Science.gov

Sample records for observed large circular

  1. Outward-Looking Circular Motion Analysis of Large Image Sequences

    E-print Network

    Borgs, Christian

    Outward-Looking Circular Motion Analysis of Large Image Sequences Guang Jiang, Yichen Wei, Long applications. Previous circular motion algorithms mainly focus on inward-looking turntable-like setups to straight lines. The circular motion of a calibrated camera essentially has only one unknown rotation angle

  2. Impedance of a large circular loop antenna in a magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, S.; Sawaya, K.; Adachi, S.

    1986-08-01

    The input impedance of a large circular loop antenna with arbitrary orientation in a cold magnetoplasma is calculated by using a transmission line theory. New impedance resonances for antennas of finite size in a magnetoplasma in the frequency region below and near the electron cyclotron frequency are indicated theoretically. The resonance peak of the impedance at the lower hybrid resonance frequency is also predicted to exist for arbitrarily oriented antennas of finite size. The experiments on the impedance of a large circular loop antenna are carried out for the cases of normal and parallel orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the plane of the loop immersed in a radio frequency-generated laboratory plasma. The newly predicted impedance resonances for the antenna of finite size are observed. It is also shown that the measured impedances agree fairly well with the calculated ones.

  3. Large-amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vasko, I. Y. Artemyev, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2014-05-15

    We consider large-amplitude circularly polarized (LACP) waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. It is well-known that the dispersion relation for such waves coincides with the dispersion relation given by the linear theory. We develop the model of LACP wave containing a finite population of Cerenkov resonant particles. We find that the current of resonant particles modifies the linear dispersion relation. Dispersion curves of low-frequency (i.e., whistler and magnetosonic) waves are shifted toward larger values of the wave vector, i.e., waves with arbitrarily large wavelengths do not exist in this case. Dispersion curves of high-frequency waves are modified so that the wave phase velocity becomes smaller than the speed of light.

  4. Large quasi-circular features beneath frost on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek; Lee, Pascal; Hillier, John

    1992-01-01

    Specially processed Voyager 2 images of Neptune's largest moon, Triton, reveal three large quasi-circular features ranging in diameter from 280 to 935 km within Triton's equatorial region. The largest of these features contains a central irregularly shaped area of comparatively low albedo about 380 km in diameter, surrounded by crudely concentric annuli of higher albedo materials. None of the features exhibit significant topographic expression, and all appear to be primarily albedo markings. The features are located within a broad equatorial band of anomalously transparent frost that renders them nearly invisible at the large phase angles (alpha greater than 90 deg) at which Voyager obtained its highest resolution coverage of Triton. The features can be discerned at smaller phase angles (alpha = 66 deg) at which the frost only partially masks underlying albedo contrasts. The origin of the features is uncertain but may have involved regional cryovolcanic activity.

  5. An improved upper limit to the CMB circular polarization at large angular scales

    SciTech Connect

    Mainini, R.; Minelli, D.; Gervasi, M.; Boella, G.; Sironi, G.; Baú, A.; Banfi, S.; Passerini, A.; Lucia, A. De; Cavaliere, F. E-mail: daniele.minelli@gmail.com E-mail: giuliano.boella@unimib.it E-mail: bau@mib.infn.it E-mail: andrea.passerini@mib.infn.it E-mail: francesco.cavaliere@fisica.unimi.it

    2013-08-01

    Circular polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) offers the possibility of detecting rotations of the universe and magnetic fields in the primeval universe or in distant clusters of galaxies. We used the Milano Polarimeter (MIPOL) installed at the Testa Grigia Observatory, on the italian Alps, to improve the existing upper limits to the CMB circular polarization at large angular scales. We obtain 95% confidence level upper limits to the degree of the CMB circular polarization ranging between 5.0?10{sup ?4} and 0.7?10{sup ?4} at angular scales between 8° and 24°, improving by one order of magnitude preexisting upper limits at large angular scales. Our results are still far from the nK region where today expectations place the amplitude of the V Stokes parameter used to characterize circular polarization of the CMB but improve the preexisting limit at similar angular scales. Our observations offered also the opportunity of characterizing the atmospheric emission at 33 GHz at the Testa Grigia Observatory.

  6. Characterization of the 'unusual' mobility of large circular DNAs in pulsed field-gradient electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M

    1988-01-01

    Large circular amplified DNAs (30 and 85 kb) present in methotrexate-resistant Leishmania major appear to migrate anomalously in pulsed field-gradient electrophoresis (PFGE), exhibiting pulse time-dependent mobility and migrating along a different apparent path relative to the large linear chromosomal DNAs. Quantitative studies indicate that the relative pulse-time dependence is actually conferred by the mobility properties of the large linear DNAs. One contributing factor to the difference in migration path is variability in the intrinsic voltage-dependence of mobility of supercoiled and linear DNAs, in combination with the asymmetrical/inhomogeneous voltage gradients. Certain linear chromosomes exhibit a previously undescribed pulse-time dependence in the voltage-dependence of mobility. When enzymatically relaxed or physically nicked the large circular DNAs fail to leave the well using any pulse time, a property also observed in conventional electrophoresis. These findings are relevant to PFGE theory, and its application to the study of circular DNA amplification in Leishmania and other species. Images PMID:3344223

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of Circular Cylinder Flow by Using High Order WENO Scheme

    E-print Network

    Zha, Gecheng

    Large Eddy Simulation of Circular Cylinder Flow by Using High Order WENO Scheme Yiqing Shen the feasibility of a high order finite difference weighted essentially nonoscilla- tory(WENO) scheme for large eddy simulations(LES) with implicit subgrid scale model. In this paper, the 5th-order WENO scheme

  8. The Role of Erupting Sigmoid in Triggering a Flare with Parallel and Large-scale Quasi-circular Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Liu, Chang; Sun, Xudong; Wang, Haimin; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present observations and analysis of an interesting sigmoid formation, eruption, and the associated flare that occurred on 2014 April 18 using multi-wavelength data sets. We discuss the possible role of the sigmoid eruption in triggering the flare, which consists of two different sets of ribbons: parallel ribbons and a large-scale quasi-circular ribbon. Several observational evidence and nonlinear force-free field extrapolation results show the existence of a large-scale fan-spine type magnetic configuration with a sigmoid lying under a section of the fan dome. The event can be explained with the following two phases. During the preflare phase, we observed the formation and appearance of the sigmoid via tether-cutting reconnection between the two sets of sheared fields under the fan dome. The second, main flare phase features the eruption of the sigmoid, the subsequent flare with parallel ribbons, and a quasi-circular ribbon. We propose the following multi-stage successive reconnection scenario for the main flare. First, tether-cutting reconnection is responsible for the formation and the eruption of the sigmoid structure. Second, the reconnection occurring in the wake of the erupting sigmoid produces the parallel flare ribbons on the both sides of the circular polarity inversion line. Third, the null-type reconnection higher in the corona, possibly triggered by the erupting sigmoid, leads to the formation of a large quasi-circular ribbon. For the first time, we suggest a mechanism for this type of flare consisting of a double set of ribbons triggered by an erupting sigmoid in a large-scale fan-spine-type magnetic configuration.

  9. Circular polarization in comets: Observations of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) and tentative interpretation

    E-print Network

    Vera Rosenbush; Ludmilla Kolokolova; Alexander Lazarian; Nikolai Shakhovskoyd; Nikolai Kiselev

    2007-03-09

    Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) was exceptional in many respects. Its nucleus underwent multiple fragmentations culminating in the complete disruption around July 20, 2000. We present circular polarization measurements along the cuts through the coma and nucleus of the comet during three separate observing runs, in June 28 - July 2, July 8 - 9, and July 21 - 22, 2000. The circular polarization was detected at a rather high level, up to 0.8%. The left-handed as well as right-handed polarization was observed over the coma with the left circularly polarized light systematically observed in the sunward part of the coma. During our observations the phase angle of the comet varied from 61 up to 122 deg., which allowed us to reveal variations of circular polarization with the phase angle. Correlation between the degree of circular polarization, visual magnitude, water production rate, and linear polarization of Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) during its final fragmentation in July 2000 was found. The mechanisms that may produce circular polarization in comets and specifically in Comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) are discussed and some tentative interpretation is presented.

  10. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.

  11. Optimum transfers between circular coplanar orbits for spacecraft with rocket engine of large limited thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, K. G.; Fedyna, A. V.

    1995-10-01

    By taking the principle of the maximum as a basis and solving the boundary value problems by a shooting method, the authors present a numerical study of thrust-vector controlled optimum transfers between the coplanar circular orbits of a spacecraft with rocket engines of large limited thrust. Solutions are found for problems of the fastest transfers with and without prescribed limitations on mass expenditure, and for problems of transfers with minimum expenditures of mass with and without prescribed limitations on transfer time.

  12. Intensity-dependent circular polarization and circumstellar magnetic fields from the observation of SiO masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A new aspect of the propagation of astrophysical maser radiation in the presence of a magnetic field is described in which circular polarization is created. The resulting antisymmetric spectral line profile for this circular polarization resembles that produced by the ordinary Zeeman effect when the Zeeman splittings are much less than the spectral line breadth. It is caused by the change, with increasing maser intensity, in the axis of symmetry for the molecular quantum states from a direction that is parallel to the magnetic field to a direction that is parallel to the direction of propagation. When the maser is radiatively saturated, and the rate for stimulated emission is within an order of magnitude of the Zeeman splitting in frequency units, this 'intensity-dependent circular polarization' is greater than that due to the ordinary Zeeman effect by factors as large as 1000. The circular polarization that is observed in the spectra of circumstellar SiO (J = 1-0) masers associated with late-type giants and supergiants may then be caused by magnetic fields as weak as about 10 mG. With the standard Zeeman interpretation of the observations, magnetic fields of 10-100 G are indicated. The lower fields are similar to the limits obtained from the observation of the 22 GHz water masers which are typically somewhat further from the central star. The observed tendency for the fractional linear polarization of SiO masers to increase with increasing angular momentum of the molecular state is shown to be a likely result of anisotropic pumping. Errors are identified that invalidate a recent conflicting claim in the literature about the basic theory of maser polarization in the regime that is relevant here.

  13. Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmer, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

  14. A pattern recognition scheme for large curvature circular tracks and an FPGA implementation using hash sorter

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Strong magnetic field in today's colliding detectors causes track recognition more difficult due to large track curvatures. In this document, we present a global track recognition scheme based on track angle measurements for circular tracks passing the collision point. It uses no approximations in the track equation and therefore is suitable for both large and small curvature tracks. The scheme can be implemented both in hardware for lower-level trigger or in software for higher-level trigger or offline analysis codes. We will discuss an example of FPGA implementations using ''hash sorter''.

  15. Circular depressions on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the OSIRIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, S. B.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Bodewits, D.; Pajola, M.

    2015-10-01

    Since it close encounter with comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, the OSIRIS instrument [1] on-board the Rosetta Spacecraft has imaged the surface of the nucleus with unprecedented resolution. From its global morphology description, numerous circular depressions of different sizes and shapes have been observed [2, 3]. Few of these circular depressions, also called pits, have shown sign of activity with the detection of faint jet-like features originated most likely from their walls [4]. The mechanism responsible for the formation of these morphological features is not yet well understood, although different hypotheses have been raised such as the collapse of a ceiling above internal voids [4]. These voids could either be due to primordial structure of the comet's interior, or they could have been created with subsequentevolution of the nucleus. In both case, these features provide important constrains on the formation and evolution of cometary nucleus. Follow-up observations of the OSIRIS instrument should both confirm the nature of the activity (i.e., sporadic vs. regular) and the number of active depressions. In this analysis, we provide a thorough identificationand description of the circular depressions on the surface of the comet nucleus. These circular depressions exhibit different shapes, from pits to alcoves, with sizes varying from tens to hundred of meters, and ultimately with different texture on their walls (i.e., with fractures and polygons, or not). The accumulation of boulders at the bottom of some of these depressions indicates that whatever is creating these features, they are changing and evolving significantly trough time. These variations may reflect different formation mechanisms, or/and time of formation and evolution, and also probably internal heterogeneities below the comet's surface.

  16. Distribution of circular proteins in plants: large-scale mapping of cyclotides in the Violaceae

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Robert; Yeshak, Mariamawit Y.; Larsson, Sonny; Craik, David J.; Rosengren, K. Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in small circular proteins found in plants of the violet family (Violaceae). These so-called cyclotides consist of a circular chain of approximately 30 amino acids, including six cysteines forming three disulfide bonds, arranged in a cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif. In this study we map the occurrence and distribution of cyclotides throughout the Violaceae. Plant material was obtained from herbarium sheets containing samples up to 200 years of age. Even the oldest specimens contained cyclotides in the preserved leaves, with no degradation products observable, confirming their place as one of the most stable proteins in nature. Over 200 samples covering 17 of the 23–31 genera in Violaceae were analyzed, and cyclotides were positively identified in 150 species. Each species contained a unique set of between one and 25 cyclotides, with many exclusive to individual plant species. We estimate the number of different cyclotides in the Violaceae to be 5000–25,000, and propose that cyclotides are ubiquitous among all Violaceae species. Twelve new cyclotides from six phylogenetically dispersed genera were sequenced. Furthermore, the first glycosylated derivatives of cyclotides were identified and characterized, further increasing the diversity and complexity of this unique protein family. PMID:26579135

  17. Post Main Sequence Orbital Circularization of Binary Stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K

    2007-11-20

    We present results from a study of the orbits of eclipsing binary stars (EBs) in the Magellanic Clouds. The samples comprise 4510 EBs found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the MACHO project, 2474 LMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 1182 are also in the MACHO sample), 1380 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) found by the MACHO project, and 1317 SMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 677 are also in the MACHO sample); we also consider the EROS sample of 79 EBs in the bar of the LMC. Statistics of the phase differences between primary and secondary minima allow us to infer the statistics of orbital eccentricities within these samples. We confirm the well-known absence of eccentric orbit in close binary stars. We also find evidence for rapid circularization in longer period systems when one member evolves beyond the main sequence, as also found by previous studies.

  18. Interplay of Exciton Coupling and Large-Amplitude Motions in the Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrum of Dehydroquinidine.

    PubMed

    Nicu, Valentin P; Domingos, Sérgio R; Strudwick, Benjamin H; Brouwer, Albert M; Buma, Wybren J

    2016-01-11

    A detailed analysis of the computed structure, energies, vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 30 low-energy conformers of dehydroquinidine reveals the existence of families of pseudo-conformers, the structures of which differ mostly in the orientation of a single O?H bond. The pseudo-conformers in a family are separated by very small energy barriers (i.e., 1.0?kcal?mol(-1) or smaller) and have very different VCD spectra. First, we demonstrate the unreliable character of the Boltzmann factors predicted with DFT. Then, we show that the large differences observed between the VCD spectra of the pseudo-conformers in a family are caused by large-amplitude motions involving the O?H bond, which trigger the appearance/disappearance of strong VCD exciton-coupling bands in the fingerprint region. This interplay between exciton coupling and large-amplitude-motion phenomena demonstrates that when dealing with flexible molecules with polar bonds, vibrational averaging of VCD spectra should not be neglected. In this regard, the dehydroquinidine molecule considered here is expected to be a typical example and not the exception to the rule. PMID:26611817

  19. An experimental approach to measure particle deposition in large circular ventilation ducts.

    PubMed

    Da, Guillaume; Géhin, Evelyne; Ben-Othmane, Mourad; Havet, Michel; Solliec, Camille; Motzkus, Charles

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this study is related to airborne particle dynamics in indoor environments. Lab-scale experiments have been performed to investigate particle deposition velocity to six different surfaces orientations (with respect to gravity) for fully developed turbulent flow in horizontal large circular ventilation ducts. Monodispersed aerosol particles (1-6 ?m) were used in the deposition experiments. A very low particle mass (40 ng) was measured reliably above background level on duct surfaces by a means of a nondestructive stencil technique associated with fluorescence analysis. For 2-6 ?m particles (diffusion and impaction regime), deposition rates to floors were much greater than rates to the ceiling and greater than rates to the wall. For 1-?m particles, the effect of surface orientation to particle deposition was not significant. Results were compared to the very few similar and published studies. This work was conducted in the frame of the CleanAirNet project which aimed at producing new knowledge, models, and techniques to help controlling the safety food stuffs, through a better control of aerosol particle (bioaerosols) transport and deposition in the ventilation networks of the food industry. PMID:24756675

  20. Nonlinear characteristics of a circular plate piezoelectric harvester with relatively large deflection near resonance.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huan; Hu, Hongping

    2008-09-01

    Based on the von Karman thin circular plate theory, we report in this paper the analysis of the nonlinear behavior of a power harvester consisting of a circular piezoelectric plate and an electric resistance. Dependence of the output power of the harvester upon driving frequency for different electric loads and different applied forces is obtained. Numerical results show that the output power exhibits multi-valuedness and a jump phenomenon near resonance. PMID:18986906

  1. Sidewall-box airlift pump provides large flows for aeration, CO2 stripping, and water rotation in large dual-drain circular tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require a considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular culture tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation a...

  2. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-04-10

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior.

  3. ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature11928 Circular RNAs are a large class of animal

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Jianzhi

    .circRNAswerediscoveredinplantsandshown to encode subviral agents1 . In unicellular organisms, circRNAs mostly stem from self-splicing introns Rajewsky1 Circular RNAs (circRNAs) in animals are an enigmatic class of RNA with unknown function. To explore circRNAs systematically, we sequenced and computationally analysed human, mouse and nematode RNA

  4. Observations of large transient magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Transient electric field events were observed with the long, double probe instrumentation carried by the IMP-6 satellite. Nine, clearly defined, exceptionally large amplitude events are presented here. The events are observed in the midnight sector at geocentric distances 3.5 to .5.5 R sub e at middle latitudes within a magnetic L-shell range of 4.8 to 7.5. They usually have a total duration of one to several minutes, with peak power spectra amplitudes occurring at a frequency of about 0.3 Hz. The events occur under magnetically disturbed conditions, and in most cases they can be associated with negative dH/dt excursions at magnetic observatories located near the foot of the magnetic field line intersecting IMP-6. The magnetospheric motions calculated for these electric fields indicated a quasi-stochastical diffusive process rather than the general inward magnetospheric collapsing motion expected during the expansive phases of auroral substorm activity.

  5. Performance Prediction of Large-Diameter Circular Saws Based on Surface Hardness Tests for Mugla (Turkey) Marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güney, Avni

    2011-05-01

    Surface hardness tests such as Shore hardness (SH) and Schmidt hammer rebound hardness (SR) may provide a quick and inexpensive measure of rock hardness, which may be widely used for estimating the mechanical properties of rock material such as strength, sawability, drillability and cuttability. In the marble industry, circular sawing with diamond sawblades constitutes a major cost in the processing. Therefore, several models based on the relations between hourly slab production ( P hs), rock surface hardness (SH and SR) and mineral grain size ( S cr) were developed using the data obtained from field and laboratory measurements on five different marbles quarried in the Mugla Province of Turkey. The models which include surface hardness and crystal size may as well be used for the prediction of sawability (hourly slab production) of carbonate rocks using large-diameter circular saws.

  6. Observations of large transient magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Transient electric field events were studied by means of the long double-probe instrumentation carried by the Imp 6 satellite, and nine clearly defined exceptionally large amplitude events are described. The events were observed in the midnight sector at geocentric distances of 3.5 to 5.5 earth radii at middle latitudes within a magnetic L shell range of 4.8 to 7.5; the duration is from one to several minutes with peak power spectra amplitudes occurring at a frequency of about 0.3 Hz. The events occur under magnetically disturbed conditions and are often associated with negative dH/dt excursions. The magnetospheric motions calculated for these electric fields indicate a quasi-stochastical diffusive process rather than the general inward magnetospheric collapsing motion expected during the expansive phases of auroral substorm activity. It is likely that the transient electric fields are responsible for the impulsive acceleration and injection of plasma to populate the outer radiation belt.

  7. Experimental observations on the relationship between stagnation region flow oscillations and eddy shedding for circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalam, S. M.; Kubendran, L. R.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements indicate a direct coupling between the dominant frequencies of flow oscillations at the leading-edge stagnation region, laminar-separation unsteadiness, and the vortex shedding. An array of surface mounted, micro-thin hot-films were used to simultaneously determine the state of the boundary layer along the surfaced of a circular cylinder, and vortex shedding was monitored by a hot wire placed in its wake.

  8. Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular

    E-print Network

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, and hence speed up the search, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modeling. This allows one to avoid the need to blindly cover the whole parameter space. In this work we show that "hyperstellar" black holes (HSBs) with masses $30 \\lesssim M_{\\rm BH}/M_{\\odot} \\lesssim 100$, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal $10\\,M_{\\odot}$, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e...

  9. An Observation of a Circular Motion using Ordinary Appliances: Train Toy, Digital Camera, and Android based Smartphone

    E-print Network

    Viridi, Sparisoma; Nasri, Meldawati

    2013-01-01

    Using a digital camera (Sony DSC-S75) in its video mode and a smartphone (Samsung GT-N700) equipped with an acceleration sensor, observation of a uniform circular motion of a toy train (Thomas & Friends, Player World, CCF No. 2277-13) is conducted. From the first observation average centripetal acceleration about 0.154 m/s2 is obtained, while the second gives 0.350 m/s2 of average centripetal acceleration by assuming ideal condition, where measured accelerations in z direction is not interpreted.

  10. Large-eddy simulation of circular cylinder flow at subcritical Reynolds number: Turbulent wake and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei

    2015-10-01

    The flows past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 are simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES) and the far-field sound is calculated from the LES results. A low dissipation energy-conserving finite volume scheme is used to discretize the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamic global coefficient version of the Vreman's subgrid scale (SGS) model is used to compute the sub-grid stresses. Curle's integral of Lighthill's acoustic analogy is used to extract the sound radiated from the cylinder. The profiles of mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations obtained are consistent with the previous experimental and computational results. The sound radiation at far field exhibits the characteristic of a dipole and directivity. The sound spectra display the -5/3 power law. It is shown that Vreman's SGS model in company with dynamic procedure is suitable for LES of turbulence generated noise.

  11. A model for simulating the influence of a spatial distribution of large circular macropores on surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, J.; Perrier, E.; de Marsily, G.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports the development and test, at the scale of 1 m2, of an event- based model that aims at simulating the influence of a spatial distribution of large circular macropores on surface runoff. The main originality of this model is that it focuses on the way macropores are supplied with water at the soil surface, by coupling an original model for water interception by individual macropores to a high-resolution spatialized overland flow model. A three-step evaluation of the model was carried out, involving (1) an experimental test of the model for water interception by macropores; (2) a sensitivity analysis of the model to time and space discretization; and (3) a comparison between numerical and field results in the case of runoff on a crusted soil surface with a population of large macropores made by termites in the Sahel. The model was found to accurately simulate the effect of a spatial distribution of large macropores on runoff, and it showed that small heterogeneities, like macropores or areas where a crust has been destroyed, which cover a very limited proportion of the soil surface, can have a high impact on runoff.

  12. On the stability of self-consistent large amplitude waves in a cold plasma. I - Transverse circularly polarized waves in the absence of a large scale magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. A.; Lerche, I.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a self-consistent circularly polarized wave in an otherwise field-free homogeneous cold plasma is unstable to small amplitude perturbations. For either an electron-positron plasma or an electron-proton plasma the instability rate is at least about the order of the effective plasma frequency when the bulk flow speed is zero. For finite bulk flow speeds of the plasma, it is shown that the electron-positron plasma is unstable, again with a growth rate of the order of the effective plasma frequency; it is also shown that the electron-proton plasma is unstable (at least at small wave numbers, k) with a growth rate proportional to k. The calculated instability rates are conservative, for other modes not investigated here may be more unstable. The results of these calculations bear directly on the understanding of plasma systems thought to be driven by large amplitude waves.

  13. Circular Coinduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  14. Sign reversal of a large circularly polarized luminescence signal by the twisting motion of a bidentate ligand.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Junpei; Ueno, Hiroshi; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2014-07-01

    This work demonstrates sign reversal of large circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) signal based on the hinge-like twisting motion of a bidentate ligand, 3,3-bis(diphenylphosphoryl)-2,2-bipyridine (BIPYPO), in a cis-trans isomerization of chiral europium(III) complexes. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that twisting motion of BIPYPO provides s-cis and s-trans geometries of a chiral Eu(III) complex containing either tris[3-(trifluoromethylhydroxymethylene)-(+)-camphorate] (D-1) or tris[3-(heptafluoropropylhydroxymethylene)-(+)-camphorate] (D-2). The s-cis Eu(III) complexes show eight-coordinate geometry around the Eu(III) ion, in which the chelate between the phosphoryl oxygen and the Eu(III) ion forces the s-cis geometry of BIPYPO. In contrast, the phosphorus-nitrogen interaction provides a conformational lock for the s-trans geometry of the BIPYPO ligand, inducing a quasi-seven-coordinate Eu(III) complex. The difference in coordination geometry causes the sign change of the CPL signals between the s-cis and s-trans isomers, whereby the s-cis and s-trans isomers of Eu(III) complexes exhibit the positive and negative CPL signals, respectively, for the (5) D0 ?(7) F1 transition. The proportion of the s-trans-D-1 against s-cis-D-1 increases upon changing the solvent from [D3 ]acetonitrile to [D6 ]acetone, inducing a sign change of the CPL signals. The complexes D-1 and D-2 show a biexponential decay with two different lifetimes, suggesting two emitting species, that is, the s-cis and s-trans isomers of Eu(III) complexes. In both cases, the proportions of the longer lifetime components (?1 ) decrease and instead the shorter lifetime components (?2 ) increase upon changing the solvent from [D3 ]acetonitrile to [D6 ]acetone. PMID:24958164

  15. Evolutionary outcomes for pairs of planets undergoing orbital migration and circularization: second-order resonances and observed period ratios in Kepler's planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2015-05-01

    In order to study the origin of the architectures of low-mass planetary systems, we perform numerical surveys of the evolution of pairs of coplanar planets in the mass range (1-4) M?. These evolve for up to 2 × 107 yr under a range of orbital migration torques and circularization rates assumed to arise through interaction with a protoplanetary disc. Near the inner disc boundary, significant variations of viscosity, interaction with density waves or with the stellar magnetic field could occur and halt migration, but allow circularization to continue. This was modelled by modifying the migration and circularization rates. Runs terminated without an extended period of circularization in the absence of migration torques gave rise to either a collision, or a system close to a resonance. These were mostly first order with a few per cent terminating in second-order resonances. Both planetary eccentricities were small <0.1 and all resonant angles liberated. This type of survey produced only a limited range of period ratios and cannot reproduce Kepler observations. When circularization alone operates in the final stages, divergent migration occurs causing period ratios to increase. Depending on its strength the whole period ratio range between 1 and 2 can be obtained. A few systems close to second-order commensurabilities also occur. In contrast to when arising through convergent migration, resonant trapping does not occur and resonant angles circulate. Thus, the behaviour of the resonant angles may indicate the form of migration that led to near resonance.

  16. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma ? conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Echer, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ?14 nT (peak to peak) in a ?55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (?55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (?{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ?}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma ? (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-? plasma.

  17. Quantum tunneling observed without its characteristic large kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ueta, Hirokazu; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2015-06-16

    Classical transition-state theory is fundamental to describing chemical kinetics; however, quantum tunneling is also important in explaining the unexpectedly large reaction efficiencies observed in many chemical systems. Tunneling is often indicated by anomalously large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), because a particle's ability to tunnel decreases significantly with its increasing mass. Here we experimentally demonstrate that cold hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms can add to solid benzene by tunneling; however, the observed H/D KIE was very small (1-1.5) despite the large intrinsic H/D KIE of tunneling (? 100). This strong reduction is due to the chemical kinetics being controlled not by tunneling but by the surface diffusion of the H/D atoms, a process not greatly affected by the isotope type. Because tunneling need not be accompanied by a large KIE in surface and interfacial chemical systems, it might be overlooked in other systems such as aerosols or enzymes. Our results suggest that surface tunneling reactions on interstellar dust may contribute to the deuteration of interstellar aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which could represent a major source of the deuterium enrichment observed in carbonaceous meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These findings could improve our understanding of interstellar physicochemical processes, including those during the formation of the solar system. PMID:26034285

  18. Quantum tunneling observed without its characteristic large kinetic isotope effects

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ueta, Hirokazu; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Classical transition-state theory is fundamental to describing chemical kinetics; however, quantum tunneling is also important in explaining the unexpectedly large reaction efficiencies observed in many chemical systems. Tunneling is often indicated by anomalously large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), because a particle’s ability to tunnel decreases significantly with its increasing mass. Here we experimentally demonstrate that cold hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms can add to solid benzene by tunneling; however, the observed H/D KIE was very small (1–1.5) despite the large intrinsic H/D KIE of tunneling (?100). This strong reduction is due to the chemical kinetics being controlled not by tunneling but by the surface diffusion of the H/D atoms, a process not greatly affected by the isotope type. Because tunneling need not be accompanied by a large KIE in surface and interfacial chemical systems, it might be overlooked in other systems such as aerosols or enzymes. Our results suggest that surface tunneling reactions on interstellar dust may contribute to the deuteration of interstellar aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which could represent a major source of the deuterium enrichment observed in carbonaceous meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These findings could improve our understanding of interstellar physicochemical processes, including those during the formation of the solar system. PMID:26034285

  19. Observation of large nematic domains of discotic liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, Abhijeet; Wang, Xuezhen; Cheng, Zhengdong

    2015-03-01

    Discotic liquid crystals are commonly found in nature in the form of clay, nacre. They are technologically important in applications such as conductive polymers, semiconductors and photovoltaics. Size and its distribution play an important role in their self-assemblies. Here we observed large nematic domains of discotic liquid crystals grown on a time scale of months. The development of such domains is observed to be faster for nanodisks that relatively smaller in size. The orientation of nanodisks is affected by gravity and inter-particle interactions which are yet to be fully understood.

  20. Observational signatures of modified gravity on ultra-large scales

    E-print Network

    Baker, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Extremely large surveys with future experiments like Euclid and the SKA will soon allow us to access perturbation modes close to the Hubble scale, with wavenumbers $k \\sim {\\cal H}$. If a modified gravity theory is responsible for cosmic acceleration, the Hubble scale is a natural regime for deviations from General Relativity (GR) to become manifest. The majority of studies to date have concentrated on the consequences of alternative gravity theories for the subhorizon, quasi-static regime, however. We investigate how modifications to the gravitational field equations affect perturbations around the Hubble scale, and how this translates into deviations of ultra large-scale relativistic observables from their GR behaviour. Adopting a model-independent ethos that relies only on the broad physical properties of gravity theories, we find that the deviations of the observables are small unless modifications to GR are drastic. The angular dependence and redshift evolution of the deviations is highly parameterisatio...

  1. Observation of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Ru K edge in Co-Ru alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, H.; Ishiji, K.; Lang, J. C.; Haskel, D.; Srajer, G.; Minar, J.; Ebert, H.

    2006-06-01

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra have been measured from dilute Ru alloys of Co at the Ru K edge, evidencing the induced magnetization on Ru in contact with ferromagnetic Co. This was made possible using circularly polarized probing beams of approximately 22 keV in energy obtained from a germanium Laue-reflection phase retarder at a synchrotron source. The Ru dichroism is quite small with a main peak of -3x10{sup -4} in flipping ratio at about 6 eV above the K absorption edge. The spectrum has a very similar profile to the one of the Co K-edge dichroism. Ab initio calculations indicate that the Ru dichroism is generated by the p-orbital magnetic moment on the core-hole site, which is induced through the p-d hybridization between Co and Ru.

  2. Mid-latitude lidar observations of large sporadic sodium layers

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.C.; Collins, R.L.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1989-07-01

    During the early morning of October 31, 1988 two large sporadic Na (Na{sub s}) layers were observed near the mesopause above Urbana, IL (40{degree}N, 88{degree}W) with a Na lidar system. The layers began forming near 102 km at 0026 LST and 0110 LST and moved downward with vertical velocities as high as 4 ms{sup {minus}1} before dissipating between 94 and 96 km. The duration of each layer was approximately 80 min. The layers were narrow ({approximately} 1 km FWHM) and dense with maximum densities approaching 7,800 cm{sup {minus}3}. The characteristics of these two Na{sub s} layers are very similar to those of similar phenomena observed recently at Andoya, Norway and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Lidar observations of the mesospheric Na layer have been conducted routinely by several groups at mid-latitudes for almost 20 years. Although large Na{sub s} layers now appear to be relatively common at low- and high-latitudes, to our knowledge the two layers described in this letter are only the second observation of this puzzling phenomenon at mid-latitudes.

  3. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 110625A

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.; Fan Yizhong

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that emit photons at GeV energies form a small but significant population of GRBs. However, the number of GRBs whose GeV-emitting period is simultaneously observed in X-rays remains small. We report {gamma}-ray observations of GRB 110625A using Fermi's Large Area Telescope in the energy range 100 MeV-20 GeV. Gamma-ray emission at these energies was clearly detected using data taken between 180 s and 580 s after the burst, an epoch after the prompt emission phase. The GeV light curve differs from a simple power-law decay, and probably consists of two emission periods. Simultaneous Swift X-Ray Telescope observations did not show flaring behaviors as in the case of GRB 100728A. We discuss the possibility that the GeV emission is the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of underlying ultraviolet flares.

  4. Doppler lidar observations of plume dynamics from large wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lareau, N.; Clements, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Novel Doppler lidar observations of smoke plumes from large wildfires are made from a mobile atmospheric profiling system. Few quantitative observations exist that resolve the plume dynamics of active wildfires. Our observations elucidate three important and poorly understood aspects of convective columns: (1) column rotation, (2) penetrative convection, and (3) deep pyrocumulus clouds. Our first observational case examines vigorus anti-cyclonic rotation that occurred in a rapidly developing wildfire. The convective column was first purely convergent, then as the fire intensified, the column acquired strong (+/- 15 m s-1) anticyclonic rotation. The Doppler lidar recorded the vortex structure, strength, and evolution, including the merger of smaller vorticies into a single long-lived vortex. The second case examines the interaction of the convective plumes with shear layers and capping stable layers. These data show explosive convective growth as fire-induced buoyancy penetrated into the free troposphere. Observations of entrainment into the plumes is expecitly resolved in the lidar scans. The final case examines rarely observed deep pyrocumulus clouds associated with an intense forest fire. The lidar data reveal plume structure, including t the height of the lifted condensation level and the full height of the plume top which was in excess of 8 km AGL.

  5. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  6. Interferometric observations of large biologically interesting interstellar and cometary molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lewis E.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometric observations of high-mass regions in interstellar molecular clouds have revealed hot molecular cores that have substantial column densities of large, partly hydrogen-saturated molecules. Many of these molecules are of interest to biology and thus are labeled “biomolecules.” Because the clouds containing these molecules provide the material for star formation, they may provide insight into presolar nebular chemistry, and the biomolecules may provide information about the potential of the associated interstellar chemistry for seeding newly formed planets with prebiotic organic chemistry. In this overview, events are outlined that led to the current interferometric array observations. Clues that connect this interstellar hot core chemistry to the solar system can be found in the cometary detection of methyl formate and the interferometric maps of cometary methanol. Major obstacles to understanding hot core chemistry remain because chemical models are not well developed and interferometric observations have not been very sensitive. Differentiation in the molecular isomers glycolaldehdye, methyl formate, and acetic acid has been observed, but not explained. The extended source structure for certain sugars, aldehydes, and alcohols may require nonthermal formation mechanisms such as shock heating of grains. Major advances in understanding the formation chemistry of hot core species can come from observations with the next generation of sensitive, high-resolution arrays. PMID:16894168

  7. Satellite observations of large power plants and megacities from GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Tom; Maksyutov, Shamil; Boesch, Hartmut; Butz, Andre; Ganshin, Alexander; Guerlet, Sandrine; Parker, Robert; O'Dell, Chris; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major source of CO2 to the global carbon cycle over decadal time scales and international efforts to curb those missions are required for mitigating climate change. Although emissions from nations are estimated and reported to help monitor their compliance of emission reductions, we still lack an objective method to monitor emissions directly. Future carbon-observing space missions are thus expected to provide an independent tool for directly measuring emissions. We proposed and have implemented satellite observations specifically over intense large point sources (LPS), including large fossil-fueled power plants and megacities, worldwide (N > 300) using the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATelllite (GOSAT). Our target LPS sites have been occasionally included in the observation schedule of GOSAT and the measurements are made using the target observation mode. This proposal was officially accepted by the GOSAT project office and we have attempted to use these data to detect signatures of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. We have submitted our locations of interest on a monthly basis two month prior to observation. We calculated the X_CO2 concentration enhancement due to the LPS emissions. We analyzed GOSAT X_CO2 retrievals from four research groups (five products total): the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (both the NIES standard Level 2 and NIES-PPDF products), the NASA Atmospheric CO2 from Space (ACOS) team (ACOS Level 2 product), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)/Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (RemoTeC), and the University of Leicester, UK (Full-Physics CO2 retrieval dataset). Although we obtained fewer retrieved soundings relative to what we requested (probably due to geophysical difficulties in the retrievals), we did obtain statistically significant enhancements at some LPS sites where weather condition were ideal for viewing. We also implemented simulations of enhanced X_CO2 using a global Eulerian-Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model (GELCA) and a high-resolution fossil fuel emissions dataset (Odiac). Odiac includes emissions information on the power plants requested in our target observations. Our model simulations tend to underestimate the enhancements, but showed good correlation with observed enhancements.

  8. Infrasonic observations of large-scale HE events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Rodney W.; Mutschlecner, J. Paul; Davidson, Masha B.; Noel, Susan D.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Infrasound Program has been operating since about mid-1982, making routine measurements of low frequency atmospheric acoustic propagation. Generally, the authors work between 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz; however, much of the work is concerned with the narrower range of 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Two permanent stations, St. George, UT, and Los Alamos, NM, have been operational since 1983, collecting data 24 hours a day. For the purposes of this discussion, the authors concentrate on their measurements of large, high explosive (HE) events at ranges of 250 km to 5330 km. Because their equipment is well suited for mobile deployments, they can easily establish temporary observing sites for special events. The measurements are from the permanent sites, as well as from various temporary sites. A few observations that are typical of the full data set are given.

  9. Observational Signatures of Modified Gravity on Ultra-large Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tessa; Bull, Philip

    2015-10-01

    Extremely large surveys with future experiments like Euclid and the SKA will soon allow us to access perturbation modes close to the Hubble scale, with wavenumbers k? {H}. If a modified gravity (MG) theory is responsible for cosmic acceleration, then the Hubble scale is a natural regime for deviations from General Relativity (GR) to become manifest. However, the majority of studies to date have concentrated on the consequences of alternative gravity theories for the subhorizon, quasi-static regime. In this paper, we investigate how modifications to the gravitational field equations affect perturbations around the Hubble scale. We choose functional forms to represent the generic scale-dependent behavior of gravity theories that modify GR at long wavelengths, and study the resulting deviations of ultra-large-scale relativistic observables from their GR behavior. We find that these are small unless modifications to the field equations are drastic. The angular dependence and redshift evolution of the deviations is highly parameterization- and survey-dependent, however, and so they are possibly a rich source of MG phenomenology if they can be measured.

  10. Testing coupled dark energy with large scale structure observation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weiqiang; Xu, Lixin E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    The coupling between the dark components provides a new approach to mitigate the coincidence problem of cosmological standard model. In this paper, dark energy is treated as a fluid with a constant equation of state, whose coupling with dark matter is Q-bar =3H?{sub x}?-bar {sub x}. In the frame of dark energy, we derive the evolution equations for the density and velocity perturbations. According to the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we constrain the model by currently available cosmic observations which include cosmic microwave background radiation, baryon acoustic oscillation, type Ia supernovae, and f?{sub 8}(z) data points from redshift-space distortion. The results show the interaction rate in ? regions: ?{sub x} = 0.00328{sub -0.00328-0.00328-0.00328}{sup +0.000736+0.00549+0.00816}, which means that the recently cosmic observations favor a small interaction rate which is up to the order of 10{sup -2}, meanwhile, the measurement of redshift-space distortion could rule out the large interaction rate in the ? region.

