of Danish School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children at pre-school and later at third grade. The study…

  10. Gender Differences in PTSD in Israeli Youth Exposed to Terror Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laufer, Avital; Solomon, Zahava

    2009-01-01

    Differences between boys' and girls' exposure to terror and posttraumatic symptoms were examined in a sample of 2,999 Israeli adolescents. Gender differences were also assessed regarding perceived social support, religious beliefs, and ideological commitment. Results indicate that girls reported more posttraumatic symptoms than boys, although boys…

  11. Gender-stereotyping and cognitive sex differences in mixed- and same-sex groups.

    PubMed

    Hirnstein, Marco; Coloma Andrews, Lisa; Hausmann, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in specific cognitive abilities are well documented, but the biological, psychological, and sociocultural interactions that may underlie these differences are largely unknown. We examined within a biopsychosocial approach how gender stereotypes affect cognitive sex differences when adult participants were tested in mixed- or same-sex groups. A total of 136 participants (70 women) were allocated to either mixed- or same-sex groups and completed a battery of sex-sensitive cognitive tests (i.e., mental rotation, verbal fluency, perceptual speed) after gender stereotypes or gender-neutral stereotypes (control) were activated. To study the potential role of testosterone as a mediator for group sex composition and stereotype boost/threat effects, saliva samples were taken before the stereotype manipulation and after cognitive testing. The results showed the typical male and female advantages in mental rotation and verbal fluency, respectively. In general, men and women who were tested in mixed-sex groups and whose gender stereotypes had not been activated performed best. Moreover, a stereotype threat effect emerged in verbal fluency with reduced performance in gender stereotyped men but not women. Testosterone levels did not mediate the effects of group sex composition and stereotype threat nor did we find any relationship between testosterone and cognitive performance in men and women. Taken together, the findings suggest that an interaction of gender stereotyping and group sex composition affects the performance of men and women in sex-sensitive cognitive tasks. Mixed-sex settings can, in fact, increase cognitive performance as long as gender-stereotyping is prevented. PMID:24923876

  12. Gender Differences in Information Search and Comparison Shopping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dana Nicoleta Lascu; Lalita A. Manrai; Ajay K. Manrai; Harold W. Babb

    2001-01-01

    In entering the market of Central and Eastern Europe, it is important for marketers to understand how certain aspects of consumer behavior differs across consumer segments so that they can appropriately segment, target and position their products. A study was conducted to evaluate differences between males and females across the countries of Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania in terms of their

  13. Human gender differences in the perception of conspecific alarm chemosensory cues.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Anca R; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2013-01-01

    It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei). When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether gender differences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals), we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender. PMID:23894310

  14. Gender Patterns of Socioeconomic Differences in Premature Mortality: Follow-up of the Hungarian Epidemiological Panel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mária S. Kopp; Árpád Skrabski; Krisztina D. László; Imre Janszky

    2011-01-01

    Background  Gender differences in premature mortality rates and in the size of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality vary across countries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  We aimed to quantify the gender differences in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and premature all-cause\\u000a mortality and to analyse whether psychosocial factors might associate between SES and mortality among men and women separately\\u000a in the middle-aged Hungarian population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Men (n?=?1130)

  15. Gender differences in the prediction of parental servings of alcohol to adolescents and youth drunkenness.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Anna K; Bodin, Maria C; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-12-01

    This longitudinal study, funded by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health, explored gender differences in predictors of parental servings of alcohol to youth and youth drunkenness. Data were collected from 1,752 Swedish 7th-grade youth and their parents, at three occasions between 2007 and 2010. Measurements included youth alcohol use, parental warmth, and parental control. Two-level logistic regressions showed that 15-year-old girls are more likely to be served alcohol at home compared to boys, and that there are some gender differences in predictors of drunkenness. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed and areas for future research identified. PMID:24832724

  16. Sex, gender, and pain: Women and men really are different

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger B. Fillingim

    2000-01-01

    Sex-related differences in the experience of both clinical and experimentally induced pain have been widely reported. Specifically,\\u000a females are at greater risk for developing several chronic pain disorders, and women exhibit greater sensitivity to noxious\\u000a stimuli in the laboratory compared with men. Several mechanisms have been proposed to account for these sex differences. Psychosocial\\u000a factors such as sex role beliefs,

  17. Progressive Gender Differences of Structural Brain Networks in Healthy Adults: A Longitudinal, Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu; Lee, Renick; Chen, Yu; Collinson, Simon; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Sim, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in the brain maturation during childhood and adolescence has been repeatedly documented, which may underlie the differences in behaviors and cognitive performance. However, our understanding of how gender modulates the development of structural connectome in healthy adults is still not entirely clear. Here we utilized graph theoretical analysis of longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging data over a five-year period to investigate the progressive gender differences of brain network topology. The brain networks of both genders showed prominent economical “small-world” architecture (high local clustering and short paths between nodes). Additional analysis revealed a more economical “small-world” architecture in females as well as a greater global efficiency in males regardless of scan time point. At the regional level, both increased and decreased efficiency were found across the cerebral cortex for both males and females, indicating a compensation mechanism of cortical network reorganization over time. Furthermore, we found that weighted clustering coefficient exhibited significant gender-time interactions, implying different development trends between males and females. Moreover, several specific brain regions (e.g., insula, superior temporal gyrus, cuneus, putamen, and parahippocampal gyrus) exhibited different development trajectories between males and females. Our findings further prove the presence of sexual dimorphism in brain structures that may underlie gender differences in behavioral and cognitive functioning. The sex-specific progress trajectories in brain connectome revealed in this work provide an important foundation to delineate the gender related pathophysiological mechanisms in various neuropsychiatric disorders, which may potentially guide the development of sex-specific treatments for these devastating brain disorders. PMID:25742013

  18. Gender differences in the media interviews of Bill and Hillary Clinton.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Camelia; O'Connell, Daniel C