  11. The Flux of Large Meteoroids Observed with Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. J.; Suggs, R. M.; Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The flux of large meteoroids is not well determined due to relatively low number statistics, due mainly to the lack of collecting area available to meteor camera systems (10(2)-10(5) km2). Larger collecting areas are needed to provide reasonable statistics for flux calculations. The Moon, with millions of square kilometers of lunar surface, can be used as a detector for observing the population of large meteoroids in the tens of grams to kilogram mass range. This is accomplished by observing the flash of light produced when a meteoroid impacts the lunar surface, converting a portion of its kinetic energy to visible light detectable from Earth. A routine monitoring program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has recorded over 300 impact flashes since early 2006. The program utilizes multiple 0.35 m (14 inch) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, outfitted with video cameras using the 1/2 inch Sony EXview HAD CCDTM chip, to perform simultaneous observations of the earthshine hemisphere of the Moon when the lunar phase is between 0.1 and 0.5. This optical arrangement permits monitoring of approximately 3.8x10(6) km2 of lunar surface. A selection of 126 flashes recorded in 266.88 hours of photometric skies was analyzed, creating the largest and most homogeneous dataset of lunar impact flashes to date. Standard CCD photometric techniques outlined in [1] were applied to the video to determine the luminous energy, kinetic energy, and mass for each impactor, considering a range of luminous efficiencies. The flux to a limiting energy of 2.5x10(-6) kT TNT or 1.05×10(7) J is 1.03×10(-7) km(-2) hr(-1) and the flux to a limiting mass of 30 g is 6.14×10(-10) m(-2) yr(-1). Comparisons made with measurements and models of the meteoroid population indicate that the flux of objects in this size range is slightly lower (but within the error bars) than the power law distribution determined for the near Earth object population by [2].

  12. The flux of large meteoroids observed with lunar impact monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, W.; Suggs, R.; Moser, D.; Suggs, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    The flux of large meteoroids is not well determined due to relatively low number statistics, due mainly to the lack of collecting area available to meteor camera systems (10^2-10^5 km^2). Larger collecting areas are needed to provide reasonable statistics for flux calculations. The Moon, with millions of square kilometers of lunar surface, can be used as a detector for observing the population of large meteoroids in the tens of grams to kilogram mass range. This is accomplished by observing the flash of light produced when a meteoroid impacts the lunar surface, converting a portion of its kinetic energy to visible light detectable from the Earth. A routine monitoring program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has recorded over 300 impact flashes since early 2006. The program utilizes multiple 0.35-m (14-inch) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, outfitted with video cameras using the 1?2 inch Sony EXview HAD CCDTM chip, to perform simultaneous observations of the earthshine hemisphere of the Moon when the lunar phase is between 0.1 and 0.5. This optical arrangement permits monitoring of approximately 3.8×10^6 km^2 of lunar surface. A selection of 126 flashes recorded in 266.88 hours of photometric skies was analyzed, creating the largest and most homogeneous dataset of lunar impact flashes to date. Standard CCD photometric techniques outlined in [1] were applied to the video to determine the luminous energy, kinetic energy, and mass for each impactor, considering a range of luminous efficiencies. The flux to a limiting energy of 2.5×10^{-6} kT TNT or 1.05×10^7 J is 1.03×10^{-7} km^{-2} hr^{-1} and the flux to a limiting mass of 30 g is 6.14×10^{-10} m^{-2} yr^{-1}. Comparisons made with measurements and models of the meteoroid population indicate that the flux of objects in this size range is slightly lower (but within the error bars) than the power law distribution determined for the near-Earth-object population by [2].

  13. Land Surface Albedo of Large Urban Agglomerations from Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, D. O.; Roy, S. S.; Cohen, A.

    2006-05-01

    The world's urban population is expected to rise to 5 billion by the year 2030 and urban climates are expected to have a growing influence on surface energy budgets at regional-to-global scales. A key component of surface energy balance is shortwave reflectivity or albedo, which can be measured and modeled with optical satellite imagery such as Landsat. In this study, we processed Landsat ETM+ imagery of world's 20 largest urban areas as of the early 2000s. To derive robust albedo estimates for each urban area, we applied an atmospheric correction and BRDF modeling using the 6s atmospheric radiative transfer model as well as an empirically based narrow-to-broadband conversion involving ETM+ bands 2, 4, and 7. A spatial analysis of the resultant albedo images was performed using various statistical and geostatistical methods. The results reveal moderate variability of land-surface albedo values among the various urban areas with mean values for urban land surfaces ranging between 0.12 for Cairo to 0.23 for Buenos Aires. As expected, in most instances we found that the albedo of these large urban areas was less than what we observed for nearby non-urban land cover types. The absolute differences in albedo between urban areas and adjacent non-urban areas within each ETM+ scene ranged from large (0.21 for Cairo) to very small (0.02 for Shanghai). Our preliminary conclusion is that the albedo difference (or the "urban albedo effect") between urban and adjacent non-urban land surfaces was greater for cities situated in arid environments than "green" cities that are situated in mesic, temperate regions.

  14. SPITZER SAGE Observations of Large Magellanic Cloud Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    J. L. Hora; M. Cohen; R. G. Ellis; M. Meixner; R. D. Blum; W. B. Latter; B. A. Whitney; M. R. Meade; B. L. Babler; R. Indebetouw; K. Gordon; C. W. Engelbracht; B. -Q. For; M. Block; K. Misselt; U. Vijh; C. Leitherer

    2007-11-01

    We present IRAC and MIPS images and photometry of a sample of previously known planetary nebulae (PNe) from the SAGE survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) performed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Of the 233 known PNe in the survey field, 185 objects were detected in at least two of the IRAC bands, and 161 detected in the MIPS 24 micron images. Color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are presented using several combinations of IRAC, MIPS, and 2MASS magnitudes. The location of an individual PN in the color-color diagrams is seen to depend on the relative contributions of the spectral components which include molecular hydrogen, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), infrared forbidden line emission from the ionized gas, warm dust continuum, and emission directly from the central star. The sample of LMC PNe is compared to a number of Galactic PNe and found to not significantly differ in their position in color-color space. We also explore the potential value of IR PNe luminosity functions (LFs) in the LMC. IRAC LFs appear to follow the same functional form as the well-established [O III] LFs although there are several PNe with observed IR magnitudes brighter than the cut-offs in these LFs.

  15. Observational evidence for large-scale current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jun

    One of the most significant predictions of the catastrophe model of solar eruptions developed by Lin Forbes (2000) that a current sheet forms following the onset of the eruption. Various modes of plasma turbulence as a result of plasma instabilities are invoked inside the current sheet, yielding fast dissipation of the magnetic field, namely magnetic reconnection, through the sheet. Because the timescale of reconnection is long compared to the timescale of the onset stage, dissipation of the sheet is slow, so the current sheet is able to become fairly long. The evolution in the global feature of the current sheet is significant constrained by the local Alfven speed, and the internal properties and features of the sheet, on the other hand, are dependent in an apparent way on the development of the turbulence caused by the instabilities. The tearing mode instability among those that may occur in the sheet is the most important one that accounts for the large thickness and high electric resistivity of the current sheet. In the present work, we show a set of events that were observed to develop thick current sheets with several apparent features indicating the progress of the turbulence in the sheet, and the results for the sheet thickness determined by UVCS and LASCO experiments on SOHO, and deduce from these results the effective resistivity that is responsible for the rapid reconnection. We suggest that the high effective resistivity is related to the so-called hyper-resistivity that is produced by the tearing mode.

  16. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bartelt, J.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Atwood, W. B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M. E-mail: massimiliano.razzano@pi.infn.it

    2009-05-10

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new {gamma}-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E {>=} 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of {gamma} = 1.51{sup +0.05} {sub -0.04} with an exponential cutoff at E{sub c} = 2.9 {+-} 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e{sup -(E/E{sub c}){sup b}} require b {<=} 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  17. CO Observations of Molecular Regions not observed by MAGMA in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman-Duval, Julia; Hughes, Annie; Pineda Galvez, Jorge Luis; Bolatto, Alberto; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Israel, Frank; Gordon, Karl

    2012-04-01

    CO emission is used as a tracer of molecular gas. However, in low metallicity galaxies with little dust shielding, theoretical models predict that a large fraction of the H2 is not traced by CO. Recently, a new method was devised, which uses FIR emission from big dust grains and HI 21 cm emission to estimate H2 surface densities independent of CO emission. We have applied this method to Herschel FIR and HI 21 cm observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud, and identified 27 regions not detected in a previous NANTEN CO survey at 2.6’ resolution. These regions were not mapped by the higher resolution (45”) MAGellanic Mopra Assessment project. As a result, the current data do not allow us to determine whether CO emission in those regions is suppressed by a high radiation field and a lack of dust shielding, or whether it is diluted in the coarse NANTEN beam. We propose to observe the CO line toward those 27 regions with MOPRA/MOPS in order to address this question and to examine the spatial coincidence of H2 and CO as a function of radiation field and density. Fulfilling our science objective will require 104h of observing time.

  18. Large breast compressions: Observations and evaluation of simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Christine; White, Mark; Guarino, Salvatore; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A.; Douek, Michael; Hawkes, David J.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Several methods have been proposed to simulate large breast compressions such as those occurring during x-ray mammography. However, the evaluation of these methods against real data is rare. The aim of this study is to learn more about the deformation behavior of breasts and to assess a simulation method. Methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 11 breasts before and after applying a relatively large in vivo compression in the medial direction were acquired. Nonrigid registration was employed to study the deformation behavior. Optimal material properties for finite element modeling were determined and their prediction performance was assessed. The realism of simulated compressions was evaluated by comparing the breast shapes on simulated and real mammograms. Results: Following image registration, 19 breast compressions from 8 women were studied. An anisotropic deformation behavior, with a reduced elongation in the anterior-posterior direction and an increased stretch in the inferior-superior direction was observed. Using finite element simulations, the performance of isotropic and transverse isotropic material models to predict the displacement of internal landmarks was compared. Isotropic materials reduced the mean displacement error of the landmarks from 23.3 to 4.7 mm, on average, after optimizing material properties with respect to breast surface alignment and image similarity. Statistically significantly smaller errors were achieved with transverse isotropic materials (4.1 mm, P=0.0045). Homogeneous material models performed substantially worse (transverse isotropic: 5.5 mm; isotropic: 6.7 mm). Of the parameters varied, the amount of anisotropy had the greatest influence on the results. Optimal material properties varied less when grouped by patient rather than by compression magnitude (mean: 0.72 vs 1.44). Employing these optimal materials for simulating mammograms from ten MR breast images of a different cohort resulted in more realistic breast shapes than when using established material models. Conclusions: Breasts in the prone position exhibited an anisotropic compression behavior. Transverse isotropic materials with an increased stiffness in the anterior-posterior direction improved the prediction of these deformations and produced more realistic mammogram simulations from MR images.

  19. Cold Rydberg atoms in circular states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Circular-state Rydberg atoms are interesting in that they exhibit a unique combination of extraordinary properties; long lifetimes (˜n^5), large magnetic moments (l=|m|=n-1) and no first order Stark shift. Circular states have found applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and precision measurements [1,2], among other studies. In this work we present the production of circular states in an atom trapping apparatus using an adiabatic state-switching method (the crossed-field method [3]). To date, we have observed lifetimes of adiabatically prepared states of several milliseconds. Their relatively large ionization electric fields have been verified by time-of-flight signatures of ion trajectories. We intend to explore the magnetic trapping of circular state Rydberg atoms, as well as their production and interaction properties in ultra-cold and degenerate samples.[4pt] [1] P. Bertet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 14 (2002)[0pt] [2] M. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 21 (1994)[0pt] [3] D. Delande and J.C. Gay, Europhys. Lett., 5, 303-308 (1988).

  20. Circular RNA Is Expressed across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peter L.; Bao, Yun; Yee, Muh-Ching; Barrett, Steven P.; Hogan, Gregory J.; Olsen, Mari N.; Dinneny, José R.; Brown, Patrick O.; Salzman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An unexpectedly large fraction of genes in metazoans (human, mouse, zebrafish, worm, fruit fly) express high levels of circularized RNAs containing canonical exons. Here we report that circular RNA isoforms are found in diverse species whose most recent common ancestor existed more than one billion years ago: fungi (Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), and protists (Plasmodium falciparum and Dictyostelium discoideum). For all species studied to date, including those in this report, only a small fraction of the theoretically possible circular RNA isoforms from a given gene are actually observed. Unlike metazoans, Arabidopsis, D. discoideum, P. falciparum, S. cerevisiae, and S. pombe have very short introns (?100 nucleotides or shorter), yet they still produce circular RNAs. A minority of genes in S. pombe and P. falciparum have documented examples of canonical alternative splicing, making it unlikely that all circular RNAs are by-products of alternative splicing or ‘piggyback’ on signals used in alternative RNA processing. In S. pombe, the relative abundance of circular to linear transcript isoforms changed in a gene-specific pattern during nitrogen starvation. Circular RNA may be an ancient, conserved feature of eukaryotic gene expression programs. PMID:24609083

  1. Life Cycle of a Mesoscale Circular Gust Front Observed by a C-Band Doppler Radar in West Africa

    E-print Network

    Lothon, Marie

    On 10 July 2006, during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) campaign, a small convective system initiated over Niamey and propagated westward in the vicinity of ...

  2. Unexpected generation of super-high energetic electrons at relativistic circularly polarized laser-solid interactions in the presence of large scale pre-plasmas

    E-print Network

    Wu, D; Luan, S X; Yu, W

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of the previous work "Identifying the source of super-high energetic electrons in the presence of pre-plasma in laser-matter interaction at relativistic intensities [arXiv: 1512.02411]", we have investigated the role of circularly polarized (CP) laser pulses while keeping other conditions the same. It is found that in the presence of large scale pre-formed plasmas, super-high energetic electrons can be generated at relativistic CP laser-solid interactions. For laser of intensity 10$^{20}\\ $W$/$cm$^2$ and pre-plasma scale-length 10$\\ \\mu$m, the cut-off energy of electron by CP laser is 120$\\ $MeV compared with 100$\\ $MeV in the case of linearly polarized (LP) laser. The unexpected super-high energetic electron acceleration can also be explained by the two-stage acceleration model, by considering the polarization transition of the reflected laser from CP to elliptically polarized (EP). The polarization state transition is addressed, and a modified scaling law in the presence of EP laser is obt...

  3. Spatial seismology of a large coronal loop arcade from TRACE & EIT observations of its transverse oscillations

    E-print Network

    Verwichte, Erwin

    Spatial seismology of a large coronal loop arcade from TRACE & EIT observations of its transverse seismology) and find that the observations cannot unambigiously distinguish between structuring and non

  4. Life Cycle of a Mesoscale Circular Gust Front Observed by a C-Band Doppler Radar in West Africa

    E-print Network

    Guichard, Francoise

    shallow convection to its traveling gust front. The analysis of the observations during the transitions from organized dry convection to shallow convection and from shallow convection to deep convection Analysis (AMMA) campaign, a small convective system initiated over Niamey and propagated westward

  5. SEARCH Workshop on Large-Scale Atmosphere/Cryosphere Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop held in Seattle during 27-29 November 2001 was to review existing land, sea ice, and atmospheric observations and the prospect for an Arctic System Reanalysis, through white papers, invited speakers, and panels. A major task for SEARCH was to determine how existing observation systems can be best used and enhanced to understand and anticipate the course of the ongoing changes in the Arctic. The primary workshop conclusion is that there is no cohesion among various Arctic disciplines and data types to form a complete observation set of Arctic change; a second workshop conclusion is that present data sets are vastly underutilized in understanding Arctic change; a third conclusion is that a distributed observing system must accommodate a wide range of spatial patterns of variability.

  6. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  7. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Travnicek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (MI and M2). For MI the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward 1M F turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx.32 s later by a 7-s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to detem11ne PTE dimensions and flux content The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx.30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  8. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Travnicek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (M1 and M2). For M1 the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward IMF turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx. 32 s later by a 7 s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to determine FTE dimensions and flux content. The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury s radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx. 30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  9. Direct observation of large temperature fluctuations during DNA thermal denaturation

    E-print Network

    K. S. Nagapriya; A. K. Raychaudhuri; Dipankar Chatterji

    2006-02-10

    In this paper we report direct measurement of large low frequency temperature fluctuations in double stranded (ds) DNA when it undergoes thermal denaturation transition. The fluctuation, which occurs only in the temperature range where the denaturation occurs, is several orders more than the expected equilibrium fluctuation. It is absent in single stranded (ss) DNA of the same sequence. The fluctuation at a given temperature also depends on the wait time and vanishes in a scale of few hours. It is suggested that the large fluctuation occurs due to coexisting denaturated and closed base pairs that are in dynamic equilibrium due to transition through a potential barrier in the scale of 25-30k_{B}T_{0}(T_{0}=300K).

  10. Large Observed $v_2$ as a Signature for Deconfinement

    E-print Network

    W. A. Horowitz

    2006-02-01

    We present a new plot for representing RAA data that emphasizes the strong correlation between high-pt suppression and its elliptic anisotropy. We demonstrate that existing models cannot reproduce the centrality dependence of this correlation. Modification of a geometric energy loss model to include thermal absorption and stimulated emission can match the trend of the data, but requires dN/dy values inconsistent with the observed multiplicity. By including a small, outward-normal directed surface impulse opposing energy loss, $\\Delta pt \\hat{n}$, one can account for the centrality dependence of the observed Au+Au elliptic quench pattern. We also present predictions for Cu+Cu reactions.

  11. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  12. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-08-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  13. Cosmological parameter estimation with large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dio, Enea Di; Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth; Lesgourgues, Julien E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, C{sub ?}(z{sub 1},z{sub 2}), calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We compare the standard P(k) analysis with the new C{sub ?}(z{sub 1},z{sub 2}) method. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the new analysis performs significantly better than the P(k) analysis. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins which would be needed to fully profit from the redshift information, is severely limited by shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, C{sub 0}(z{sub 1},z{sub 2})

  14. Hadronic effects and observables in B ?? ?+?- decay at large recoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambrock, Christian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Rusov, Aleksey

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the amplitude of the rare flavor-changing neutral-current decay B ?? ?+?- at large recoil of the pion. The nonlocal contributions in which the weak effective operators are combined with the electromagnetic lepton-pair emission are systematically taken into account. These amplitudes are calculated at off-shell values of the lepton-pair mass squared, q2<0 , employing the operator-product expansion, QCD factorization and light-cone sum rules. The results are fitted to hadronic dispersion relations in q2, including the intermediate vector meson contributions. The dispersion relations are then used in the physical region q2>0 . Our main result is the process-dependent addition ? C9(B ? )(q2) to the Wilson coefficient C9 obtained at 4 m?2

  15. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denève, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia. PMID:24065721

  16. "Circularization" vs. Accretion -- What Powers Tidal Disruption Events?

    E-print Network

    Tsvi Piran; Gilad Svirski; Julian Krolik; Roseanne M. Cheng; Hotaka Shiokawa

    2015-04-07

    A tidal disruption event (TDE) takes place when a star passes near enough to a massive black hole to be disrupted. About half the star's matter is given elliptical trajectories with large apocenter distances, the other half is unbound. To "circularize", i.e., to form an accretion flow, the bound matter must lose a significant amount of energy, with the actual amount depending on the characteristic scale of the flow measured in units of the black hole's gravitational radius ($\\sim 10^{51} (R/1000R_g)^{-1}$~erg). Recent numerical simulations \\citep{Shiokawa+2015} have revealed that the circularization scale is close to the scale of the most-bound initial orbits, $\\sim 10^3 M_{BH,6.5}^{-2/3} R_g \\sim 10^{15} M_{BH,6.5}^{1/3}$~cm from the black hole, and the corresponding circularization energy dissipation rate is $\\sim 10^{44} M_{BH,6.5}^{-1/6}$~erg/s. We suggest that the energy liberated during circularization, rather then energy liberated by accretion onto the black hole, powers the observed optical TDE candidates. The observed rise times, luminosities, temperatures, emission radii, and line widths seen in these TDEs \\citep[e.g.][]{Arcavi+2014} are all more readily explained in terms of heating associated with circularization than in terms of accretion.

  17. A circular twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranor, Maria B.; Heider, Elizabeth M.; Price, Richard H.

    2000-11-01

    In the special relativistic twin paradox presented here, each twin lives on one ring of a counterrotating pair of infinitesimally separated rings, so that the twins travel on the same circular path but in opposite directions. The observers on the ring of one twin should see the clock of the other twin slowed by time dilation, but at each meeting of the twins symmetry demands that they agree on the amount of time that has passed since their previous meeting. The resolution of the paradox focuses attention on the relation of time dilation to clock synchronization.

  18. Synthetic-Aperture Coherent Imaging From A Circular Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging algorithms based on exact point-target responses. Developed for use in reconstructing image of target from data gathered by radar, sonar, or other transmitting/receiving coherent-signal sensory apparatus following circular observation path around target. Potential applications include: Wide-beam synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) from aboard spacecraft in circular orbit around target planet; SAR from aboard airplane flying circular course at constant elevation around central ground point, toward which spotlight radar beam pointed; Ultrasonic reflection tomography in medical setting, using one transducer moving in circle around patient or else multiple transducers at fixed positions on circle around patient; and Sonar imaging of sea floor to high resolution, without need for large sensory apparatus.

  19. Observation of very large and steep internal waves of elevation near the Massachusetts coast

    E-print Network

    Pineda, Jesús

    Observation of very large and steep internal waves of elevation near the Massachusetts coast Oceanography: Physical: Internal and inertial waves; 4219 Oceanography: General: Continental shelf processes and dynamics. Citation: Scotti, A., and J. Pineda (2004), Observation of very large and steep internal waves

  20. Circular polarization of interstellar hydroxyl emission

    SciTech Connect

    Khanberdiev, A.; Ishankuliev, D.

    1981-05-01

    The percentage circular polarization is calculated for all four maser emission lines representing the ground state of the OH molecule. The populations of the Zeeman sublevels are assumed to have a Boltzmann distribution. The principal lines should exhibit strong circular polarization, but not the satellite lines. Estimates are given for the range in magnetic field strength, OH density, and kinetic temperature in an interstellar cloud such that the circular polarization of OH radio sources would be observable.

  1. Acid/base-triggered switching of circularly polarized luminescence and electronic circular dichroism in organic and organometallic helicenes.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Nidal; Moore, Barry; Srebro, Monika; Vanthuyne, Nicolas; Toupet, Loïc; Williams, J A Gareth; Roussel, Christian; Deol, Kirandeep K; Muller, Gilles; Autschbach, Jochen; Crassous, Jeanne

    2015-01-19

    Electronic circular dichroism and circularly polarized luminescence acid/base switching activity has been demonstrated in helicene-bipyridine proligand 1?a and in its "rollover" cycloplatinated derivative 2?a. Whereas proligand 1?a displays a strong bathochromic shift (>160?nm) of the nonpolarized and circularly polarized luminescence upon protonation, complex 2?a displays slightly stronger emission. This strikingly different behavior between singlet emission in the organic helicene and triplet emission in the organometallic derivative has been rationalized by using quantum-chemical calculations. The very large bathochromic shift of the emission observed upon protonation of azahelicene-bipyridine 1?a has been attributed to the decrease in aromaticity (promoting a charge-transfer-type transition rather than a ?-?* transition) as well as an increase in the HOMO-LUMO character of the transition and stabilization of the LUMO level upon protonation. PMID:25418503

  2. Asteroids and Comets: the Prospect for Observations with a Large Millimetre Array

    E-print Network

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    Asteroids and Comets: the Prospect for Observations with a Large Millimetre Array Jacques Crovisier Observatoire de Paris­Meudon, F­92195 Meudon, France Abstract. Radio continuum observations of asteroids will review here the current status and future prospect of radio astronomical observations of asteroids

  3. Circular orbits in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamzawi, Ahmed; Alhamzawi, Rahim

    2015-08-01

    A slight modification of the general relativistic metric under modified gravity is presented. The circular motion of massive particles is discussed in the new metric. It is shown that there are two roots at which circular motion can happen. However, while one root results in a stable circular orbit, the second represents a maxima which is very unstable because the attractive forces dominate as radius gets small and draw towards zero. Furthermore, we derive an equation for the orbital angular speed for the stable root in modified gravity and show that for large values of , the modified orbital angular speed approaches the well known orbital angular speed. Finally, a description of photon orbits in the new metric is given and a derivation of the deflection angle is presented. Its shown that modified gravity can give a considerable contribution to the deflection angles of light rays.

  4. Spectra of circularly polarized radiation from astrophysical OH masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1990-01-01

    A striking feature of astrophysical masers is the tendency for either one or the other of the circular polarizations to dominate in the radiation from the strong, widely observed masing transitions of OH at 18 cm. Spectral line profiles are calculated for polarized maser radiation due to the combined effects of a velocity gradient and, as is indicated for these transitions, a Zeeman splitting that is at least comparable with the thermal contributions to the breadths of the spectral lines. The resulting spectral features are similar in appearance, including the presence of large net circular polarization and narrow line breadths, to the commonly observed spectra of OH masers in molecular clouds. The calculations presented here are performed as a function of frequency without making the approximations of a large velocity gradient. Rapid cross relaxation, which has been advocated by others for the OH masers, is assumed.

  5. LABORATORY IV CIRCULAR MOTION

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Lab IV - 1 LABORATORY IV CIRCULAR MOTION The problems in this laboratory will help you investigate objects moving in uniform circular motion. This is the same motion that describes satellites in orbit around the earth, or objects whirled around on a rope. Circular motion can be explained with the same

  6. Circular motion Isaac Newtona)

    E-print Network

    Circular motion Isaac Newtona) and Richard Conn Henryb) Received 20 October 1999; accepted 30 that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion, a v2 r , 1 may be, today, a staple of freshman physics

  7. SIR --It has recently been noted1 that a large variety of observations constrain cosmo-

    E-print Network

    McGaugh, Stacy

    SIR -- It has recently been noted1 that a large variety of observations constrain cosmo- logical models to a narrow range of `concordant' parameters. Though a universe with a density parameter of 0 = 1

  8. Tempo and mode of modern bird evolution observed with large-scale taxonomic sampling

    E-print Network

    Hadly, Elizabeth

    Tempo and mode of modern bird evolution observed with large-scale taxonomic sampling M. VAN TUINEN1 of their evolutionary history and characterization. In addition to inference of absolute divergence times (tempo

  9. Observations of a Large-Amplitude Internal Wave Train and Its Reflection off a Steep Slope

    E-print Network

    Observations of a Large-Amplitude Internal Wave Train and Its Reflection off a Steep Slope DANIEL, short, and large- amplitude internal wave train off a steep slope are presented and interpreted the parameter space examined in previous laboratory and numerical experiments on internal solitary wave

  10. Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study

    E-print Network

    Glotch, Timothy D.

    Are large Trojan asteroids salty? An observational, theoretical, and experimental study Bin Yang a: Trojan asteroids Infrared observations Asteroids, surfaces a b s t r a c t With a total mass similar to the main asteroid belt, the jovian Trojan asteroids are a major feature in the Solar System. Based upon

  11. Large scale evaluation of soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture from the Earth’s surface. Several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and WindSat have been used for this purpose using multi-channel observations. Large sc...

  12. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1993-01-01

    We propose to develop an interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth science observation and model data sets. We will use a standard scientific data storage format and a large capacity (greater than 20 GB) optical disk system for data management; develop libraries for coordinate transformation and regridding of data sets; modify the NCSA X Image and X DataSlice software for typical Earth observation data sets by including map transformations and missing data handling; develop analysis tools for common mathematical and statistical operations; integrate the components described above into a system for the analysis and comparison of observations and model results; and distribute software and documentation to the scientific community.

  13. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1992-01-01

    We propose to develop an interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth science observation and model data sets. We will use a standard scientific data storage format and a large capacity (greater than 20 GB) optical disk system for data management; develop libraries for coordinate transformation and regridding of data sets; modify the NCSA X Image and X Data Slice software for typical Earth observation data sets by including map transformations and missing data handling; develop analysis tools for common mathematical and statistical operations; integrate the components described above into a system for the analysis and comparison of observations and model results; and distribute software and documentation to the scientific community.

  14. A LEKID-based CMB instrument design for large-scale observations in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, D. C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bond, J. R.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Che, G.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C. E.; Hillbrand, Seth N.; Johnson, B. R.; Jones, G.; Limon, Michele; Miller, A. D.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, Joshua; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study, which examined deployment of a ground-based millimeter-wave polarimeter, tailored for observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB), to Isi Station in Greenland. The instrument for this study is based on lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) and an F/2.4 catoptric, crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture. The telescope is mounted inside the receiver and cooled to < 4 K by a closed-cycle 4He refrigerator to reduce background loading on the detectors. Linearly polarized signals from the sky are modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is rotated at the aperture stop of the telescope with a hollow-shaft motor based on a superconducting magnetic bearing. The modular detector array design includes at least 2300 LEKIDs, and it can be configured for spectral bands centered on 150 GHz or greater. Our study considered configurations for observing in spectral bands centered on 150, 210 and 267 GHz. The entire polarimeter is mounted on a commercial precision rotary air bearing, which allows fast azimuth scan speeds with negligible vibration and mechanical wear over time. A slip ring provides power to the instrument, enabling circular scans (360 degrees of continuous rotation). This mount, when combined with sky rotation and the latitude of the observation site, produces a hypotrochoid scan pattern, which yields excellent cross-linking and enables 34% of the sky to be observed using a range of constant elevation scans. This scan pattern and sky coverage combined with the beam size (15 arcmin at 150 GHz) makes the instrument sensitive to 5 < ` < 1000 in the angular power spectra.

  15. Very Large Array, SOHO, and RHESSI Observations of Magnetic Interactions and Particle Propagation across Large-Scale Coronal Loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Robert F.; Groff, Tyler D.

    2008-07-01

    Very Large Array (VLA) observations at wavelengths of 20 and 91 cm have been combined with data from the SOHO and RHESSI solar missions to study the evolution of transequatorial loops connecting active regions on the solar surface. The radio observations provide information about the acceleration and propagation of energetic electrons in these large-scale coronal magnetic structures where energy release and transport take place. On one day, a long-lasting Type I noise storm at 91 cm was seen to intensify and shift position above the northern hemisphere region following an impulsive hard X-ray burst in the southern hemisphere footpoint region. VLA 20-cm observations as well as SOHO EIT EUV images showed evolving coronal plasma that appeared to move across the solar equator during this time period. This suggests that the transequatorial loop acted as a conduit for energetic particles or fields that may have triggered magnetic changes in the corona where the northern noise storm region was seen. On another day, a hard X-ray burst detected at the limb was accompanied by impulsive 20- and 91-cm burst emission along a loop connecting to an active region in the same hemisphere but about 5' away, again suggesting particle propagation and remote flare triggering across interconnecting loops.

  16. SPITZER, VERY LARGE TELESCOPE, AND VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE CANDIDATE HD 168625

    SciTech Connect

    Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Hora, J. L.

    2010-08-01

    We present mid-IR and radio observations of the Galactic luminous blue variables (LBVs) candidate HD 168625 and its associated nebula. We obtained mid-IR spectroscopic observations using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, and performed mid-IR and radio imaging observations using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope and the Very Large Array with comparable angular resolution. Our spectroscopic observations detected spectral features attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and therefore indicate the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) around the ionized nebula. This result increases the number of LBVs and LBV candidates where a PDR has been found, confirming the importance of such a component in the total mass-loss budget of the central object during this elusive phase of massive star evolution. We have analyzed and compared the mid-IR and radio maps, and derive several results concerning the associated nebula. There is evidence for grain distribution variations across the nebula, with a predominant contribution from bigger grains in the northern part of the nebula while PAH and smaller grains are more concentrated in the southern part. A compact radio component located where there is a lack of thermal dust grains corroborates the presence of a shock in the southern nebula, which could arise as a consequence of the interaction of a fast outflow with the slower, expanding dusty nebula. Such a shock would be a viable means for PAH production as well as for changes in the grain size distribution. Finally, from the detection of a central radio component probably associated with the wind from the central massive supergiant, we derive a current mass-loss rate of M-dot =(1.46{+-}0.15)x10{sup -6} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}.

  17. Observation of large magnetocaloric effect in HoRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Paramanik, Tapas Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2014-02-28

    Detailed magnetic, magnetotransport, and magnetocaloric measurements on HoRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been performed. In this Letter, we report presence of spin reorientation transition below paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub N}?=?19?K). Large magnetic entropy change 9.1?J/kg K and large negative magnetoresistance ?21% in a magnetic field of 5?T has been observed around T{sub N}, which is associated with field induced spin-flip metamagnetic transition.

  18. Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer deep survey observations of a large flare on AU Microscopii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cully, Scott L.; Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Vedder, Peter W.; Vallerga, John V.

    1993-01-01

    We have made the first extended observation of a stellar flare in the EUV with 100 s time resolution. The flare was detected on AU Mic by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite at 12:38 UT on 1992 July 15 during a 4 d observation from 1992 July 14 to 18. This was a large flare detected in the Lexan/boron (65-190 A) band with an observed peak count rate of 7.0 +/- 0.5 counts/s, corresponding to a peak luminosity of 10 exp 30 erg/s in the Lexan/boron bandpass. This is significantly above the measured quiescent level of 0.4 +/- 0.2 counts/s. The flare consisted of a sharp peak lasting about 2 hr, followed by a decaying tail that lasted more than a day. The total EUV energy of the event is estimated to be 3 x 10 exp 34 ergs. A second, smaller flare was also observed and is described. We conclude that the large emission measures on order of 6 x 10 exp 53/cu cm are due to large volumes with characteristic length scales of order the stellar radius. We compare these EUV observations with stellar flare observations in other bandpasses and estimate the likelihood of seeing similar flares in future observations.

  19. Orbital circularization of a planet accreting disk gas: the formation of distant jupiters in circular orbits based on a core accretion model

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Arika; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: higuchia@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2014-12-10

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ? 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at ? 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ?10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  20. Observation of large group index enhancement in Doppler-broadened rubidium vapor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo-Xun; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Han, D J

    2015-07-27

    We report experimental observation of large group index across the Lamb dips of ground hyperfine states in Doppler-broadened 87Rb vapor. By sweeping the laser frequency through each hyperfine transition we measure the saturated absorption and optical phase shift using a phase-locked Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our measurements provide a direct demonstration of the theoretical prediction by Agarwal et al. [G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063816, (2003)] for the first time. An enhancement factor as large as 1005 in group index was observed for Rb vapor at temperature of 85 °C. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theory. PMID:26367544

  1. Anomalously Large Thermal Expansion at the (0001) Surface of Beryllium without Observable Interlayer Anharmonicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, K.; Pohl, K.; Plummer, E.W.; Plummer, E.W.; Cho, J.; Terakura, K.; Scheffler, M.

    1998-03-01

    We have measured a large thermal surface expansion, 6 times larger than the bulk, on Be(0001) using low-energy electron diffraction. This observation seems to be inconsistent with previous measurements reporting negligible anharmonicity in the surface phonon modes normal to the surface. Density-functional theory calculations for the thermal expansion from the minimum in the free energy within the quasiharmonic approximation agree with the experimental observations and demonstrate that the enhanced thermal expansion is caused largely by a softening of the in-plane vibrations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Dynamical Centers and Non-Circular Motions in THINGS Galaxies: Implications for Dark Matter Halos

    E-print Network

    C. Trachternach; W. J. G. de Blok; F. Walter; E. Brinks; R. C. Kennicutt Jr

    2008-10-14

    We present harmonic decompositions of the velocity fields of 19 galaxies from THINGS (The \\HI Nearby Galaxy Survey) which quantify the magnitude of the non-circular motions in these galaxies and yield observational estimates of the elongations of the dark matter halo potentials. Additionally, we present accurate dynamical center positions for these galaxies. We show that the positions of the kinematic and photometric centers of the large majority of the galaxies in our sample are in good agreement. The median absolute amplitude of the non-circular motions, averaged over our sample, is $6.7 \\kms$, with $\\sim 90$ percent of the galaxies having median non-circular motions of less than $\\sim 9\\kms$. As a fraction of the total rotation velocity this translates into 4.5 percent on average. The mean elongation of the gravitational potential, after a statistical correction for an unknown viewing angle, is $0.017\\pm 0.020$, i.e., consistent with a round potential. Our derived non-circular motions and elongations are smaller than what is needed to bring Cold Dark Matter (CDM) simulations in agreement with the observations. In particular, the amplitudes of the non-circular motions are not high enough to hide the steep central mass-density profiles predicted by CDM simulations. We show that the amplitudes of the non-circular motions decrease towards lower luminosities and later Hubble types.

  3. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Zamudio-Bayer, V.; Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; Kossick, M.; ?awicki, A.; Lau, J. T.; Terasaki, A.; Issendorff, B. von

    2015-06-21

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and Mn{sub 3}{sup +} are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 ?{sub B} are created by 3d{sup 5}({sup 6}S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 ?{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and 16 ?{sub B} for Mn{sub 3}{sup +}, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  4. "Circularization" vs. Accretion -- What Powers Tidal Disruption Events?

    E-print Network

    Piran, Tsvi; Krolik, Julian; Cheng, Roseanne M; Shiokawa, Hotaka

    2015-01-01

    A tidal disruption event (TDE) takes place when a star passes near enough to a massive black hole to be disrupted. About half the star's matter is given elliptical trajectories with large apocenter distances, the other half is unbound. To "circularize", i.e., to form an accretion flow, the bound matter must lose a significant amount of energy, with the actual amount depending on the characteristic scale of the flow measured in units of the black hole's gravitational radius (~ 10^{51} (R/1000R_g)^{-1} erg). Recent numerical simulations (Shiokawa et al., 2015) have revealed that the circularization scale is close to the scale of the most-bound initial orbits, ~ 10^3 M_{BH,6.5}^{-2/3} R_g ~ 10^{15} M_{BH,6.5}^{1/3} cm from the black hole, and the corresponding circularization energy dissipation rate is $\\sim 10^{44} M_{BH,6.5}^{-1/6}$~erg/s. We suggest that the energy liberated during circularization, rather then energy liberated by accretion onto the black hole, powers the observed optical TDE candidates (e.g.A...

  5. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  6. Seismology of a large solar coronal loop from EUVI/STEREO observations of its transverse oscillation

    E-print Network

    Verwichte, Erwin

    Seismology of a large solar coronal loop from EUVI/STEREO observations of its transverse-of-sight integration. The Alfv´en speed and coronal magnetic field derived using coronal seismology are discussed Doorsselaere et al. 2008c). Through the application of the technique of coronal seismology (for a review see

  7. Competing with Humans at Fantasy Football: Team Formation in Large Partially-Observable Domains

    E-print Network

    Chalkiadakis, Georgios

    Competing with Humans at Fantasy Football: Team Formation in Large Partially-Observable Domains Tim the framework of a class of online football prediction games known as Fantasy Football. We model the problem and where the decision maker's be- liefs are over multiple characteristics of each footballer. We

  8. Large density fluctuations in the martian ionosphere as observed by the Mars Express radar sounder

    E-print Network

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    Large density fluctuations in the martian ionosphere as observed by the Mars Express radar sounder February 2009 Available online 3 March 2009 Keywords: Mars Ionosphere a b s t r a c t The MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) instrument on the Mars Express spacecraft provides

  9. Wideband very large array observations of A2256. I. Continuum, rotation measure, and spectral imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Frazer N.; Rau, Urvashi; Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Kogan, Leonid; Rudnick, Lawrence; Jean Eilek

    2014-10-10

    We report new observations of A2256 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at frequencies between 1 and 8 GHz. These observations take advantage of the 2:1 bandwidths available during a single observation to study the spectral index, polarization, and rotation measure as well as using the associated higher sensitivity per unit time to image total intensity features down to ?0.''5 resolution. We find that the Large Relic, which dominates the cluster, is made up of a complex of filaments that show correlated distributions in intensity, spectral index, and fractional polarization. The rotation measure varies across the face of the Large Relic but is not well correlated with the other properties of the source. The shape of individual filaments suggests that the Large Relic is at least 25 kpc thick. We detect a low surface brightness arc connecting the Large Relic to the Halo and other radio structures, suggesting a physical connection between these features. The center of the F-complex is dominated by a very steep-spectrum, polarized, ring-like structure, F2, without an obvious optical identification, but the entire F-complex does have interesting morphological similarities to the radio structure of NGC 1265. Source C, the Long Tail, is unresolved in width near the galaxy core and is ? 100 pc in diameter there. This morphology suggests either that C is a one-sided jet or that the bending of the tails takes place very near the core, consistent with the parent galaxy having undergone extreme stripping. Overall it seems that many of the unusual phenomena can be understood in the context of A2256 being near the pericenter of a slightly off-axis merger between a cluster and a smaller group. Given the lack of evidence for a strong shock associated with the Large Relic, other models should be considered, such as reconnection between two large-scale magnetic domains.

  10. Taming of the Slew: Optimization of the Large Scale X-Ray Surveys with Observing Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ptak, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We will discuss simulations intended to address the relative efficiency of observing large areas with a slew observing strategy as opposed to pointing at fields individually. We will emphasize observing with the Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WFXT) but will also discuss optimization of observing strategy with the IXO Wide-Field Imager (WFI) and eRosita. The slew survey simulation is being implemented by translating the point direction along an arbitrary direction which addresses the impact of smoothing the telescope response during a given slew. However the simulation software is being designed to also allow the visibility of the sky to also be incorporated, in which case long-term observing plans could be developed to optimize the total sky coverage at a given depth and spatial resolution.

  11. The x ray properties of a large, uniform QSO sample: Einstein observations of the LBQS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Xu, X.; Green, P. J.; Foltz, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Although there are large numbers of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSO's) now observed in X rays, extensive X-ray observations of uniformly selected, 'complete' QSO samples are more rare. The Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS) consists of about 1000 objects with well understood properties, most brighter than B = 18.8 and thus amenable to X-ray detections in relatively brief exposures. The sample is thought to be highly complete in the range 0.2 less than z less than 3.3, a significantly broader interval than many other surveys. The Einstein IPC observed 150 of these objects, mostly serendipitously, during its lifetime. We report the results of an analysis of these IPC data, considering not only the 20 percent of the objects we find to have positive X-ray detections, but also the ensemble X-ray properties derived by 'image stacking'.

  12. Large-scale atmospheric carbon and surface water dynamics inferred from satellite-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Krakauer, N.; Schroeder, R.

    2013-12-01

    The sensitivity of Earth's wetlands to observed shifts in global precipitation and temperature patterns and their ability to produce large quantities of climate-active gases are key global change questions. Surface inundation is a crucial state variable that affects the rate of land-atmosphere carbon exchange and the partitioning of carbon between CO2 and CH4. Ground observation networks of large-scale inundation patterns are sparse because they require large fiscal, technological and human resources. Thus, satellite remote sensing products for global inundation dynamics, as well as total water storage and atmospheric carbon, can provide a complete synoptic view of past and current carbon - surface water dynamics over large areas that otherwise could not be assessed. We present results from a correlative analysis between spaceborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 as observed by SCIAMACHY and AIRS, water storage (derived from gravity anomalies provided by NASA's GRACE mission), and inundated water fraction derived from a combination of active and passive microwave remote sensing datasets. A general assessment is conducted globally, and further time-series analysis is focused on four regions of interest: North Amazon, Congo, Ob, and Ganges-Brahmaputra river basins. This analysis was supported by a grant from the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program and the development of the inundation datasets was supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program.

  13. Large-Scale Covariability Between Aerosol and Precipitation Over the 7-SEAS Region: Observations and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Zhang, Chidong; Jeong, Myeong Jae; Gautam, Ritesh; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Hansell, Richard A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the seven scientific areas of interests of the 7-SEAS field campaign is to evaluate the impact of aerosol on cloud and precipitation (http://7-seas.gsfc.nasa.gov). However, large-scale covariability between aerosol, cloud and precipitation is complicated not only by ambient environment and a variety of aerosol effects, but also by effects from rain washout and climate factors. This study characterizes large-scale aerosol-cloud-precipitation covariability through synergy of long-term multi ]sensor satellite observations with model simulations over the 7-SEAS region [10S-30N, 95E-130E]. Results show that climate factors such as ENSO significantly modulate aerosol and precipitation over the region simultaneously. After removal of climate factor effects, aerosol and precipitation are significantly anti-correlated over the southern part of the region, where high aerosols loading is associated with overall reduced total precipitation with intensified rain rates and decreased rain frequency, decreased tropospheric latent heating, suppressed cloud top height and increased outgoing longwave radiation, enhanced clear-sky shortwave TOA flux but reduced all-sky shortwave TOA flux in deep convective regimes; but such covariability becomes less notable over the northern counterpart of the region where low ]level stratus are found. Using CO as a proxy of biomass burning aerosols to minimize the washout effect, large-scale covariability between CO and precipitation was also investigated and similar large-scale covariability observed. Model simulations with NCAR CAM5 were found to show similar effects to observations in the spatio-temporal patterns. Results from both observations and simulations are valuable for improving our understanding of this region's meteorological system and the roles of aerosol within it. Key words: aerosol; precipitation; large-scale covariability; aerosol effects; washout; climate factors; 7- SEAS; CO; CAM5

  14. Observation of coherent pi0 electroproduction on deuterons at large momentum transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi, Egle; Bimbot, Louis; Danagoulian, Samuel; Gustafsson, Kenneth; Mack, David; Mkrtchyan, Hamlet; Rekalo, M.P.

    2003-03-01

    The first experimental results for coherent $\\pi^0$-electroproduction on the deuteron, $e+d\\to e+d +\\pi^0$, at large momentum transfer, are reported. The experiment was performed at Jefferson Laboratory at an incident electron energy of 4.05 GeV. A large pion production yield has been observed in a kinematical region for 1.1$

  15. Direct observation of ferromagnetism in grain boundary phase of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Yasui, A.; Kotani, Y.; Iwai, H.; Akiya, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Hono, K.; Hirosawa, S.; Gohda, Y.

    2014-11-17

    We have investigated the magnetism of the grain boundary (GB) phase in a Nd{sub 14.0}Fe{sub 79.7}Cu{sub 0.1}B{sub 6.2} sintered magnet using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges. Soft XMCD spectra were measured from the fractured surface that was confirmed to be covered with a thin GB phase by Auger electron spectroscopy. The magnetic moment of Fe in the GB phase was estimated to be m{sub GB}=1.4??{sub B} at 30?°C using the sum rule analysis for XMCD spectra, which is 60% of that of Fe in the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound. The temperature dependence of m{sub GB} evaluated with reference to Fe in the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase indicated that the Curie temperature of the GB phase is more than 50?°C lower compared to that of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B.

  16. Characteristics of Electron Distributions Observed During Large Amplitude Whistler Wave Events in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of electron distributions associated with large amplitude whistler waves inside the terrestrial magnetosphere using waveform capture data as an addition of the study by Kellogg et al., [2010b]. We identified three types of electron distributions observed simultaneously with the whistler waves including beam-like, beam/flattop, and anisotropic distributions. The whistlers exhibited different characteristics dependent upon the observed electron distributions. The majority of the waveforms observed in our study have f/fce < or = 0.5 and are observed primarily in the radiation belts outside the plasmapause simultaneously with anisotropic electron distributions. We also present an example waveform capture of the largest magnetic field amplitude (> or = 8 nT pk-pk) whistler wave measured in the radiation belts. The majority of the largest amplitude whistlers occur during magnetically active periods (AE > 200 nT).

  17. The deterioration of Circular Mausoleum, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cañaveras, Juan C; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Elez, Javier; Cuezva, Soledad; Jurado, Valme; Miller, Ana Zelia; Rogerio-Candelera, Miguel A; Benavente, David; Hernandez-Marine, Mariona; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2015-06-15

    The Circular Mausoleum tomb in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona was carved on a calcarenite sequence in an ancient quarry located in the town of Carmona, Southern Spain. This rock-cut tomb, representative of Roman burial practices, currently suffers from serious deterioration. A detailed survey over several years permitted the identification of the main tomb's pathologies and damaging processes, which include loss of material (scaling, flaking, granular disintegration), surface modifications (efflorescences, crusts and deposits) and extensive biological colonization. The results obtained in this study indicated that anthropogenic changes were largely responsible and enhanced the main alteration mechanisms observed in the Circular Mausoleum. Based on the deterioration diagnosis, effective corrective actions were proposed. This study shows that any conservative intervention in the interior of the tomb should be preceded by accurate in situ measurements and laboratory analyses to ascribe the source of the deterioration damages and thus designing effective treatments. PMID:25747366

  18. Circular Sound Wave Scattering Derivation for Acoustic Cloak Detection

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Siyang

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we develop analytical formulations to describe sound scattering in lossless medium due to 2D circular wave incident on an acoustic cloak. A perfect acoustic cloak is reflectionless and can completely hide the cloaked object from any sound waves. However, the realization of a perfect acoustic cloak is difficult. Compared to plane wave, our analytic calculations show that circular wave from an annular line source generates distinct scattering patterns from an imperfect cloak design. Large modification in reflection directivities can be observed if the focal point of the incident wavefront is slightly customized. Hence, our work might find applications in acoustic cloak detection, which should have significant impact on cloak design and defense.

  19. Laboratory Observation of Large-Amplitude Electrostatic Fluctuations Driven by Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Porkolab, M.; Egedal, J.; Katz, N.

    2007-12-01

    We report recent observations of nonlinear electrostatic fluctuations excited during spontaneous reconnection events on the VTF experiment~[1]. Electrostatic fluctuations are observed by small, high-bandwidth, impedance- matched Langmuir probes. Among a large number of wave phenomena, we observe narrow, large-amplitude, positive potential spikes, with fluctuations in probe current on the order of the ion saturation current drawn by the probe, implying ñ/n ~ 1, or e\\tilde{?} / k Te ~ 1. The spikes are observed in conjunction with large inductive electric fields (the "reconnection electric field"). With arrays of such probes we have observed the speed and shape of these propagating structures. The spike drift speed, which is parallel to the electron drift, is roughly 5 106~m/s, or 2vte (vte = \\sqrt{2kTe/me}). Based on the drift speed and the time to cross a single probe tip, we infer that the parallel size is 1-2~mm (50-100~?D, or 5-10~?e). Observations with probes spaced perpendicular to the magnetic field shows that the perpendicular size is also 1-2~mm. Finally, we will discuss our interpretation of the structures and their generation mechanism, with insights from a newly installed electron energy analyzer. [1] J. Egedal, W. Fox, N. Katz, M. Porkolab, K. Reim, and E. Zhang. (2007). PRL 98, 015003. This was supported by DOE contracts DE-FC02-04ER54786 and DE-FG02-06ER54878, and NSF/DOE PHY-0613734

  20. ISIS observations of auroral particles and large-scale Birkeland currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous electron and positive ion observations made with single-component magnetic perturbations on the ISIS-2 satellite are used to compare and contrast the relationships between primary and secondary auroral particle distributions at 5 eV-15 keV, and the large-scale Birkeland currents, in the pre- and post-midnight local time sectors. No unique relation is found between the regions of the Birkeland current system and regions of auroral particle distribution, though repeatable systematics in the region of upward-directed current are observed, and little evidence exists in either local time sector for the direct detection of the downward current-associated current carriers.

  1. Large-scale horizontal flows from SOUP observations of solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    November, L. J.; Simon, G. W.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Ferguson, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Using high resolution time sequence photographs of solar granulation from the SOUP experiment on Spacelab 2, large scale horizontal flows were observed in the solar surface. The measurement method is based upon a local spatial cross correlation analysis. The horizontal motions have amplitudes in the range 300 to 1000 m/s. Radial outflow of granulation from a sunspot penumbra into surrounding photosphere is a striking new discovery. Both the supergranulation pattern and cellular structures having the scale of mesogranulation are seen. The vertical flows that are inferred by continuity of mass from these observed horizontal flows have larger upflow amplitudes in cell centers than downflow amplitudes at cell boundaries.

  2. Observations of the earth's polar cleft at large radial distances with the Hawkeye 1 magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Van Allen, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Based on 364 spacecraft passes through the dayside region, the position of the polar cleft at large radial distances was determined with the magnetometer flown on Hawkeye 1. This data set is ideal for the study of the cusp and cleft region. Identification of the cleft depended on noting strong negative deviations of the magnetic field strength in the region from that of the dipole field. In solar magnetic coordinates, cleft observations were found between 40 deg and 70 deg latitude and + or - 75 deg latitude and + or - 75 deg longitude, while in geocentricmagnetospheric coordinates, these observations were found between 20 deg and 75 deg latitude and + or - 75 deg longitude. The extreme longitudinal extent of 150 deg is larger than those reported in some previous studies. Large magnetic depressions associated with the cleft extend out to 12 earth radii.

  3. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein E-mail: khosravi@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: hosseinmoshafi@iasbs.ac.ir

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ?CDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ?CDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f{sub NL} in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology.

  4. Multipoint Observations of the Large Substorm Associated with the Galaxy 15 Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, H. J.; Loto'Aniu, P. T.; Green, J. C.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Anderson, B. J.; Love, J. J.; Angelopoulos, V.; Baker, D. N.; Connors, M. G.; Denig, W. F.; Donovan, E. F.; Lecontel, O.; Onsager, T. G.; Nagatsuma, T.; Runov, A.; Spanswick, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    On April 5, 2010 around 09 UT, the NOAA Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) observed a large reconfiguration of the magnetospheric magnetic field in the midnight to dawn local time sector. Specifically, near midnight, the GOES-11 Hp (north-south) magnetic field increased by approximately 100 nT in 15 minutes. This is one of the largest dipolarizations of Earth’s field ever observed by GOES. At the same time, there were large increases in the flux of energetic electrons and protons and large ground magnetic perturbations. While the auroral electrojet index (AL) was extreme, being less than -2000 nT during this event, the preliminary, real-time Dst storm index was only on the order of -30 nT during the event (although it reached somewhat more intense values during the following day). The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) monitored currents at low altitude during this event, and these observations can be used to place the localized measurements at geosynchronous orbit in a global context. Additional measurements were made by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) spacecraft just tailward of the GOES satellites. Minutes after the initiation of this intense substorm, at 0948 UT, Galaxy 15, located at geosynchronous orbit, just a few degrees away from GOES-11, suffered a serious anomaly and to date, contact has not been restored. At the time, it was reported that this anomaly was likely related to the solar generated event; however, the anomaly is still under investigation. The purpose of this presentation is not to evaluate the anomaly, but rather to describe the large response of the magnetosphere and ionosphere system to the solar and solar wind conditions that caused this extremely large substorm.

  5. Observing Abnormally Large Group Velocity at the Plasmonic Band Edge via a Universal Eigenvalue Analysis

    E-print Network

    Sha, Wei E I; Choy, Wallace C H; Chew, Weng Cho

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel universal eigenvalue analysis for 2D arbitrary nanostructures comprising dispersive and lossy materials. The complex dispersion relation (or complex Bloch band structure) of a metallic grating is rigorously calculated by the proposed algorithm with the finite-difference implementation. The abnormally large group velocity is observed at a plasmonic band edge with a large attenuation constant. Interestingly, we found the abnormal group velocity is caused by the leaky (radiation) loss not by metallic absorption (Ohmic) loss. The periodically modulated surface of the grating significantly modifies the original dispersion relation of the semi-infinite dielectric-metal structure and induces the extraordinarily large group velocity, which is different from the near-zero group velocity at photonic band edge. The work is fundamentally important to the design of plasmonic nanostructures.

  6. Radiometer requirements for Earth-observation systems using large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Harrington, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements are defined for Earth observation microwave radiometry for the decade of the 1990's by using large space antenna (LSA) systems with apertures in the range from 50 to 200 m. General Earth observation needs, specific measurement requirements, orbit mission guidelines and constraints, and general radiometer requirements are defined. General Earth observation needs are derived from NASA's basic space science program. Specific measurands include soil moisture, sea surface temperature, salinity, water roughness, ice boundaries, and water pollutants. Measurements are required with spatial resolution from 10 to 1 km and with temporal resolution from 3 days to 1 day. The primary orbit altitude and inclination ranges are 450 to 2200 km and 60 to 98 deg, respectively. Contiguous large scale coverage of several land and ocean areas over the globe dictates large (several hundred kilometers) swaths. Radiometer measurements are made in the bandwidth range from 1 to 37 GHz, preferably with dual polarization radiometers with a minimum of 90 percent beam efficiency. Reflector surface, root mean square deviation tolerances are in the wavelength range from 1/30 to 1/100.

  7. Survey of the ionospheric disturbances related with large seismic events in multi-satellite ionospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, K.; Chae, J.; Lee, E.; Kil, H.

    2013-12-01

    We survey the ionospheric disturbances in the plasma and electro-magnetic wave measurements during the simultaneous observation period of DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions), CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) and DMSP(Defense Meteorological Satellite Program) missions. The multi-satellite observation around three large earthquakes that occurred between 2004 and 2005 were investigated. The observational evidences of the earth-quake precursory phenomena and the recent progress of physical modeling of the ionospheric disturbances caused by the coupling of the stressed rock, Earth surface charges, atmosphere, and ionosphere system are reviewed. Then, we focus on identifying the precursory disturbances from the well-studied plasma disturbances in the ionosphere, which are known to originate from various physical mechanism other than the seismic activities. Electron density/temperature, ion density/temperature, and electro-magnetic field/wave data measured by various instruments equipped in the satellites were analyzed in finding specific examples of anomaly caused by large seismic activities. Finally, the possibility of forecasting or predicting large earthquakes using the plasma measurements of LEO (low earth orbit) satellites will be discussed.

  8. Bridging the Gap between Large-Scale Simulations and Observations of Star Forming Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimann, Søren; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian

    2014-07-01

    Numerical simulations and observations of star forming cores are topics that both see a lot of progress these years. MHD simulations of molecular clouds have reached a level, where it is possible to evolve the cloud on parsec scale, while simultaneously resolving the neighbourhood around the individual protostars on AU scale. At the same time interferometers such as ALMA, with its increased sensitivity and resolving capabilities, are making it possible to zoom in on the protostellar cores in their earliest stages and map their gas and dust content. The advances in simulations and observations also open the possibility of comparing the two directly. I will present synthetic observations of a large number of protostellar cores, created from the high resolution numerical simulations of Haugbølle, Padoan and Nordlund in prep (see Padoan et al 2012 for similar lower resolution models). The synthetic observations are compared directly to real observations obtained from a range of different submm telescopes. The motivation for comparing real and synthetic observations is twofold. It enables us to test the validity of the simulations by ensuring that the synthetic observations agree with the real ones, and in the cases where they differ to identify the issues. In addition to this, through the simulations we are able to gain additional insight into the physics behind the observations. I will present several cases where synthetic and real observations have been compared. In one example of this we used 24 ?m Spitzer maps, and 850 ?m SCUBA maps from Perseus and Ophiuchus to calculate the distribution of distances between protostars and their parental cores (Jørgensen et. al. 2007, 2008). Both real and synthetic observations produce a centrally peaked distribution (HWHM smaller than the typical core radius). This indicates that on average newly formed protostars do not migrate far away from their parental core.

  9. Rater Calibration when Observational Assessment Occurs at Large Scale: Degree of Calibration and Characteristics of Raters Associated with Calibration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Anne H.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2012-01-01

    Observational assessment is used to study program and teacher effectiveness across large numbers of classrooms, but training a workforce of raters that can assign reliable scores when observations are used in large-scale contexts can be challenging and expensive. Limited data are available to speak to the feasibility of training large numbers of…

  10. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  11. Observations of CO2 and CH4 enhancements over large point sources using GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Ganshin, A.; Andres, R. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, T.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first results of the effort to directly monitor GHG emissions from intense sources such as large power plants and populated cities (large point sources, LPS) using Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). National GHG emissions are calculated according to the local activity statistics by sector and their inventories are compiled and reported on annual basis by country. Such inventories are presently the only measure of national emissions, although these might not accurate due to statistical data quality and calculation methods. Towards monitoring of emission reductions an independent method to monitor emissions and verify emission inventories is required. Since August 2009 till December 2009, we have requested targeted mode measurements every 6 days over more than 300 LPS observation sites worldwide. The number is limited by GOSAT targeted mode observation allocation to one research project. Observation points include large power plants selected from CARMA (Carbon Monitoring and Action) global power plant database by emission intensity, and cities selected by population ranking. During 5 months, 154 XCO2 measurements over 74 LPS sites and 170 XCH4 measurements over 80 LPS sites were successfully retrieved. The observed concentrations at LPS sites were compared to zonal mean concentrations and local background values, which were calculated using GOSAT observational data. We also perfomed point-wise model simulations for XCO2 using high resolution (1 km x 1 km) emission dataset and an Eulerian-Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model. The majority of the observation over LPS were higher than zonal mean concentrations, and also higher than background values on average. The average CO2 and CH4 enhancements for whole period were +0.51 ± 0.30 ppm (std. 3.51) for CO2 and +2.65 ± 0.78 ppb (std.15.8) for CH4. We can expect lower errors with the use of later versions of the retrieval (The versions of GOSAT L2 product use in this study are V00.03 and V00.10). The observed CO2 enhancement appeared to be close to model simulations (+0.78 ppm ± 0.10 ppm, std. 1.23), suggesting the observation data are in realistic range and there is only minor contamination by aerosols and clouds. Better results were obtained for countries with large percentage of the clear sky observations like Mexico and South Africa, where we observe good correlation between the model predictions and observations for CO2 on country average level. The level of uncertainty at this point (61% for CO2 and 29% for CH4 of the mean value) is still close to the level of the value itself, however a simple estimate suggests that it could be reduced to about 12% for CO2 and 5.9% for CH4 for whole 5-year operation of GOSAT with reasonably improved retrieval. These results demonstrate feasibility of observing man-made CO2 and CH4 emissions from space, which is being actively discussed in context of the planned satellite mission such as OCO-II and CarbonSat.

  12. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  13. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D.; Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A.; Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M.; Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J.; Tobin, J. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Kwon, W.; Ostriker, E.; Tassis, K.; Shirley, Y. L.

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 ? 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  14. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    E-print Network

    Petry, D

    2001-01-01

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  15. Large zenith angle observations with the high-resolution GRANITE III camera

    E-print Network

    D. Petry; the VERITAS Collaboration

    2001-08-06

    The GRANITE III camera of the Whipple Cherenkov Telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (2300 m a.s.l.) has the highest angular resolution of all cameras used on this telescope so far. The central region of the camera has 379 pixels with an individual angular diameter of 0.12 degrees. This makes the instrument especially suitable for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at large zenith angles since the increase in average distance to the shower maximum leads to smaller shower images in the focal plane of the telescope. We examine the performance of the telescope for observations of gamma-induced air-showers at zenith angles up to 63 degrees based on observations of Mkn 421 and using Monte Carlo Simulations. An improvement to the standard data analysis is suggested.

  16. Observation of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.

    2010-03-26

    The Crab Pulsar and Nebula are the remnants of the explosion of the supernova SN1054, which was observed by Chinese astronomers. Previously detected by EGRET, the Crab Pulsar and Nebula have been extensively observed in the gamma-ray energy band by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The data collected by the LAT during its early operation stage have allowed a detailed measurement of the fluxes and of the energy spectra of both sources. The pulsar spectrum is consistent with the EGRET measurement in the region below 1 GeV and is well described by a power law with exponential cutoff at a few GeV. The nebula spectrum is well modeled by a sum of two power laws, identified respectively as the falling edge of the synchrotron and the rising edge of the inverse Compton components, and is in agreement with the observations from Earth-based telescopes.

  17. Estimating the Concentration of Large Raindrops from Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A; Gatlink, Patrick N.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of rainfall integral parameters, including radar observables, and empirical relations between them are sensitive to the truncation of the drop size distribution (DSD), particularly at the large drop end. The sensitivity of rainfall integral parameters to the maximum drop diameter (D(sub max)) is exacerbated at C-band since resonance effects are pronounced for large drops in excess of 5 mm diameter (D). Due to sampling limitations, it is often difficult to reliably estimate D(sub max) with disdrometers. The resulting uncertainties in D(sub max0 potentially increase errors in radar retrieval methods, particularly at C-band, that rely on disdrometer observations for DSD input to radar models. In fact, D(sub max) is typically an assumed DSD parameter in the development of radar retrieval methods. Because of these very uncertainties, it is difficult to independently confirm disdrometer estimates of D(sub max) with polarimetric radar observations. A couple of approaches can be taken to reduce uncertainty in large drop measurement. Longer integration times can be used for the collection of larger disdrometer samples. However, integration periods must be consistent with a radar resolution volume (RRV) and the temporal and spatial scales of the physical processes affecting the DSD therein. Multiple co-located disdrometers can be combined into a network to increase the sample size within a RRV. However, over a reasonable integration period, a single disdrometer sample volume is many orders of magnitudes less than a RRV so it is not practical to devise a network of disdrometers that has an equivalent volume to a typical RRV. Since knowledge of DSD heterogeneity and large drop occurrence in time and space is lacking, the specific accuracy or even general representativeness of disdrometer based D(sub max) and large drop concentration estimates within a RRV are currently unknown. To address this complex issue, we begin with a simpler question. Is the frequency of occurrence of large rain drops (D > 5 mm) in disdrometer observations, either stand alone or networked, generally representative and consistent with polarimetric radar observations? We first show from simulations that the concentration of large (D > 5 mm) rain drops (N(sub T5)) can be estimated from polarimetric observations of specific differential phase (K(sub dp)) and differential reflectivity (Z(sub dr)), N(sub T5)=F(K(sub dp),Z(sub dr)), or horizontal reflectivity (Z(sub h)) and Z(sub dr), N(sub T5)=(Z(sub h),Z(sub dr)). We assess the error associated with polarimetric retrieval of N(sub T5), including sensitivity to D(sub max) parameterization assumptions and measurement error in the radar simulations. Polarimetric measurements at S-band and C-band will then be used to retrieve estimates of N(sub T5) and compared to disdrometer estimates of N(sub T5). After careful consideration of retrieval error, we will check consistency between disdrometer and polarimetric radar estimates of N(sub T5) and the frequency of occurrence of large rain drops in a variety of precipitating regimes using data from NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) program, including field campaigns such as MC3E (Oklahoma) and IFloodS (Iowa) and extended measurements over Huntsville, Alabama and NASA Wallops Flight Facility in coastal Virginia.

  18. Large-Scale Overlays and Trends: Visually Mining, Panning and Zooming the Observable Universe.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Timothy Basil; Cherinka, Brian; Oliphant, Daniel; Myers, Sean; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Labrinidis, Alexandros; Marai, G Elisabeta

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a web-based computing infrastructure to assist the visual integration, mining and interactive navigation of large-scale astronomy observations. Following an analysis of the application domain, we design a client-server architecture to fetch distributed image data and to partition local data into a spatial index structure that allows prefix-matching of spatial objects. In conjunction with hardware-accelerated pixel-based overlays and an online cross-registration pipeline, this approach allows the fetching, displaying, panning and zooming of gigabit panoramas of the sky in real time. To further facilitate the integration and mining of spatial and non-spatial data, we introduce interactive trend images-compact visual representations for identifying outlier objects and for studying trends within large collections of spatial objects of a given class. In a demonstration, images from three sky surveys (SDSS, FIRST and simulated LSST results) are cross-registered and integrated as overlays, allowing cross-spectrum analysis of astronomy observations. Trend images are interactively generated from catalog data and used to visually mine astronomy observations of similar type. The front-end of the infrastructure uses the web technologies WebGL and HTML5 to enable cross-platform, web-based functionality. Our approach attains interactive rendering framerates; its power and flexibility enables it to serve the needs of the astronomy community. Evaluation on three case studies, as well as feedback from domain experts emphasize the benefits of this visual approach to the observational astronomy field; and its potential benefits to large scale geospatial visualization in general. PMID:26357360

  19. Very Large Array and Jansky Very Large Array observations of the compact radio sources in M8

    SciTech Connect

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Dzib, Sergio

    2014-12-10

    We analyze high-resolution Very Large Array continuum observations of the M8 region carried out at several epochs that span a period of 30 yr. Our maps reveal two compact sources. One is associated with Her 36 SE, a possible companion of the O7 luminous massive star Her 36, and the other is associated with G5.97–1.17, whose proplyd nature was previously established. Using the analyzed data, we do not find significant time variability in any of these sources. The derived spectral index of ?0.1 for Her 36 SE, the marginal offset of the radio emission with the previous infrared detection, and the associated X-ray emission previously reported suggest the presence of an unresolved interaction region between the strong winds of Her 36 and Her 36 SE. This region would contribute non-thermal contamination to the global wind emission of Her 36, flattening its spectral index. On the other hand, the emission of G5.97–1.17 can also be explained by a mixture of thermal and non-thermal emission components, with different relative contributions of both emission mechanisms along the proplyd. We argue that the shock created by the photo-evaporation flow of the proplyd with the collimated stellar wind of Her 36 accelerates charged particles in G5.97–1.17, producing considerable synchrotron emission. On the contrary, an electron density enhancement at the southwest of G5.97–1.17 makes the thermal emission dominant over this region.

  20. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLTI/MIDI AGN Large Program observations (Burtscher+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, L.; Meisenheimer, K.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Jaffe, W.; Honig, S. F.; Davies, R. I.; Kishimoto, M.; Pott, J.-U.; Rottgering, H.; Schartmann, M.; Weigelt, G.; Wolf, S.

    2013-10-01

    All interferometric observations were carried out with MIDI, the MID-infrared interferometric Instrument at the European Southern Observatory's (ESO's) Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. The MIDI AGN Large Program (ESO program number 184.B-0832) consisted of 13.1 nights of Visitor Mode observations. Between December 2009 and August 2011, in total 228 science fringe track observations of 15 AGNs have been observed in this program. For this paper, we also include from the archive 159 previously observed tracks for these sources, 156 fringe tracks of other weak AGNs and 132 tracks for the two mid-IR brightest AGNs (NGC 1068 and the Circinus galaxy). The observing logs of each galaxy can be upload in the subdirectory log. OIFITS is the standard for the exchange of reduced optical interferometry data. It is an IAU accepted standard and defined in Pauls et al. (2005PASP..117.1255P). Since we use a special observing technique, detailed in the paper, our primary observable is not the visibility but the "correlated flux". This is not yet part of the OIFITS specification (version 1), but is currently discussed for OIFITS version 2.0 (http://ipag.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr/twiki/bin/view/Jmmc/OIFITSTwoProject# Proposalforcorrelated_flux). For the attached data I include both the standard VISAMP/VISAMPERR fields which is the corr. flux divided by the spectrum used for this source (from VISIR, if available, for all sources except Mrk 1239, see the paper) and also new CFLUX/CFLUXERR fields that are proposed for OIFITS version 2.0. These fields comply with the FITS standard and are ignored by strict OIFITS viewers; less strict OIFITS readers like MIA+EWS's oirgetvis() routine will read these fields. For NGC 1068, I have downsampled the early GRISM observations to PRISM resolution so that they can be combined in one file. The total flux can be retrieved from CFLUX/VISAMP and its error from flux * sqrt((VISAMPERR/VISAMP)2 - (CFLUXERR/CFLUX)2). (5 data files).

  2. Active Control of Jet Noise Using Observable Inferred Decomposition and Large Window PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, Zachary; Berry, Matthew; Low, Kerwin; Cordier, Laurent; Noack, Bernd; Gogineni, Sivaram; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    In this investigation, we seek to find sources of noise created in the near-region of a highly subsonic jet, with a nozzle diameter of 2''. Using large window PIV alongside simultaneous hydrodynamic and acoustic pressure, we focus on observing flow structures created in the collapse of the potential core. Correlations can be made between the low-dimensional velocity field (using POD) and the far-field acoustics in an effort to identify loud modes in the flow. An advanced reduced order model known as Observable Inferred Decomposition (OID) is used to form closed-loop controllers for noise reduction in the far-field. With this technique, we find low-dimensional representations of near-field velocity and far-field pressure - finding a linear mapping between the two fields. Then, we obtain acoustically optimized modes in the flow field and seek to drive these modes to zero using active control strategies. For flow control, synthetic jet actuators are used as shear layer excitation. A large range of tests are explored, varying Mach number and flow control configurations. Finally, large PIV windows will allow us to investigate several diameters of the flow field in the streamwise plane.

  3. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE BARNARD 5 STAR-FORMING CORE: EMBEDDED FILAMENTS REVEALED

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Longmore, Steven; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Arce, Hector G.; Caselli, Paola; Corder, Stuartt

    2011-09-20

    We present {approx}6.'5 x 8' Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) mosaic observations of the NH{sub 3} (1,1) emission in the Barnard 5 region in Perseus, with an angular resolution of 6''. This map covers the coherent region, where the dense gas presents subsonic non-thermal motions (as seen from single dish observations with the Green Bank Telescope, GBT). The combined EVLA and GBT observations reveal, for the first time, a striking filamentary structure (20'' wide or 5000 AU at the distance of Perseus) in this low-mass star-forming region. The integrated intensity profile of this structure is consistent with models of an isothermal filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. The observed separation between the B5-IRS1 young stellar object (YSO), in the central region of the core, and the northern starless condensation matches the Jeans length of the dense gas. This suggests that the dense gas in the coherent region is fragmenting. The observed region displays a narrow velocity dispersion, where most of the gas shows evidence for subsonic turbulence and where little spatial variations are present. It is only close to the YSO where an increase in the velocity dispersion is found, but still displaying subsonic non-thermal motions.

  4. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY NOVA PROJECT OBSERVATIONS OF THE CLASSICAL NOVA V1723 AQUILAE

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J. E-mail: lchomiuk@nrao.edu E-mail: nroy@nrao.edu

    2011-09-20

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova V1723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of V1723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of V1723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  5. Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-02-01

    Unusually large wind shears across the inversion in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL) were frequently observed during VOCALS-REx. To investigate the impact of wind shear on the MBL turbulence structure, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model is used to simulate the strongly sheared MBL observed from Twin-Otter RF 18 on 13 November 2008. The LES simulated turbulence statistics agree in general with those derived from the measurements, with the MBL exhibiting a decoupled structure characterized by an enhanced entrainment and a turbulence intensity minimum just below the clouds. Sensitivity simulations show that the shear tends to reduce the dynamic stability of the inversion, enhance the entrainment mixing, and decrease the cloud water. Consequently, the turbulence intensity in the MBL is significantly weakened by the intense wind shear. The inversion thickens considerably and the MBL top separates from the cloud top, creating a finite cloud-free sublayer of 10-50 m thickness within the inversion, depending on the shear intensity. The wind shear enhances the turbulence buoyant consumption within the inversion, and simultaneously weakens the buoyant production in the cloud layer. These effects may result in different heating rates between the cloud and subcloud layer, leading to a process that tends to decouple the cloud from the subcloud layer. The decoupling process occurs even without solar radiation in the case of an intense wind shear similar to the observations.

  6. Large Deployable Reflector Technologies for Future European Telecom and Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihle, A.; Breunig, E.; Dadashvili, L.; Migliorelli, M.; Scialino, L.; van't Klosters, K.; Santiago-Prowald, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents requirements, analysis and design results for European large deployable reflectors (LDR) for space applications. For telecommunications, the foreseeable use of large reflectors is associated to the continuous demand for improved performance of mobile services. On the other hand, several earth observation (EO) missions can be identified carrying either active or passive remote sensing instruments (or both), in which a large effective aperture is needed e.g. BIOMASS. From the European point of view there is a total dependence of USA industry as such LDRs are not available from European suppliers. The RESTEO study is part of a number of ESA led activities to facilitate European LDR development. This paper is focused on the structural-mechanical aspects of this study. We identify the general requirements for LDRs with special emphasis on launcher accommodation for EO mission. In the next step, optimal concepts for the LDR structure and the RF-Surface are reviewed. Regarding the RF surface, both, a knitted metal mesh and a shell membrane based on carbon fibre reinforced silicon (CFRS) are considered. In terms of the backing structure, the peripheral ring concept is identified as most promising and a large number of options for the deployment kinematics are discussed. Of those, pantographic kinematics and a conical peripheral ring are selected. A preliminary design for these two most promising LDR concepts is performed which includes static, modal and kinematic simulation and also techniques to generate the reflector nets.

  7. Direct Observation of Highly Ordered Dendrimer Soft Building Blocks over a Large Area.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Kiok; Ok, Jong Min; Kim, Yun Ho; Kim, Jong-Seon; Jung, Woo-Bin; Cho, Soo-Yeon; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-11-11

    Developing large-area, single domain of organic soft-building blocks such as block copolymers, colloids, and supramolecular materials is one of the most important issues in the materials science and nanotechnology. Owing to their small sizes, complex molecular architectures, and high mobility, supramolecular materials are not well-suited for building large area, single domain structures. In the described study, a single domain of supramolecular columnar dendrimers was created over large area. The columnar structures in these domains have smaller (4.5 nm) diameters, higher area densities (ca. 36 Tera-dots/in(2)) and larger domains (>0.1 × 0.1 mm(2)) than those of all existing BCP and colloidal assemblies. By simply annealing dendrimer thin films between two flat solid surfaces, single domains of hexagonal columnar structures are created over large macroscopic areas. Observations made in this effort should serve as the foundation for the design of new routes for bottom-up lithography based on supramolecular building blocks. PMID:26437237

  8. Observing the temperature of the Big Bang through large scale structure

    E-print Network

    Pedro Ferreira; Joao Magueijo

    2007-08-02

    It is widely accepted that the Universe underwent a period of thermal equilibrium at very early times. One expects a residue of this primordial state to be imprinted on the large scale structure of space time. In this paper we study the morphology of this thermal residue in a universe whose early dynamics is governed by a scalar field. We calculate the amplitude of fluctuations on large scales and compare it to the imprint of vacuum fluctuations. We then use the observed power spectrum of fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background to place a constraint on the temperature of the Universe before and during inflation. We also present an alternative scenario where the fluctuations are predominantly thermal and near scale-invariant.

  9. Observing the temperature of the big bang through large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Magueijo, João

    2008-09-01

    It is an interesting possibility that the Universe underwent a period of thermal equilibrium at very early times. One expects a residue of this primordial state to be imprinted on the large scale structure of space time. In this paper, we study the morphology of this thermal residue in a universe whose early dynamics is governed by a scalar field. We calculate the amplitude of fluctuations on large scales and compare it with the imprint of vacuum fluctuations. We then use the observed power spectrum of fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background to place a constraint on the temperature of the Universe before and during inflation. We also present an alternative scenario, where the fluctuations are predominantly thermal and near scale-invariant.

  10. Observing the temperature of the Big Bang through large scale structure

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Pedro

    2007-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Universe underwent a period of thermal equilibrium at very early times. One expects a residue of this primordial state to be imprinted on the large scale structure of space time. In this paper we study the morphology of this thermal residue in a universe whose early dynamics is governed by a scalar field. We calculate the amplitude of fluctuations on large scales and compare it to the imprint of vacuum fluctuations. We then use the observed power spectrum of fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background to place a constraint on the temperature of the Universe before and during inflation. We also present an alternative scenario where the fluctuations are predominantly thermal and near scale-invariant.

  11. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 ?m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 ?m (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  12. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin S; Wong, Yvonne Y Y E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: ywong@mppmu.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter {epsilon} ({approx}>0.001), a positive detection of trans-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10{sup -4}. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound, a scale of new physics as high as {approx}0.2 M{sub P} could lead to observable signatures.