    2008-01-01

    Does gender make a difference in the way politicians speak and are spoken to in public? This paper examines perspective in three television interviews and two radio interviews with Bill Clinton in June 2004 and in three television interviews and two radio interviews with Hillary Clinton in June 2003 with the same interviewers. Our perspectival approach assumes that each utterance has a dialogically constructed point of view. Earlier research has shown that markers of conceptual orality and literacy as well as referencing (name and pronoun use for self and other reference) do reflect perspective. This paper asks whether perspective is gendered. Our data analysis demonstrates that some markers of perspective show gender differences while others do not. Those that do include the number of syllables spoken by each interlocutor, referencing, the use of the intensifier so, the use of the hedge you know, the use of non-standard pronunciations, turn transitions, and lastly the use of laughter. PMID:17447143

  19. Combining Automatic Item Generation and Experimental Designs to Investigate the Contribution of Cognitive Components to the Gender Difference in Mental Rotation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus; Gittler, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Marked gender differences in three-dimensional mental rotation have been broadly reported in the literature in the last few decades. Various theoretical models and accounts were used to explain the observed differences. Within the framework of linking item design features of mental rotation tasks to cognitive component processes associated with…

  20. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Reasons for Homelessness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Tessler; Robert Rosenheck; Gail Gamache

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate some of the ways in which the perceived pathways into homelessness are socially structured. We do this by examining the relative frequency of 11 different reasons homeless males and females cite for being homeless. Males were more likely to cite the following as their main reasons for homelessness: loss of a job,

  1. Gender differences in the perception of women in magazine advertising

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan R. Rossi; Joseph S. Rossi

    1985-01-01

    Male and female college students (N=137) rated 10 control and 10 target magazine advertisements for appeal and for the perceived sexism displayed in the ads. Males did not differ in their ratings of target and control ad appeal. Females rated target ads as less appealing than control ads, and gave target ads lower appeal ratings than did males. Females also

  2. College Students' Gender Differences regarding E-Mail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra M.; Hemby, Charles O.

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and forty-five undergraduate students at a large southwestern university completed a questionnaire designed to assess college students' computer-mediated communication behaviors. Findings revealed that males and females have different perceptions and usages concerning their computer-mediated communication behaviors when e-mailing and…

  3. Measurement of Science Achievement and Its Role in Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Betsy Jane; Chang, Lin

    Differences in science achievement between males and females have been examined either directly or indirectly in a variety of studies. This investigation reviewed a quantitative synthesis of correlational research on science affect, ability, and achievement conducted by Steinkamp and Maehr. Their findings were reassessed by employing a…

  4. Beliefs about Romantic Relationships: Gender Differences among Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowitz, Deborah A.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed an anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships. Significant differences between men's and women's beliefs about romantic relationships were found on eight of 14 items. Men were significantly more likely to…

  5. Gender Differences in Rating Stressful Events, Depression, and Depressive Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Claudia J.; Lustman, Patrick J.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Life Stress Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire to 140 students. Results showed significant sex differences. Men reported more stressful life change, but women rated the impact of stressors more severely and had higher depression. Men exhibited greater distortions in cognitive…

  6. Remembering talk: Individual and gender differences in reported speech

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Ely; Elizabeth Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This study examined individual and group differences in the nature and frequency of reports of past speech in the autobiographical memories of young adults. A sample of 108 participants (60 females, 48 males) responded in writing to six memory prompts. They also completed the Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (Spence & Helmreich, 1978).

  7. Playing Varsity Soccer: Gender Differences among High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M; Kurdek, Lawrence A.

    Male and female students competing on varsity soccer teams in two public high schools, one an elite college preparatory school, the other a suburban school, were found to place differing emphasis on interpersonal, competitive, and athletic dimensions of play. In this project 65 students (36 males and 29 females) were asked to respond to measures…

  8. Gender Differences in Research Mentorship and Pretenured Counselor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Cynthia A.; Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pre-tenured counselor educators receive research mentorship. Furthermore, this study investigated whether mentorship differs for female and male faculty members. The instrument utilized was a web-based survey entitled the Research Mentor Quality Questionnaire (RMQQ). The 139 respondents (51.7%…

  9. Adolescent Friendship Relations and Developmental Outcomes: Ethnic and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of the present study was to examine associations between different aspects of adolescent friendship relations (i.e., frequency of contact with friends, trust in friends, and perceived friends' deviance) on one hand, and adolescent problem behavior and self-esteem on the other hand. The second aim was to determine whether the findings…

  10. A Test of Biological and Behavioral Explanations for Gender Differences in Telomere Length: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    NEEDHAM, BELINDA L.; DIEZ ROUX, ANA V.; BIRD, CHLOE E.; BRADLEY, RYAN; FITZPATRICK, ANNETTE L.; JACOBS, DAVID R.; OUYANG, PAMELA; SEEMAN, TERESA E.; THURSTON, REBECCA C.; VAIDYA, DHANANJAY; WANG, STEVEN

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cell aging that has been hypothesized to contribute to women’s greater longevity. Data are from a subsample (n = 851) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45 to 84. Mediation models were used to examine study hypotheses. We found that women had longer LTL than men, but the gender difference was smaller at older ages. Gender differences in smoking and processed meat consumption partially mediated gender differences in telomere length, whereas gender differences in estradiol, total testosterone, oxidative stress, and body mass index did not. Neither behavioral nor biological factors explained why the gender difference in LTL was smaller at older ages. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess gender differences in the rate of change in LTL over time; to identify the biological, behavioral, and psychosocial factors that contribute to these differences throughout the life course; and to determine whether gender differences in LTL explain the gender gap in longevity. PMID:25343364