  13. Observations of two peculiar emission objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Allen, D. A.; Stencel, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visual wavelength spectra were obtained of two peculiar emission objects, Henize S63 and Sanduleak's star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Previously not observed in the near- or far-ultraviolet, both objects exhibit strong permitted and semiforbidden line emissions. Estimates based on the absolute continuum flux of the hot companion star in Hen S63 indicate that it rivals the luminosity of the carbon star primary. The emission-line profile structure in both objects does not suggest Wolf-Rayet type emission. Carbon in Sanduleak's star (LMC anonymous) is conspicuously absent, while N V, semiforbidden N IV, and semiforbidden N III dominate the UV emission-line spectrum. Nitrogen is overabundant with respect to carbon and oxygen in both objects. The large overabundance of nitrogen in Sanduleak's star suggests evidence for CNO processes material similar to that seen in Nu Car.

  14. The REFLEX Cluster Survey: Observing Strategy and First Results on Large-Scale Structure

    E-print Network

    L. Guzzo; H. Boehringer; P. Schuecker; C. A. Collins; S. Schindler; D. M. Neumann; S. De Grandi; R. Cruddace; G. Chincarini; A. C. Edge; P. A. Shaver; W. Voges

    1999-03-25

    We give a general description of the optical observing strategy of the ROSAT-ESO Flux-Limited X-ray (REFLEX) cluster survey. This presently includes 460 clusters of galaxies selected from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey in the Southern hemisphere, to a flux limit of 3 10^{-12} erg s^{-1} cm^{-2}. Redshifts are now measured for 95% of this sample. Work is in progress to complete this coverage, and then extend the sample to fainter fluxes. A few highlights on the large-scale distribution of REFLEX clusters and their clustering properties are also discussed.

  15. Convective filamentation instability of circularly polarized Alfven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, S. P.; Whang, M. H.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-04-01

    A convective instability that leads to the filamentation of large-amplitude Alfven waves and generates nonoscillatory spatially growing density fluctuations is investigated by using a two-fluid plasma model. Based on linear perturbation analysis for a four-wave parametric coupling process, the dispersion relations of the instability for both a right- and left-hand circularly polarized Alfven pump are derived. They are then solved numerically for the dependences of the threshold fields and growth rates on the wavenumber of the nonoscillatory mode, the beta of the plasma, and the frequency of the pumps. The relevance of the proposed instability for observations of space plasmas is discussed.

  16. A catalogue of Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters observed in the Washington photometric system

    E-print Network

    Palma, Tali; Clariá, Juan J; Lares, Marcelo; Geisler, Doug; Ahumada, Andrea V

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to compile a catalogue including the fundamental parameters of a complete sample of 277 star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) observed in the Washington photometric system, including 82 clusters very recently studied by us. All the clusters' parameters such as radii, deprojected distances, reddenings, ages and metallicities have been obtained by appyling essentially the same procedures which are briefly described here. We have used empirical cumulative distribution functions to examine age, metallicity and deprojected distance distributions for different cluster subsamples of the catalogue. Our new sample made up of 82 additional clusters recently studied by us represents about a 40% increase in the total number of LMC SCs observed up to now in the Washington photometric system. In particular, we report here the fundamental parameters obtained for the first time for 42 of these clusters. We found that single LMC SCs are typically older than multiple SCs. Both s...

  17. Observation of MHD Instabilities Driven by Energetic Electrons in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsutaka, Isobe; Kunihiro, Ogawa; Akihiro, Shimizu; Masaki, Osakabe; Shin, Kubo; Toi, K.; LHD Experiment Group

    2015-04-01

    Coherent magnetic fluctuations in an acoustic range of frequency have been regularly observed in low-density (ne < 0.2×1019 m-3) plasmas with strong second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the Large Helical Device. Hard X-ray measurements indicated that energetic electrons are generated in these ECRH discharges. The magnetic fluctuations are suppressed in higher density discharges where energetic electrons are not present. The ECRH power modulation experiment indicated that the observed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode has an acoustic nature rather than an Alfvénic nature. supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Scientists from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 20656150). This work was also partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics (NSFC: No. 11261140328 and NRF: No. 2012K2A2A6000443)

  18. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cosmic-Ray Induced

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.

    2012-02-29

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The LAT has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth-limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx} 6.4 x 10{sup 6} photons with energies > 100 MeV and {approx} 250 hours total livetime for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission - often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission - has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {Lambda} = 2.79 {+-} 0.06.

  19. Large Amplitude Whistlers in the Magnetosphere Observed with Wind-Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2011-01-01

    We describe the results of a statistical survey of Wind-Waves data motivated by the recent STEREO/Waves discovery of large-amplitude whistlers in the inner magnetosphere. Although Wind was primarily intended to monitor the solar wind, the spacecraft spent 47 h inside 5 R(sub E) and 431 h inside 10 R(sub E) during the 8 years (1994-2002) that it orbited the Earth. Five episodes were found when whistlers had amplitudes comparable to those of Cattell et al. (2008), i.e., electric fields of 100 m V/m or greater. The whistlers usually occurred near the plasmapause. The observations are generally consistent with the whistlers observed by STEREO. In contrast with STEREO, Wind-Waves had a search coil, so magnetic measurements are available, enabling determination of the wave vector without a model. Eleven whistler events with useable magnetic measurements were found. The wave vectors of these are distributed around the magnetic field direction with angles from 4 to 48deg. Approximations to observed electron distribution functions show a Kennel-Petschek instability which, however, does not seem to produce the observed whistlers. One Wind episode was sampled at 120,000 samples/s, and these events showed a signature that is interpreted as trapping of electrons in the electrostatic potential of an oblique whistler. Similar waveforms are found in the STEREO data. In addition to the whistler waves, large amplitude, short duration solitary waves (up to 100 mV/m), presumed to be electron holes, occur in these passes, primarily on plasma sheet field lines mapping to the auroral zone.

  20. Testing Mass Loss in Large Magellanic Cloud Cepheids using Infrared and Optical Observations

    E-print Network

    Hilding R. Neilson; Chow-Choong Ngeow; Shashi M. Kanbur; John B. Lester

    2008-10-16

    It has been claimed that Period-Luminosity relations derived from infrared observations of Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) Cepheids are less dependent on the metallicity of the Cepheids. In this work, infrared observations of LMC Cepheids from the SAGE survey are combined with OGLE II optical observation to model and predict mass-loss rates. The mass-loss rates are fit to the data and are predicted to range from about 10^{-12} to 10^{-7}M_\\odot/yr; however, the rates depend on the assumed value of the dust-to-gas ratio. By comparing the relations derived from observations to the relations derived from predicted infrared stellar luminosities from the mass-loss model, it is shown mass loss affects the structure and scatter of the infrared Period-Luminosity relation. Mass loss produces shallower slopes of the infrared relations and a lower zero point. There is also evidence for non-linearity in the predicted Period-Luminosity relations, and it is argued that mass loss produces larger infrared excess at lower periods, which affects the slope and zero point, making the PL relations more linear in the wavelength range of 3.6 to 5.8 micron. Because the dust-to-gas ratio is metallicity dependent and mass loss may have a metallicity dependence, infrared Period-Luminosity relations have additional uncertainty due to metallicity.

  1. BATSE Observations of the Large-Scale Isotropy of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-print Network

    Michael S. Briggs; William S. Paciesas; Geoffrey N. Pendleton; Charles A. Meegan; Gerald J. Fishman; John M. Horack; Martin Brock; Chryssa Kouveliotou; Dieter H. Hartmann; Jon Hakkila

    1995-09-15

    We use dipole and quadrupole statistics to test the large-scale isotropy of the first 1005 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In addition to the entire sample of 1005 gamma-ray bursts, many subsets are examined. We use a variety of dipole and quadrupole statistics to search for Galactic and other predicted anisotropies and for anisotropies in a coordinate-system independent manner. We find the gamma-ray burst locations to be consistent with isotropy, e.g., for the total sample the observed Galactic dipole moment differs from the value predicted for isotropy by 0.9 sigma and the observed Galactic quadrupole moment by 0.3 sigma. We estimate for various models the anisotropies that could have been detected. If one-half of the locations were within 86 degrees of the Galactic center, or within 28 degrees of the Galactic plane, the ensuing dipole or quadrupole moment would have typically been detected at the 99% confidence level. We compare the observations with the dipole and quadrupole moments of various Galactic models. Several Galactic gamma-ray bursts models have moments within 2 sigma of the observations; most of the Galactic models proposed to date are no longer in acceptable agreement with the data. Although a spherical Dark Matter Halo distribution could be consistent with the data, the required core radius is larger than the core radius of the Dark Matter Halo used to explain the Galaxy's rotation curve. Gamma-ray bursts are much more isotropic than any observed Galactic population, strongly favoring but not requiring an origin at cosmological distances.

  2. BATSE Observations of the Large-Scale Isotropy of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Horack, John M.; Brock, Martin N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We use dipole and quadrupole statistics to test the large-scale isotropy of the first 1005 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In addition to the entire sample of 1005 gamma-ray bursts, many subsets are examined. We use a variety of dipole and quadrupole statistics to search for Galactic and other predicted anisotropies and for anisotropies in a coordinate-system independent manner. We find the gamma-ray burst locations to be consistent with isotropy, e.g., for the total sample the observed Galactic dipole moment (cos theta) differs from the value predicted for isotropy by 0.9 sigma and the observed Galactic quadrupole moment (sin(exp 2) b - 1/3) by 0.3 sigma. We estimate for various models the anisotropies that could have been detected. If one-half of the locations were within 86 deg of the Galactic center, or within 28 deg of the Galactic plane, the ensuing dipole or quadrupole moment would have typically been detected at the 99% confidence level. We compare the observations with the dipole and quadrupole moments of various Galactic models. Several Galactic gamma-ray bursts models have moments within 2 sigma of the observations; most of the Galactic models proposed to date are no longer in acceptable agreement with the data. Although a spherical dark matter halo distribution could be consistent with the data, the required core radius is larger than the core radius of the dark matter halo used to explain the Galaxy's rotation curve. Gamma-ray bursts are much more isotropic than any observed Galactic population, strongly favoring but not requiring an origin at cosmological distances.

  3. Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    Unusually large wind shears across the inversion in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL) were frequently observed during VOCALS-REx. To investigate the impact of wind shear on the MBL turbulence structure, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model is used to simulate the strongly sheared MBL observed from Twin-Otter RF 18 on 13 November 2008. The LES simulated turbulence statistics agree in general with those derived from the measurements, with the MBL exhibiting a decoupled structure characterized by an enhanced entrainment and a turbulence intensity minimum just below the clouds. Sensitivity simulations show that the shear forcing tends to reduce the dynamic stability of the inversion, characterized by the bulk (or gradient) Richardson number. This decrease enhances the entrainment mixing, leading to reduced cloud water. Consequently, the turbulence intensity in the MBL is significantly weakened by the intense wind shear. The inversion thickens considerably and the MBL top separates from the cloud top, creating a finite cloud-free sublayer of 10-50 m thickness within the inversion, depending on the Richardson number. The weakened inversion tends to enhance the turbulence buoyant consumption and simultaneously lead to a reduced buoyant production in the cloud layer due to less radiative cooling. These effects may result in a decoupling process that creates the different heating/moistening rates between the cloud and subcloud layer, leading to a two-layered structure in the strongly sheared stratocumulus-topped MBL.

  4. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    E-print Network

    Spyros Basilakos; Florian Bauer; Joan Sola

    2012-01-03

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class F^n_m of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F^n_m found by this method with the standard or concordance LambdaCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

  5. Observation of large low temperature magnetocaloric effect in HoCu2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, S. K.; Giri, S.; Majumdar, S.

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of large low temperature magnetocaloric effect and magnetoresistance in the rare-earth based intermetallic compound HoCu2. The compound undergoes an antiferromagnetic type ordering below about TN = 10.5 K, which is second order in nature. The magnetocaloric effect in terms of entropy change under the application of 50 kOe of field is found to have a maximum value of -19.3 J kg-1 K-1 peaking around TN, and an appreciable value of relative cooling power of 268 J kg-1 was associated with it. The sample also shows giant negative magnetoresistance with its value as high as -36.5% around TN for 50 kOe of field. Field induced second order metamagnetic transition is found to be responsible for the observed magnetocaloric and magnetoresistance behaviors in the sample. The sample is devoid of any thermal or field hysteresis by virtue of the second order nature of the transitions, which enables us to exploit large reversible magnetic cooling at cryogenic temperatures.

  6. THEMIS Observations of the Magnetopause Electron Diffusion Region: Large Amplitude Waves and Heated Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Xiangwei; Cattell, Cynthia; Dombeck, John; Dai, Lei; Wilson, Lynn B. III; Breneman, Aaron; Hupack, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region based on the criteria described by Scudder et al at the subsolar magnetopause using data from one Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite. These waves identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves, and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, are observed in the same 12 s waveform capture and in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. The whistler mode waves, which are at the electron scale and which enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (approx. 30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with T(sub e(right angle))/T(sub e(parallel)) > 1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whistler mode waves propagate away from the center of the "X-line" along magnetic field lines, suggesting that the electron diffusion region is a possible source region of the whistler mode waves.

  7. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan E-mail: fbauerphysik@eml.cc

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class (F{sup n}{sub m}) of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F{sup n}{sub m} found by this method with the standard or concordance ?CDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

  8. Very Large Rain Drops from 2D Video Disdrometers and Concomitant Polarimetric Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurai, Merhala; Gatlin, Patrick; Bringi, V. N.; Carey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Drop size distribution (DSD) measurements using ground-based disdrometers (point measurements) have often been used to derive equations to relate radar observations to the integral rainfall parameters (Atlas et al. 1999, Bringi et al., 2003, Kozu et al., 2006, Tokay and Short, 1996, Ajayi and Owolabi, 1987, Battan, 1973). Disdrometers such as JWD, MRR and several others have a major limitation in measuring drops with equi-volume diameters (D(sub eq)) larger than 5 mm because they often rely on the velocity-diameter relationship which plateaus beyond this diameter range (Atlas et al., 1973, Gunn & Kinzer, 1949). Other disdrometers such as Parsivel also lack accuracy beyond this diameter range. The 2D video disdrometer (2DVD: Schönhuber et al., 2008) on the other hand gives drop-shape contours and velocities for each individual drop/hydrometeor falling through its sensor area; this provides a unique opportunity to study the role of very-large drops on radar measurements in particular those with polarimetric radar capability where DSDs with a significant component of very large drops may require special consideration given that the differential reflectivity and other polarimetric radar parameters including attenuation-correction methods will be sensitive to the concentrations of these large drops. A recent study on the occurrence of large drops by Gatlin et al. (2014) has compiled a large and diverse set of measurements made with the 2D video disdrometers from many locations around the globe. Some of the largest drops found in this study were 9 mm D(sub eq) and larger, and in this paper, we report on three such events, with maximum D(sub eq's) of 9.0, 9.1 and 9.7 mm, which occurred in Colorado, Northern Alabama, and Oklahoma, respectively. Detailed examination of the 2DVD data - in terms of shapes and fall velocities - has confirmed that these are fully-melted hydrometeors, although for the last case in Oklahoma, a bigger and non-fully-melted hydrometeor was also observed. All three events were also captured by polarimetric radars, namely the S-band CHILL radar operated by Colorado State University (Brunkow et al., 2000), the C-band ARMOR radar (Petersen et al., 2007) operated by University of Alabama in Huntsville, and NEXRADKVNX, operated by the US National Weather Service, respectively. For the last event, several other radar observations were also made, including two X-band radars operated by the US Dept. of Energy. Analyses of 2DVD data in conjunction with the corresponding radar observations are presented, along with some discussion on sampling issues related to the measurements of such large rain drops. The latter is addressed using maximum diameter D(sub max) measurements from 1-minute DSDs using two collocated 2DVDs for 37 events in Huntsville.

  9. What controls drizzle initiation? Insights from a comparison of large-eddy simulations with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Wang, L. P.; Ayala, O.

    2014-12-01

    Drizzle occurs frequently in shallow, warm boundary layer clouds. For example, in stratocumulus it occurs approximately 1/3 of the time in full cloud cover conditions (Wood 2012). Drizzle affects moisture and energy budgets, and cloud albedo, morphology and lifetime. At the cloud scale, processes that control drizzle formation include turbulence production via radiative cooling and/or shear, entrainment, and surface moisture fluxes. At the micro-scale, collision-coalescence is the primary process relevant to warm drizzle formation. Differential gravitational sedimentation and turbulent air motions cause cloud droplets to collide, creating drops much larger than can be formed by condensation alone. Other factors, such as preferential concentration and entrainment mixing may also be relevant. The process is typically subdivided into three regimes: autoconversion (small drops self-collide), accretion (large drops collect small drops), and hydrometeor self-collection (large drops self-collide). Of these regimes, autoconversion is the rate-limiting step in existing analytical representations. This study (i) evaluates whether our best theoretical understanding of collision-coalescence in the autoconversion regime can replicate observations, with a broader goal of (ii) exploring which cloud-scale factors are most important for drizzle initiation. A state-of-the-art turbulent collisional growth model is applied to a bin microphysics scheme within a large-eddy simulation such that the full range of cloud drop growth mechanisms are represented (i.e. CCN activation, condensation, collision-coalescence, mixing, etc.) at realistic atmospheric conditions. We compare cloud drop spectra produced by the LES with observations to assess the quality and limits of our theoretical knowledge. The comparison will be performed over a range of observational cases that span a range of drizzle rates. These cases differ in their radiative cooling rates, shear, cloud-top temperature and moisture jumps, and entrainment rates. Using these diverse cases, we will begin to tease apart the cloud-scale factors governing drizzle rates. Initial results for question (i) suggest that in some cases enhancements of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude over predicted collision rates are necessary to reproduce observations.

  10. Chemical Synthesis of Circular Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wong, Clarence T. T.

    2012-01-01

    Circular proteins, once thought to be rare, are now commonly found in plants. Their chemical synthesis, once thought to be difficult, is now readily achievable. The enabling methodology is largely due to the advances in entropic chemical ligation to overcome the entropy barrier in coupling the N- and C-terminal ends of large peptide segments for either intermolecular ligation or intramolecular ligation in end-to-end cyclization. Key elements of an entropic chemical ligation consist of a chemoselective capture step merging the N and C termini as a covalently linked O/S-ester intermediate to permit the subsequent step of an intramolecular O/S-N acyl shift to form an amide. Many ligation methods exploit the supernucleophilicity of a thiol side chain at the N terminus for the capture reaction, which makes cysteine-rich peptides ideal candidates for the entropy-driven macrocyclization. Advances in desulfurization and modification of the thiol-containing amino acids at the ligation sites to other amino acids add extra dimensions to the entropy-driven ligation methods. This minireview describes recent advances of entropy-driven ligation to prepare circular proteins with or without a cysteinyl side chain. PMID:22700959

  11. Forthcoming Coronal Mass Ejection Observations with the Very Large Array (VLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Kooi, Jason E.; Sink, Joseph R.

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognized that measurement of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) provides unique information on the internal plasma structure of the CME, particularly the form of the magnetic field. The Faraday rotation measure is proportional to the path integral through the CME of the electron density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. In spite of this importance, there are relatively few measurements of Faraday rotation produced by a CME. The Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is an outstanding instrument for measurement of Faraday rotation, and its capabilities have been greatly improved by an upgrade over the past decade. In the case of VLA observations, the trans-coronal sources of radio waves are radio galaxies and quasars. A difficulty in measuring Faraday rotation of a CME is the unpredictability of the CME phenomenon. It is difficult to predict whether a given line of sight to a background source will be occulted by a CME on a given day. We have received approval to carry out ``triggered'' CME observations with the VLA in the summer of 2015. In these observations, we will rely on coronagraph detections of a CME to initiate VLA observations of select background sources. This observing mode will improve on one previously used, in which a decision to observe had to be made a day or more in advance. The goal of these observations will be to secure Faraday rotation measurements on one or more lines of sight that pass through critical parts of a CME. In this paper, we will describe our planned triggering scheme, the selection of background sources, choice of observing frequency and selection of lines of sight that can best determine the plasma structure of a CME. Our planning also depends on prior experience in measurement of coronal Faraday rotation, and Faraday rotation ``transients'' associated with CMEs. This work was supported at the University of Iowa by grant ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  12. Large Eddy Simulations of Continental Boundary Layer Clouds Observed during the RACORO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Lin, W.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Three cases of boundary layer clouds are analyzed in the FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project, based on continental boundary-layer-cloud observations during the RACORO Campaign [Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations] at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The three 60-hour case study periods are selected to capture the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary-layer cloud systems under a range of conditions, intentionally including those that are relatively more mixed or transitional in nature versus being of a purely canonical type. Multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles are derived from aircraft observations. Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed for the three case study periods using the GISS Distributed Hydrodynamic Aerosol and Radiative Modeling Application (DHARMA) model and the WRF-FASTER model, which is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model implemented with forcing ingestion and other functions to constitute a flexible LES. The two LES models commonly capture the significant transitions of cloud-topped boundary layers in the three periods: diurnal evolution of cumulus layers repeating over multiple days, nighttime evolution/daytime diminution of thick stratus, and daytime breakup of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. Simulated transitions of thermodynamic structures of the cloud-topped boundary layers are examined by balloon-borne soundings and ground-based remote sensors. Aircraft observations are then used to statistically evaluate the predicted cloud droplet number size distributions under varying aerosol and cloud conditions. An ensemble approach is used to refine the model configuration for the combined use of observations with parallel LES and single-column model simulations. See Lin et al. poster for single-column model investigation.

  13. Observational requirements for Ly? forest tomographic mapping of large-scale structure at z ? 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ozbek, Melih

    2014-06-10

    The z ? 2 Ly? forest traces the underlying dark matter distribution on large scales and, given sufficient sightlines, can be used to create three-dimensional (3D) maps of large-scale structures. We examine the observational requirements to construct such maps and estimate the signal-to-noise as a function of exposure time and sightline density. Sightline densities at z = 2.25 are n {sub los} ? [360, 1200, 3300] deg{sup –2} at limiting magnitudes of g = [24.0, 24.5, 25.0], resulting in transverse sightline separations of (d ) ? [3.6, 1.9, 1.2] h {sup –1} Mpc, which roughly sets the reconstruction scale. We simulate these reconstructions using mock spectra with realistic noise properties and find that spectra with S/N ? 4 per angstrom can be used to generate maps that clearly trace the underlying dark matter at overdensities of ?/(?) ? 1. For the VLT/VIMOS spectrograph, exposure times t {sub exp} = [4, 6, 10] hr are sufficient for maps with spatial resolution ?{sub 3D} = [5.0, 3.2, 2.3] h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming ?250 h {sup –1} Mpc is probed along the line of sight, 1 deg{sup 2} of survey area would cover a comoving volume of ?10{sup 6} h {sup –3} Mpc{sup 3} at (z) ? 2.3, enabling the efficient mapping of large volumes with 8-10 m telescopes. These maps could be used to study galaxy environments, the topology of large-scale structures at high z, and to detect proto-clusters.

  14. A Method for Observing Soil Re-Deposition and Soil Loss Rates in Large Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y. P.; Bugna, G. C.; Nemours, D.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of quality soil erosion field data, which is required for the verification and calibration of soil erosion models, has been one of the serious problems in the soil conservation modeling today. Observing soil erosion of a relatively large field under truly unobstructed runoff conditions has rarely been done and doccumented. Report here is the results of our observation of soil erosion in a 7.3 ha peanut-cotton cropping system in the Mears Farm of Grand Ridge, FL. We used the mesh-pad method to quantify soil loss from the field and soil re-deposition in the field over the cropping season of 2010. The main slope (1-3 %) of the field is about 210 m long. We show that the amount of soil re-deposition was 50-150 times of the soil loss from the slope. The corresponding organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and silt and clay contents of the lost soil, however, were 20.9%, 21%, 17.6% and 14.2%, respectively, of the total amounts re-deposited on the slope. The amounts of soil loss predicted by a SWAT model was 10-20 times greater than our observed values. Soil erosion process was quite heterogeneous, as shown by the mesh-pad method, even on a seemingly uniform cultivated field. Soil erosion models need to be verified and calibrated by extensive quality field data in order to improve their performance.

  15. Can Large Time Delays Observed in Light Curves of Coronal Loops be Explained by Impulsive Heating?

    E-print Network

    Lionello, Roberto; Winebarger, Amy R; Linker, Jon A; Miki?, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower. The time delays between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. Time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values, with maxima $>$ 5,000\\,s. These large time delays make up 3-26\\% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a significant, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that time delays can be explained by impulsive heating. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in t...

  16. Observations of a large-scale gravity wave propagating over an extremely large horizontal distance in the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpeng; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Huixin; Wan, Weixing; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Chaoxu; Emery, Barbara A.; Deng, Yue

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report the detection of a large-scale gravity wave propagating over an extremely large horizontal distance in the thermosphere on 28 July 2006. Specifically, after being launched at the northern auroral region on the dayside, this wave propagated equatorward with phase speeds on the order of ˜720 m/s and finally almost traveled around the Earth once horizontally in the thermosphere prior to dissipation. The time taken to dissipate is about 15.5 h. It is the farthest-traveling large-scale gravity wave currently tracked by satellite measurements, made possible by a sudden injection of energy in an unusually clean propagation environment. This experiment of opportunity serves as an important step in furthering our theoretical understanding of gravity wave propagation and dissipation in the thermosphere.

  17. Spectral Decay Characteristics in High Frequency Range of Observed Records from Crustal Large Earthquakes (Part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurugi, M.; Kagawa, T.; Irikura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral decay characteristics in high frequency range of observed records from crustal large earthquakes occurred in Japan is examined. It is very important to make spectral decay characteristics clear in high frequency range for strong ground motion prediction in engineering purpose. The authors examined spectral decay characteristics in high frequency range of observed records among three events, the 2003 Miyagi-Ken Hokubu earthquake (Mw 6.1), the 2005 Fukuoka-Ken Seiho-oki earthquake (Mw 6.6), and the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw 6.9) in previous study [Tsurugi et al.(2010)]. Target earthquakes in this study are two events shown below. *EQ No.1 Origin time: 2011/04/11 17:16, Location of hypocenter: East of Fukushima pref., Mj: 7.0, Mw: 6.6, Fault type: Normal fault *EQ No.2 Origin time: 2011/03/15 22:31, Location of hypocenter: East of Shizuoka pref., Mj: 6.4, Mw: 5.9, Fault type: Strike slip fault The borehole data of each event are used in the analysis. The Butterworth type high-cut filter with cut-off frequency, fmax and its power coefficient of high-frequency decay, s [Boore(1983)], are assumed to express the high-cut frequency characteristics of ground motions. The four parameters such as seismic moment, corner frequency, cut-off frequency and its power coefficient of high-frequency decay are estimated by comparing observed spectra at rock sites with theoretical spectra. The theoretical spectra are calculated based on the omega squared source characteristics convolved with propagation-path effects and high-cut filter shapes. In result, the fmax's of the records from the earthquakes are estimated 8.0Hz for EQ No.1 and 8.5Hz for EQ No.2. These values are almost same with those of other large crustal earthquakes occurred in Japan. The power coefficient, s, are estimated 0.78 for EQ No.1 and 1.65 for EQ No.2. The value for EQ No.2 is notably larger than those of other large crustal earthquakes. It is seems that the value of the power coefficient, s, became large under the effect of complex ground structure and volcanic front. The obtained results may contribute to strong ground motion prediction in high frequency range for crustal earthquakes. Acknowledgement: This study commissioned by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization. We thank the National Research Institute for Earth Science Disaster Prevention to provide the strong-motion data. References: Hanks,T.C. : fmax, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 72, 1867-1879, 1982. Boore,D.M. : Stochastic simulation of high-frequency ground motion based on seismological models of the radiated spectra, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865-1894, 1983. Tsurugi,M., Kagawa,T., and Irikura,K. : Spectral Decay Characteristics in High Frequency Range of Observed Records from Crustal Large Earthquakes, AGU Fall Meeting, 2010.

  18. Triangulations with Circular Arcs Oswin Aichholzer1

    E-print Network

    Triangulations with Circular Arcs Oswin Aichholzer1 , Wolfgang Aigner13 , Franz Aurenhammer2 of a triangulation of a given point set is that the smallest angle becomes as large as possible. In the straight line case, it is known that the Delaunay triangulation is optimal in this respect. We propose and study

  19. Copyright Basics. Circular 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    This circular answers some of the questions that are frequently asked about copyright, a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to authors of "original works of authorship" including library, dramatic musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. The Copyright Act of 1976 (title 17 of the United States Code), which…

  20. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  1. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  2. Changes in the Molar Ellipticities of HEWL Observed by Circular Dichroism and Quantitated by Time Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy Under Crystallizing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumida, John

    2002-01-01

    Fluid models for simple colloids predict that as the protein concentration is increased, crystallization should occur at some sufficiently high concentration regardless of the strength of attraction. However, empirical measurements do not fully support this assertion. Measurements of the second virial coefficient (B22) indicate that protein crystallization occurs only over a discrete range of solution parameters. Furthermore, observations of a strong correlation between protein solubility and B22, has led to an ongoing debate regarding the relationship between the two. Experimental work in our lab, using Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL), previously revealed that the rotational anisotropy of the protein under crystallizing conditions changes systematically with pH, ionic strength and temperature. These observations are now supported by recent work revealing that small changes in the molar ellipticity also occur systematically with changes in ionic strength and temperature. This work demonstrates that under crystallization conditions, the protein native state is characterized by a conformational heterogeneity that may prove fundamental to the relationship between protein crystallization and protein solubility.

  3. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Louis E.; Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2014-09-20

    A robust prediction of ?CDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ?CDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ? 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ?CDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ? log M {sub halo}/M {sub ?} ? 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ?CDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  4. The Circular Velocity Function of Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, Louis E.; Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2014-09-01

    A robust prediction of ?CDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ?CDM expectations at circular velocities v c <~ 200 km s-1. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v c estimators, we find no transition from field to ?CDM-shaped CVF above v c = 50 km s-1 as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 <~ log M halo/M ? <~ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v c compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ?CDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v c slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  5. A new analysis of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cours, T.; Rannou, P.; Coustenis, A.; Negrao, A.; Hirtzig, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this presentation, we report a new analysis of ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations of Titan at about 2 m, in the methane band and window. The VLT data consists in two north-south cuts of Titan's disk with about twenty points in resolution, each point being a spectrum. To analyze this observation, we use the atmospheric properties of Titan recently measured by Huygens, the methane coefficients proposed by Boudon et al. (2006), while the description of the haze layer is from a database derived from the simulations of the Titan Global Climate of the IPSL. We used the radiative transfer model SHDOMPP developed by Evans. This work is hence a significant improvement over the previous analysis by Negrão et al. (2007) In this work, we essentially focus on the distribution of the airborn scatterers (e.g, haze aerosols, clouds, mist). In a first step, we compute the outgoing intensity using the prediction of the GCM database for the haze, and we compare the results with the VLT observations. These comparisons allow us to check the validity of the haze layer provided by the GCM database. In a second step, we modify the haze properties and we include a layer of bright scatterers in the troposphere (liquid droplets as observed by DISR) to improve the fit. This work yields a latitude-altitude map of Titan's haze from the VLT data, and we estimate the impact of the haze and the cloud layer on the surface albedo retrieval. 1) Boudon, V., M. Rey, and M. Loete (2006), The Vibrational Levels of Methane Obtained from Analyses of High- Resolution Spectra, J. Quant Spectrosc., 98, 394-404. 2) Negrão, A., Hirtzig, M., Coustenis, A., Gendron, E., Drossart, P., Rannou, Combes, M., Boudon, V. (2007), 2-micron spectroscopy of Huygens' landing site on Titan with VLT/NACO. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 112, E02S92.

  6. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  7. Large Angular Jump Mechanism Observed for Hydrogen Bond Exchange in Aqueous Perchlorate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Minbiao; Odelius3, Michael; Gaffney1, K.J.

    2010-06-11

    The mechanism for hydrogen bond (H-bond) switching in solution has remained subject to debate despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies. We have applied polarization-selective multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy to investigate the H-bond exchange mechanism in aqueous NaClO{sub 4} solution. The results show that a water molecule shifts its donated H-bonds between water and perchlorate acceptors by means of large, prompt angular rotation. Using a jump-exchange kinetic model, we extract an average jump angle of 49 {+-} 4{sup o}, in qualitative agreement with the jump angle observed in molecular dynamics simulations of the same aqueous NaClO{sub 4} solution.

  8. Observation of collision and oscillation of microdroplets with extremely large shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Keiji

    2012-02-01

    We measured the viscosity and surface tension of various liquids under large (˜106 s-1) shear deformation. Oscillation of a 10-?m size microdroplet is brought about by the head-on collision of two droplets. Since the Reynolds number is as small as 100, the motion of the liquid is stable and the dynamic image is obtained with high reproducibility by the stroboscopic method. By observing and evaluating the mechanical oscillation of the microdroplet, of which frequency ranges typically in 100 - 300 kHz, we found that the viscosity of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol is smaller than the known literature value, which is considered to be the viscosity at zero-frequency. This phenomena can be attributed to the slow viscous relaxation of associated liquids due to the re-combination dynamics of the network of H-bonds.

  9. What if Charged Current Events at Large Q2 are Observed at HERA ?

    E-print Network

    G. Altarelli; G. F. Giudice; M. L. Mangano

    1997-05-11

    An excess of events at large Q2 with a positron in the final state has been observed at HERA which, if confirmed, would be a signal of new physics. It is not clear at present if a signal of comparable rate is also seen in the charged current channel (with an antineutrino in the final state). In this note we analyse the implications of the presence of such a signal in models of new physics based on contact terms, leptoquarks and squarks with R-violating decays. We find that in all cases the most likely possibility is that the charged current signal is absent. As a consequence if this signal is present the resulting indications are very selective. In particular for squarks only charged current events with multi-quark final states are possible with quite definite predictions on the spectrum of supersymmetric particles.

  10. Large-scale jets in the magnetosheath and plasma penetration across the magnetopause: THEMIS observations

    E-print Network

    Dmitriev, A V

    2015-01-01

    THEMIS multi-point observation of the plasma and magnetic fields, conducted simultaneously in the dayside magnetosheath and magnetosphere, were used to collect 646 large-scale magnetosheath plasma jets interacting with the magnetopause. The jets were identified as dense and fast streams of the magnetosheath plasma whose energy density is higher than that of the upstream solar wind. The jet interaction with the magnetopause was revealed from sudden inward motion of the magnetopause and an enhancement in the geomagnetic field. The penetration was determined as appearance of the magnetosheath plasma against the background of the hot magnetospheric particle population. We found that almost 60% of the jets penetrated through the magnetopause. Vast majority of the penetrating jets was characterized by high velocities V > 220 km/s and kinetic bk > 1 that corresponded to a combination of finite Larmor radius effect with a mechanisms of impulsive penetration. The average plasma flux in the penetrating jets was found t...

  11. Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Hui

    2011-07-18

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), including a variety of metal-doped ZnO, as one kind of most important photoelectric materials, has been widely investigated and received enormous attention for a series of applications. In this work, we report a new finding which we call as lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in a nano Al-doped ZnO (ZAO) film based on ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-heterostructure. This large and stable LPE observed in ZAO is an important supplement to the existing ZnO properties. In addition, all data and analyses demonstrate ZAO film can also be a good candidate for new type position-sensitive detector (PSD) devices. PMID:21934741

  12. Large near-infrared lateral photovoltaic effect observed in Co/Si metal-semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chong Qi; Wang, Hui

    2010-04-01

    The operating frequencies of current position-sensitive detectors (PSDs) based on lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) are mainly concentrated in the visible or ultraviolet region. Here we report a remarkable near-infrared-sensitive LPE in nanoscale metal-semiconductor structures of Co/Si. We show that by manipulating the Co thickness, the optimum light wavelength for obtaining the largest LPE in such Co/Si structures can be controlled in infrared region. Besides, the observed lateral photovoltage position sensitivity of 82 mV/mm at 832 nm light wavelength in Co(3.5 nm)/Si is considerably large, suggesting this simple structure a potential candidate for infrared-sensitive PSDs.

  13. Large lateral photovoltaic effect observed in nano Al-doped ZnO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jing; Wang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO), including a variety of metal-doped ZnO, as one kind of most important photoelectric materials, has been widely investigated and received enormous attention for a series of applications. In this work, we report a new finding which we call as lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) in a nano Al-doped ZnO (ZAO) film based on ZAO/SiO2/Si homo-heterostructure. This large and stable LPE observed in ZAO is an important supplement to the existing ZnO properties. In addition, all data and analyses demonstrate ZAO film can also be a good candidate for new type position-sensitive detector (PSD) devices.

  14. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  15. Observing the Moon at Microwave Frequencies Using a Large-Diameter Deep Space Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, David D.; Imbriale, William; Keihm, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The Moon radiates energy at infrared and microwave wavelengths, in addition to reflecting sunlight at optical wavelengths. As a result, an antenna pointed at or near the Moon will result in an increase in system operating noise temperature, which needs to be accounted for in RF telecommunications, radio science or radiometric link calculations. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) may use its large-diameter antennas in future lunar robotic or human missions, and thus it is important to understand the nature of this temperature incre ase as a function of observing frequency, lunar phase, and angular position of the antenna beam on the lunar disk. This paper reports on a comprehensive lunar noise temperature measurement campaign and associated theoretical treatment for a 34-m diameter Deep Space Network antenna observing an extended source such as the Moon. A set of measurements over a wide range of lunar phase angles was acquired at DSS-13, a 34-m diameter beam waveguide antenna (BWG) located at Goldstone, California at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). For validation purposes, independent predictions of noise temperature increase were derived using a physical optics characterization of the 34-m diameter antenna gain patterns and Apollo model-based brightness temperature maps of the Moon as input. The model-based predictions of noise temperature increase were compared with the measurements at all three frequencies. In addition, a methodology is presented that relates noise temperature increase due to the Moon to disk-centered or disk-averaged brightness temperature of the Moon at the microwave frequencies of interest. Comparisons were made between the measurements and models in the domain of lunar disk-centered and disk-averaged brightness temperatures. It is anticipated that the measurements and associated theoretical development will be useful in developing telecommunications strategies for future high-rate Ka-band communications where large diameter DSN antennas will be required.

  16. Method for optimizing channelized quadratic observers for binary classification of large-dimensional image datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kupinski, M. K.; Clarkson, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method for computing optimized channels for channelized quadratic observers (CQO) that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. The method for calculating channels is applicable in general and optimal for Gaussian distributed image data. Gradient-based algorithms for determining the channels are presented for five different information-based figures of merit (FOMs). Analytic solutions for the optimum channels for each of the five FOMs are derived for the case of equal mean data for both classes. The optimum channels for three of the FOMs under the equal mean condition are shown to be the same. This result is critical since some of the FOMs are much easier to compute. Implementing the CQO requires a set of channels and the first- and second-order statistics of channelized image data from both classes. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of CQO since estimating image statistics from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. In a simulation study we compare the performance of ideal and Hotelling observers to CQO. The optimal CQO channels are calculated using both eigenanalysis and a new gradient-based algorithm for maximizing Jeffrey's divergence (J). Optimal channel selection without eigenanalysis makes the J-CQO on large-dimensional image data feasible. PMID:26366764

  17. SEISMOLOGY OF A LARGE SOLAR CORONAL LOOP FROM EUVI/STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF ITS TRANSVERSE OSCILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Foullon, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2009-06-10

    The first analysis of a transverse loop oscillation observed by both Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatories (STEREO) spacecraft is presented, for an event on the 2007 June 27 as seen by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI). The three-dimensional loop geometry is determined using a three-dimensional reconstruction with a semicircular loop model, which allows for an accurate measurement of the loop length. The plane of wave polarization is found from comparison with a simulated loop model and shows that the oscillation is a fundamental horizontally polarized fast magnetoacoustic kink mode. The oscillation is characterized using an automated method and the results from both spacecraft are found to match closely. The oscillation period is 630 {+-} 30 s and the damping time is 1000 {+-} 300 s. Also, clear intensity variations associated with the transverse loop oscillations are reported for the first time. They are shown to be caused by the effect of line-of-sight integration. The Alfven speed and coronal magnetic field derived using coronal seismology are discussed. This study shows that EUVI/STEREO observations achieve an adequate accuracy for studying long-period, large-amplitude transverse loop oscillations.