  11. A test of biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in telomere length: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Needham, Belinda L; Diez Roux, Ana V; Bird, Chloe E; Bradley, Ryan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Jacobs, David R; Ouyang, Pamela; Seeman, Teresa E; Thurston, Rebecca C; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Wang, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine biological and behavioral explanations for gender differences in leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a biomarker of cell aging that has been hypothesized to contribute to women's greater longevity. Data are from a subsample (n = 851) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a population-based study of women and men aged 45 to 84. Mediation models were used to examine study hypotheses. We found that women had longer LTL than men, but the gender difference was smaller at older ages. Gender differences in smoking and processed meat consumption partially mediated gender differences in telomere length, whereas gender differences in estradiol, total testosterone, oxidative stress, and body mass index did not. Neither behavioral nor biological factors explained why the gender difference in LTL was smaller at older ages. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess gender differences in the rate of change in LTL over time; to identify the biological, behavioral, and psychosocial factors that contribute to these differences throughout the life course; and to determine whether gender differences in LTL explain the gender gap in longevity. PMID:25343364

  12. Gender differences in the viscoelastic properties of tendon structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keitaro Kubo; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Tetsuo Fukunaga

    2003-01-01

    .   The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in the viscoelastic properties of human tendon structures (tendon\\u000a and aponeurosis) in the medial gastrocnemius muscle between men (n=16) and women (n=13). The elongation of the tendon and aponeurosis of the medial gastrocnemius muscle was measured directly by ultrasonography,\\u000a while the subjects performed ramp isometric plantar flexion up to

  13. Gender Differences in Risk Behaviors Among High School Youth

    PubMed Central

    Haque laz, Tabassum; Rahman, Mahbubur; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2013-01-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) demonstrates that American youth engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors.1 The frequency and type of these behaviors often differ by a number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, race, and ethnicity. For example, results of the 2011 YRBSS revealed that white high school students were most likely to have texted or e-mailed while driving or been bullied on school property, while black high school students were most likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviors, to have been physically inactive, and to be obese.1 Conversely, Hispanic high school students were most likely to have ridden with a driver who had been drinking alcohol; to have ever used cocaine, inhalants, or ecstasy; and to have failed to use protection to prevent pregnancy during last sexual intercourse.1 However, it is difficult to discern whether differences in risk-taking behaviors between and among ethnic groups can actually be attributed to differences in group norms, socioeconomic status, or cultural beliefs regarding acceptance or rejection of such behaviors,1 suggesting a need for more comprehensive regional investigations. PMID:24416689

  14. Gender differences in national assessment of educational progress science items: What does i don't know really mean?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcia C. Linn; Tina de Benedictis; Kevin Delucchi; Abigail Harris; Elizabeth Stage

    1987-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress Science Assessment has consistently revealed small gender differences on science content items but not on science inquiry items. This assessment differs from others in that respondents can choose I don't know rather than guessing. This paper examines explanations for the gender differences including (a) differential prior instruction, (b) differential response to uncertainty and use

  15. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  16. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25287414

  17. Experience, gender, and performance: Connecting high school physics experience and gender differences to introductory college physics performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Robert H.

    Current science educational practice is coming under heavy criticism based on the dismaying results of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study of 1998, the latest in a series of large scale surveys; and from research showing the appallingly low representation of females in science-related fields. These critical evaluations serve to draw attention to science literacy in general and lack of persistence among females in particular, two issues that relate closely to the "preparation for future study" goal held by many high school science teachers. In other words, these teachers often seek to promote future success and to prevent future failure in their students' academic careers. This thesis studies the connection between the teaching practices recommended by reformers and researchers for high school teachers, and their students' subsequent college physics performance. The teaching practices studied were: laboratory experiences, class discussion experiences, content coverage, and reliance on textbooks. This study analyzed a survey of 1500 students from 16 different lecture-format college physics courses at 14 different universities. Using hierarchical linear modeling, this study accounted for course-level variables (Calculus-based/Non-calculus course type, professor's gender, and university selectivity). This study controlled for the student's parents education, high school science/mathematics achievement, high school calculus background, and racial background. In addition, the interactions between gender and both pedagogical/curricular and course-level variables were analyzed. The results indicated that teaching fewer topics in greater depth in high school physics appeared to be helpful to college physics students. An interaction between college course type and content coverage showed that students in Calculus-based physics reaped even greater benefits from a depth-oriented curriculum. Also students with fewer labs per month in high school physics appeared to perform better in college physics than did students with many more labs per month. The only significant interaction was between gender and Calculus-based/Non-calculus college course type. Females appeared to do better on average than their males counterparts in Non-calculus physics, but this trend is clearly reversed for Calculus-based physics. This is a disturbing result for educators who have worked to promote persistence among women in engineering and science research. Recommendations are included for high school physics teachers, students and their parents, and college physics instructors.

  18. Child Gender and Parental Investments In India: Are Boys And Girls Treated Differently?

    PubMed Central

    Barcellos, Silvia Helena; Carvalho, Leandro S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has not always found that boys and girls are treated differently in rural India. However estimates of the effect of gender on parental investments could be biased if girls end up in larger families due to son-biased stopping rules. Using a novel identification strategy that exploits that gender at conception is random, we document that boys receive more childcare time than girls, they are breastfed longer and they get more vitamin supplementation. Compared to other developing countries, boys have an advantage in height and weight relative to girls. Neither greater needs nor anticipated family size explain the results. PMID:24575163

  19. Gender Differences in Sexual Practices and Beliefs among Rural Injection Drug Users in Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zagumny, Matthew J.; Holt, Tamala Ray

    1999-01-01

    Survey examines gender differences in sexual practices and beliefs about condom use among rural injecting drug users admitted to treatment programs. Results indicate that Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome knowledge was extremely limited for both males and females in this sample, suggesting that basic HIV/AIDS…

  20. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement among Turkish Prospective Teachers of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erten, Ismail Hakki

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to explain prevalent gender differences in academic achievement of 84 third-year students enrolled in a pre-service ELT (English Language Teaching) teacher training department. The study collected both qualitative and quantitative data through semi-structured interviews from a sample of 38 students. A content analysis of the data…

  1. Gender Differences in Caregiver Emotion Socialization of Low-Income Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Casey, James; Sinha, Rajita; Mayes, Linda C.