  18. Temperature dependent EUV spectra of Gd, Tb and Dy ions observed in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have observed a number of different types of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) ions in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Temporal changes in EUV spectra in the 6-9 nm region subsequent to the injections of solid pellets were measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. The spectra rapidly change from discrete features into unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) following a drop in the electron temperature after the heating power is reduced. In particular, extremely narrowed UTA features, which comprise spectral lines of Ag-like, Pd-like and neighboring ion stages, are observed when the peak electron temperature is less than 0.45 keV due to the formation of hollow plasmas. Some discrete spectral lines of Cu-like and Ag-like ions have been identified in the high and low temperature plasmas, respectively, some of which are experimentally identified for the first time.

  19. Some observations of airflow over a large hill of moderate slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. W.; Choularton, T. W.; Hill, M. K.

    1988-02-01

    Measurements are presented of mean windspeed and turbulence over Great Dun Fell, which is rather larger than hills investigated in the past, viz., 847 m high, which is comparable to the boundary-layer depth. The Fell is well suited for study, being covered by rough grass with no trees and few other obstructions. It was found that the speed-up of the wind is dominated by the elevated stratification and generally agrees closely with the predictions of the model of Carruthers and Choularton (1982) except when the flow is blocked. On the hill summit, the turbulence is approximately in local equilibrium in at least the lowest 10 m and the turbulence measurements are similar to those obtained within the inner layer at other sites. The transverse and longitudinal components show spectral lags at wavelengths greater than 30 m. This suggests an inner-layer depth of about 1/3 that predicted by Jackson and Hunt (1975). At reduced frequencies (>0.1), a recovery in spectral energy is observed due to gravity wave activity. A large variation in the streamline tilt at the summit is observed depending on whether the airflow regime is supercritical or subcritical.

  20. Mechanical and hydrologic basis for the rapid motion of a large tidewater glacier. 1: Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Mark; Lundstrom, Scott; Stone, Dan; Kamb, Barclay; Engelhardt, Hermann; Humphrey, Neil; Dunlap, William W.; Fahnestock, Mark; Krimmel, Robert M.; Walters, Roy

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of glacier flow velocity and basal water pressure at two sites on Columbia Glacier, Alaska, are combined with meteorological and hydrologic data to provide an observational basis for assessing the role of water storage and basal water pressure in the rapid movement of this large glacier. During the period from July 5 to August 31, 1987, coordinated observations were made of glacier surface motion and of water level in five boreholes drilled to (or in one case near to) the glacier bed at two sites, 5 and 12 km from the terminus. Glacier velocities increased downglacier in this reach from about 4 m/d to about 7 m/d. Three types of time variation in velocity and other variables were revealed: (1) Diurnal fluctuation in water input/output, borehole water level, and ice velocity (fluctuation amplitude 5 to 8%); (2) Speed-up events in glacier motion (15-30% speed-up), lasting about three days, and ocurring at times of enhanced input of water, in some cases from rain and in others from ice ablation enhanced by strong, warm winds; (3) 'Extra-slowdown' events, in which, after a speed-up event, the ice velocity decreased in about 3 days to a level consistently lower than that prior to the speed-up event. All of the time variations were due, directly or indirectly, to variations in water input to the glacier.

  1. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision post an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  2. Sporadic meteor sources as observed by the Jicamarca high-power large-aperture VHF radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Woodman, Ronald F.; Galindo, Freddy

    2007-05-01

    We present, for the first time, the main sources of sporadic meteors as inferred from meteor-head echoes obtained by a high-power large-aperture radar (HPLAR). Such results have been obtained at the Jicamarca HPLAR (11.95° S, 76.87° W, 1° dip angle). Observations are based on close to 170,000 meteors detected in less than 90 h spread over 14 days, between November 2001 and February 2006. Meteors with solar orbits are observed to come from basically six previously known sources, i.e., North and South Apex, Helion, Anti-Helion, and North and South Toroidal, representing ˜91% of the observations. The other ˜9% represents meteors with observed velocities greater than the Sun's escape velocity at 1 AU, most of them of extra-solar origin. Results are given before and after removing the Earth's velocity and the sources are modeled with two-dimensional Gaussian distributions. In general, our results are in very good agreement with previously known sources reported by Jones and Brown [Jones, J., Brown, P.G., 1993. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 265, 524-532] using mainly specular meteor radar (SMR) data gathered over many years and different sites. However, we find slightly different locations and widths, that could be explained on the basis of different sensitivities of the two techniques and/or corrections needed to our results. For example, we find that the North and South Apex sources are well defined and composed each of them of two collocated Gaussian distributions, one almost isotropic with ˜10° width and the other very narrow in ecliptic longitude and wide in ecliptic latitude. This is the first time these narrow-width sources are reported. A careful quantitative analysis is needed to be able to compare the strengths of meteor sources as observed with different techniques. We also present speed and initial altitude distributions for selected sources. Using a simple angular sensitivity function of the combined Earth-atmosphere-radar instrument, and an altitude selection criteria, the resulting meteor sources are in better qualitative agreement with the results obtained with SMRs.

  3. OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-03-20

    We report observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 (G189.1+3.0) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy band between 200 MeV and 50 GeV. IC 443 is a shell-type SNR with mixed morphology located off the outer Galactic plane where high-energy emission has been detected in the X-ray, GeV and TeV gamma-ray bands. Past observations suggest IC 443 has been interacting with surrounding interstellar matter. Proximity between dense shocked molecular clouds and GeV-TeV gamma-ray emission regions detected by EGRET, MAGIC, and VERITAS suggests an interpretation that cosmic-ray (CR) particles are accelerated by the SNR. With the high gamma-ray statistics and broad energy coverage provided by the LAT, we accurately characterize the gamma-ray emission produced by the CRs accelerated at IC 443. The emission region is extended in the energy band with theta{sub 68} = 0.{sup 0}27 +- 0.{sup 0}01(stat) +- 0.{sup 0}03(sys) for an assumed two-dimensional Gaussian profile and overlaps almost completely with the extended source region of VERITAS. Its centroid is displaced significantly from the known pulsar wind nebula (PWN) which suggests the PWN is not the major contributor in the present energy band. The observed spectrum changes its power-law slope continuously and continues smoothly to the MAGIC and VERITAS data points. The combined gamma-ray spectrum (200 MeV

  4. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEBULA AROUND G79.29+0.46

    SciTech Connect

    Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Agliozzo, C.; Ingallinera, A.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Hora, J. L.

    2011-09-20

    We have observed the radio nebula surrounding the Galactic luminous blue variable candidate G79.29+0.46 with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) at 6 cm. These new radio observations allow a morphological comparison between the radio emission, which traces the ionized gas component, and the mid-IR emission, a tracer of the dust component. The InfraRed Array Camera (8 {mu}m) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m) images have been reprocessed and compared with the EVLA map. We confirm the presence of a second shell at 24 {mu}m and also provide evidence for its detection at 70 {mu}m. The differences between the spatial morphology of the radio and mid-IR maps indicate the existence of two dust populations, the cooler one emitting mostly at longer wavelengths. Analysis of the two dusty, nested shells have provided us with an estimate of the characteristic timescales for shell ejection, providing important constraints for stellar evolutionary models. Finer details of the ionized gas distribution can be appreciated thanks to the improved quality of the new 6 cm image, most notably the highly structured texture of the nebula. Evidence of interaction between the nebula and the surrounding interstellar medium can be seen in the radio map, including brighter features that delineate regions where the shell structure is locally modified. In particular, the brighter filaments in the southwest region appear to frame the shocked southwestern clump reported from CO observations.

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope observation of high-energy solar flares: constraining emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima

    2015-08-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the most sensitive instrument ever deployed in space for observing gamma-ray emission >100 MeV. This has also been demonstrated by its detection of quiescent gamma-ray emission from pions produced by cosmic-ray protons interacting in the solar atmosphere, and from cosmic-ray electron interactions with solar optical photons. The Fermi LAT has also detected high-energy gamma-ray emission associated with GOES M-class and X-class X-ray flares, each accompanied by a coronal mass ejection and a solar energetic particle event increasing the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. During the impulsive phase, gamma rays with energies up to several hundreds of MeV have been recorded by the LAT. Emission up to GeV energies lasting several hours after the flare has also been recorded by the LAT. Of particular interest are the recent detections of two solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B satellite. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  6. VERY LARGE ARRAY OH ZEEMAN OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR-FORMING REGION S88B

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, A. P.; Eftimova, M.; Brogan, C. L.; Bourke, T. L.; Troland, T. H.

    2013-04-10

    We present observations of the Zeeman effect in OH thermal absorption main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz taken with the Very Large Array toward the star-forming region S88B. The OH absorption profiles toward this source are complicated, and contain several blended components toward a number of positions. Almost all of the OH absorbing gas is located in the eastern parts of S88B, toward the compact continuum source S88B-2 and the eastern parts of the extended continuum source S88B-1. The ratio of 1665/1667 MHz OH line intensities indicates the gas is likely highly clumped, in agreement with other molecular emission line observations in the literature. S88-B appears to present a similar geometry to the well-known star-forming region M17, in that there is an edge-on eastward progression from ionized to molecular gas. The detected magnetic fields appear to mirror this eastward transition; we detected line-of-sight magnetic fields ranging from 90 to 400 {mu}G, with the lowest values of the field to the southwest of the S88B-1 continuum peak, and the highest values to its northeast. We used the detected fields to assess the importance of the magnetic field in S88B by a number of methods; we calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressures, we calculated the critical field necessary to completely support the cloud against self-gravity and compared it to the observed field, and we calculated the ratio of mass to magnetic flux in terms of the critical value of this parameter. All these methods indicated that the magnetic field in S88B is dynamically significant, and should provide an important source of support against gravity. Moreover, the magnetic energy density is in approximate equipartition with the turbulent energy density, again pointing to the importance of the magnetic field in this region.

  7. Observations of a large flare in GX 1+4 with the Compton gamma ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubert, R.; Maisack, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Draxler, T.; Finger, M. H.; Fishman, G. J.; Strickman, M. S.; Starr, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    The pulsating X-ray binary GX 1+4 (4U 1728-24) was observed by Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) from 9 to 21 September 1993 as a target of oppurtunity after Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) had detected the onset of a large flare by the greatly increased pulsed flux at the period of approximately 2 min. The total flux in the 40-100 keV range as observed by the OSSE reached its maximum of 83 mCrab on 14/15 September, after which it fell sharply to about 31 mCrab within 2 days. The spectrum is well described by thermal type spectra. The characteristic temperature of the average OSSE spectrum for a thermal Bremsstrahlung model is kT = (35.5 +/- 0.5) keV. A single power law can be ruled out. There is evidence for a hardening of the spectrum with decreasing intensity at the end of the flare. The barycentric pulse period was (120.567 +/- 0.005) s on 5 September. The average spin-down rate as taken from the standard BATSE analysis was dP/dt = 0.0105 s/day, and constant over the time of the flare. A further target of oppurtunity (TOO) observation with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on 18 September led to the first detection of the source with a reflecting X-ray telescope and to a signifcantly improved position: RA(2000) = 17h 32m 2.1s and DEC(2000) = -24 deg 44 min 44 sec. This position 3.5 sec from V2116 Oph, with a 90% error radius of 8 sec is the most accurate so far obtained with an X-ray instrument, thus confirming the identification with the suspected stellar counterpart.

  8. FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF A DOME-SHAPED LARGE-SCALE CORONAL EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Veronig, A. M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I. W.; Temmer, M.; Vrsnak, B.

    2010-06-10

    We present first observations of a dome-shaped large-scale extreme-ultraviolet coronal wave, recorded by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument on board STEREO-B on 2010 January 17. The main arguments that the observed structure is the wave dome (and not the coronal mass ejection, CME) are (1) the spherical form and sharpness of the dome's outer edge and the erupting CME loops observed inside the dome; (2) the low-coronal wave signatures above the limb perfectly connecting to the on-disk signatures of the wave; (3) the lateral extent of the expanding dome which is much larger than that of the coronal dimming; and (4) the associated high-frequency type II burst indicating shock formation low in the corona. The velocity of the upward expansion of the wave dome (v {approx} 650 km s{sup -1}) is larger than that of the lateral expansion of the wave (v {approx} 280 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the upward dome expansion is driven all the time, and thus depends on the CME speed, whereas in the lateral direction it is freely propagating after the CME lateral expansion stops. We also examine the evolution of the perturbation characteristics: first the perturbation profile steepens and the amplitude increases. Thereafter, the amplitude decreases with r {sup -2.5{+-}0.3}, the width broadens, and the integral below the perturbation remains constant. Our findings are consistent with the spherical expansion and decay of a weakly shocked fast-mode MHD wave.

  9. Circular analysis in complex stochastic systems

    PubMed Central

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Ruling out observations can lead to wrong models. This danger occurs unwillingly when one selects observations, experiments, simulations or time-series based on their outcome. In stochastic processes, conditioning on the future outcome biases all local transition probabilities and makes them consistent with the selected outcome. This circular self-consistency leads to models that are inconsistent with physical reality. It is also the reason why models built solely on macroscopic observations are prone to this fallacy. PMID:26656656

  10. Circular analysis in complex stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Ruling out observations can lead to wrong models. This danger occurs unwillingly when one selects observations, experiments, simulations or time-series based on their outcome. In stochastic processes, conditioning on the future outcome biases all local transition probabilities and makes them consistent with the selected outcome. This circular self-consistency leads to models that are inconsistent with physical reality. It is also the reason why models built solely on macroscopic observations are prone to this fallacy. PMID:26656656

  11. Magnetic Moment Coupling to Circularly Polarized Photons

    E-print Network

    O. V. Kibis

    2009-01-30

    Exact stationary solutions of the wave equation are obtained to describe the interaction between magnetic moment of elementary particle and circularly polarized photons. The obtained solutions substantially modify the conventional model of field-matter interaction. It follows from them that magnetic moment couples to photons, and this coupling leads to bound particle-photon states with different energies for different orientations of magnetic moment. As a consequence, the interaction splits particle states differing by directions of total angular momentum. Stationary spin splitting, induced by photons, and concomitant effects can be observed for particles exposed to a laser-generated circularly polarized electromagnetic wave.

  12. Unwrapping circular interferograms.

    PubMed

    Lyuboshenko, I

    2000-09-10

    The Green's formulation for phase unwrapping is generalized to the case of circular phase-support regions. A phase-unwrapping method, believed to be new, is developed in which two forms of the Green's function are used, one in a closed form and the other in the form of a series of Helmholtz equation eigenfunctions to satisfy homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a circular domain. The contribution of the rotational part of the wrapped phase gradient that is due to phase-gradient inconsistencies (residues) is accounted for in the unwrapped phase. Computational results on the reconstruction of a simulated wave front in the presence of aberrations, and on unwrapping real synthetic aperture radar interferograms, show the usefulness and reliability of the method when applied to regions where the conventional rectangular support regions are impractical. PMID:18350073

  13. Circular quantum secret sharing

    E-print Network

    Fu-Guo Deng; Hong-Yu Zhou andGui Lu Long

    2006-12-03

    A circular quantum secret sharing protocol is proposed, which is useful and efficient when one of the parties of secret sharing is remote to the others who are in adjacent, especially the parties are more than three. We describe the process of this protocol and discuss its security when the quantum information carrying is polarized single photons running circularly. It will be shown that entanglement is not necessary for quantum secret sharing. Moreover, the theoretic efficiency is improved to approach 100% as almost all the instances can be used for generating the private key, and each photon can carry one bit of information without quantum storage. It is straightforwardly to utilize this topological structure to complete quantum secret sharing with multi-level two-particle entanglement in high capacity securely.

  14. Large format heterodyne arrays for observing far-infrared lines with SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Kloosterman, J.; Lesser, D.; Cottam, T.; Groppi, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Edgar, M.; Radford, S.; Goldsmith, P.; Langer, W.; Yorke, H.; Kawamura, J.; Mehdi, I.; Hollenbach, D.; Stutzki, J.; Huebers, H.; Gao, J. R.; Martin, C.

    2010-07-01

    In the wavelength regime between 60 and 300 microns there are a number of atomic and molecular emission lines that are key diagnostic probes of the interstellar medium. These include transitions of [CII], [NII], [OI], HD, H2D+, OH, CO, and H2O, some of which are among the brightest global and local far-infrared lines in the Galaxy. In Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), evolved star envelopes, and planetary nebulae, these emission lines can be extended over many arc minutes and possess complicated, often self absorbed, line profiles. High spectral resolution (R> 105) observations of these lines at sub-arcminute angular resolution are crucial to understanding the complicated interplay between the interstellar medium and the stars that form from it. This feedback is central to all theories of galactic evolution. Large format heterodyne array receivers can provide the spectral resolution and spatial coverage to probe these lines over extended regions. The advent of large format (~100 pixel) spectroscopic imaging cameras in the far-infrared (FIR) will fundamentally change the way astronomy is performed in this important wavelength regime. While the possibility of such instruments has been discussed for more than two decades, only recently have advances in mixer and local oscillator technology, device fabrication, micromachining, and digital signal processing made the construction of such instruments tractable. These technologies can be implemented to construct a sensitive, flexible, heterodyne array facility instrument for SOFIA. The instrument concept for StratoSTAR: Stratospheric Submm/THz Array Receiver includes a common user mounting, control system, IF processor, spectrometer, and cryogenic system. The cryogenic system will be designed to accept a frontend insert. The frontend insert and associated local oscillator system/relay optics would be provided by individual user groups and reflect their scientific interests. Rapid technology development in this field makes SOFIA the ideal platform to operate such a modular, continuously evolving instrument.

  15. A Summary of Large Raindrop Observations from GPM GV Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter; Tokay, Ali; Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, V. N.; Carey, Lawrence; Wingo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) has conducted as series of Ground Validation (GV) studies to assist algorithm development for the GPM core satellite. Characterizing the drop size distribution (DSD) for different types of precipitation systems is critical in order to accurately estimate precipitation across the majority of the planet. Thus far, GV efforts have sampled DSDs in a variety of precipitation systems from Finland to Oklahoma. This dataset consists of over 33 million raindrops sampled by GPM GV's two-dimensional video disdrometers (2DVD) and includes RSD observations from the LPVEx, MC3E, GCPEx, HyMEx and IFloodS campaigns as well as from GV sites in Huntsville, AL and Wallops Island, VA. This study focuses on the larger end of the raindrop size spectrum, which greatly influences radar reflectivity and has implications for moment estimation. Thus knowledge of the maximum diameter is critical to GPM algorithm development. There are over 24,000 raindrops exceeding 5 mm in diameter contained within this disdrometer dataset. The largest raindrops in the 2DVD dataset (>7-8 mm in diameter) are found within intense convective thunderstorms, and their origins are believed to be hailstones. In stratiform rainfall, large raindrops have also been found to fall from lower and thicker melting layers. The 2DVD dataset will be combined with that collected by dual-polarimetric radar and aircraft particle imaging probes to "follow" the vertical evolution of the DSD tail (i.e., retrace the large drops from the surface to their origins aloft).

  16. Small Earth Observing Satellites Flying with Large Satellites in the A-Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Loverro, Adam; Case, Warren F.; Queruel, Nadege; Marechal, Chistophe; Barroso, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This paper/poster presents a real-life example of the benefits of flying small satellites with other satellites, large or small, and vice versa. Typically, most small satellites fly payloads consisting of one or two instruments and fly in orbits that are independent from that of other satellites. The science data from these satellites are either used in isolation or correlated with instrument data from other satellites. Data correlation with other satellites is greatly improved when the measurements of the same point or air mass are taken at approximately the same time. Scientists worldwide are beginning to take advantage of the opportunities for improved data correlation, or coincidental science, offered by the international Earth Observing Constellation known as the A-Train (sometimes referred to as the Afternoon Constellation). Most of the A-Train satellites are small - the A-Train is anchored by two large NASA satellites (EOS-Aqua and EOS-Aura), but consists also of 5 small satellites (CloudSat, CALIPSO, PARASOL, OCO and Glory these last two will join in 2009). By flying in a constellation, each mission benefits from coincidental observations from instruments on the other satellites in the constellation. Essentially, from a data point of view, the A-Train can be envisioned as a single, virtual science platform with multiple instruments. Satellites in the A-Train fly at 705 km in sun-synchronous orbits. Their mean local times at the equator are within seconds to a few minutes of each other. This paper describes the challenges of operating an international constellation of independent satellites from the U.S. and Europe to maximize the coincidental science opportunities while at the same time minimizing the level of operational interactions required between team members. The A-Train mission teams have been able to demonstrate that flying as members of an international constellation does not take away the flexibility to accommodate new requirements. Specific examples will be cited, including CloudSat's relocation (to accommodate a new viewing angle for the CALIPSO satellite), Glory's replan to move closer to PARASOL, and OCO's long term plans to minimize on-orbit operations costs while maintaining safety. In all cases, safety is ensured, science returns are enhanced, and operational flexibility is retained to the maximum extent possible.

  17. Observing Recent Changes in the Large-Scale Arctic Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. F.; Serreze, M.; Cassano, J.

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the large-scale energy budget of the Arctic are examined using a variety of next-generation reanalysis and observational data. An effort is made to construct a best-guess of the current arctic energy budget using a variety of atmospheric data. For the period of 2000-2005, monthly means from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data represents the current most-reliable top of atmosphere radiation budget. The remaining components of the energy budget system in the arctic polar cap (defined as 70 degrees North latitude circle), comprising of the vertically-integrated storage and horizontal transports of energy, and net heat transfers between the atmosphere and the subsurface column, are diagnosed using the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) and the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NRA). The as then record-setting minimum sea-ice extent during the 2005 melt season is used as a marker of recent changes occurring in the arctic climate system. However, changes in each reanalysis differs than the satellite observations. In one example, when compared to the 2000-2005 climatology, CERES shows a shift in the peak TOA radiation from July to June in 2005, a change that is absent in the reanalyses and directly attributable to the early and pronounced albedo reduction. An earlier peak in TOA radiation can strongly modulate the flux energy convergence from lower latitudes through circulation changes. Here, the energy budget framework provides a simplified view of the pathway through which changes of key component parings occur.

  18. Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation from Fermi -Large Area Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) < or approx. E(sub Pl)

  19. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  20. Multiwavelength observation of a large-scale flux rope eruption above a kinked small filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed multiwavelength observations of a western limb flare (C3.9) that occurred in AR NOAA 111465 on 30 April 2012. The high-resolution images recorded by SDO/AIA 304, 1600 Å and Hinode/SOT H? show the activation of a small filament (rising speed ~40 km s-1) associated with a kink instability and the onset of a C-class flare near the southern leg of the filament. The first magnetic reconnection occurred at one of the footpoints of the filament and caused the breaking of its southern leg. The filament shows unwinding motion of the northern leg and apex in counterclockwise direction and failed to erupt. A flux-rope structure (visible only in hot channels, i.e., AIA 131 and 94 Å and Hinode/SXT) appeared along the neutral line during the second magnetic reconnection that occurred above the kinked filament. The formation of the RHESSI hard X-ray source (12-25 keV) above the kinked filament and the simultaneous appearance of the hot 131 Å loops associated with photospheric brightenings (AIA 1700 Å) indicates the particle acceleration along these loops from the top of the filament. In addition, extreme ultraviolet disturbances or waves observed above the filament in 171 Å also show a close association with magnetic reconnection. The flux rope rises slowly (~100 km s-1), which produces a very large twisted structure possibly through reconnection with the surrounding sheared magnetic fields within ~15-20 min, and showed an impulsive acceleration reaching a height of about 80-100 Mm. AIA 171 and SWAP 174 Å images reveal a cool compression front (or coronal mass ejection frontal loop) surrounding the hot flux rope structure. Movies associated with Figs. 2 and 7 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Chandra and Very Large Array Observations of the Nearby Sd Galaxy NGC 45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Laine, Seppo; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lacey, Christina K.; Moffitt, William P.; Sharma, Biswas; Lackey-Stewart, Aaron M.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Filipovi?, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of high angular resolution observations made in the X-ray and the radio with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), respectively, of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 45. This galaxy is the third that we have considered in a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) populations of nearby spiral galaxies and the present work represents the first detailed analysis of the discrete X-ray and radio source populations of this galaxy. We analyzed data sets from the three pointed observations made of this galaxy with Chandra along with a merged data set obtained from combining these data sets: the total effective exposure time of the merged data set is 63515 s. A total of 25 discrete X-ray sources are found in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip, with 16 sources found within the visual extent of the galaxy. We estimate that as many as half of the sources detected in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip and seven of the sources detected in the optical extent of NGC 45 may be background sources. We analyzed the spectral properties of the discrete X-ray sources within the galaxy and conclude that the majority of these sources are X-ray binaries. We have searched for counterparts at different wavelengths to the discrete X-ray sources and we find two associations: one with a star cluster and the other with a background galaxy. We have found one source that is clearly variable within one observation and seven that are seen to vary from one observation to another. We also conduct a photometric analysis to determine the near-infrared fluxes of the discrete X-ray sources in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera channels. We constructed a cumulative luminosity function of the discrete X-ray sources seen toward NGC 45: taking into account simultaneously the luminosity function of background sources, the fitted slope of the cumulative luminosity function ? = –1.3{}-1.6+0.7 (all error bounds correspond to 90% confidence intervals). The VLA observations reveal seven discrete radio sources: we find no overlaps between these sources and the X-ray detected sources. Based on their measured spectral indices and their locations with respect to the visible extent of NGC 45, we classify one source as a candidate radio SNR associated with the galaxy and the others as likely background galaxies seen in projection toward NGC 45. Finally, we discuss the properties of a background cluster of galaxies (denoted as CXOU J001354.2–231254.7) seen in projection toward NGC 45 and detected by the Chandra observations. The fit parameters to the extracted Chandra spectra of this cluster are a column density {N}{{H}} = 0.07(<0.14) × 1022 cm?2, a temperature kT = 4.22{}-1.42+2.08 keV, an abundance Z = 0.30(<0.75) relative to solar and a redshift z = 0.28 ± 0.14. From the fit parameters we derive an electron number density {n}{{e}} = 4(±1) × 10?3 cm?3, an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity {L}0.5-7.0 {keV} ? 8.77(±0.96) × 1043 erg s?1 for the cluster and an X-ray emitting mass M = 2.32(±1.75) × 1012 {M}? .

  2. Limits On Large Extra Dimensions Based On Observations Of Neutron Stars With The Fermi-Large Area Teleoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenji, Bijan

    2011-09-01

    We present limits related to the large extra dimensions (LED) model, from the gamma-ray flux of 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars, using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT). We assume that Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons as predicted in this model are produced in supernova cores, that they are gravitationally retained as neutron stars are formed, and that their decay could contribute to a gamma-ray flux. Considering between 2 and 7 additional spatial dimensions in the context of the LED model, we develop spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of gamma-rays arising from decays of KK gravitons in the vicinity of neutron stars. The SEDs for each number of extra dimensions, n, and each source, are generated by Monte Carlo simulation. Based on 1 year of data from the Fermi-LAT, 95% C.L. upper limits on the size of extra dimensions R from each source are obtained, as well as 95% C.L. lower limits on the (n+4)-dimensional Planck scale, M_D. We obtain combined 95% C.L. upper limits from all the sources on the extra dimensions size, R (m), of 9.0E-9, 3.7E-11, 2.5E-12, 5.0E-13, 1.7E-13, 8.3E-14 for n = 2, 3,. . . ,7. We also obtain 95% C.L. lower limits on the extra-dimensional effective Planck mass, M_D (TeV) of 230, 15, 2.5, 0.66, 0.24, and 0.11 for n = 2,3,. . . ,7. The limits are more stringent than collider limits, for n < 4, and comparable to LHC results for n = 4. We conclude that if the Planck scale is around a TeV, then for n = 2 or 3, the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus. For extra dimensions of the same size, n ? 4 are favored from our results.

  3. Geo-reCAPTCHA: Crowdsourcing large amounts of geographic information from earth observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillen, Florian; Höfle, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    The reCAPTCHA concept provides a large amount of valuable information for various applications. First, it provides security, e.g., for a form on a website, by means of a test that only a human could solve. Second, the effort of the user for this test is used to generate additional information, e.g., digitization of books or identification of house numbers. In this work, we present a concept for adapting the reCAPTCHA idea to create user-generated geographic information from earth observation data, and the requirements during the conception and implementation are depicted in detail. Furthermore, the essential parts of a Geo-reCAPTCHA system are described, and afterwards transferred, to a prototype implementation. An empirical user study is conducted to investigate the Geo-reCAPTCHA approach, assessing time and quality of the resulting geographic information. Our results show that a Geo-reCAPTCHA can be solved by the users of our study on building digitization in a short amount of time (19.2 s on average) with an overall average accuracy of the digitizations of 82.2%. In conclusion, Geo-reCAPTCHA has the potential to be a reasonable alternative to the typical reCAPTCHA, and to become a new data-rich channel of crowdsourced geographic information.

  4. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs.

  5. Large-scale jets in the magnetosheath and plasma penetration across the magnetopause: THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Suvorova, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms multipoint observation of the plasma and magnetic fields, conducted simultaneously in the dayside magnetosheath and magnetosphere, were used to collect 646 large-scale magnetosheath plasma jets interacting with the magnetopause. The jets were identified as dense and fast streams of the magnetosheath plasma whose energy density is higher than that of the upstream solar wind. The jet interaction with the magnetopause was revealed from sudden inward motion of the magnetopause and an enhancement in the geomagnetic field. The penetration was determined as appearance of the magnetosheath plasma against the background of the hot magnetospheric particle population. We found that almost 60% of the jets penetrated through the magnetopause. Vast majority of the penetrating jets was characterized by high velocities V > 220 km/s and kinetic ?k > 1 that corresponded to a combination of finite Larmor radius effect with a mechanism of impulsive penetration. The average plasma flux in the penetrating jets was found to be 1.5 times larger than the average plasma flux of the solar wind. The average rate of jet-related penetration of the magnetosheath plasma into the dayside magnetosphere was estimated to be ~1029 particles/d. The rate varies highly with time and can achieve values of 1.5 × 1029 particles/h that is comparable with estimates of the total amount of plasma entering the dayside magnetosphere.

  6. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope ?-Ray Observations of Earth's Limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dalton, M.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Schaal, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the ?-ray emission from Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range ˜90 GeV-6 TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV-1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68±0.04 and 2.61±0.08 above ˜200 GeV, respectively.

  7. A deep view of the Large Magellanic Cloud with 6 years of Fermi-LAT observations

    E-print Network

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The nearby Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) provides a rare opportunity for a spatially resolved view of an external star-forming galaxy in gamma-rays. At 0.1-100GeV energies, it was detected as an extended source with CGRO/EGRET and using early observations with the Fermi-LAT. The emission was found to correlate with massive star-forming regions and to be particularly bright towards 30 Doradus. Studies of the origin and transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way are frequently hampered by line-of-sight confusion and poor distance determination. The LMC offers a complementary way to address these questions, by revealing if and how the gamma-ray emission is connected to specific objects, populations of objects, and structures in the galaxy. We revisit the gamma-ray emission from the LMC using about 73 months of Fermi-LAT P7REP data in the 0.2-100GeV range. A complete spatial and spectral model of the LMC emission is developed. Several approaches are tested: a simple geometrical description, template-fitting, ...

  8. ASCA observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant sample: Typing supernovae from their remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Hayashi, Ichizo; Helfand, David; Hwang, Una; Itoh, Masayuki; Kirshner, Robert; Koyama, Katsuji; Markert, Thomas; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Woo, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    We present our first results from a study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from ASCA. The three remnants we have analyzed to date, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and N103B, are among the smallest, and presumably also the youngest, in the Cloud. The X-ray spectra of these SNRs show strong K alpha emission lines of silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium with no evidence for corresponding lines of oxygen, neon, or magnesium. The dominant feature in the spectra is a broad blend of emission lines around 1 keV which we attribute to L-shell emission lines of iron. Model calculations (Nomoto, Thielemann, & Yokoi 1984) show that the major products of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae (SNs) are the elements from silicon to iron, as observed here. The calculated nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ib and II SNs are shown to be qualitatively inconsistent with the data. We conclude that the SNs which produced these remnants were of Type Ia. This finding also confirms earlier suggestions that the class of Balmer-dominated remnants arise from Type Ia SN explosions. Based on these early results from the LMC SNR sample, we find that roughly one-half of the SNRs produced in the LMC within the last approximately 1500 yr came from Type Ia SNs.

  9. Observations of short large-amplitude magnetic structures at a quasi-parallel shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Steven J.; Burgess, David; Wilkinson, William P.; Kessel, Ramona L.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Luehr, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Results of a detailed analysis of short large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMS) observed at an encounter of the quasi-parallel blow shock by the AMPTE UKS and IRM satellites are presented. Isolated SLAMS, surrounded by solar wind conditions, and embedded SLAMS, which lie within or form the boundary with regions of significant heating and deceleration, are identified. The duration, polarization, and other characteristics of SLAMS are all consistent with their growth directly out of the ULF wave field, including the common occurrence of an attached whistler as found in ULF shocklets. The plasma rest frame propagation speeds and two-spacecraft time delays for all cases show that the SLAMS attempt to propagate upstream against the oncoming flow, but are convected back downstream. The speeds and delays vary systematically with SLAMS amplitude in the way anticipated from nonlinear wave theory, as do their polarization features. Inter-SLAMS regions and boundary regions with solar wind contain hot deflected ions of lesser density than within the SLAMS.

  10. WFPC2 observations of the double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Kinney, E. K.; Ewald, S. P.; Panagia, N.; Romaniello, M.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope-Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 (HST-WFPC2) optical and ultraviolet imaging observations of the young double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are presented. The main cluster, NGC 1850A, is a globular-like cluster and has an age of 50 +/- 10 Myr, while the subcluster, NGC 1850B, which is more loosely distributed, is very young at 4.3 +/- 0.9 Myr. Its young age is confirmed by the detection of a pre-main-sequence population of stars associated to it. The two clusters have considerably different IMF slopes, with the main cluster having a flat slope (f(m) proportional to m(exp -1.4 +/- 0.2)) and the young cluster a much steeper one (f(m) proportional to m(exp -2.6 +/- -0.1)). The LMC field star population displays a broad range of ages, from approximately 0.5 Gyr up to more than 4 Gyr.

  11. XMM-Newton observation of SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    E-print Network

    Kavanagh, P J; Whelan, E T; Maggi, P; Haberl, F; Bozzetto, L M; Filipovic, M D; Crawford, E J

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We present an X-ray study of the supernova remnant SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine its physical characteristics based on its X-ray emission. Methods. We observed SNR J0533-7202 with XMM-Newton (flare-filtered exposure times of 18 ks EPIC-pn and 31 ks EPIC-MOS1/MOS2). We produced X-ray images of the SNR, performed an X-ray spectral analysis, and compared the results to multi-wavelength studies. Results. The distribution of X-ray emission is highly non-uniform, with the south-west region brighter than the north-east. The X-ray emission is correlated with the radio emission from the remnant. We determine that this morphology is likely due to the SNR expanding into a non-uniform ambient medium and not an absorption effect. We estimate the size to be 53.9 (\\pm 3.4) x 43.6 (\\pm 3.4) pc, with the major axis rotated ~64 degrees east of north. We find no spectral signatures of ejecta and infer that the X-ray plasma is dominated by swept-up interstellar medium. Using the spectral ...

  12. How do We Choose, Use and Interpret Data From Large Scale Observing Arrays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaux, H.

    2005-12-01

    This is a poster presentation of a "website under construction" that will provide free-ware access to spatial analysis modules for Kalman Filtering, Kriging, Neural Networks, Splines, Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis, and Spatial Objective Analysis. The website is being designed to aid scientists, educators and students with the analysis of data which is generally sparse and irregularly spaced, for which the geographic locations of the observing points are essential inputs to the analyses. Sections for each of the state-of-the-art methodologies will include: 1) Discussion of the objectives for which it was originally developed; 2) Examples of applications to large data sets; 3) Mathematical foundations; 4) References to relevant scientific and mathematical literature; 5) E-links to software for data analysis, with explanations for its use; 6) E-links to data sets for exercise of the technology. Modular construction will permit use of any of the above technologies, independent of others. This "workshop presentation" invites creative input that can contribute to the utility of the final product, from all viewers/potential users.

  13. Metrics for Optimization of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Observations of Stellar Variables and Transients

    E-print Network

    Lund, Michael B; Pepper, Joshua A; Stassun, Keivan G

    2015-01-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be the largest time-domain photometric survey ever. In order to maximize the LSST science yield for a broad array of transient stellar phenomena, it is necessary to optimize the survey cadence, coverage, and depth via quantitative metrics that are specifically designed to characterize the time-domain behavior of various types of stellar transients. In this paper we present three such metrics built on the LSST Metric Analysis Framework (MAF) model (Jones et al. 2014). Two of the metrics quantify the ability of LSST to detect non-periodic and/or non-recurring transient events, and the ability of LSST to reliably measure periodic signals of various timescales. The third metric provides a way to quantify the range of stellar parameters in the stellar populations that LSST will probe. We provide example uses of these metrics and discuss some implications based on these metrics for optimization of the LSST survey for observations of stellar variables and transients.

  14. Search for Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Berenji, Bijan; ,

    2012-09-19

    Large extra dimensions (LED) have been proposed to account for the apparent weakness of gravitation. These theories also indicate that the postulated massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons may be produced by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung in the course of core collapse of supernovae. Hannestad and Raffelt have predicted energy spectra of gamma ray emission from the decay of KK gravitons trapped by the gravity of the remnant neutron stars (NS). These and other authors have used EGRET data on NS to obtain stringent limits on LED. Fermi-LAT is observing radio pulsar positions obtained from radio and x-ray catalogs. NS with certain characteristics are unlikely emitter of gamma rays, and emit in radio and perhaps x-rays. This talk will focus on the blind analysis we plan to perform, which has been developed using the 1st 2 months of all sky data and Monte Carlo simulations, to obtain limits on LED based on about 1 year of Fermi-LAT data. Preliminary limits from this analysis using these first 2 months of data will be also be discussed.