    2010-01-01

    Low-income children are at elevated risk for emotion-related problems; however, little research has examined gender and emotion socialization in low-income families. The authors describe the ways in which emotion socialization may differ for low-income versus middle-income families. They also present empirical data on low-income caregivers'…

  2. The Role of Anxiety and Working Memory in Gender Differences in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Vasilyeva, Marina

    2014-01-01

    This research examined a potential mechanism underlying gender differences in math performance by testing a mediation model in which women's higher anxiety taxes their working memory resources, leading to underperformance on a mathematics test. Participants for the 2 studies were college students (N = 87, N = 118) who completed an anxiety measure,…

  3. Form, Content, and Gender Differences in Lego[R] Block Creations by Japanese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Daiki; Morita, Miyako

    2009-01-01

    This study examined general features of Lego block creations produced by Japanese adolescents with no known mental health disorders. The block creations of 33 participants were assessed for form, content, and gender differences. Time spent on the task, amount of area covered, and quantity and types of blocks used were measured and correlated with…

  4. Gender Differences in Intrahousehold Schooling Outcomes: The Role of Sibling Characteristics and Birth-Order Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammohan, Anu; Dancer, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of gender, sibling characteristics and birth order on the schooling attainment of school-age Egyptian children. We use multivariate analysis to simultaneously examine three different schooling outcomes of a child having "no schooling", "less than the desired level of schooling", and an "age-appropriate level…

  5. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  6. The Grapefruit Race: Demonstrating the Influence of Competition on Gender Differences in Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebl, Mikki R.; King, Eden B.; McGuire, Julie; Turchin, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    We present an interactive demonstration of factors that mitigate gender differences. Male and female volunteers pass a grapefruit from one classmate to the next using only their chins. The speed of task completion depends on its framing; when the volunteers believe the task is an exercise, women tend to be faster than men, whereas the opposite…

  7. Factors Associated with Gender Differences in Parent-Adolescent Relationships that Delay First Intercourse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagamatsu, Miyuki; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Takeshi

    2008-01-01

    Background: To determine the factors associated with gender differences in parent-adolescent relationships that delay first intercourse in Japan. Methods: Japanese high school students aged 15-18 years (female = 632 and male = 636) completed a questionnaire that evaluated the relationship with their parents. Logistic regression analyses were…

  8. Gender Differences in the Primary Representational System according to Neurolinguistic Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassiere, M. F.; And Others

    Neurolinguistic Programming (NLP) is a currently popular therapeutic modality in which individuals organize information through three basic sensory systems, one of which is the Primary Representational System (PRS). This study was designed to investigate gender differences in PRS according to the predicate preference method. It was expected that…

  9. Measurement Skills in Low-Income Elementary School Students: Exploring the Nature of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Casey, Beth M.; Dearing, Eric; Ganley, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, we examined overall performance and gender differences in measurement skills in elementary-school students from low-income families. In Study 1, accuracy and error patterns were analyzed in a large sample of fourth-graders; in Study 2 error patterns and strategy usage were examined with a smaller sample of fourth-graders. Study 1…

  10. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  11. Gender Differences in Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Data from a Male-Dominated Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Amy E.; Gradus, Jaimie L.; Stafford, Jane; Kelly, Kacie

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to examine gender differences in experiences of sexual harassment during military service and the negative mental health symptoms associated with these experiences. Female (n = 2,319) and male (n = 1,627) former reservists were surveyed about sexual harassment during their military service and current mental…

  12. A Multilevel Analysis of Gender Differences in Psychological Distress over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botticello, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Females have higher rates of depression than males, a disparity that emerges in adolescence and persists into adulthood. This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to assess the effects of school context on gender differences in depressive symptoms among adolescents based on two waves of data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent…

  13. Gender Differences in the Relationships among Parenting Styles and College Student Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Alison L.; Kirtley, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Levels of student depression may increase as stress increases; parenting styles may be one indirect source of stress. The authors examined the role of parenting style in relationship to student stress, anxiety, and depression, with focused attention on gender differences. Participants: Participants were 290 undergraduate students (58%…

  14. Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences of the Beck Depression Inventory II across Gender Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pei-Chen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined measurement invariance (i.e., configural invariance, metric invariance, scalar invariance) of the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II-C) across college males and females and compared gender differences on depression at the latent factor mean level. Two samples composed of 402 male college students and 595…

  15. Dealing with Difference: Ethnicity and Gender in the Context of Schooling in Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei, George J. Sefa

    2004-01-01

    This paper is based on findings of a longitudinal study examining the broader systemic and structural processes of schooling for local youth in Ghana. Specifically, the paper examines how Ghanaian schools address the question of difference and diversity within the student population. Particular focus is on ethnicity and gender as sites of…

  16. Gender Differences in Approaches to Studying for the GCSE among High-Achieving Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This study explores gender differences in approaches to studying for GCSE among high-achieving pupils. The sample comprised 310 Year 10 and 11 pupils from two single-sex schools. Pupils completed a self-reported questionnaire designed to assess approaches to studying for GCSE, including statements relating to coursework, examinations, research,…

  17. Gender Differences in Psychopathic Traits, Types, and Correlates of Aggression among Adjudicated Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Timothy R.; Marini, Victoria A.; Thomas, Jamila N.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated gender differences in types and correlates of aggression among 150 adjudicated youth (M age = 15.2, SD = 1.4). In cluster analysis, consistent with past studies, one aggressive group characterized by moderate levels of reactive aggression and one characterized by high levels of proactive and reactive aggression…

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Reported Symptomatology and Working Memory in College Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Kugler, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in self-reported symptomatology and working memory (visuospatial and auditory) in college students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Forty-seven college students with ADHD and 44 non-affected control participants completed two self-report questionnaires and six tests…

  19. Racial/ethnic, gender, and BMI differences in athletic identity in children and adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in athletic self-concept, a hypothesized mediator of physical activity and sedentary behavior, by gender, racial/ethnic, and overweight status in elementary and middle school children. Children (Grades 4-5, n=936) and adolescents (Grades 7-8, n=1...