  15. Inferred cosmic-ray spectrum from Fermi large area telescope ?-ray observations of Earth's limb.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Albert, A; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bottacini, E; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dalton, M; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Di Venere, L; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hewitt, J W; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Schaal, M; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Strong, A W; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Tronconi, V; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Yang, Z

    2014-04-18

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the ?-ray emission from Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range ?90??GeV-6??TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV-1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.68±0.04 and 2.61±0.08 above ?200??GeV, respectively. PMID:24785023

  16. Large volume collapse observed in the phase transition in cubic PbCrO3 perovskite

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wansheng; Tan, Dayong; Xiong, Xiaolin; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    When cubic PbCrO3 perovskite (Phase I) is squeezed up to ?1.6 GPa at room temperature, a previously undetected phase (Phase II) has been observed with a 9.8% volume collapse. Because the structure of Phase II can also be indexed into a cubic perovskite as Phase I, the transition between Phases I and II is a cubic to cubic isostructural transition. Such a transition appears independent of the raw materials and synthesizing methods used for the cubic PbCrO3 perovskite sample. In contrast to the high-pressure isostructural electronic transition that appears in Ce and SmS, this transition seems not related with any change of electronic state, but it could be possibly related on the abnormally large volume and compressibility of the PbCrO3 Phase I. The physical mechanism behind this transition and the structural and electronic/magnetic properties of the condensed phases are the interesting issues for future studies. PMID:20660782

  17. Felyx : A Free Open Software Solution for the Analysis of Large Earth Observation Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piolle, Jean-Francois; Shutler, Jamie; Poulter, David; Guidetti, Veronica; Donlon, Craig

    2014-05-01

    GHRSST project, by assembling large collections of earth observation data from various sources and agencies, has also raised the need for providing the user community with tools to inter-compare them, assess and monitor their quality. The ESA /Medspiration project, which implemented the first operating node of GHRSST system for Europe, also paved the way successfully towards such generic analytics tools by developing the High Resolution Diagnostic Dataset System (HR-DDS) and Satellite to In situ Multi-sensor Match-up Databases. Building on this heritage, ESA is now funding the development by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis of felyx, a web tool merging the two capabilities into a single software solution. It will consist in a free open software solution, written in python and javascript, whose aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an open-source, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams (satellite, in situ and model) to be easily monitored and studied. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool, subsetting source data over predefined target areas (which can be static or moving) : these data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files, automatic alerts and reports generated periodically, or through a flexible web interface enabling statistical analysis and visualization. Felyx presents itself as an open-source suite of tools, written in python and javascript, enabling : * subsetting large local or remote collections of Earth Observation data over predefined sites (geographical boxes) or moving targets (ship, buoy, hurricane), storing locally the extracted data (refered as miniProds). These miniProds constitute a much smaller representative subset of the original collection on which one can perform any kind of processing or assessment without having to cope with heavy volumes of data. * computing statistical metrics over these miniProds using for instance a set of usual statistical operators (mean, median, rms, ...), fully extensible and applicable to any variable of a dataset. These metrics are stored in a fast search engine, queryable by humans and automated applications. * reporting or alerting, based on user-defined inference rules, through various media (emails, twitter feeds,..) and devices (phones, tablets). * analysing miniProds and metrics through a web interface allowing to dig into this base of information and extracting useful knowledge through multidimensional interactive display functions (time series, scatterplots, histograms, maps). The services provided by felyx will be generic, deployable at users own premises and adaptable enough to integrate any kind of parameters. Users will be able to operate their own felyx instance at any location, on datasets and parameters of their own interest, and the various instances will be able to interact with each other, creating a web of felyx systems enabling aggregation and cross comparison of miniProds and metrics from multiple sources. Initially two instances will be operated simultaneously during a 6 months demonstration phase, at IFREMER - on sea surface temperature (for GHRSST community) and ocean waves datasets - and PML - on ocean colour. We will present results from the Felyx project, demonstrate how the GHRSST community can exploit Felyx and demonstrate how the wider community can make use of the GHRSST data within Felyx.

  18. Dynamics of sediment transport in large tropical tidal rivers via observations in the Mekong and Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, D. J.; Ogston, A. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Fricke, A. T.; Van, P.; Souza Filho, P. W.; Silva, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Of the ten largest-discharge river systems worldwide, freshwater delivery to the ocean from tropical rivers comprises approximately 72% of the total. Tropical-river suspended-sediment loads make up about 45% of the total among the same ten largest rivers. In this context, flow and sediment dynamics of tropical river systems are crucial to a comprehensive understanding of global river budgets. The processes by which sediment is eroded, transported, trapped, and ultimately exported from tidal rivers--where tides propagate but oceanic salinity is absent or only ephemerally present--are poorly understood, even though previous research suggests up to one-third of riverine sediment loads may be trapped within tidal rivers. In an effort to better understand these processes, we present and contrast results from several campaigns along two large tropical tidal rivers: the Mekong and Amazon. Under conditions of high and low seasonal discharge, three cross-sections within the Mekong tidal river were each occupied for a 25-hour tidal cycle, during which ADCP and CTD transects were completed every 15-30 minutes. In this transitional environment between fluvial and estuarine conditions, flow reversed throughout the water column during both low and high flow at all locations, and a strongly sheared flow was present during lesser flood tides. Salinity was spatially variable over seasons: during low flow, salinity in excess of 10 PSU was observed 30 km upstream during maximum flood, while at the same location during high flow, salinity was less than 0.5 PSU at all times. Conditions were partially stratified during low flow. When present, stratification was in the form of a salt wedge during high flow. Suspended sediment was well mixed or exhibited a Rouse-like profile in fresh regions; suspended-sediment concentration within the salt wedge was generally less, except during periods of strong near-bottom flow within the salt-wedge water mass. During both seasons and at all locations, distinct, preferential pathways of water and sediment within the cross-sections were present through the tidal cycles, which may foster development of the rapidly prograding islands within the tidal river. Data collected from seasonal cruises along the geographically vast Amazon tidal river provide context for more spatially constrained studies on the Mekong tidal river and highlight the contrasts between these two large tropical river systems. Ongoing work in these two systems provides a basis for improved understanding of sediment-transport processes within the tidal reach and ultimate quantity, timing, and character of sediment delivered to the ocean.

  19. Observation of anomalously large blue shift of the heavy-hole photocurrent peak and optical bistability in narrow asymmetric coupled

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Alexander

    the red-Stark shift of the excitonic transition.8'9 Based on such mechanism, ACQWs have been usedObservation of anomalously large blue shift of the heavy-hole photocurrent peak and optical June 1991) Blue shift of the heavy-hole peak of the photocurrent spectra has been observed

  20. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB PULSAR AND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M. E-mail: mazziotta@ba.infn.i E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.f

    2010-01-10

    We report on gamma-ray observations of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula using 8 months of survey data with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The high quality light curve obtained using the ephemeris provided by the Nancay and Jodrell Bank radio telescopes shows two main peaks stable in phase with energy. The first gamma-ray peak leads the radio main pulse by (281 +- 12 +- 21) mus, giving new constraints on the production site of non-thermal emission in pulsar magnetospheres. The first uncertainty is due to gamma-ray statistics, and the second arises from the rotation parameters. The improved sensitivity and the unprecedented statistics afforded by the LAT enable precise measurement of the Crab Pulsar spectral parameters: cut-off energy at E{sub c} = (5.8 +- 0.5 +- 1.2) GeV, spectral index of GAMMA = (1.97 +- 0.02 +- 0.06) and integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (2.09 +- 0.03 +- 0.18) x 10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The first errors represent the statistical error on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Pulsed gamma-ray photons are observed up to approx 20 GeV which precludes emission near the stellar surface, below altitudes of around 4-5 stellar radii in phase intervals encompassing the two main peaks. A detailed phase-resolved spectral analysis is also performed: the hardest emission from the Crab Pulsar comes from the bridge region between the two gamma-ray peaks while the softest comes from the falling edge of the second peak. The spectrum of the nebula in the energy range 100 MeV-300 GeV is well described by the sum of two power laws of indices GAMMA{sub sync} = (3.99 +- 0.12 +- 0.08) and GAMMA{sub IC} = (1.64 +- 0.05 +- 0.07), corresponding to the falling edge of the synchrotron and the rising edge of the inverse Compton (IC) components, respectively. This latter, which links up naturally with the spectral data points of Cherenkov experiments, is well reproduced via IC scattering from standard magnetohydrodynamic nebula models, and does not require any additional radiation mechanism.

  1. XMM-Newton observation of SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Whelan, E. T.; Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipovi?, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present an X-ray study of the supernova remnant SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine its physical characteristics based on its X-ray emission. Methods: We observed SNR J0533-7202 with XMM-Newton (background flare-filtered exposure times of 18 ks EPIC-pn and 31 ks EPIC-MOS1, EPIC-MOS2). We produced X-ray images of the supernova remnant, performed an X-ray spectral analysis, and compared the results to multi-wavelength studies. Results: The distribution of X-ray emission is highly non-uniform, with the south-west region much brighter than the north-east. The detected X-ray emission is correlated with the radio emission from the remnant. We determine that this morphology is most likely due to the supernova remnant expanding into a non-uniform ambient medium and not an absorption effect. We estimate the remnant size to be 53.9 (±3.4) × 43.6 (±3.4) pc, with the major axis rotated ~64° east of north. We find no spectral signatures of ejecta emission and infer that the X-ray plasma is dominated by swept up interstellar medium. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimate the age of SNR J0533-7202 to be ~17-27 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.09-0.83) × 1051 erg. We detected an X-ray source located near the centre of the remnant, namely XMMU J053348.2-720233. The source type could not be conclusively determined due to the lack of a multi-wavelength counterpart and low X-ray counts. We found that it is likely either a background active galactic nucleus or a low-mass X-ray binary in the LMC. Conclusions: We detected bright thermal X-ray emission from SNR J0533-7202 and determined that the remnant is in the Sedov phase of its evolution. The lack of ejecta emission prohibits us from typing the remnant with the X-ray data. Therefore, the likely Type Ia classification based on the local stellar population and star formation history reported in the literature cannot be improved upon. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  2. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makishima, K.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between ~100 MeV and ~100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to ~10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1° × 1° pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ~10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ~2.3 × 1020 cm-2(K km s-1)-1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212°), ~1.7 times higher than ~1.3 × 1020 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO.

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming

    2014-07-01

    Context. HESS J1731-347 has been identified as one of the few TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs). These remnants are dominated by nonthermal emission, and the nature of TeV emission has been continuously debated for nearly a decade. Aims: We carry out the detailed modeling of the radio to ?-ray spectrum of HESS J1731-347 to constrain the magnetic field and energetic particles sources, which we compare with those of the other TeV-bright shell-type SNRs explored before. Methods: Four years of data from Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations for regions around this remnant are analyzed, leading to no detection correlated with the source discovered in the TeV band. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method is used to constrain parameters of one-zone models for the overall emission spectrum. Results: Based on the 99.9% upper limits of fluxes in the GeV range, one-zone hadronic models with an energetic proton spectral slope greater than 1.8 can be ruled out, which favors a leptonic origin for the ?-ray emission, making this remnant a sibling of the brightest TeV SNR RX J1713.7-3946, the Vela Junior SNR RX J0852.0-4622, and RCW 86. The best-fit leptonic model has an electron spectral slope of 1.8 and a magnetic field of ~30 ?G, which is at least a factor of 2 higher than those of RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, posing a challenge to the distance estimate and/or the energy equipartition between energetic electrons and the magnetic field of this source. A measurement of the shock speed will address this challenge and has implications on the magnetic field evolution and electron acceleration driven by shocks of SNRs.

  4. Very large array observations of ammonia in high-mass star formation regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xing; Gu, Qiusheng; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-08-01

    We report systematic mapping observations of the NH{sub 3} (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines toward 62 high-mass star-forming regions using the Very Large Array (VLA) in its D and DnC array configurations. The VLA images cover a spatial dynamic range from 40'' to 3'', allowing us to trace gas kinematics from ?1 pc scales to ?0.1 pc scales. Based on the NH{sub 3} morphology and the infrared nebulosity on 1 pc scales, we categorize three subclasses in the sample: filaments, hot cores, and NH{sub 3}-dispersed sources. The ubiquitous gas filaments found on 1 pc scales have a typical width of ?0.1 pc and often contain regularly spaced fragments along the major axis. The spacing of the fragments and the column densities is consistent with the turbulent supported fragmentation of cylinders. Several sources show multiple filaments that converge toward a center where the velocity field in the filaments is consistent with gas flows. We derive rotational temperature maps for the entire sample. For the three hot core sources, we find a projected radial temperature distribution that is best fit by power-law indices from –0.18 to –0.35. We identify 174 velocity-coherent ?0.1 pc scale dense cores from the entire sample. The mean physical properties for these cores are 1.1 km s{sup –1} in intrinsic linewidth, 18 K in NH{sub 3} rotational temperature, 2.3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2} in NH{sub 3} gas column density, and 67 M{sub ?} in molecular mass. The dense cores identified from the filamentary sources are closer to being virialized. Dense cores in the other two categories of sources appear to be dynamically unstable.

  5. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between approx 100 MeV and approx 100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to approx 10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W(sub CO)) at a 1 deg 1 deg pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W(sub CO) range of approx 10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W(sub CO)-to-mass conversion factor, X(sub CO), is found to be approx 2.3 10(exp 20) / sq cm (K km/s)(exp -1) for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212 deg), approx 1.7 times higher than approx 1.3 10(exp 20) found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X(sub CO) in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas.W(sub CO) decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W(sub CO).

  6. Circular dichroism in biological photonic crystals and cubic chiral nets.

    PubMed

    Saba, M; Thiel, M; Turner, M D; Hyde, S T; Gu, M; Grosse-Brauckmann, K; Neshev, D N; Mecke, K; Schröder-Turk, G E

    2011-03-11

    Nature provides impressive examples of chiral photonic crystals, with the notable example of the cubic so-called srs network (the label for the chiral degree-three network modeled on SrSi2) or gyroid structure realized in wing scales of several butterfly species. By a circular polarization analysis of the band structure of such networks, we demonstrate strong circular dichroism effects: The butterfly srs microstructure, of cubic I4(1)32 symmetry, shows significant circular dichroism for blue to ultraviolet light, that warrants a search for biological receptors sensitive to circular polarization. A derived synthetic structure based on four like-handed silicon srs nets exhibits a large circular polarization stop band of a width exceeding 30%. These findings offer design principles for chiral photonic devices. PMID:21469792

  7. Large-Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J. R.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, M. D.; Blake, J. B.; Roth, I.

    2012-12-01

    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large-amplitude whistler mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s of mV/m) whistler mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large-amplitude whistler mode waves are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. These characteristics are different than those of typical chorus, though it remains to be seen whether the large-amplitude whistler mode waves are a subpopulation of chorus or something else entirely. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in electron energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large pitch angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  8. Discovery of circularly polarised radio emission from SS 433

    E-print Network

    Robert Fender; David Rayner; Ray Norris; R. J. Sault; Guy Pooley

    1999-11-23

    We report the discovery of circularly polarised radio emission from the radio-jet X-ray binary SS 433 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The flux density spectrum of the circular polarization, clearly detected at four frequencies between 1 - 9 GHz, has a spectral index of (-0.9 +/- 0.1). Multiple components in the source and a lack of very high spatial resolution do not allow a unique determination of the origin of the circular polarization, nor of the spectrum of fractional polarization. However, we argue that the emission is likely to arise in the inner regions of the binary, possibly via propagation-induced conversion of linear to circular polarization, and the fractional circular polarization of these regions may be as high as 10%. Observations such as these have the potential to investigate the composition, whether pairs or baryonic, of the ejecta from X-ray binaries.

  9. Large scale IRAM 30 m CO-observations in the giant molecular cloud complex W43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-12-01

    We aim to fully describe the distribution and location of dense molecular clouds in the giant molecular cloud complex W43. It was previously identified as one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. To trace the moderately dense molecular clouds in the W43 region, we initiated W43-HERO, a large program using the IRAM 30 m telescope, which covers a wide dynamic range of scales from 0.3 to 140 pc. We obtained on-the-fly-maps in 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1) with a high spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 12''. These maps cover an area of ~1.5 square degrees and include the two main clouds of W43 and the lower density gas surrounding them. A comparison to Galactic models and previous distance calculations confirms the location of W43 near the tangential point of the Scutum arm at approximately 6 kpc from the Sun. The resulting intensity cubes of the observed region are separated into subcubes, which are centered on single clouds and then analyzed in detail. The optical depth, excitation temperature, and H2 column density maps are derived out of the 13CO and C18O data. These results are then compared to those derived from Herschel dust maps. The mass of a typical cloud is several 104 M? while the total mass in the dense molecular gas (>102 cm-3) in W43 is found to be ~1.9 × 106 M?. Probability distribution functions obtained from column density maps derived from molecular line data and Herschel imaging show a log-normal distribution for low column densities and a power-law tail for high densities. A flatter slope for the molecular line data probability distribution function may imply that those selectively show the gravitationally collapsing gas. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe final datacubes (13CO and C18O) for the entire survey are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A24

  10. Wind Turbine Wake Variability in a Large Wind Farm, Observed by Scanning Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Xiaoxia, G.; Aitken, M.; Quelet, P. T.; Rana, J.; Rhodes, M. E.; St Martin, C. M.; Tay, K.; Worsnop, R.; Irvin, S.; Rajewski, D. A.; Takle, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Although wind turbine wake modeling is critical for accurate wind resource assessment, operational forecasting, and wind plant optimization, verification of such simulations is currently constrained by sparse datasets taken in limited atmospheric conditions, often of single turbines in isolation. To address this knowledge gap, our team deployed a WINDCUBE 200S scanning lidar in a 300-MW operating wind farm as part of the CWEX-13 field experiment. The lidar was deployed ~2000 m from a row of four turbines, such that wakes from multiple turbines could be sampled with horizontal scans. Twenty minutes of every hour were devoted to horizontal scans at ½ degree resolution at six different elevation angles. Twenty-five days of data were collected, with wind speeds at hub height ranging from quiescent to 14 m/s, and atmospheric stability varying from unstable to strongly stable. The example scan in Fig. 1a shows wakes from a row of four turbines propagating to the northwest. This extensive wake dataset is analyzed based on the quantitative approach of Aitken et al. (J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 2014), who developed an automated wake detection algorithm to characterize wind turbine wakes from scanning lidar data. We have extended the Aitken et al. (2014) method to consider multiple turbines in a single scan in order to classify the large numbers of wakes observed in the CWEX-13 dataset (Fig. 1b) during southerly flow conditions. The presentation will explore the variability of wake characteristics such as the velocity deficit and the wake width. These characteristics vary with atmospheric stability, atmospheric turbulence, and inflow wind speed. We find that the strongest and most persistent wakes occur at low to moderate wind speeds (region 2 of the turbine power curve) in stable conditions. We also present evidence that, in stable conditions with strong changes of wind direction with height, wakes propagate in different directions at different elevations above the surface. Finally, we compare characteristics of wakes at the outside of the row of turbines to wakes from turbines in the interior of the row, quantifying how wakes from outer turbines erode faster than those from interior.

  11. Loop equation analysis of the circular ? ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, N. S.; Forrester, P. J.

    2015-02-01

    We construct a hierarchy of loop equations for invariant circular ensembles. These are valid for general classes of potentials and for arbitrary inverse temperatures Re ? > 0 and number of eigenvalues N. Using matching arguments for the resolvent functions of linear statistics f( ?) = ( ? + z)/( ? - z) in a particular asymptotic regime, the global regime, we systematically develop the corresponding large N expansion and apply this solution scheme to the Dyson circular ensemble. Currently we can compute the second resolvent function to ten orders in this expansion and also its general Fourier coefficient or moment mk to an equivalent length. The leading large N, large k, k/ N fixed form of the moments can be related to the small wave-number expansion of the structure function in the bulk, scaled Dyson circular ensemble, known from earlier work. From the moment expansion we conjecture some exact partial fraction forms for the low k moments. For all of the forgoing results we have made a comparison with the exactly soluble cases of ? = 1, 2, 4, general N and even, positive ?, N = 2, 3.

  12. Large Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, Cynthia; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, Mark D.; Blake, J. Bernard; Roth, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large amplitude whistler-mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s mV/m) whistler-mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large amplitude whistlers have characteristics that are different from typical chorus. They are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  13. Integrated observations of processes and products of large scale cratering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.; Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Taddeucci, J.; Zimanowski, B.; Lube, G.; Kueppers, U.; Bowman, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed analysis of volcanic craters and ballistic deposits can provide insight into eruption dynamics and evolution. As fully exposed craters and associated unmodified deposits are rarely preserved, the dynamics involved can only be inferred. Large-scale blast experiments conducted at the University at Buffalo Geohazards Field Station produced deposits from single and multiple subsurface explosions at individual craters, along with a range of observational data, and provide a unique opportunity to link dynamics with geologic structures and deposits. Meter-scale craters were produced through repeated blasts using chemical explosives in 15 cm thick strata constructed of compacted aggregates (e.g. sands and gravels). Each experiment had 1-3 individual explosions with the same epicenter to form a single crater, with a total of 12 blasts and five craters. Three craters were produced through a series of shallow blasts (34-75 cm depth, six blasts) and two additional craters were produced by deeper blasts (75-100 cm, six blasts). The experiments successfully reproduced crater structures similar to those of maar volcanoes, which are the product of one or more subsurface explosions resulting from the interaction of magma with groundwater. Deep explosion tests successfully reproduced mixing and structures similar to maar-diatremes. The ballistics produced were collected in sample boxes up to 18 m from the blast center. The pits were later excavated and the vertical structures and deposits were described and sampled. Deposits can be described as bedded-diatreme (fallback/inter-crater deposits), unbedded diatreme (disturbed subsurface material), tephra ring (debris on the pre-blast surface) and distal extra-crater deposits. Granulometry and componentry were acquired for all samples. The diatreme structures and deposit componentry were interpreted using high-speed video recordings of the blasts. A comparison of ballistic source depth and collection location revealed the importance of multiple blasts in the excavation of deeper layers, suggesting that componentry of extra-crater deposits does not accurately indicate the depth of explosions, and would yield underestimates of the depth of activity. Additionally, material derived from the surface/shallow depths is deposited farther from the crater than deeper-derived material, suggesting an important lateral control on deposition from explosions at depth. Fallback deposits are critical to interpreting the evolution of the diatreme and crater, because only with the shallowest blasts does material escape the crater. Sampling of deposits from multiple blasts revealed mixing of subsurface material, and the influence of early fallback deposits and a pre-blast crater on the deposits preserved below, within and outside of the crater. Experiments such as these reveal links between explosions and their deposits unattainable from geological studies, and advance our ability to reconstruct processes of real eruptions from their deposits.

  14. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S.

    2011-11-15

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  15. Diffuse optical intracluster light as a measure of stellar tidal stripping: The cluster CL0024+17 at z ? 0.4 observed at the large binocular telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Grazian, A.; Gallozzi, S.; Castellano, M.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Boutsia, K.; Paris, D.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.

    2014-01-20

    We have evaluated the diffuse intracluster light (ICL) in the central core of the galaxy cluster CL0024+17 at z ? 0.4 observed with the prime focus camera (Large Binocular Camera) at the Large Binocular Telescope. The measure required an accurate removal of the galaxies' light within ?200 kpc from the center. The residual background intensity has then been integrated in circular apertures to derive the average ICL intensity profile. The latter shows an approximate exponential decline as expected from theoretical cold dark matter models where the ICL is due to the integrated contribution of light from stars that are tidally stripped from the halo of their host galaxies due to encounters with other galaxies in the cluster cold dark matter (CDM) potential. The radial profile of the ICL over the galaxies intensity ratio (ICL fraction) is increasing with decreasing radius, but near the cluster center it starts to bend and then decreases where the overlap of the halos of the brightest cluster galaxies becomes dominant. Theoretical expectations in a simplified CDM scenario show that the ICL fraction profile can be estimated from the stripped over galaxy stellar mass ratio in the cluster. It is possible to show that the latter quantity is almost independent of the properties of the individual host galaxies but mainly depends on the average cluster properties. The predicted ICL fraction profile is thus very sensitive to the assumed CDM profile, total mass, and concentration parameter of the cluster. Adopting values very similar to those derived from the most recent lensing analysis in CL0024+17, we find a good agreement with the observed ICL fraction profile. The galaxy counts in the cluster core have then been compared with that derived from composite cluster samples in larger volumes, up to the clusters virial radius. The galaxy counts in the CL0024+17 core appear flatter and the amount of bending with respect to the average cluster galaxy counts imply a loss of total emissivity in broad agreement with the measured ICL fraction. The present analysis shows that the measure of the ICL fraction in clusters can quantitatively account for the stellar stripping activity in their cores and can be used to probe their CDM distribution and evolutionary status.

  16. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Circular'' (76 FR 60593) and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular'' (76 FR 60590). Corrections The... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular... information sessions, as published in the September 29, 2011, Federal Register Notices titled ``Title...

  17. Radar Observation of Large Attenuation in Convective Storms: Implications for the Dropsize Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, G. M.; Srivastava, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne meteorological radars typically operate at attenuating wavelengths. The path integrated attenuation (PIA) can be estimated using the surface reference technique (SRT). In this method, an initial value is determined for the radar cross section of the earth surface in a rain-free area in relatively close proximity to the rain cloud. During subsequent observations of precipitation any decrease 'in the observed surface cross section from the reference value s assumed to be a result of the two-way attenuation along the propagation path. In this paper we present selected instances of high PIA observed over land by an airborne radar. The observations were taken in Brazil and Florida during TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) field campaigns. We compared these observations with collocated and nearly simultaneous ground-based radar observations by an S-band radar that is not subject to significant attenuation. In this preliminary evaluation, a systematic difference in the attenuation in the two storms is attributed to a difference in the raindrop size distributions; this is supported by observations of ZDR (differential reflectivity).

  18. Observation of the Earth's dynamic ellipticity with a large ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Kluegel, Thomas; Gebauer, Andre

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid advance of large ring laser gyroscopes, their promising applications in geoscience (such as, detection of Earth's tides, Earth's free oscillations and seismical waves etc.) have been demonstrated impressively by several ring laser groups. In this work we will report on one more application, which is the determination of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity by measuring the retrograde diurnal polar motion at the K1 wave with a single large ring laser. The Earth's astronomical dynamical ellipticity Hd = 0.00325(6) is estimated by means of 168 days of continuous data from the G-ring, located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  19. Entropic derivation of F=ma for circular motion

    E-print Network

    Michael Duncan; Ratbay Myrzakulov; Douglas Singleton

    2011-08-11

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F=ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations.

  20. Entropic derivation of F = m a for circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Michael; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-09-01

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F = ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations.

  1. Entropic derivation of F=ma for circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Michael; Singleton, Douglas; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2011-11-01

    We examine the entropic picture of Newton's second law for the case of circular motion. It is shown that one must make modifications to the derivation of F = ma due to a change in the effective Unruh temperature for circular motion. These modifications present a challenge to the entropic derivation of Newton's second law, but also open up the possibility to experimentally test and constrain this model for large centripetal accelerations. (Phys. Lett. B 703 (2011) 516-518)

  2. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  3. Observation of large refrigerant capacity in the HoVO3 vanadate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balli, M.; Roberge, B.; Jandl, S.; Fournier, P.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Nugroho, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The HoVO3 orthovanadate undergoes a large negative and conventional magnetocaloric effects around 4 K and 15 K, respectively. The partly overlapping of the magnetic transition at 15 K and the structural transition occurring at 40 K, as well as the large magnetization, give rise to a giant refrigerant capacity without hysteresis loss. For a magnetic field variation of 7 T, the refrigerant capacity is evaluated to be 620 J/kg, which is larger than that for any known RMnO3 manganite. These results should inspire and open new ways for the improvement of magnetocaloric properties of ABO3 type-oxides.

  4. Large-Eddy Observation of Post-Cold-Frontal Continental Stratocumulus

    E-print Network

    Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Yefim L.; Schultz, David M.

    2010-10-01

    United States on 8 April 2006. The stratocumulus occurred in cold-air and dry-air advection behind a surface cold front. LEOs were obtained from millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and micropulse lidar, whereas traditional meteorological observations...

  5. Observations and simulations of a large-amplitude mountain wave breaking over the Antarctic Peninsula

    E-print Network

    Plougonven, Riwal

    of the mountain wave on the stratosphere: forcing of the mean flow, generation of secondary inertia-gravity waves of its high intrinsic frequency, but the balloon data set is complemented with high-resolution numerical with operational analyses to estimate the frequency of such large-amplitude gravity waves, i.e., to provide

  6. An observation-based formulation of snow cover fraction and its evaluation over large North American river basins

    E-print Network

    Yang, Zong-Liang

    An observation-based formulation of snow cover fraction and its evaluation over large North; accepted 23 July 2007; published 1 November 2007. [1] Snow cover strongly interacts with climate through snow albedo feedbacks. However, global climate models still are not adequate in representing snow cover

  7. Large XCH4 anomaly in summer 2013 over Northeast Asia observed by GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, M.; Uchino, O.; Morino, I.; Inoue, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Mabuchi, K.; Shirai, T.; Tohjima, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Takizawa, A.

    2015-09-01

    Extremely high levels of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of atmospheric methane (XCH4) were detected in August and September 2013 over Northeast Asia (~ 20 ppb above the averaged summertime XCH4 over 2009-2012, after removing a long-term trend), as being retrieved from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Similar enhancements of XCH4 were also observed by the ground-based measurements at two Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites in Japan. The analysis of surface CH4 concentrations observed at three monitoring sites around the Japan islands suggest that the extreme increase of XCH4 has occurred in a limited area. The model analysis was conducted to investigate this anomalously high XCH4 event, using an atmospheric transport model. The results indicate that the extreme increase of XCH4 is attributed to the anomalous atmospheric pressure pattern over East Asia during the summer of 2013, which effectively transported the CH4-rich air to Japan from the strong CH4 source areas in East China. The two Japanese TCCON sites, ~ 1000 km east-west apart each other, coincidentally located along the substantially CH4-rich air flow from East China. The GOSAT orbiting with three-day recurrence successfully observed the synoptic-scale XCH4 enhancement in the comparable accuracy to the TCCON data. This analysis demonstrates the capability of GOSAT to monitor an XCH4 event on a synoptic scale.

  8. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  9. Scattering matrix of infrared radiation by ice finite circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lisheng; Ding, Jilie; Cheng, Andrew Y S

    2002-04-20

    Scattering matrix characteristics of polydisperse, randomly oriented, small ice crystals modeled by finite circular cylinders with various ratios of the length to diameter (L/D) ratio are calculated by use of the exact T-matrix approach, with emphasis on the thermal infrared spectral region that extends from the atmospheric short-wave IR window to the far-IR wavelengths to as large as 30 microm. The observed ice crystal size distribution and the well-known power-law distribution are considered. The results of the extensive calculations show that the characteristics of scattering matrix elements of small ice circular cylinders depend strongly on wavelengths and refractive indices, particle size distributions, and the L/D ratios. The applicability of the power-law distribution and particle shapes for light scattering calculations for small ice crystals is discussed. The effects of the effective variance of size distribution on light scattering characteristics are addressed. It seems from the behavior of scattering matrix elements of small ice crystals that the combination of 25 and 3.979 microm has some advantages and potential applications for remote sensing of cirrus and other ice clouds. PMID:12003228

  10. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  11. Recent large reduction in sulfur dioxide emissions from Chinese power plants observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-04-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/NOx emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of SO2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing SO2 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  12. Testing of Large Diameter Fresnel Optics for Space Based Observations of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Young, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission will detect extensive air showers produced by extreme energy cosmic rays. It operates from the ISS looking down on Earth's night time atmosphere to detect the nitrogen fluorescence and Cherenkov produce by the charged particles in the EAS. The JEM-EUSO science objectives require a large field of view, sensitivity to energies below 50 EeV, and must fit within available ISS resources. The JEM-EUSO optic module uses three large diameter, thin plastic lenses with Fresnel surfaces to meet the instrument requirements. A bread-board model of the optic has been manufactured and has undergone preliminary tests. We report the results of optical performance tests and evaluate the present capability to manufacture these optical elements.

  13. Search for Electromagnetic Counterparts to LIGO-Virgo Candidates: Expanded Very Large Array Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Keating, Katie; Jenet, F. A.; Kassim, N. E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes a search for radio wavelength counterparts to candidate gravitational wave events. The identification of an electromagnetic counterpart could provide a more complete understanding of a gravitational wave event, including such characteristics as the location and the nature of the progenitor. We used the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) to search six galaxies which were identified as potential hosts for two candidate gravitational wave events. We summarize our procedures and discuss preliminary results.

  14. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-12-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s-1 and 0.1494 m s-2, respectively.

  15. Short intronic repeat sequences facilitate circular RNA production

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Recent deep sequencing studies have revealed thousands of circular noncoding RNAs generated from protein-coding genes. These RNAs are produced when the precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing machinery “backsplices” and covalently joins, for example, the two ends of a single exon. However, the mechanism by which the spliceosome selects only certain exons to circularize is largely unknown. Using extensive mutagenesis of expression plasmids, we show that miniature introns containing the splice sites along with short (?30- to 40-nucleotide) inverted repeats, such as Alu elements, are sufficient to allow the intervening exons to circularize in cells. The intronic repeats must base-pair to one another, thereby bringing the splice sites into close proximity to each other. More than simple thermodynamics is clearly at play, however, as not all repeats support circularization, and increasing the stability of the hairpin between the repeats can sometimes inhibit circular RNA biogenesis. The intronic repeats and exonic sequences must collaborate with one another, and a functional 3? end processing signal is required, suggesting that circularization may occur post-transcriptionally. These results suggest detailed and generalizable models that explain how the splicing machinery determines whether to produce a circular noncoding RNA or a linear mRNA. PMID:25281217

  16. Observations and implications of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a solar filament

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Knizhnik, K.; Muglach, K.; Karpen, J.; Gilbert, H.; Kucera, T. A.; Uritsky, V.

    2014-04-10

    On 2010 August 20, an energetic disturbance triggered large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a nearby filament. The triggering mechanism appears to be episodic jets connecting the energetic event with the filament threads. In the present work, we analyze this periodic motion in a large fraction of the filament to characterize the underlying physics of the oscillation as well as the filament properties. The results support our previous theoretical conclusions that the restoring force of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations is solar gravity, and the damping mechanism is the ongoing accumulation of mass onto the oscillating threads. Based on our previous work, we used the fitted parameters to determine the magnitude and radius of curvature of the dipped magnetic field along the filament, as well as the mass accretion rate onto the filament threads. These derived properties are nearly uniform along the filament, indicating a remarkable degree of cohesiveness throughout the filament channel. Moreover, the estimated mass accretion rate implies that the footpoint heating responsible for the thread formation, according to the thermal nonequilibrium model, agrees with previous coronal heating estimates. We estimate the magnitude of the energy released in the nearby event by studying the dynamic response of the filament threads, and discuss the implications of our study for filament structure and heating.

  17. MIC-Large Scale Magnetically Inflated Cable Structures for Space Power, Propulsion, Communications and Observational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the erection of rigid large scale structures in space-MIC (Magnetically Inflated Cable)-is described. MIC structures are launched as a compact payload of superconducting cables and attached tethers. After reaching orbit, the superconducting cables are energized with electrical current. The magnet force interactions between the cables cause them to expand outwards into the final large structure. Various structural shapes and applications are described. The MIC structure can be a simple flat disc with a superconducting outer ring that supports a tether network holding a solar cell array, or it can form a curved mirror surface that concentrates light and focuses it on a smaller region-for example, a high flux solar array that generates electric power, a high temperature receiver that heats H2 propellant for high Isp propulsion, and a giant primary reflector for a telescope for astronomy and Earth surveillance. Linear dipole and quadrupole MIC structures are also possible. The linear quadrupole structure can be used for magnetic shielding against cosmic radiation for astronauts, for example. MIC could use lightweight YBCO superconducting HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) cables, that can operate with liquid N2 coolant at engineering current densities of ~105 amp/cm2. A 1 kilometer length of MIC cable would weigh only 3 metric tons, including superconductor, thermal insulations, coolant circuits, and refrigerator, and fit within a 3 cubic meter compact package for launch. Four potential MIC applications are described: Solar-thermal propulsion using H2 propellant, space based solar power generation for beaming power to Earth, a large space telescope, and solar electric generation for a manned lunar base. The first 3 applications use large MIC solar concentrating mirrors, while the 4th application uses a surface based array of solar cells on a magnetically levitated MIC structure to follow the sun. MIC space based mirrors can be very large and light in weight. A 300 meter diameter MIC mirror in orbit for example, would weigh 20 metric tons and MIC structures can be easily developed and tested on Earth at small scale in existing evacuated chambers followed by larger scale tests in the atmosphere, using a vacuum tight enclosure on the small diameter superconducting cable to prevent air leakage into the evacuated thermal insulation around the superconducting cable.

  18. AQUAPORINS ARE OBSERVED IN THE DUCT EPITHELIA OF THE EPIDIDYMAL REGION OF THE LARGE WHITE TURKEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the re-uptake of the testicular fluid supporting sperm exiting the testes is not known in the bird. The presence of aquaporin, a protein involved in the transmembrane water transport, was investigated. Observations were limited to the ductuli efferent...

  19. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  20. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  1. THE FAINTEST RADIO SOURCE YET: EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS SDSS J1004+4112

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.

    2011-09-20

    We present new radio observations of the large-separation gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1004+4112, taken in a total of 6 hr of observations with the Expanded Very Large Array. The maps reach a thermal noise level of approximately 4 {mu}Jy. We detect four of the five lensed images at the 15-35 {mu}Jy level, representing a source of intrinsic flux density, after allowing for lensing magnification, of about 1 {mu}Jy, intrinsically probably the faintest radio source yet detected. This reinforces the utility of gravitational lensing in potentially allowing us to study nJy-level sources before the advent of the Square Kilometre Array. In an optical observation taken three months after the radio observation, image C is the brightest image, whereas the radio map shows flux density ratios consistent with previous optical observations. Future observations separated by a time delay will give the intrinsic flux ratios of the images in this source.

  2. Spacewatch Observations of Asteroids and Comets Supporting the Large-Scale Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Scotti, James V.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Mastaler, Ronald A.

    2014-11-01

    We specialize in followup astrometry of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) of high priority while they are faint, including recently discovered objects on the MPC's Confirmation Page, objects with potential close encounters with Earth, NEOs for which NEOWISE determined albedos and diameters, targets of radar, potential destinations for spacecraft, and special requests by the MPC or JPL. The present era of Spacewatch observations began on 2011 Oct 15 with a new imaging camera on our 1.8-meter telescope. From then, the MPC has been accepting an annual average of 8,492 lines of astrometry of 1,018 different NEOs from Spacewatch, including 177 different PHAs per year. Thus we observe half of all such objects that are observed by anyone in the same interval. We make twice as many measurements of PHAs while they are fainter than V=22 than the next most productive astrometry group. We have contributed to the removal of half of the objects that were retired from JPL's impact risk list. Per year we observe about 35 radar targets, 50 NEOs that were measured by NEOWISE, and 100 potential rendezvous destinations. We also average 400 observations of comets per year. Since 2004 we have increased our efficiency by a factor of six in terms of observations per unit personnel work year by means of new hardware, software, and the automation of the 0.9-m telescope. Last year we received a grant to upgrade our 0.9-m telescope and develop a public archive of image data dating back to 1990. New grants from the NEOO Program now support our use of telescopes larger than the 1.8-meter of Spacewatch and improvement of the efficiency of the Spacewatch 1.8-m. Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Steward Observatory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted to the MPC of the IAU for their web services.

  3. Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Scargle, J. D.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.

  4. Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cameron, R.A.; Caraveo, P.A.; Casandjian, J.M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; /more authors..

    2012-08-17

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to {gamma}{gamma} should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.

  5. Limits on large extra dimensions based on observations of neutron stars with the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermi-LAT Collaboration; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Graham, P.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hughes, R. E.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lionetto, A. M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-02-01

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to ?? should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.

  6. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  7. A stacked analysis of brightest cluster galaxies observed with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutson, K. L.; White, R. J.; Edge, A. C.; Hinton, J. A.; Hogan, M. T.

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of a search for high-energy ?-ray emission from a large sample of galaxy clusters sharing the properties of three existing Fermi Large Area Telescope detections (in Perseus, Virgo and A3392), namely a powerful radio source within their brightest cluster galaxy (BCG). From a parent, X-ray flux-limited sample of 863 clusters, we select 114 systems with a core-dominated BCG radio flux above 50/75 mJy (in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory Very Large Array Sky Survey and the Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey, respectively), stacking data from the first 45 months of the Fermi mission in three energy bands, to determine statistical limits on the ?-ray fluxes of the ensemble of candidate sources. For a >300 MeV selection, the distribution of detection significance across the sample is consistent with that across control samples for significances <3?, but has a tail extending to higher values, including three >4? signals which are not associated with previously identified ?-ray emission. Modelling of the data in these fields results in the detection of four non-2FGL Fermi sources, though none of these appear to be unambiguously associated with the BCG candidate. Only one is sufficiently close to be a plausible counterpart (RXC J0132.6-0804) and the remaining three appear to be background active galactic nuclei. A search at energies >3 GeV hints at emission from the BCG in A2055, which hosts a BL Lac object. There is no evidence for a signal in the stacked data, and the upper limit derived on the ?-ray flux of an average radio-bright BCG in each band is at least an order of magnitude more constraining than that calculated for individual objects. F1 GeV/F1.4 GHz for an average BCG in the sample is <15, compared with ?120 for NGC 1275 in Perseus, which might indicate a special case for those objects detected at high energies. The tentative suggestion that point-like beamed emission from member galaxies comprise the dominant bright ?-ray sources in clusters implies searches for evidence of dark matter annihilation or large-scale merger shock signatures, for example, need to account for a significant level of contamination from within each cluster that is both highly stochastic and varies significantly over time.

  8. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, J. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    Various computational methodologies relevant to large-scale multidisciplinary gradient-based optimization for engineering systems design problems are examined with emphasis on the situation where one or more discipline responses required by the optimized design procedure involve the solution of a system of nonlinear partial differential equations. Such situations occur when advanced CFD codes are applied in a multidisciplinary procedure for optimizing an aerospace vehicle design. A technique for satisfying the multidisciplinary design requirements for gradient information is presented. The technique is shown to permit some leeway in the CFD algorithms which can be used, an expansion to 3D problems, and straightforward use of other computational methodologies.

  9. STS-65 Earth observation of western Pacific Ocean with large typhoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This photograph was fairly characteristic of the western Pacific Ocean between the Philippine Islands and the area just south of the Japanese Islands during the duration of the STS-65 shuttle mission. The western half of a large typhoon can be seen near the horizon and terminator. Numerous small thunderstorms are visible toward the center of the photograph, and an extensive area of scattered clouds (with possibly dissipated or collapsed thunderstorms) can be seen towards the bottom of the picture. View was taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102.

  10. VLA observations of stellar planetary nebulae. [using Very Large Array at National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.; Balick, B.; Thompson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Coordinates, dimensions, 4885-MHz flux densities, and brightness temperatures of K3-2, NGC 6833, Ps 1, II 5117, Me 2-2, Hb 12, Vy 1-1, and M1-5 are reported. In two other cases, H3-29 and H3-75, confused extended structure was detected in which the nebula could not be identified with certainty. He 2-467, M1-2, and Peterson's H-alpha object in M15 were also included in the observations but not detected with an upper limit of less than 10 mJy. The observations are compared with some of the previous optical and radio data, such as log S(H-beta). Distances are computed from the present data with standard assumptions. Corresponding linear radii range below 0.1 pc, among the smallest in previous distributions of radius.

  11. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Blazar 3C 279 Occultations by the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Prokhorov, D.; Rainò, S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Observations of occultations of bright ?-ray sources by the Sun may reveal predicted pair halos around blazars and/or new physics, such as, e.g., hypothetical light dark matter particles—axions. We use Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) data to analyze four occultations of blazar 3C 279 by the Sun on October 8 each year from 2008 to 2011. A combined analysis of the observations of these occultations allows a point-like source at the position of 3C 279 to be detected with significance of ?3?, but does not reveal any significant excess over the flux expected from the quiescent Sun. The likelihood ratio test rules out complete transparency of the Sun to the blazar ?-ray emission at a 3? confidence level.

  12. Fermi large area telescope observations of blazar 3C 279 occultations by the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Chiang, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S.; Cecchi, C.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheung, C. C. E-mail: phdmitry@stanford.edu; and others

    2014-04-01

    Observations of occultations of bright ?-ray sources by the Sun may reveal predicted pair halos around blazars and/or new physics, such as, e.g., hypothetical light dark matter particles—axions. We use Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) data to analyze four occultations of blazar 3C 279 by the Sun on October 8 each year from 2008 to 2011. A combined analysis of the observations of these occultations allows a point-like source at the position of 3C 279 to be detected with significance of ?3?, but does not reveal any significant excess over the flux expected from the quiescent Sun. The likelihood ratio test rules out complete transparency of the Sun to the blazar ?-ray emission at a 3? confidence level.

  13. Large-scale earth surface thermal radiative features in space observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Han, Yuge; Xuan, Yimin

    2015-08-01

    It is necessary to complete the earth thermal radiative modeling, since it is the most important background in space infrared observation. A new method was proposed to calculate the earth thermal infrared radiation combined with remote sensing technology. The simplified model also was proposed when the solar radiative impact is neglected properly. The practical split-window algorithm was used to retrieve the global surface temperature from MODIS data products. Integrated with MODTRAN code to calculate the atmospheric radiation and transmittance, the earth thermal infrared features were calculated in typical months. Moreover the radiance dependence on viewing angle was discussed. Through the comparison with CERES measurement results, this model has been proved effective and practicable, and that it would have a further application in space thermal environment analysis or space infrared observation technology.

  14. Large-scale outflow in quasar LBQS J1206+1052: HST/COS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Carter; Arav, Nahum

    2015-11-01

    Using two orbits of HST/COS archival observations, we measure the location and energetics of a quasar outflow from LBQS J1206+1052. From separate collisional excitation models of observed N III/N III* and S III/S III* troughs, we measure the electron number density n_e of the outflow. Both independent determinations are in full agreement and yield n_e =10^{3.0} cm^{-3}. Combining this value of n_e with photoionization simulations, we determine that the outflow is located 840 pc from the central source. The outflow has a velocity of 1400 km s-1, a mass flux of 9 M? yr-1 and a kinetic luminosity of 1042.8 erg s-1. The distance finding is much larger than predicted from radiative acceleration models, but is consistent with recent empirical distance determinations.

  15. Satellite Observed Widespread Decline in Mongolian Grasslands Largely Due to Overgrazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70 percent of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or overgrazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to MODIS observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12 percent on average) in MODIS observed NDVI across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40 percent below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80 percent of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30 percent of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50 percent in areas with denser vegetation cover (p0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r20.10, p0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies.

  16. Satellite observed widespread decline in Mongolian grasslands largely due to overgrazing.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-02-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70% of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or over-grazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12% on average) in MODIS observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40% below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80% of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30% of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50% in areas with denser vegetation cover (P < 0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r(2)  = 0.10, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies. PMID:23966315

  17. Pan-Chromatic Observations of the Remarkable Nova Large Magellanic Cloud 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Shore, Steven N.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Bode, Michael F.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Van Rossum, Daniel R.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13 ± 5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the Swift/XRT and Chandra spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf (WD) being very hot, ˜1 MK, and luminous, ˜1038 erg s-1. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24 ± 0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of ˜0.3 mag which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, i = 60 ± 10{\\circ{}}, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The HST/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the N v (1240 Å) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, ˜10-6 {{M}? }, from a hot and massive WD near the Chandrasekhar limit. The WD, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme WD characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  18. Multiwavelength VLA, SOHO and RHESSI Observations of Magnetic Interactions and Particle Propagation Across Large-Scale Coronal Loops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    2006-06-01

    Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 20 and 91 cm wavelength have been combined with data from the SOHO and RHESSI solar missions to study the evolution of trans-equatorial loops large-scale connecting active regions on the solar surface. The radio observations provide information about the acceleration and propagation of energetic electrons in the these large-scale coronal magnetic structures where energy release and transport takes place. On one day, a long-lasting Type I noise storm at 91 cm wavelength was seen to intensify and shift position above the northern-hemisphere region following an impulsive hard X-ray burst (RHESSI) in the southern footpoint region. VLA 20 cm observations as well as SOHO EIT EUV images showed northward-moving and evolving coronal emission across the solar equator during this period, suggesting that the that the trans-equatorial loop acted as a conduit for energetic particles or fields that may have triggered magnetic changes in the corona where the northern noise storm region was seen. On another day, a hard X-ray burst detected at the limb was accompanied by impulsive 20 and 91 cm burst emission along a loop connecting to an active region in the same hemisphere but about 8' away, again indicating particle propagation and remote flare triggering across interconnecting loops. Solar Observations at Tufts University are supported by NASA Guest Investigator Grant NAG5-12844.

  19. Multiwavelength VLA, SOHO and RHESSI Observations of Magnetic Interactions and Particle Propagation Across Large-Scale Coronal Loops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willson, R. F.

    2006-08-01

    Very Large Array (VLA) observations at 20 and 91 cm wavelength have been combined with data from the SOHO and RHESSI solar missions to study the evolution of trans-equatorial loops large-scale connecting active regions on the solar surface. The radio observations provide information about the acceleration and propagation of energetic electrons in these large-scale coronal magnetic structures where energy release and transport takes place. On one day, a long-lasting Type I noise storm at 91 cm wavelength was seen to intensify and shift position above the northern-hemisphere region following an impulsive hard X-ray burst (RHESSI) in the southern footpoint region. VLA 20 cm observations as well as SOHO EIT EUV images showed northward-moving and evolving coronal emission across the solar equator during this period, suggesting that the that the trans-equatorial loop acted as a conduit for energetic particles or fields that may have triggered magnetic changes in the corona where the northern noise storm region was seen. On another day, a hard X-ray burst detected at the limb was accompanied by impulsive 20 and 91 cm burst emission along a loop connecting to an active region in the same hemisphere but about 8' away, again indicating particle propagation and remote flare triggering across interconnecting loops. Solar Observations at Tufts University are supported by NASA Guest Investigator Grant NAG5-12844.

  20. The Large-Scale Observational Signatures of Low-Mass Galaxies During Reionization

    E-print Network

    Dixon, Keri L; Mellema, Garrelt; Ahn, Kyungjin; Shapiro, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the epoch of reionization give us clues about the nature and evolution of the sources of ionizing photons, or early stars and galaxies. We present a new suite of structure formation and radiative transfer simulations from the PRACE4LOFAR project designed to investigate whether the mechanism of radiative feedback, or the suppression of star formation in ionized regions from UV radiation, can be inferred from these observations. Our source halo mass extends down to $10^8 M_\\odot$, with sources in the mass range $10^8$ to $10^9 M_\\odot$ expected to be particularly susceptible to feedback from ionizing radiation, and we vary the aggressiveness and nature of this suppression. Not only do we have four distinct source models, we also include two box sizes (67 Mpc and 349 Mpc), each with two grid resolutions. This suite of simulations allows us to investigate the robustness of our results. All of our simulations are broadly consistent with the observed electron-scattering optical depth of the cosmic m...

  1. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Large-Amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at Mercury's Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Torbjorn; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of Kelvi\\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau are much larger than at Earth. We attribute these greater rates to the limited wave energy dissipation in Mercury's highly resistive regolith. The wave amplitude was often on the order of ' 00 nT or more, and the wave periods were - 10- 20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is present in the data, in that all of the observed wave events occurred in the post-noon and dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is like ly related to finite Larmor-radius effects and is in agreement with results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. The waves were observed almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward, a pattern similar to that for most terrestrial KH wave events. Accompanying plasma measurements show that the waves were associated with the transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  2. Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenji, Bijan; Bloom, Elliott; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann

    2011-11-01

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11-months of Fermi-LAT data to set ?-ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED, we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein graviton (GKK) production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The decays GKK->?? should contribute to the flux from NSs. For n=2,3,...,7 LED of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use MC techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our MC differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques, and obtain limits on LED that are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than collider limits for 3 or fewer LED. If the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then with n=2,3, the LED topology is non-toroidal.

  3. Do recent observations of very large electromagnetic dissociation cross sections signify a transition towards non-perturbative QED?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The very large electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) cross section recently observed by Hill, Wohn, Schwellenbach, and Smith do not agree with Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory or any simple modification thereof. Calculations are presented for the reaction probabilities for this experiment and the entire single and double nucleon removal EMD data set. It is found that for those few reactions where theory and experiment disagree, the probabilities are exceptionally large. This indicates that WW theory is not valid for these reactions and that one must consider higher order corrections and perhaps even a non-perturbative approach to quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  4. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J; Besteiro, Lucas V; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O; Valentine, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:26391292

  5. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:26391292

  6. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-09-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform.

  7. Implementation and management of a biomedical observation dictionary in a large healthcare information system

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Cormont, Sylvie; André, Christophe; Daniel, Christel; Delahousse, Jean; Charlet, Jean; Lepage, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study shows the evolution of a biomedical observation dictionary within the Assistance Publique Hôpitaux Paris (AP-HP), the largest European university hospital group. The different steps are detailed as follows: the dictionary creation, the mapping to logical observation identifier names and codes (LOINC), the integration into a multiterminological management platform and, finally, the implementation in the health information system. Methods AP-HP decided to create a biomedical observation dictionary named AnaBio, to map it to LOINC and to maintain the mapping. A management platform based on methods used for knowledge engineering has been put in place. It aims at integrating AnaBio within the health information system and improving both the quality and stability of the dictionary. Results This new management platform is now active in AP-HP. The AnaBio dictionary is shared by 120 laboratories and currently includes 50?000 codes. The mapping implementation to LOINC reaches 40% of the AnaBio entries and uses 26% of LOINC records. The results of our work validate the choice made to develop a local dictionary aligned with LOINC. Discussion and Conclusions This work constitutes a first step towards a wider use of the platform. The next step will support the entire biomedical production chain, from the clinician prescription, through laboratory tests tracking in the laboratory information system to the communication of results and the use for decision support and biomedical research. In addition, the increase in the mapping implementation to LOINC ensures the interoperability allowing communication with other international health institutions. PMID:23635601

  8. Pan-chromatic observations of the remarkable nova Large Magellanic Cloud 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Shore, Steven N.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Bode, Michael F.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Rossum, Daniel R. Van; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13 ± 5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the Swift/XRT and Chandra spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf (WD) being very hot, ?1 MK, and luminous, ?10{sup 38} erg s{sup ?1}. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24 ± 0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of ?0.3 mag which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, i = 60 ± 10{sup ?}, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The HST/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the N v (1240 ?) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, ?10{sup ?6} M{sub ?}, from a hot and massive WD near the Chandrasekhar limit. The WD, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme WD characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass.

  9. Observations and modeling of GIC in the Chinese large-scale high-voltage power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunming; Li, Yunlong; Pirjola, Risto

    2014-01-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) cause bias fluxes in transformers, resulting in half-cycle saturation. Severely distorted exciting currents, which contain significant amounts of harmonics, threaten the safe operation of equipment and even the whole power system. In this paper, we compare GIC data measured in transformer neutrals and magnetic recordings in China, and show that the GIC amplitudes can be quite large even in mid-low latitude areas. The GIC in the Chinese Northwest 750 kV Power Grid are modeled based on the plane wave assumption. The results show that GIC flowing in some transformers exceed 30 A/phase during strong geomagnetic storms. GIC are thus not only a high-latitude problem but networks in middle and low latitudes can be impacted as well, which needs careful attention.

  10. Deployable, lightweight, and large aperture spaceborne telescope for lidar-based earth observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzinghi, P.; Bratina, V.; Ferruzzi, D.; Gambicorti, L.; Simonetti, F.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.; Salinari, P.; Lisi, F.; Olivier, M.; Bursi, A.; Gallieni, D.; Biasi, R.; Pereira, J.

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes an innovative approach for a new generation of large aperture, deployable telescopes for advanced space LIDAR applications, using the thin active mirror technology. The overall telescope design is presented with a special attention to the optical performances analysis. The mechanical layout with details of the deployment and baffling technique is shown; the complete satellite thermo-elastic analysis mapping the primary mirror deformation due to the thermal loads is presented; the control system architecture is explained and the optical design including the angular and spatial resolution, effective optical aperture and radiometric transmission, optical alignment tolerances, straylight and baffling is deeply discussed. Finally an overview of different mission profiles that this technology can satisfy is presented; the imaging performances can be achieved using the shown technology tuning the surface control to higher performances.

  11. Large scale image projection setup for observation of flocculation in heavy oil/water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Costa, Germán

    2005-09-01

    A heavy oil-in-water emulsion is heated by a continuous wave laser beam, thus producing an ascending thermoconvective liquid flow. Once at the open free surface the oil particles are directly heated by the incoming laser beam, which gives rise to flocculation and eventually to coalescence. A bright, enlarged image of the heated region is formed in a projection screen using the backscattered light of their own laser beam. The device thus allows direct observation and high speed photographic recording of the flocculation process as a function of the sample temperature, which is monitored by means of a thermographic camera.

  12. MESSENGER Observations of Large Dayside Flux Transfer Events: Do They Drive Mercury's Substorm Cycle?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imber, Suzanne M.; Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale dynamic behavior of Mercury's highly compressed magnetosphere is predominantly powered by magnetic reconnection, which transfers energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. The contribution of flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause to the redistribution of magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere is assessed with magnetic field data acquired in orbit about Mercury by the Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. FTEs with core fields greater than the planetary field just inside the magnetopause are prevalent at Mercury. Fifty-eight such large-amplitude FTEs were identified during February and May 2012, when MESSENGER sampled the subsolar magnetosheath. The orientation of each FTE was determined by minimum variance analysis, and the magnetic flux content of each was estimated using a force-free flux rope model. The average flux content of the FTEs was 0.06 MWb, and their durations imply a transient increase in the cross-polar cap potential of approx. 25 kV. For a substorm timescale of 2-3min, as indicated by magnetotail flux loading and unloading, the FTE repetition rate (10 s) and average flux content (assumed to be 0.03 MWb) imply that FTEs contribute at least approx. 30% of the flux transport required to drive the Mercury substorm cycle. At Earth, in contrast, FTEs are estimated to contribute less than 2% of the substorm flux transport. This result implies that whereas at Earth, at which steady-state dayside reconnection is prevalent, multiple X-line dayside reconnection and associated FTEs at Mercury are a dominant forcing for magnetospheric dynamics.

  13. Biological synthesis of circular polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Aboye, Teshome L; Camarero, Julio A

    2012-08-01

    Here, we review the use of different biochemical approaches for biological synthesis of circular or backbone-cyclized proteins and peptides. These methods allow the production of circular polypeptides either in vitro or in vivo using standard recombinant DNA expression techniques. Protein circularization can significantly impact protein engineering and research in protein folding. Basic polymer theory predicts that circularization should lead to a net thermodynamic stabilization of a folded protein by reducing the entropy associated with the unfolded state. Protein cyclization also provides a valuable tool for exploring the effects of topology on protein folding kinetics. Furthermore, the biological production of cyclic polypeptides makes possible the production of cyclic polypeptide libraries. The generation of such libraries, which was previously restricted to the domain of synthetic chemists, now offers biologists access to highly diverse and stable molecular libraries for probing protein structure and function. PMID:22707722

  14. Cover Image: USGS Circular 1381

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cover image: USGS Circular 1381. View of Boulder Basin, Lake Mead, at sunset looking east. The flat topped mountain in the background is Fortification Hill, a well-known landmark in the viewshed from Hoover Dam....

  15. Solar wind structure at large heliocentric distances - An interpretation of Pioneer 10 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundhausen, A. J.; Gosling, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of hourly values of the solar wind speed observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft beyond a heliocentric distance of 4 AU reveals (1) a prevalent 'sawtoothlike' speed-time profile, most speed fluctuations displaying a rapid rise and a much slower decline, and (2) the nearly universal appearance of abrupt (on the 1-hour time resolution of these data) changes in the speed on the rising portions of the speed fluctuations. These previously unreported characteristics, as well as the rate of decay of stream amplitudes derived earlier by Collard and Wolfe, are in general agreement with the predictions of stream propagation models that neglect any conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy outside of shock fronts. Thus the Pioneer 10 observations give the first confirmation of the general concept of solar wind stream evolution employed in these models, i.e., that solar wind speed inhomogeneities appear to steepen to form shock waves and that the 'wave amplitudes' decay slowly as the shock waves propagate outward from the sun.

  16. Observations of large-amplitude, whistler mode wave ducts in the outer plasmasphere

    SciTech Connect

    Koons, H.C. )

    1989-11-01

    Strong enhancements of whistler mode hiss emissions have been observed to correlate with plasma density enhancements in the outer plasmasphere between L = 4 and L = 6. This indicates that these density enhancements are acting as whistler mode wave ducts. The wave and density observations were made simultaneously by the Aerospace swept frequency receiver aboard the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. The plasma density is determined from a narrow-band line near the plasma frequency. The hiss emissions generally occur below 2kHz. The ducts consist of density enhancements of more than 40%. Density gradients on the sides of the ducts range from 0.10 to 0.24 el cm{sup {minus}3} km{sup {minus}1}. The half width of each duct is typically 250 km. The wave intensity maximizes about 15km from the center of the duct toward the outside, i.e., the side with a negative density gradient with increasing distance. The wave intensity near the center of a duct is an order of magnitude higher than the wave intensity at the density minimum between ducts.

  17. X-ray observations of a large sample of cataclysmic variable stars using the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, F. A.; Mason, K. O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an X-ray survey of 31 known or suspected cataclysmic variables. Eighteen of these close binary systems are detected with inferred luminosities in the 0.1-4.0 keV band of between 10 to the 30th and 10 to the 32nd erg/sec. The majority have relatively hard X-ray spectra (kT greater than 2 keV) irrespective of luminosity state. Of seven dwarf novae observed during optical outbursts only U Gem exhibited enhanced ultrasoft X-ray emission (kT of about 10 eV) in addition to weak, hard X-ray emission. Variability of the X-ray flux is observed in many of these stars, on time-scales ranging from tens of seconds to hours. The contribution to the flux from extended X-ray emission is investigated for SU UMa and GK Per. Several possibilities for the origin of the hard X-rays are considered.

  18. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S. W.; Couto e Silva, E. do; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Focke, W. B.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.

    2009-12-15

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx}6.4x10{sup 6} photons with energies >100 MeV and {approx}250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission--often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission--has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {gamma}=2.79{+-}0.06.

  19. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced ?-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Share, G. H.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced ?-ray emission of Earth’s atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded ˜6.4×106 photons with energies >100MeV and ˜250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission—often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission—has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index ?=2.79±0.06.

  20. Occasional large emissions of nitrous oxide and methane observed in stormwater biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Grover, Samantha P P; Cohan, Amanda; Chan, Hon Sen; Livesley, Stephen J; Beringer, Jason; Daly, Edoardo

    2013-11-01

    Designed, green infrastructures are becoming a customary feature of the urban landscape. Sustainable technologies for stormwater management, and biofilters in particular, are increasingly used to reduce stormwater runoff volumes and peaks as well as improve the water quality of runoff discharged into urban water bodies. Although a lot of research has been devoted to these technologies, their effect in terms of greenhouse gas fluxes in urban areas has not been yet investigated. We present the first study aimed at quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes between the soil of stormwater biofilters and the atmosphere. N2O, CH4, and CO2 were measured periodically over a year in two operational vegetated biofiltration cells at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. One cell had a saturated zone at the bottom, and compost and hardwood mulch added to the sandy loam filter media. The other cell had no saturated zone and was composed of sandy loam. Similar sedges were planted in both cells. The biofilter soil was a small N2O source and a sink for CH4 for most measurement events, with occasional large emissions of both N2O and CH4 under very wet conditions. Average N2O fluxes from the cell with the saturated zone were almost five-fold greater (65.6 ?g N2O-N m(-2) h(-1)) than from the other cell (13.7 ?g N2O-N m(-2) h(-1)), with peaks up to 1100 ?g N2O-N m(-2) h(-1). These N2O fluxes are of similar magnitude to those measured in other urban soils, but with larger peak emissions. The CH4 sink strength of the cell with the saturated zone (-3.8 ?g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) was lower than the other cell (-18.3 ?g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)). Both cells of the biofilter appeared to take up CH4 at similar rates to other urban lawn systems; however, the biofilter cells displayed occasional large CH4 emissions following inflow events, which were not seen in other urban systems. CO2 fluxes increased with soil temperature in both cells, and in the cell without the saturated zone CO2 fluxes decreased as soil moisture increased. Other studies of CO2 fluxes from urban soils have found both similar and larger CO2 emissions than those measured in the biofilter. The results of this study suggest that the greenhouse gas footprint of stormwater treatment warrant consideration in the planning and implementation of engineered green infrastructures. PMID:23399408

  1. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Planetary observations and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Differences in scaling relationships for crater formation and the generation of impact melt should lead to a variety of observable features and phenomena. These relationships infer that the volume of the transient cavity (and final crater) relative to the volume of impact melt (and the depth to which melting occurs) decreases as the effects of gravity and impact velocity increase. Since planetary gravity and impact velocity are variables in the calculation of cavity and impact-melt volumes, the implications of the model calculation will vary between planetary bodies. Details of the model calculations of impact-melt generation as a function of impact and target physical conditions were provided elsewhere, as were attempts to validate the model through ground-truth data on melt volumes, shock attenuation, and morphology from terrestrial impact craters.

  2. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L.; Knight, Peter J.; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA+ motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA+ rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour. PMID:26365535

  3. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds: VII. Ophiuchus Observed with MIPS

    E-print Network

    Deborah L. Padgett; Luisa M. Rebull; Karl R. Stapelfeldt; Nicholas L. Chapman; Shih-Ping Lai; Lee G. Mundy; Neal J. Evans II; Timothy Y. Brooke; Lucas A. Cieza; William J. Spiesman; Alberto Noriega-Crespo; Caer-Eve McCabe; Lori E. Allen; Geoffrey A. Blake; Paul M. Harvey; Tracy L. Huard; Jes K. Jorgensen; David W. Koerner; Philip C. Myers; Anneila I. Sargent; Peter Teuben; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Zahed Wahhaj; Kaisa E. Young

    2007-09-21

    We present maps of 14.4 deg^2 of the Ophiuchus dark clouds observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS). These high quality maps depict both numerous point sources as well as extended dust emission within the star-forming and non-star-forming portions of these clouds. Using PSF-fitting photometry, we detect 5779 sources at 24 um and 81 sources at 70 um at the 10 sigma level of significance. Three hundred twenty-three candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) were identified according to their positions on the MIPS/2MASS K versus K$-$[24] color-magnitude diagrams as compared to 24 um detections in the SWIRE extragalactic survey. We find that more than half of the YSO candidates, and almost all the ones with protostellar Class I spectral energy distributions, are confined to the known cluster and aggregates.

  4. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L.; Knight, Peter J.; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A.

    2015-09-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA+ motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA+ rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour.

  5. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L; Knight, Peter J; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA(+) motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA(+) rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour. PMID:26365535

  6. Observation of Large Enhancement of Charge Exchange Cross Sections with Neutron-Rich Carbon Isotopes

    E-print Network

    I. Tanihata; S. Terashima; R. Kanungo; F. Ameil; J. Atkinson; Y. Ayyad; D. Cortina-Gil; I. Dillmann; A. Estradé; A. Evdokimov; F. Farinon; H. Geissel; G. Guastalla; R. Janik; R. Knoebel; J. Kurcewicz; Yu. A. Litvinov; M. Marta; M. Mostazo; I. Mukha; C. Nociforo; H. J. Ong; S. Pietri; A. Prochazka; C. Scheidenberger; B. Sitar; P. Strmen; M. Takechi; J. Tanaka; H. Toki; J. Vargas; J. S. Winfield; H. Weick

    2015-12-02

    Production cross sections of nitrogen isotopes from high-energy carbon isotopes on hydrogen and carbon targets have been measured for the first time for a wide range of isotopes. The fragment separator FRS at GSI was used to deliver C isotope beams. The cross sections of the production of N isotopes were determined by charge measurements of forward going fragments. The cross sections show a rapid increase with the number of neutrons in the projectile. Since the production of nitrogen is mostly due to charge exchange reactions below the proton separation energies, the present data suggests a concentration of Gamow-Teller and Fermi transition strength at low excitation energies for neutron-rich isotopes. It was also observed that the cross sections were enhanced much more strongly for neutron rich isotopes in the C-target data.

  7. The large coronal transient of 10 June 1973. I - Observational description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildner, E.; Gosling, J. T.; Macqueen, R. M.; Munro, R. H.; Poland, A. I.; Ross, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Ground-based and Skylab coronagraph observations are used to trace a coronal loop transient from its inception near the surface to a distance of 5 solar radii. Events in the lower solar atmosphere associated with this feature are outlined chronologically, and its physical appearance is described. The densities, mass, and energy of the transient are estimated, its shape is determined, and its typical and atypical characteristics are noted. It is inferred that this transient was caused by the emergence of an active region. It is shown that it was not immediately preceded by a flare and that the material at its leading edge did not decelerate appreciably, even at approximately 5 solar radii.

  8. On the 2012 October 23 Circular Ribbon Flare: Emission Features and Magnetic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D.

    2015-06-01

    Circular ribbon flares are usually related to spine-fan type magnetic topology containing null points. In this paper, we investigate an X-class circular ribbon flare on 2012 October 23, using the multiwavelength data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hinode, and RHESSI. In Ca ii H emission, the flare showed three ribbons with two highly elongated ones inside and outside a quasi-circular one, respectively. A hot channel was displayed in the extreme-ultraviolet emissions that infers the existence of a magnetic flux rope. Two hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the 12-25 keV energy band were located at the footpoints of this hot channel. Using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation, we identify three topological structures: (1) a three-dimensional null point, (2) a flux rope below the fan of the null point, and (3) a large-scale quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) induced by the quadrupolar-like magnetic field of the active region. We find that the null point is embedded within the large-scale QSL. In our case, all three identified topological structures must be considered to explain all the emission features associated with the observed flare. Besides, the HXR sources are regarded as the consequence of the reconnection within or near the border of the flux rope.

  9. The Primordial Helium-4 Abundance from Observations of a Large Sample of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuan, Trinh Xuan; Izotov, Yuri. I.

    1998-04-01

    We use a sample of 45 low-metallicity H II regions in blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies to determine the primordial helium abundance YP with a precision better than 5%. We have carefully investigated the physical effects which may make the He I line intensities deviate from their recombination values such as collisional and fluorescent enhancements, underlying He I stellar absorption and absorption by Galactic interstellar Na I. By extrapolating the Y vs. O/H and Y vs. N/H linear regressions to O/H = N/H = 0, we obtain YP = 0.244+/-0.002 and 0.245+/-0.001, respectively, higher than previous determinations (YP = 0.230 - 0.234). Part of the difference comes from the fact that previous investigators have not taken into account underlying He I stellar absorption, especially in the NW component of the BCD I Zw 18 which, because of its extremely low metallicity plays a key role in the determination of YP. We derive a slope dY/dZ = 2.3+/-1.0, considerably smaller than those derived before. With this smaller slope and taking into account the errors, chemical evolution models with an outflow of well-mixed material can be built for star-forming dwarf galaxies which satisfy all the observational constraints. Our YP gives $$\\Omega _bh50^2$$ = 0.058+/-0.007, consistent with the lower limit set by dynamical measurements and X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies. It is also consistent, within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis theory, with measurements of primordial 7Li in galactic halo stars and with the D/H abundance measured in absorption systems toward quasars by Burles and Tytler (1997).

  10. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Ian W.; Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 ?m) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  11. Observations of Energetic High Magnetic Field Pulsars with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parent, D.; Kerr, M.; DenHartog, P. R.; Baring, M. G.; DeCesar, M. E.; Espinoza, C. M.; Harding, A. K.; Romani, R. W.; Stappers, B. W.; Watters, K.; Weltevrde, P.; Abdo, A. A.; Craig, H. A.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119.6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The gamma-ray light curve of PSR J1119.6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 +/- 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 +/- 0.3(+0.4 -0.2) with an energy cut-off at 0.8 +/- 0.2(+2.0 -0.5) GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119.6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field--near that of magnetars -- the field strength and structure in the gamma-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the gamma-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846.0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-Beta pulsars, PSRs J1718.3718 and J1734.3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  12. OBSERVATIONS OF ENERGETIC HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD PULSARS WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, D.; Abdo, A. A.; Kerr, M.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Romani, R. W.; Watters, K.; Craig, H. A.; Baring, M. G.; DeCesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Espinoza, C. M.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Johnston, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Livingstone, M.; Burgay, M.; Freire, P. C. C. E-mail: kerrm@stanford.edu; and others

    2011-12-20

    We report the detection of {gamma}-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119-6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The {gamma}-ray light curve of PSR J1119-6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 {+-} 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 {+-} 0.3{sup +0.4}{sub -0.2} with an energy cutoff at 0.8 {+-} 0.2{sup +2.0}{sub -0.5} GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119-6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field-near that of magnetars-the field strength and structure in the {gamma}-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the {gamma}-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846-0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-B pulsars, PSRs J1718-3718 and J1734-3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  13. Observational Study of Large Amplitude Longitudinal Oscillations in a Solar Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knizhnik, Kalman; Luna, Manuel; Muglach, Karin; Gilbert, Holly; Kucera, Therese; Karpen, Judith

    2014-01-01

    On 20 August 2010 an energetic disturbance triggered damped large-amplitude longitudinal (LAL) oscillations in almost an entire filament. In the present work we analyze this periodic motion in the filament to characterize the damping and restoring mechanism of the oscillation. Our method involves placing slits along the axis of the filament at different angles with respect to the spine of the filament, finding the angle at which the oscillation is clearest, and fitting the resulting oscillation pattern to decaying sinusoidal and Bessel functions. These functions represent the equations of motion of a pendulum damped by mass accretion. With this method we determine the period and the decaying time of the oscillation. Our preliminary results support the theory presented by Luna and Karpen (2012) that the restoring force of LAL oscillations is solar gravity in the tubes where the threads oscillate, and the damping mechanism is the ongoing accumulation of mass onto the oscillating threads. Following an earlier paper, we have determined the magnitude and radius of curvature of the dipped magnetic flux tubes hosting a thread along the filament, as well as the mass accretion rate of the filament threads, via the fitted parameters.

  14. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Ballet, J.; Giordano, F.; Grenier, I.A.; Porter, T.A.; Roth, M.; Tibolla, O.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; /Sagamihara, Aoyama Gakuin U.

    2011-11-08

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0{sup o}.7 {+-} 0{sup o}.1 and 1{sup o}.6 {+-} 0{sup o}.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H{alpha} filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  15. Observation of abnormally large radii of nuclei in excited states in the vicinity of neutron thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, A. A. Danilov, A. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Demyanova, A. S.; Goncharov, S. A.; Trzaska, W.

    2011-11-15

    Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering leading to the excitation of some nuclear states situated near neutron-emission thresholds were analyzed. With the aid of a modified diffraction model, abnormally large radii were found for the 1/2{sub 1}{sup +} state of the {sup 13}C nucleus at 3.09 MeV, for the first levels of positive-parity rotational bands in the {sup 9}Be (1/2{sup +} level at 1.68 MeV and 5/2{sup +} level at 3.05 MeV) and {sup 11}Be (5/2{sup +} level at 1.78 MeV and 3/2{sup +} level at 3.41 MeV) nuclei, and for the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state of the {sup 14}Be nucleus at 1.54 MeV and 1{sub 1}{sup -} state of the {sup 12}Be nucleus at 2.7 MeV. All of these states possess signatures typical of neutron halos.

  16. Large scale landslide mud flow modeling, simulation, and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Shao, X.; Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide is a catastrophic natural event. Modeling, simulation, and early warning of landslide event can protect the safety of lives and properties. Therefore, study of landslide bears important scientific and practical value. In this research, we constructed a high performance parallel fluid dynamics model to study large scale landslide transport and evolution process. This model solves shallow water equation derived from 3 dimensional Euler equations in Cartesian coordinate system. Based on bottom topography, initial condition, bottom friction, and mudflow viscosity coefficient, density and other parameters, this model predicts landslide transport process and deposition distribution. Using 3 dimension bottom topography data from an digital elevation model in Zhou Qu area, this model produces the onset, transport and deposition process happened during Zhou Qu landslide. It also calculates spatial and temporal distribution of the mud flow transportation route, deposition depth, and kinematic energy of the event. This model together with an early warning system can lead to significant improvement to construction planning in landslide susceptible area.; Zhou Qu topography from Digital Elevation Model ; Modeling result from PLM (parallel landslide model)

  17. Positions of equilibrium points for dust particles in the circular restricted three-body problem with radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pástor, P.

    2014-11-01

    For a body with negligible mass moving in the gravitational field of a star with one planet in a circular orbit (the circular restricted three-body problem), five equilibrium points exist and are known as the Lagrangian points. The positions of the Lagrangian points are not valid for dust particles because in the derivation of the Lagrangian points it is assumed that no other forces besides the gravitation act on the body with negligible mass. Here, we determined positions of the equilibrium points for the dust particles in the circular restricted three-body problem with radiation. The equilibrium points are located on curves connecting the Lagrangian points in the circular restricted three-body problem. The equilibrium points for Jupiter are distributed in large interval of heliocentric distances due to its large mass. The equilibrium points for the Earth explain a cloud of dust particles trailing the Earth observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The dust particles moving in the equilibrium points are distributed in interplanetary space according to their properties.

  18. Direct observations of a large active mud vent on the Louisiana continental slope

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, H.H. ); Neurauter, T.W. )

    1990-09-01

    High-resolution geophysical data taken in support of drilling offshore acreage frequently reveal impressive evidence for expulsion of fluids, gases, and sediments on Louisiana's continental slope. Features resulting from extrusion of sedimentary materials at the sea floor range from small pock marks and vents a few meters in diameter to mud diapirs and volcano-shaped cones of sediment that can be greater than 1 km diameter. In September 1989, the Johnson Sea-Link research submersible was used to study a large active mud vent in the Green Canyon Area, Blocks 143-144. This accretionary feature had a positive relief of approximately 70 m and a diameter of about 300 m. Flanks of the volcano-shaped mud vent were composed primarily of fine-grained sediment pocked by small burrows and grooved by gravity-driven downslope sediment transport. Lithification of the cone flanks was evident in isolated areas, many of which are undercut perhaps by escaping fluids and gas, and along ridges oriented down the cone sides. These ridges of the cone flank ridge and groove topography were found to have undergone surface lithification. The lithified materials were composed of both host sediments cemented with aragonite and Mg-calcite and isolated authigenic carbonate buildups. Analyses of both these carbonate features and cements in host sediments revealed that they were extremely C-13 depleted, suggesting an origin related to the microbial degradation of hydrocarbons. The crater at the apex of this feature was approximately 40 m in diameter and rimmed by levees <1 m high, which marked former levels of fluid mud in the crater. Bacterial mats composed of a giant bacterium, Beggiatoa, covered the fluid mud surface within the crater. Gas escaping from the crater floor caused fine-grained sediments to be entrained in the water column. A turbid cloud was formed that subsequently cascaded down the crater flank. Sediments collected from the crater floor contained abundant crude oil and gas.

  19. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds VIII. Serpens Observed with MIPS

    E-print Network

    Paul M. Harvey; Luisa M. Rebull; Tim Brooke; William J. Spiesman; Nicholas Chapman; Tracy L. Huard; Neal J. Evans II; Lucas Cieza; Shih-Ping Lai; Lori E. Allen; Lee G. Mundy; Deborah L. Padgett; Anneila I. Sargent; Karl R. Stapelfeldt; Philip C. Myers; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Geoffrey A. Blake; David W. Koerner

    2007-04-02

    We present maps of 1.5 square degrees of the Serpens dark cloud at 24, 70, and 160\\micron observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS Camera. More than 2400 compact sources have been extracted at 24um, nearly 100 at 70um, and 4 at 160um. We estimate completeness limits for our 24um survey from Monte Carlo tests with artificial sources inserted into the Spitzer maps. We compare source counts, colors, and magnitudes in the Serpens cloud to two reference data sets, a 0.50 deg^2 set on a low-extinction region near the dark cloud, and a 5.3 deg^2 subset of the SWIRE ELAIS N1 data that was processed through our pipeline. These results show that there is an easily identifiable population of young stellar object candidates in the Serpens Cloud that is not present in either of the reference data sets. We also show a comparison of visual extinction and cool dust emission illustrating a close correlation between the two, and find that the most embedded YSO candidates are located in the areas of highest visual extinction.

  20. Observation of electron plasma waves inside large amplitude electromagnetic pulses in a temporally growing plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shail; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep; Sahu, Debaprasad

    2012-01-15

    Observation of electron plasma waves excited inside high power ({approx}10 kW) short pulse ({approx}20 {mu}s) electromagnetic (em) waves interacting with a gaseous medium (argon) in the pressure range 0.2-2.5 mTorr is reported. The waves have long wavelength ({approx}13 cm) and get damped at time scales slower ({approx}3 {mu}s) than the plasma period (0.1-0.3 {mu}s), the energy conveyed to the medium lead to intense ionization (ion density n{sub i} {approx} 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and electron temperature T{sub e} {approx} 6-8 eV) and rapid growth of the plasma ({approx}10{sup 5} s{sup -1}) beyond the waves. Time frequency analysis of the generated oscillations indicate the presence of two principal frequencies centered around 3.8 MHz and 13.0 MHz with a spread {Delta}f {approx} 4 MHz, representing primarily two population of electrons in the plasma wave. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with a model that considers spatiotemporal forces of the em wave on the medium, space charges and diffusion.