  20. Gender Differences in Identity Processes and Self-Esteem in Middle and Later Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karyn M. Skultety; Susan Krauss Whitbourne

    2004-01-01

    Gender differences were examined in the identity processes of identity assimilation (maintaining identity despite age changes), identity accommodation (changing identity) and balance (using both processes) and in the relationship of these processes to self-esteem. We tested a community sample of 222 adults (131 females and 91 males) ranging from 40 to 84 years of age (M = 57.5, SD =

  1. Gender Differences in the Sport Socialization Process of High School Varsity Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lander, Linda; Durentini, Carol L.

    This study of gender differences in the sport socialization process of high school varsity athletes examined: (1) the primary and secondary patterns of sport involvement by significant others; and (2) the primary sources of motivation for athletes' entrance into sport and continued sport involvement. A 96-item Sport Participation Inventory was…

  2. Gender differences in hip and ankle joint kinematics on knee abduction during running

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masanori Sakaguchi; Haruna Ogawa; Norifumi Shimizu; Hiroaki Kanehisa; Toshimasa Yanai; Yasuo Kawakami

    2012-01-01

    The knee is the most common site of running injuries, particularly prevalent in females. The purpose of this study was to clarify gender differences in the lower extremity kinematics during running, with a specific emphasis on the relationships between the distal and proximal factors and the knee joint kinematics. Eleven female and 11 male runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional

  3. Grocery product pricing and Australian supermarket consumers: gender differences in perceived importance levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Steven Mortimer

    2011-01-01

    Grocery shopping is an essential and routine activity. Although long regarded the responsibility of the female spouse, modern social and demographic shifts are causing men to become more engaged in this task. This is the first study to analyse gender differences with respect to the criterion of grocery product price within an Australian supermarket retail environment. A stratified sample of

  4. Gender Differences in Mathematics Performance: Walberg's Educational Productivity Model and the NELS:88 Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rita Merklin

    While gender differences in mathematics achievement and attitudes overall have been declining during the past two decades, there still exists a disparity in advanced mathematics achievement and upper-level mathematics course-taking patterns that contributes to fewer females than males choosing professions in math, science, and technology fields.…

  5. Gender Differences in Remarriage after Divorce in Japan and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornell, Laurel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in the likelihood of remarriage after divorce in Japan and the United States. Compared the sex ratio of the currently divorced with the sex ratio of the currently married to suggest that Japanese women are disproportionately disadvantaged by divorce, relative to American White women of the same age. (TE)

  6. Gender Differences in Visual Spatial Skills: A Meta-Analysis of Doctoral Theses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druva-Roush, Cynthia Ann; Wu, Zhi Jun

    Meta-analysis techniques were used to summarize the results concerning gender differences reported in doctoral dissertations on visual spatial skills. Dissertations were chosen because they are not subject to the selection process of journals, which may bias results toward large effects. An analysis of 150 independent data points in 43…

  7. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Emotional Regulation and Depressive Symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian F. Thayer; Lynn A. Rossy; Elisabeth Ruiz-Padial; Bjorn Helge Johnsen

    2003-01-01

    Reports of gender differences in depressive symptoms are one of the most pervasive findings in the literature. In addition, women are frequently reported to be more emotionally sensitive than men. However, the paradox of women being more emotionally responsive and yet at greater risk for psychopathology is still to be unraveled. In the present study we examined emotional regulation as

  8. Gender Differences in Agency Head Salaries: The Case of Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Kenneth J.; Wilkins, Vicky M.

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed gender discrimination in public sector salaries from more than 1,000 school districts in Texas over a 4-year period. Results show that differences in superintendents' salaries are subtle rather than systematic. Female superintendents who replace male superintendents receive lower compensation. Local district wealth is also a…

  9. Developmental and Gender Related Differences in Response Switches after Nonrepresentative Negative Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Brenda R. J.; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C. K.; Huizenga, Hilde M.

    2014-01-01

    In many decision making tasks negative feedback is probabilistic and, as a consequence, may be given when the decision is actually correct. This feedback can be referred to as nonrepresentative negative feedback. In the current study, we investigated developmental and gender related differences in such switching after nonrepresentative negative…

  10. Gender and Age Differences in Individual Decisions about Wireless Mobile Data Services: A Report from China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June Lu; Chun-sheng Yu; Chang Liu

    2006-01-01

    Incorporating SEM model comparison and hierarchical multiple regression procedures and using the survey data collected from 1,432 participants in five cities in China, this study revealed the influence nature of age and gender differences in relation to the decision pattern of WMDS adoption in China. Age had both strong direct and moderating effect on major causal relationships toward WMDS adoption

  11. Gender Differences In Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Parental Monitoring and Peer Deviance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Svensson

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates gender differences in adolescent drug use in terms of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Females are found to be more highly monitored than males, whereas males are more exposed to deviant peers than are females. There is a significant interaction between parental monitoring and peer deviance for the sample as a whole. The effect of this interaction

  12. Performance on Different Test Types by Racial/Ethnic Group and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerberg, N. James

    As is consistent with national trends, the Montgomery County (Maryland) Public School System is exploring the use of instruments other than multiple-choice tests for high-stakes testing. This paper presents information on racial, ethnic, and gender differences in performance on the various types of tests being administered in the district. Sharing…

  13. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…

  14. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  15. Gender Differences and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Thomas F.; Newcomb, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines correlations between Alcohol Involvement, Dysphoria, and their combined effects, with Social Conformity, Perceived Opportunity, Relationship Satisfaction, Parental Divorce, and Family Support/Bonding in a sample of late adolescents. Results revealed gender differences between Alcohol Involvement and Dysphoria. (Contains 74 references, 2…

  16. Gender Differences in the Vocational Interests of Youth Considering High Job Growth and Green Energy Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Becky S.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 100 years, vocational psychologists and educational researchers have sought to identify the significant influences shaping occupational interests. This descriptive study used a series of vocational card sort exercises with 139 rural high school youth to identify gender differences in occupational interests toward working in 60 of the…

  17. Photographic depictions of the self: Gender and age differences in social connectedness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Clancy; Stephen J. Dollinger

    1993-01-01

    With primarily (88%) Caucasian participants, the autophotography method [R. C. Ziller (1990), Photographing the Self, Newbury Park, California: Sage] was used to test for gender differences in social connectedness as hypothesized by a number of scholars [e.g., M. F. Belenky, B. M. Clinchy, N. R. Goldberger, and J. M. Tarule (1986), Women's Ways of Knowing, New York: Basic Books; N.

  18. Bone Mass in Prepubertal Children: Gender Differences and the Role of Physical Activity and Sunlight Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. JONES; T. DWYER

    2010-01-01

    Retrospective studies have suggested that the prepubertal years may be an important window of opportunity to increase bone mass, but there have been few direct studies and little exploration of gender differences in this age group. In this study, we report the associations among physical activity measures, sunlight exposure, body composi- tion, and bone mass in 8-yr-old children. We studied

  19. Gender Differences in Factors Related to Parenting Style: A Study of High Performing Science Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Hein; John H. Lewko

    1994-01-01

    This study examined parenting styles within the families of high performing science students and explored gender differences in the factors associated with an authoritative parenting style. Participants in the study were 363 students who competed in the Canada-Wide Science Fair, 1992. Results showed that the authoritative parenting style was predominant among participants and that few students were from families with

  20. Gender differences in occupational stress and coping strategies among IT personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivien K. G. Lim; Thompson S. H. Teo

    1996-01-01

    Examines gender differences in occupational stress and coping strategies among information technology (IT) personnel in Singapore. Data were collected via a combination of mail surveys and semi-structured interviews. Analyses results of the survey using analysis of covariance procedures. Female IT personnel reported significantly higher scores on sources of stress originating from “factors intrinsic to the job”, “managerial role”, “career and

  1. Student Engagement at a Large Suburban Community College: Gender and Race Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontam, Varalakshmi; Gabriel, George

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that there are individual differences in academic achievement associated with gender and race. Research also suggests that student engagement is an important determinant of student outcomes/achievement. The present study explored student engagement at an extra-large community college. It specifically investigated possible…

  2. Gender Differences in Traumatic Events and Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Nish, David; Leonard, Noelle R.; Strauss, Shiela M.

    2007-01-01

    In the present report we describe patterns of traumatic events and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), both partial and full, among homeless youth and those at risk for homelessness, with an emphasis on gender differences. Participants were 85 homeless and at-risk youth (49% female) recruited from a drop-in center in New York City in 2000.…

  3. Gender Differences in the Career Paths of Educational Administrators in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson; McKee, Christine C.

    This study explored possible gender differences between the career paths of incumbent educational administrators holding the positions of superintendent, assistant superintendent, secondary principal, and elementary principal. Study data had been obtained from an earlier comprehensive survey of 622 incumbent and aspiring Pennsylvania…

  4. Gender Differences in the Career Paths of Aspiring and Incumbent Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavan, Barbara Nelson; D'Angelo, Judith McCloud

    A study was undertaken to investigate gender differences in the career paths of aspirant and incumbent certificate holders for line positions within educational administration. In October 1985, 1,338 Pennsylvania certificate holders were mailed a 4-page survey probing the areas of career pathways, job search strategies, time usage, mentor's…

  5. Gender Differences in Adolescent Drug Use: The Impact of Parental Monitoring and Peer Deviance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in adolescent drug use in terms of parental monitoring and peer deviance. Surveys of Swedish adolescents indicated that girls were more highly monitored than boys, and boys were more exposed to deviant peers than girls. There was a significant interaction for parental monitoring and peer deviance for the sample as a…

  6. Gender Differences in Self-Silencing and Psychological Distress in Informal Cancer Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ussher, Jane M.; Perz, Janette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in self-silencing, the relationship between self-silencing and psychological distress, and reasons for self-silencing in informal cancer carers (329 women, 155 men), using a mixed-method design. Men reported greater self-silencing than women on the Silencing the Self Scale; however, women reported higher…

  7. The Debate Continues: Are There Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning as Defined by Kohlberg?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruess, Brian J.; Pearson, Frances C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines changes in moral reasoning among college students and seeks to determine whether there are gender differences in the process. Women scored higher than men on both Principled moral reasoning and Davison's moral index and graduating students scored higher than first-year students on Davison's moral index. Discusses whether Kohlberg's theory…

  8. Unwanted Identities: A Key Variable in Shame–Anger Links and Gender Differences in Shame

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamara J. Ferguson; Heidi L. Eyre; Michael Ashbaker

    2000-01-01

    The present study examined the role that unwanted identities play in accounting for extant findings concerning gender differences in shame-proneness. The construct of unwanted identities was also used to explain why powerful associations have been found between shame and anger. College students (48 men, 84 women) rated their feelings of shame, guilt, anger, and unwanted identities in response to the

  9. Sexual Identity and Gender Differences in Substance Use and Violence: An Exploratory Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. Hequembourg; Kathleen A. Parks; Charlene Vetter

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examine rates of alcohol and illicit drug use, related problems, and experiences of interpersonal violence among 71 heterosexual men and women, gay and bisexual men, and lesbian and bisexual women. Rates of substance use and violence were high among the participants, with notable gender and sexual identity differences, particularly in rates of illicit drug use and

  10. Gender Differences in Predictors of Suicidal Thoughts and Attempts Among Homeless Veterans that Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benda, Brent B.

    2005-01-01

    This study of 315 male and 310 female homeless military veterans in a V.A. inpatient program designed to treat substance abusers, many of whom also suffer psychiatric disorders, was designed to examine gender differences in factors associated with the odds of having suicidal thoughts, and of attempting suicide, in comparison to being nonsuicidal.…

  11. Examining Gender Differences in Adolescent Substance Abuse Behavior: Comparisons and Implications for Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Sumin; Hollister, C. David

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates gender differences in adolescent substance abuse behavior, treatment effectiveness, and the associated relationships with pre-, during-, and post-treatment groups of variables. Analyses were performed using 6-month post-treatment follow-up data from over two thousand subjects. T-test analysis showed that females exhibited…

  12. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  13. Gender Differences in Performance on a College-Level Achievement Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Allen; Welch, Catherine

    Gender differences in achievement test performance at the college level were studied as part of the initial analysis of the recently developed Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency (CAAP)--an achievement test battery for use in higher education. The CAAP was pilot tested in fall 1988 and includes a measure of writing proficiency and four…

  14. Gender Differences in Pain and Biomechanical Responses After Acid Sensitization of the Human Esophagus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hariprasad Reddy; Lars Arendt-Nielsen; Camilla Staahl; Jan Pedersen; Peter Funch-Jensen; Hans Gregersen; Asbjørn Mohr Drewes

    2005-01-01

    Our aims were to investigate gender differences to multimodal stimulations of the esophagus after experimentally induced sensitization. Thirty healthy age-matched subjects, 13 males and 17 females, were included. Pain evoked by mechanical and thermal stimuli was assessed before and after perfusion of the lower esophagus with 0.1 N hydrochloric acid. Males were more sensitive to the baseline mechanical stimuli (P

  15. Application of Gender Difference and Topic Preference to Promote Students' Motivation for Online EFL Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to apply the analysis of gender difference and topic preference to enhance and motivate online EFL learning shown by Taiwanese students enrolled in Freshman English Aural Training courses for English majors in a university in central Taiwan. Online learning for EFL students has been a worldwide trend. Hundreds of…

  16. Gender Differences in Implicit Moral Orientation Associations: The Justice and Care Debate Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agerstrom, Jens; Bjorklund, Fredrik; Carlsson, Rickard

    2011-01-01

    Employing new measures (Implicit Association Test) to study the classic issue of moral orientations, we predicted and found gender differences in implicit associations to the concepts of justice and care. Specifically, we found that men more strongly associate justice vs. care with importance and with themselves than women. However, participants'…

  17. Gender Differences in Adolescent Sport Participation, Teasing, Self-Objectification and Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in adolescent participation in sport and physical activity, in teasing experiences specific to the physical activity domain, and the relationship between adolescent physical activity and body image. A sample of 714 adolescents (332 girls, 382 boys) aged between 12 and 16 years completed measures of…

  18. Mars and Venus in Extension Classes: Overcoming the Challenge of Gender Differences in Parenting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochford, Marilou

    1998-01-01

    To deliver effective parenting education, extension educators must invest time in understanding gender differences, with respect to learning and communication styles. Involving fathers must be a goal for all extension educators working to strengthen families. Including fathers on their terms is the only way to ensure their participation.…

  19. Gender Differences in Numeracy in Indonesia: Evidence from a Longitudinal Dataset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suryadarma, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a rich longitudinal dataset to measure the evolution of the gender differences in numeracy among school-age children in Indonesia. Girls outperformed boys by 0.08 standard deviations when the sample was around 11 years old. Seven years later, the gap has widened to 0.19 standard deviations, equivalent to around 18 months of…

  20. Gender Differences in Graduate Students' Perspectives on the Culture of Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria M. Ferreira

    2003-01-01

    In this study, gender differences in graduate students' perspectives on the culture of science were examined in two graduate departments (biology and chemistry) at a large research university. Data from a survey questionnaire from 170 students and interviews with 32 of them indicated that the culture of science as experienced by the participants of this study was characterized by competition,

  1. Gender Differences in Graduate Students' Perspectives on the Culture of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Maria M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines gender differences in graduate student perspectives on the culture of science in two biology and chemistry departments. Shows that although women have greater access to science, the culture of scientific enterprise continues to be based on the masculine ideals of 17th century England. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/NB)

  2. Gender Differences in the Consistency of Middle School Students' Interest in Engineering and Science Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Tsai, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study analyzes survey responses in seventh, eighth, and ninth grade from diverse public school students (n = 482) to explore gender differences in engineering and science career preferences. Females were far more likely to express interest in a science career (31%) than an engineering career (13%), while the reverse was true for…

  3. Gender differences in quality of life for post coronary artery bypass grafting patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tung, Heng-Hsin; Wei, Jen; Chang, Chung-Yi

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in quality of life for post Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) patients in Taiwan. Cross-sectional survey research design and purposive sampling were used in this study, for which 100 subjects, including 50 males and 50 females, were recruited from a medical center in northern Taiwan. Quality of life was measured by Short Form 36, while gender role function and demographic data were collected using a demographic questionnaire. An Independent t test and one way ANOVA were employed to analyze data. Study results showed significant differences in quality of life between genders. There was a statistically significant difference in the physical component summary score, post-CABG, between males (M=45.5) and females (M=40.1, p< .05), which indicates that men demonstrated higher physical functioning than women. Within this component, the greatest difference between the genders was noted in sub-items related to physical functions. Men and women achieved mean scores of 42.2 and 37.9, respectively (p< .05). For the mental component summary section, sub-items related to vitality also demonstrated statistical significance; with men achieving a mean score of 49.6 and women a mean score of 45.2 (p< .05). Of interest, post-CABG patients who had greater role responsibilities, such as taking care of elderly or doing housework, obtained significantly higher quality of life scores. PMID:18080972

  4. Exploring Undergraduate Students' Ethical Perceptions in Barbados: Differences by Gender, Academic Major and Religiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleyne, Philmore; Persaud, Nadini

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine whether there were differences in students' ethical perceptions based on gender, academic major and religiosity. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered survey was conducted of 132 students at a university in Barbados, to determine ethical perceptions on five moral constructs: justice,…

  5. Gender Differences in Young Latino Adults' Status Attainment: Understanding Bilingualism in the Familial Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Sampson Lee; Cobas, Jose A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bilingualism among Latinos in the United States may not necessarily result in negative status attainment consequences. Such studies have typically overlooked gender differences in the consequences of bilingualism. Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study (N=866 females; 737 males), we…

  6. Collaborative Speech in Dyadic Problem Solving: Evidence for Preschool Gender Differences in Early Pragmatic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Moore, Kirsty

    2000-01-01

    Investigated gender differences in problem-solving discourse, analyzing preschoolers' spontaneous task-related talk for the frequency of collaborative speech acts (exploring possible links with greater help-eliciting among girls). Girls nearly exclusively used collaborative speech. Those using collaborative speech initiated more verbal turns and…

  7. Gender Differences in Performance in Mathematics at the End of Lower Secondary School in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteucci, Mariagiulia; Mignani, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of gender differences in performances in mathematics for Italian students at the end of lower secondary school. The study is based on a new large-scale assessment test developed and administered by the National Evaluation Institute for the School System. Given the evidence in the literature which favors…

  8. Quality of life in patients with heart failure: Do gender differences exist?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary S. Riedinger; Kathleen A. Dracup; Mary-Lynn Brecht; Geraldine Padilla; Linda Sarna; Patricia A. Ganz

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate gender differences in quality of life (QOL) in a large sample of age-matched and ejection fraction (EF)-matched patients with heart failure. Design: Matched comparisons of secondary data were used. Setting: The setting consisted of multicenter Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction trials. Sample: The sample included 1382 patients (691 men and 691

  9. Depression in Low-Income Elementary School Children in South Korea: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gyungjoo; McCreary, Linda; Kim, Mi Ja; Park, Chang Gi; Jun, Won Hee; Yang, Soo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined depression in low-income elementary school children and identified gender differences in factors that influence depression from an ecological perspective. Participants were 262 first- to sixth-grade children recruited from six Korean community centers. Personal factors were anxiety and self-concept. Environmental factors…

  10. Disciplinary and Gender Differences among Higher Education Students in Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virtanen, Paivi; Nevgi, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explores how university students representing diverse disciplines and gender differ in their self-regulation in learning. The definition of self-regulated learning (SRL) in the present study is based on Pintrich's and Zimmerman's theories of SRL and comprises motivational and learning strategies. The sample consisted of 1248…

  11. Gender Differences in the Media Interviews of Bill and Hillary Clinton

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Camelia; O'Connell, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Does gender make a difference in the way politicians speak and are spoken to in public? This paper examines perspective in three television interviews and two radio interviews with Bill Clinton in June 2004 and in three television interviews and two radio interviews with Hillary Clinton in June 2003 with the same interviewers. Our perspectival…

  12. An Exploration of Gender Differences on the Reasons for Living Inventory among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Daniel L.; Needham, Tracy N.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated gender differences on the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) specifically among older adults, a population known to have the highest suicide rate among all age groups, with older men being disproportionately at risk. Community-dwelling women (n = 175; M age = 69.0 years; 81% Caucasian) and men (n = 145; M age = 69.5 years; 76%…

  13. Working Memory and Strategy Use Contribute to Gender Differences in Spatial Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lu; Carr, Martha

    2014-01-01

    In this review, a new model that is grounded in information-processing theory is proposed to account for gender differences in spatial ability. The proposed model assumes that the relative strength of working memory, as expressed by the ratio of visuospatial working memory to verbal working memory, influences the type of strategies used on spatial…

  14. Differences in Universal-Diverse Orientation by Race-Ethnicity and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singley, Daniel B.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the roles of race-ethnicity and gender in university student orientation toward diversity. Differences in orientation toward diversity were found between men and women as well as among racial-ethnic groups (Asian/Asian American, African American, Latino, Anglo-American). Anglo-American students' scores were significantly…

  15. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Reactions to the Murder of Their Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyregrov, Atle; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Ninth-grade students in Norway responded to a questionnaire concerning aspects of their teacher's murder. Female students reported talking more with their friends and family about the incident and had higher stress reactions than males. Males did not seem as willing to confront the trauma and pain, suggesting gender differences in the ability to…

  16. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Science Achievement of Nine-, Thirteen-, and Seventeen-Year-Old Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruschi, Barbara A.; Anderson, Bernice Taylor

    Although minority students have experienced substantial increases in science performance on standardized tests, there is still a large disparity between minority and majority students on science achievement tests for males and females. This study examined science achievement for similarities and differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Using the…

  17. Gender Differences in Delinquency and Juvenile Justice Processing: Evidence from National Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Paul E.; Kempf-Leonard, Kimberly; Abramoske-James, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the historical coverage of the gender issue in the criminological literature. It also provides contemporary empirical evidence about differences and similarities between girls and boys with respect to juvenile crime and to processing by the juvenile justice system, by analyzing several national juvenile crime data series, all…

  18. Do the Determinants of Bone Mineral Density Differ by Gender? The Framingham Osteoporosis Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a disease that affects both men and women yet it remains unclear whether determinants of bone mineral density (BMD) differ by gender since few population-based osteoporosis studies have included both men and women. Our study goal was to determine factors associated with BMD and wheth...

  19. Mediating Effects of Stalking Victimization on Gender Differences in Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehner, Christine; Gass, Peter; Dressing, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that stalking victimization may have a serious mental health impact. The present article investigates gender differences in mental health and possible mediating effects of stalking victimization in a community sample. The study includes a postal survey of 665 German community residents on the experience of stalking and various…

  20. Media Use and Adolescent Psychological Adjustment: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    This study examined media use and psychological adjustment (as indicated by depression and anxiety symptomatology) in a sample of 328 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. Primary goals of the study were to explore whether media use differs by gender, whether media use is related to adolescent psychological problems, and whether media use moderates the…