  1. Observation of the Mold-Filling Process of a Large Hydro-Turbine Guide Vane Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jinwu; Long, Haimin; Li, Yongjie; You, Rui; Hao, Xiaokun; Nie, Gang; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    The mold-filling process has a determining effect on the quality of castings, and it has always been a hot but difficult research topic. The authors developed a wireless monitoring system for the mold-filling process of castings based on a contact time method and an observation system based on heat-resistant high-speed cameras. By using these two systems, the filling process of a turbine guide vane casting with a stepped gating system was investigated. The filling profile of the casting was recorded, and the filling time of nine typical positions was acquired. These results show that at the beginning, the liquid steel flowed out from the top ingate, which was designed to be the last to fill. The numerical simulation of the filling of the guide vane was performed, and the outflow from the top ingate were predicted. Finally, the gating system of the casting was improved with enlarged sprue. The new design features bigger sprue to ingate ratio; therefore, it could avoid the overflow from the top ingate and realize stable filling.

  2. Large-Area Balloon-Borne Polarized Gamma Ray Observer (PoGO)

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, V.; Chen, P.; Kamae, T.; Madejski, G.; Mizuno, T.; Ng, J.; Tajima, H.; Thurston, T.; Bogaert, G.; Fukazawa, Y.; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Barbier, L.; Bloser, P.; Harding, A.; Hunter, S.; Krizmanic, J.; Mitchell, J.; Streitmatter, R.; Fernholz, R.; Groth, E.; /NASA, Goddard /Princeton U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Kista /Stockholm U. /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /Yamagata U.

    2005-06-30

    We are developing a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGO), to measure polarization of soft gamma rays (30-200 keV) using asymmetry in azimuth angle distribution of Compton scattering. PoGO is designed to detect 10% polarization in 100mCrab sources in a 6-8 hour observation and bring a new dimension to studies on gamma ray emission/transportation mechanism in pulsars, AGNs, black hole binaries, and neutron star surface. The concept is an adaptation to polarization measurements of well-type phoswich counter consisting of a fast plastic scintillator (the detection part), a slow plastic scintillator (the active collimator) and a BGO scintillator (the bottom anti-counter). PoGO consists of close-packed array of 217 hexagonal well-type phoswich counters and has a narrow field-of-view ({approx} 5 deg{sup 2}) to reduce possible source confusion. A prototype instrument has been tested in the polarized soft gamma-ray beams at Advanced Photon Source (ANL) and at Photon Factory (KEK). On the results, the polarization dependence of EGS4 has been validated and that of Geant4 has been corrected.

  3. High localization of primary slip zones in large earthquakes from paleoseismic trenches: Observations and implications for earthquake physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Thomas K.; Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    2007-10-01

    Paleoseismic exposures excavated across relatively straight sections of major faults in southern California display a high degree of localization at depths of only a few meters below the surface. In some cases, the width of the slip zone in events with multimeter displacement is on the order of 1-2 mm to a cm, which is the resolution of the observations. Repetitive slip events in the same zone increase the observed width of the faulting, as expressed at trench depths, but the superposed slip again tends to be highly localized. These observations are probably representative of >80% of the length of the faults studied. Based on these results, combined with the expected tendency for narrower slip zone with depth, observations from exhumed faults, and high localization of seismicity along large faults, we hypothesize that the majority of slip carried by large faults occurs in very narrow zones. If correct, the emerging integrated view of high slip localization during earthquake ruptures places important constraints on many issues of earthquake dynamics.

  4. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant G8.7-0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cameron, R.A.; Caraveo, P.A.; /more authors..

    2012-09-14

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship between G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 {+-} 0.06 (stat) {+-} 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of p0s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  5. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Hays, E.; Troja, E.; Moiseev, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission ofG8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of pions produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS Jl804-2l6 and that the spectrum in the Ge V band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV-spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.l with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  6. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Troja, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.l and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.l and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.l. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.l4 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of 1IoS produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  7. Swift Ultraviolet Observations of Supernova 2014J in M82: Large Extinction from Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Peter J.; Smitka, Michael T.; Wang, Lifan; Breeveld, Alice; de Pasquale, Massimiliano; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Krisciunas, Kevin; Kuin, N. Paul; Milne, Peter A.; Page, Mat; Siegel, Michael

    2015-05-01

    We present optical and ultraviolet (UV) photometry and spectra of the very nearby and highly reddened supernova (SN) 2014J in M82 obtained with the Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope (UVOT). Comparison of the UVOT grism spectra of SN 2014J with Hubble Space Telescope observations of SN2011fe or UVOT grism spectra of SN 2012fr are consistent with an extinction law with a low value of RV ?1.4. The high reddening causes the detected photon distribution in the broadband UV filters to have a much longer effective wavelength than for an unreddened SN. The light curve evolution is consistent with this shift and does not show a flattening due to photons being scattered back into the line of sight (LOS). The light curve shapes and color evolution are inconsistent with a contribution scattered into the LOS by circumstellar dust. We conclude that most or all of the high reddening must come from interstellar dust. We show that even for a single dust composition, there is not a unique reddening law caused by circumstellar scattering. Rather, when considering scattering from a time-variable source, we confirm earlier studies that the reddening law is a function of the dust geometry, column density, and epoch. We also show how an assumed geometry of dust as a foreground sheet in mixed stellar/dust systems will lead to a higher inferred RV. Rather than assuming the dust around SNe is peculiar, SNe may be useful probes of the interstellar reddening laws in other galaxies.

  8. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. III. Perseus Observed with IRAC

    E-print Network

    Jes K. Jorgensen; Paul M. Harvey; Neal J. Evans II; Tracy L. Huard; Lori E. Allen; Alicia Porras; Geoffrey A. Blake; Tyler L. Bourke; Nicholas Chapman; Lucas Cieza; David W. Koerner; Shih-Ping Lai; Lee G. Mundy; Philip C. Myers; Deborah L. Padgett; Luisa Rebull; Anneila I. Sargent; William Spiesman; Karl R. Stapelfeldt; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Zahed Wahhaj; Kaisa E. Young

    2006-03-21

    We present observations of 3.86 sq. deg. of the Perseus molecular cloud complex with the Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). The maps show strong extended emission arising from shocked H2 in outflows in the region and from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. More than 120,000 sources are extracted toward the cloud. Based on their IRAC colors and comparison to off-cloud and extragalactic fields, we identify 400 candidate young stellar objects. About two thirds of these are associated with the young clusters IC348 and NGC1333, while the last third is distributed over the remaining cloud. We classify the young stellar objects according to the traditional scheme based on the slope of their spectral energy distributions. Significant differences are found for the numbers of embedded Class I objects relative to more evolved Class II objects in IC348, NGC1333 and the remaining cloud with the embedded Class I and "flat spectrum" YSOs constituting 14%, 36% and 47% of the total number of YSOs identified in each of these regions. The high number of Class I objects in the extended cloud (61% of the Class I objects in the entire cloud) suggests that a significant fraction of the current star formation is occuring outside the two main clusters. Finally we discuss a number of outflows and identify their driving sources, including the known deeply embedded Class 0 sources outside the two major clusters. The Class 0 objects are found to be detected by Spitzer and have very red [3.6]-[4.5] colors but do not show similarly red [5.8]-[8.0] colors. The Class 0 objects are easily identifiable in color-color diagrams plotting these two colors but are problematic to extract automatically due to the extended emission from shocked gas or scattered light in cavities related to the associated outflows.

  9. Observations of large-amplitude internal wave of the second mode in Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryany, A. N.; Liu, C.-T.

    2012-04-01

    Among the regions of the World Ocean where intense internal waves occur, the South China Sea is known as an area where the largest internal waves can be met. Comprehensive studies of internal waves, which were carried out there during the last decade, reveal the substantial effects of both the first and second modes. The place where the record amplitude waves are generated is Luzon Strait. In May, 2006, we performed the studies in Luzon Strait, aboard the "Ocean Researcher 1" vessel of the National Taiwan University. In those experiments, we could detect a passage of a solitary internal wave of the second mode in deep water, and to measure its parameters. The observations were carried out at a calm sea, after some days of the passage of a big typhoon Chanchu through the South China Sea. In the measurements, a 150-kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, the EK 500 echo-sounder, radar that registered the pattern of the sea surface, and a neutral-buoyancy body with temperature and depth sensors were used. In addition, ambient underwater noises were measured by a hydrophone. On May 23, a solitary internal wave passed under the vessel, with a height of 50 m and apparent features of the second mode, was found. The undersurface 200-m water layer suffered from an elevation. At the same time, the deep water layers were depressed. The internal wave moved with an extraordinarily high speed of more than 3 m/s in the north-west direction. The passage of the internal wave was accompanied by a wide rip band that was detected by the vessel radar and the digital camera. The passage also caused the underwater noise. This work was supported by National Science Council of Taiwan in Taiwan-Russia two-side research projects (No. NSC96-2923-E-002-002-MYZ) and by Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  10. SWAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE LONG-TERM, LARGE-SCALE EVOLUTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan; Shearer, Paul

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 × 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  11. Fluctuations in the ionosphere related to Honshu Twin Large Earthquakes of September 2004 observed by the DEMETER and CHAMP satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Chae, Jang-Soo; Lee, Ensang; Parrot, Michel

    2014-12-01

    While investigating possible precursory signatures of large earthquakes in the ionospheric data measured by the DEMETER and CHAMP satellites, we found ionospheric disturbances related to large earthquakes (M=7.2 and 7.4) that occurred on September 2004 near the south coast of Honshu, Japan. The satellite data were statistically compared with an empirical model and local averages of the large set of data in the study period. A fluctuation in the electron density above the epicenter was observed roughly 2 weeks before the main earthquakes. Surveys of the space weather and geomagnetic activities suggest that these fluctuations were not caused by changes in space conditions or by a geomagnetic storm. The features were also distinct from well-known natural ionospheric anomalies. In addition, a peak-like profile in the ion temperature and lowered O+ density around the region of the epicenter was observed a week before the main earthquakes along the satellite passes whose longitudes are close to the epicenter. The features are more apparent when they are compared with the data more distant from the epicenter, suggesting that the disturbances occur along the geomagnetic field lines. The concurrent measurements of the ion drift velocity suggest the fluctuations were triggered by the vertical plasma drift. The observed anomalies disappeared ? 2 weeks after the quakes. According to the current theories on the seismo-ionospheric coupling, the horizontal electric field at the lower boundary of the ionosphere should have been strengthened by the seismic activity in order for the ionospheric plasma movements above the epicenter and its geomagnetic conjugate regions to trigger the observed ionospheric anomalies.

  12. Detection of Circular Polarization in the Galactic Center Black Hole Candidate Sagittarius A*

    E-print Network

    Geoffrey C. Bower; Heino Falcke; Donald C. Backer

    1999-07-16

    We report here the detection of circular polarization in the Galactic Center black hole candidate, Sagittarius A*. The detection was made at 4.8 GHz and 8.4 GHz with the Very Large Array. We find that the fractional circular polarization at 4.8 GHz is $m_c=-0.36 \\pm 0.05%$ and that the spectral index of the circular polarization is $\\alpha=-0.6 \\pm 0.3$ ($m_c \\propto \

  13. Circular Harmonic Decomposition Approach for Numerical Inversion of Circular Radon Transforms

    E-print Network

    Louis, Alfred K.

    Circular Harmonic Decomposition Approach for Numerical Inversion of Circular Radon Transforms Gaël@num.uni-sb.de ABSTRACT Numerical inversions via circular harmonic decomposition for two classes of circular Radon transforms are established. The first class deals with the Radon transform (RT) de- fined on circular arcs

  14. First observations of poleward large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over the African sector during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; Katamzi, Zama Thobeka; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents first observations of poleward traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) during strong geomagnetic conditions over the African sector. By analyzing different data sets we have observed both positive and negative ionospheric responses during the storm period of 08-10 March 2012. Considering the African region as a whole, three longitudinal sectors were strategically selected to establish the entire regional response. On both sides of the geomagnetic equator, results show poleward shift in peak total electron content (TEC) enhancements/depletions at different times which are associated to large-scale TIDs. The observed phenomena are linked to the global ionospheric response and electrodynamics. The understanding has been established using data from International GNSS Service receiver network, radio occultation electron density profiles, derived E×B drift measurements from magnetometer observations and regional ground-based and satellite data. Contrary to other related studies, generated regional TEC perturbation maps were not enough to show obvious directions of the large-scale TIDs due to insufficient data over the northern hemispheric part of the African sector. There appears to be a switch between positive and negative storm phases during the same storm period especially in the Southern Hemisphere part of the African region where "enough" data were available. However, a detailed analysis revealed that the positive storm phase corresponded to the expansion of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) toward some parts of midlatitude regions (and possibly with the contribution from low-latitude electrodynamics associated to equatorial electrojet), while the other part recorded a negative storm phase due to storm-induced changes from the auroral origin. We have observed a simultaneous occurrence of both poleward and equatorward propagating TIDs over the African sector during the same geomagnetic storm period. Our results show that short-lived large-scale TIDs are possibly launched by the equatorial electrojet, while the EIA expansion contributes (through modulation) to the poleward propagation of the disturbances. Temporal variation of TEC perturbations on a storm day over the entire African sector showed the existence of large-scale TIDs during the main and recovery phases which can travel poleward up to 20° latitude. The amplitudes of the TIDs have range ±2 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2, period of 2 h and virtual velocities of 250 ± 59-750 ± 95 m/s in midlatitude regions and up to 990 ± 65 m/s within the EIA region.

  15. Nonlinear dissipation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the dissipation processes of circularly polarized Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas including beam components are numerically discussed by using a 2-D hybrid simulation code. Numerical results suggest that the parent Alfven waves are rapidly dissipated due to the presence of the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves, such as kinetic Alfven waves. The nonlinear wave-wave coupling is directly evaluated by using the induction equation for the parent wave. It is also observed both in the 1-D and 2-D simulations that the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves strongly suppresses the beam instabilities.

  16. Backbone circularization of Bacillus subtilis family 11 xylanase increases its thermostability and its resistance against aggregation.

    PubMed

    Waldhauer, Max C; Schmitz, Silvan N; Ahlmann-Eltze, Constantin; Gleixner, Jan G; Schmelas, Carolin C; Huhn, Anna G; Bunne, Charlotte; Büscher, Magdalena; Horn, Max; Klughammer, Nils; Kreft, Jakob; Schäfer, Elisabeth; Bayer, Philipp A; Krämer, Stephen G; Neugebauer, Julia; Wehler, Pierre; Mayer, Matthias P; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2015-11-10

    The activity of proteins is dictated by their three-dimensional structure, the native state, and is influenced by their ability to remain in or return to the folded native state under physiological conditions. Backbone circularization is thought to increase protein stability by decreasing the conformational entropy in the unfolded state. A positive effect of circularization on stability has been shown for several proteins. Here, we report the development of a cloning standard that facilitates implementing the SICLOPPS technology to circularize proteins of interest using split inteins. To exemplify the usage of the cloning standard we constructed two circularization vectors based on the Npu DnaE and gp41-1 split inteins, respectively. We use these vectors to overexpress in Escherichia coli circular forms of the Bacillus subtilis enzyme family 11 xylanase that differ in the identity and number of additional amino acids used for circularization (exteins). We found that the variant circularized with only one additional serine has increased thermostability of 7 °C compared to native xylanase. The variant circularized with six additional amino acids has only a mild increase in thermostability compared to the corresponding exteins-bearing linear xylanase, but is less stable than native xylanase. However, this circular xylanase retains more than 50% of its activity after heat shock at elevated temperatures, while native xylanase and the corresponding exteins-bearing linear xylanase are largely inactivated. We correlate this residual activity to the fewer protein aggregates found in the test tubes of circular xylanase after heat shock, suggesting that circularization protects the protein from aggregation under these conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that backbone circularization has a positive effect on xylanase and can lead to increased thermostability, provided the appropriate exteins are selected. We believe that our cloning standard and circularization vectors will facilitate testing the effects of circularization on other proteins. PMID:26434634

  17. Towards a better understanding of shallow convection over land using ground-based observation and large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Klein, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    It is very important and challenging for global climate models to represent a correct diurnal cycle of shallow cumuli over land. In this study, we build a new composite case for fair-weather shallow cumulus over land based on observational statistics. We aim to answer questions: 1) how well the can large-eddy simulation (LES) reproduce the observed cloud metrics? And 2) how well can the composite case represent the shallow cumuli regime compared with one "golden" day case study? These LES results, and the associated forcing and observations, will further serve as a benchmark test bed for the performance of the single column model version of large-scale models on simulating continental shallow cumulus. First, a case library of continental shallow cumulus clouds was established based on longterm observations at Southern Great Plains ARM site (Zhang and Klein 2010, 2013), which includes days of forced- and active-shallow cumulus clouds, and days of shallow convection that transits to deep convective precipitating events in late afternoon. Observational statistics was developed for each regime on cloud macrophysics, meteorological atmospheric and surface conditions. Particularly for active shallow cumulus clouds, in-cloud vertical velocity retrieval based on long-term radar measurements is used to derive cloud updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Secondly, LES of the composite case is performed for active shallow cumulus clouds and it shows significantly less cloud fraction than observations. Sensitivity tests are then performed on grid resolution, domain size, microphysics scheme, surface fluxes and so on. LES is also done for each individual shallow cumulus day to investigate the possible non-linear effect due to the composite case. Thirdly, LES is used to study the effect of large-scale environmental controls, such as relative humidity and atmospheric stability, on the vertical extent of clouds, the transition between forced and active shallow cumulus and the transition from shallow to deep convection in the afternoon. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-658121

  18. The beam-driven chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares - A model not supported by observations from nonimpulsive large flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.

    1990-01-01

    Most large solar flares exhibit hard X-ray emission which is usually impulsive, as well as thermal soft X-ray emission, which is gradual. The beam-driven chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares was proposed to explain the origin of the soft X-ray emitting flare plasma. A careful evaluation of the issue under discussion reveals contradictions between predictions from the theoretical chromospheric evaporation model and actual observations from a set of large X- and M-type flares. It is shown that although the soft X-ray and hard X-ray emissions are a result of the same flare, one is not a result of the other.

  19. Interaction effect of number of circular holes in a circular plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ukadgaonker, V.G.; Agnahotri, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    The problem of circular tubesheet with uniform tension at its circular boundary and nine holes in the circular pitch pattern at its center is solved using complex stress functions. The Schwarz Alternating Technique is used to find the interaction effect of the holes on each other and then the superposition method is used to obtain desired geometry of the nine holes. This superposition gives the stress free boundary at the central hole exactly satisfied. When these results are compared with those obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale by Finite Element Method it is found that the theoretical solutions give higher stress concentration than FEM by about 20% for a large outer radius. When the outer radius is reduced the stress concentration factor increases considerably and the difference in the analytical and the FEM solution also increases to a large extent. The analytical solution found in the present paper is verified with the FEM and Photoelasticity solution obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale (1996) earlier. This problem is further generalized for a rhombic pitch pattern, which can be reduced to particular cases such as square pitch pattern, triangular pitch pattern, diagonal pitch pattern by changing the angle of the rhombus. The stress concentration factor around the central hole varies very little for various ligament efficiencies which is given in percentage.

  20. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C.; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL™ multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400–800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.72–24.13°C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21°C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25568813

  1. Observations of Large Scale Sidereal Anisotropy in 1 and 11 TeV cosmic rays from the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    de Jong, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The MINOS Near and Far Detectors are two large, functionally-identical, steel-scintillating sampling calorimeters located at depths of 220 mwe and 2100 mwe respectively. The detectors observe the muon component of hadronic showers produced from cosmic ray interactions with nuclei in the earth's atmosphere. From the arrival direction of these muons, the anisotropy in arrival direction of the cosmic ray primaries can be determined. The MINOS Near and Far Detector have observed anisotropy on the order of 0.1% at 1 and 11 TeV respectively. The amplitude and phase of the first harmonic at 1 TeV are 8.2 {+-} 1.7(stat.) x 10{sup -4} and (8.9 {+-} 12.1(stat.)){sup o}, and at 11 TeV are 3.8 {+-} 0.5(stat.) x 10{sup -4} and (27.2 {+-} 7.2(stat.)){sup o}.

  2. Observations of Large Scale Sidereal Anisotropy in 1 and 11 TeV cosmic rays from the MINOS experiment

    E-print Network

    J. K. de Jong; for the MINOS Collaboration

    2011-11-11

    The MINOS Near and Far Detectors are two large, functionally-identical, steel-scintillating sampling calorimeters located at depths of 220 mwe and 2100 mwe respectively. The detectors observe the muon component of hadronic showers produced from cosmic ray interactions with nuclei in the earth's atmosphere. From the arrival direction of these muons, the anisotropy in arrival direction of the cosmic ray primaries can be determined. The MINOS Near and Far Detector have observed anisotropy on the order of 0.1% at 1 and 11 TeV respectively. The amplitude and phase of the first harmonic at 1 TeV are 8.2$\\pm$1.7(stat.)$\\times 10^{-4}$ and (8.9$\\pm$12.1(stat.))$^{\\circ}$, and at 11 TeV are 3.8$\\pm$0.5(stat.)$\\times 10^{-4}$ and (27.2$\\pm$7.2(stat.))$^{\\circ}$.

  3. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined. PMID:26382231

  4. Lunar Maria and circular basins-a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Howard, K.A.

    1970-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter data make it possible to examine the distribution and relations of maria and large circular basins over the entire Moon. The restricted distribution and age of the maria are in marked contrast to the apparently random distribution in time and place of the circular basins, some of which contain mare fillings. The circular basins are believed to be impact scars, and the maria to be volcanic fills which in each case are younger than the structures they fill. Twenty-nine circular basins 300 km wide or wider are recognized. They are placed in an age sequence because successive stages of degradation can be recognized from the fresh Orientale basin to the almost obliterated basin containing Mare Australe. The maria were emplaced during a short span of lunar history, although some light plains of the highlands may be older maria lightened through age. The present maria are topographically low, tend to be associated with large circular basins, and lie in a crude global belt of regional concentrations; 94% are on the hemisphere facing the Earth. Possible explanations offered for these patterns of mare distribution include impact-induced volcanism, volcanic extrusion to a hydrostatic level, isostatic compensation, lateral heterogeneity in the lunar interior, subcrustal convection, and volcanism due to disruption by Earth's gravity. ?? 1970.

  5. H? Line Impact Linear Polarization Observed in the 23 July 2002 Flare with the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firstova, N. M.; Polyakov, V. I.; Firstova, A. V.

    2012-08-01

    We present the results of studying the proton flare 2B/X4.8 on 23 July 2002, observed with the Large Solar Vacuum Telescope (LSVT) at the Baikal Astrophysical Observatory in spectropolarimetric mode with high spatial and spectral resolution. We have found some evidence for H? line impact linear polarization, predominantly during the initial moments of the flare. For the H? line 606 cuts were made along the dispersion in 53 spectrograms, and a polarization signal was found more or less confidently in 60 cuts (13 spectrograms). Polarization was mainly observed in one of the kernels of the flare. A particular feature of this kernel was that the H? line was observed to show a reversal in the central part of this kernel, which created a dip in the kernel center in the photometric cut. The size of these dips and the size of the sites with the linear polarization coincide and are equal to 3 - 6 arcsec. The maximum polarization degree in this kernel reached 15 %. The direction of the polarization in the kernel is radial, except for the first two frames, where the direction of the polarization was both radial and tangential. Furthermore, we found an analogy between the effects observed at the chromospheric level in this kernel (polarization and depression in H? line) and the temporal variation of the HXR sources.

  6. SPATIAL SEISMOLOGY OF A LARGE CORONAL LOOP ARCADE FROM TRACE AND EIT OBSERVATIONS OF ITS TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Foullon, C.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2010-07-01

    We present a study of transverse loop oscillations in a large coronal loop arcade, using observations from the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT). For the first time we reveal the presence of long-period transverse oscillations with periods between 24 minutes and 3 hr. One loop bundle, 690 Mm long and with an oscillation period of 40 minutes, is analyzed in detail and its oscillation characteristics are determined in an automated manner. The oscillation quality factor is similar to what has been found earlier for oscillations in much shorter loops. This indicates that the damping mechanism of transverse loop oscillations is independent of loop length or period. The displacement profile along the whole length of the oscillating loop is determined for the first time and consistently between TRACE and EIT. By comparing the observed profile with models of the three-dimensional geometry of the equilibrium and perturbed loop, we test the effect of longitudinal structuring (spatial seismology) and find that the observations cannot unambiguously distinguish between structuring and non-planarity of the equilibrium loop. Associated intensity variations with a similar periodicity are explained in terms of variations in the line-of-sight column depth. Also, we report intensity oscillations at the loop footpoint, which are in anti-phase with respect to the intensity oscillations in the loop body. Lastly, this observation offers the first opportunity to use the transverse oscillations of the arcade to model the Alfven speed profile in the global corona.

  7. Overlap statistics of shallow boundary layer clouds: Comparing ground-based observations with large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbetta, G.; Orlandi, E.; Heus, T.; Neggers, R.; Crewell, S.

    2015-10-01

    High-resolution ground-based measurements are used to assess the realism of fine-scale numerical simulations of shallow cumulus cloud fields. The overlap statistics of cumuli as produced by large-eddy simulations (LES) are confronted with Cloudnet data sets at the Jülich Observatory for Cloud Evolution. The Cloudnet pixel is small enough to detect cumuliform cloud overlap. Cloud fraction masks are derived for five different cases, using gridded time-height data sets at various temporal and vertical resolutions. The overlap ratio (R), i.e., the ratio between cloud fraction by volume and by area, is studied as a function of the vertical resolution. Good agreement is found between R derived from observations and simulations. An inverse linear function is found to best describe the observed overlap behavior, confirming previous LES results. Simulated and observed decorrelation lengths are smaller (˜300 m) than previously reported (>1 km). A similar diurnal variation in the overlap efficiency is found in observations and simulations.

  8. Large-Amplitude Oscillation of an Erupting Filament as Seen in EUV, H-alpha and Microwave Observations

    E-print Network

    H. Isobe; D. Tripathi; A. Asai; R. Jain

    2007-11-26

    We present multiwavelength observations of a large-amplitude oscillation of a polar crown filament on 15 October 2002. The oscillation occurred during the slow rise (about 1 km/s) of the filament. It completed three cycles before sudden acceleration and eruption. The oscillation and following eruption were clearly seen in observations recorded by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope onboard SOHO. The oscillation was seen only in a part of the filament, and it appears to be a standing oscillation rather than a propagating wave. The period of oscillation was about two hours and did not change significantly during the oscillation. We also identified the oscillation as a "winking filament" in the H-alpha images taken by the Flare Monitoring Telescope, and as a spatial displacement in 17 GHz microwave images from Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH). The filament oscillation seems to be triggered by magnetic reconnection between a filament barb and nearby emerging magnetic flux as was evident from the MDI magnetogram observations. No flare was observed to be associated with the onset of the oscillation. We also discuss possible implications of the oscillation as a diagnostic tool for the eruption mechanisms. We suggest that in the early phase of eruption a part of the filament lost its equilibrium first, while the remaining part was still in an equilibrium and oscillated.

  9. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  10. THEMIS observations of the magnetopause electron diffusion region and magnetospheric separatrix: Large amplitude waves and heated particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Cattell, C. A.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2013-12-01

    We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region based on the criteria described by Scudder et al. [2012] at the subsolar magnetopause [Tang et al., 2013] as well as near the magnetospheric separatrix using data from the THEMIS satellites. A wide range of wave modes identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves, electrostatic electron cyclotron waves and electrostatic ion harmonic waves are often simultaneously observed in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. Evidence of perpendicular ion heating (< 100 eV) by the electrostatic ion harmonic waves has been found near the magnetospheric separatrix. The whistler mode waves, which are at the electron scale and enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (˜30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with Te?/Te? > 1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whistler mode waves propagate away from the center of the 'X-line' along magnetic field lines, suggesting that the electron diffusion region is a possible source region of the whistler mode waves.

  11. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the averaged field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.

  12. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 ?m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  13. Copyright Basics. Circular R1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Copyright Office.

    This circular answers some of the questions that are frequently asked about copyright, a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States to the authors of "original works of authorship" including literary, dramatic musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. The Copyright Act of 1976 (title 17 of the United States Code),…

  14. Circular polarized leaky wave surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manene, Franklin; Lail, Brian A.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2014-09-01

    A circular polarized (CP) infrared (IR) leaky wave surface design is presented. The metasurface consists of an array of rectangular patches connected by microstrip and operating over the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectrum with directional wave emission and absorption. The surface is composed of periodically aligned arrays of sub-wavelength metal patches separated from a ground plane by a dielectric slab. The design combines the features of the conventional patch and leaky wave antenna leading to a metasurface that preferentially emits CP IR radiation by use of axial asymmetrical unit cells. This is a deviation from reported structures that mainly employ a phase shifter to combine linearly polarized waves in order to attain circular polarization. The performance of this leaky wave surface is verified through full-wave simulation using the ANSYS HFSS finite element analysis tool. The leaky wave phenomenon is demonstrated by the frequency and angular dependence of the absorption while circular polarization is characterized via stokes parameters. The main beam of this surface can be steered continuously by varying the frequency while maintaining circular polarization within the main beam direction. A CP leaky wave at 10.6 ?m with a scanning angle of 30° is demonstrated. Metasurfaces exhibiting spectral and polarization selectivity in absorption/emission hold the potential for impact in IR applications including detection, imaging, thermal management, energy harvesting and tagging.

  15. Circular B232011 MEMORIAL RESOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Martins, Emília

    on several other plants of economic importance, including naranjillas, chili peppers, gourds, and totora thirty years earlier, when he showed his new students his rows of peppers, the hybrid honey locust trees; Circular B232011 2 then, I think, whenever I see a sunflower or a honey locust, or eat a hot pepper

  16. Improved large-scale hydrological modelling through the assimilation of streamflow and downscaled satellite soil moisture observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López López, Patricia; Wanders, Niko; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Renzullo, Luigi; Sterk, Geert; Schellekens, Jaap; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The coarse spatial resolution of global hydrological models (typically > 0.25o) often limits their ability to resolve key water balance processes for many river basins and thus compromises their suitability for water resources management, especially when compared to locally-tunes river models. A possible solution to the problem may be to drive the coarse resolution models with high-resolution meteorological data as well as to assimilate ground-based and remotely-sensed observations of key water cycle variables. While this would improve the modelling resolution of the global model, the impact of prediction accuracy remains largely an open question. In this study we investigated the impact that assimilating streamflow and satellite soil moisture observations have on global hydrological model estimation, driven by coarse- and high-resolution meteorological observations, for the Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia. The PCR-GLOBWB global hydrological model is forced with downscaled global climatological data (from 0.5o downscaled to 0.1o resolution) obtained from the WATCH Forcing Data (WFDEI) and local high resolution gauging station based gridded datasets (0.05o), sourced from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Downscaled satellite derived soil moisture (from 0.5o downscaled to 0.1o resolution) from AMSR-E and streamflow observations collected from 25 gauging stations are assimilated using an ensemble Kalman filter. Several scenarios are analysed to explore the added value of data assimilation considering both local and global climatological data. Results show that the assimilation of streamflow observations result in the largest improvement of the model estimates. The joint assimilation of both streamflow and downscaled soil moisture observations leads to further improved in streamflow simulations (10% reduction in RMSE), mainly in the headwater catchments (up to 10,000 km2). Results also show that the added contribution of data assimilation, for both soil moisture and streamflow, is more pronounced when the global meteorological data are used to force the models. This is caused by the higher uncertainty and coarser resolution of the global forcing. This study demonstrates that it is possible to improve hydrological simulations forced by coarse resolution meteorological data with downscaled satellite soil moisture and streamflow observations and bring them closer to a hydrological model forced with local climatological data. These findings are important in light of the efforts that are currently done to go to global hyper-resolution modelling and can significantly help to advance this research.

  17. Improved large-scale hydrological modelling through the assimilation of streamflow and downscaled satellite soil moisture observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, P.; Wanders, N.; Schellekens, J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-10-01

    The coarse spatial resolution of global hydrological models (typically > 0.25°) limits their ability to resolve key water balance processes for many river basins and thus compromises their suitability for water resources management, especially when compared to locally-tuned river models. A possible solution to the problem may be to drive the coarse resolution models with locally available high spatial resolution meteorological data as well as to assimilate ground-based and remotely-sensed observations of key water cycle variables. While this would improve the resolution of the global model, the impact of prediction accuracy remains largely an open question. In this study we investigate the impact of assimilating streamflow and satellite soil moisture observations on the accuracy of global hydrological model estimations, when driven by either coarse- or high-resolution meteorological observations in the Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia. To this end, a 0.08° resolution version of the PCR-GLOBWB global hydrological model is forced with downscaled global meteorological data (from 0.5° downscaled to 0.08° resolution) obtained from the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim (WFDEI) and a local high resolution gauging station based gridded dataset (0.05°). Downscaled satellite derived soil moisture (from approx. 0.5° downscaled to 0.08° resolution) from AMSR-E and streamflow observations collected from 23 gauging stations are assimilated using an ensemble Kalman filter. Several scenarios are analysed to explore the added value of data assimilation considering both local and global meteorological data. Results show that the assimilation of soil moisture observations results in the largest improvement of the model estimates of streamflow. The joint assimilation of both streamflow and downscaled soil moisture observations leads to further improvement in streamflow simulations (20 % reduction in RMSE). Furthermore, results show that the added contribution of data assimilation, for both soil moisture and streamflow, is more pronounced when the global meteorological data are used to force the models. This is caused by the higher uncertainty and coarser resolution of the global forcing. We conclude that it is possible to improve PCR-GLOBWB simulations forced by coarse resolution meteorological data with assimilation of downscaled spaceborne soil moisture and streamflow observations. These improved model results are close to the ones from a local model forced with local meteorological data. These findings are important in light of the efforts that are currently done to go to global hyper-resolution modelling and can help to advance this research.

  18. Observation of the large scale cosmic-ray anisotropy at TeV energies with the Milagro detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolterman, Brian E.

    Cosmic-rays with energies in the range of 1-100 TeV are nearly isotropic in their arrival directions due to interactions with randomly scattered inhomogeneities in the Galactic magnetic field. Observation of the large scale anisotropy in the arrival direction of these cosmic-rays is therefore a useful tool in constraining theoretical models of cosmic-ray propagation, probing the magnetic field structure in our interstellar neighborhood, as well as providing information about the distribution of sources. In this work results are presented of a harmonic analysis of the large scale cosmic-ray anisotropy as observed by the Milagro observatory. A two- dimensional display of the anisotropy projections in right ascension is generated by the fitting of three harmonics to 18 separate declination bands. Milagro is a water Cherenkov detector located at an elevation of 2630m in the Jemez mountains outside of Los Alamos, NM. With a live time > 90 and a large field-of-view (~2 sr), Milagro is an excellent instrument for measuring this anisotropy with high sensitivity at TeV energies. The analysis is conducted using a seven year data sample consisting of more than 95 billion events. A sidereal anisotropy is observed with a magnitude around 0.1% for cosmic-rays with a median energy of 6 TeV. The dominant feature in this data set is a deficit region of depth (-2.85±0.06 stat. ±0.08 syst.)×10 -3 in the direction of the Galactic North Pole with a range in declination of - 10 to 45 degrees and 150 to 225 degrees in right ascension. The anisotropy also shows evidence of a time dependence, with a steady increase in the magnitude of the signal in this region over the course of seven years. An analysis of the energy dependence of the anisotropy in this region is also presented showing possible deviation of the spectral index of the anisotropy signal from that of the nominal cosmic-ray background. The anisotropy of cosmic-rays in universal time is analyzed showing a dipole structure at the level of 3×10 -4 , consistent with the Compton-Getting effect expected due to the Earth's motion around the Sun through the cosmic-ray ether.

  19. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...Docket FTA-2011-0055] Environmental Justice: Final Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit...Circular'') on incorporating environmental justice principles into plans, projects, and...funds on how to fully engage environmental justice populations in the public...

  20. Direct Observation of Very Large Zero-Field Splitting in a Tetrahedral Ni(II)Se4 Coordination Complex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shang-Da; Maganas, Dimitrios; Levesanos, Nikolaos; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Haas, Sabrina; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Krzystek, J; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Neese, Frank; Kyritsis, Panayotis

    2015-10-14

    The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined-directly-for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller. PMID:26352187

  1. X-ray observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud pulsar PSR B0540-69 and its PWN

    E-print Network

    R. Campana; T. Mineo; A. De Rosa; E. Massaro; A. J. Dean; L. Bassani

    2008-06-23

    PSR B0540-69 is a young pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud that has similar properties with respect to the Crab Pulsar, and is embedded in a Pulsar Wind Nebula. We have analyzed the complete archival RXTE dataset of observations of this source, together with new Swift-XRT and INTEGRAL-IBIS data. Accurate lightcurves are produced in various energy bands between 2 and 60 keV, showing no significant energy variations of the pulse shape. The spectral analysis shows that the pulsed spectrum is curved, and is best fitted up to 100 keV by a log-parabolic model: this strengthens the similarities with the Crab pulsar, and is discussed in the light of a phenomenologic multicomponent model. The total emission from this source is studied, the relative contributions of the pulsar and the PWN emission are derived, and discussed in the context of other INTEGRAL detected pulsar/PWN systems.

  2. A dynamic measure of controllability and observability for the placement of actuators and sensors on large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervelde, W. E.; Carignan, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of controllability of a large space structure is found by a four step procedure: (1) finding the minimum control energy for driving the system from a given initial state to the origin in the prescribed time; (2) finding the region of initial state which can be driven to the origin with constrained control energy and time using optimal control strategy; (3) scaling the axes so that a unit displacement in every direction is equally important to control; and (4) finding the linear measurement of the weighted "volume" of the ellipsoid in the equicontrol space. For observability, the error covariance must be reduced toward zero using measurements optimally, and the criterion must be standardized by the magnitude of tolerable errors. The results obtained using these methods are applied to the vibration modes of a free-free beam.

  3. A Particle Consistent with the Higgs Boson Observed with the ATLAS Detector at the Large Hadron Collider

    E-print Network

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Balek, Petr; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet

    2012-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga–electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself.

  4. Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearman, P. W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a selective review of recent research on vortex-induced vibrations of isolated circular cylinders and the flow and vibration of circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement; a common thread being that the topics raised are of particular interest to the author. The influence of Reynolds number on the response of isolated cylinders is presented and recent developments using forced vibration are discussed. The response of a cylinder free to respond in the in-line and transverse directions is contrasted with that of a cylinder responding in only one direction. The interference between two circular cylinders is discussed and prominence given to the case of cylinders in a tandem arrangement. The origin of the time-mean lift force on the downstream cylinder is considered together with the cause of the large amplitude transverse vibration experienced by the cylinder above vortex resonance. This wake-induced vibration is shown to be a form of vortex-induced vibration.

  5. The observation of large semi-major axis Centaurs: Testing for the signature of a planetary-mass solar companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Rodney S.; Soares, Jean S.; Brasser, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    Several objects whose perihelion lies between Jupiter and Neptune have large semi-major axes a > 100 au, two of them having semi-major axis above 1000 au. Since these objects' perihelia share the same region as the classical Centaurs, a coherent nomenclature for them could be large semi-major axis Centaurs (Laces). It has been argued that the classical Centaurs, with semi-major axes below 50 au, originate from the Scattered Disk. However, the Laces most likely originate from the Oort Cloud. We determine the brightest object in the Laces, classical Centaurs (with semi-major axis >20 au) and Scattered Disk populations using a procedure that introduces observational bias to a set of objects in orbits obtained from numerical simulations of the evolution of the Oort cloud and Scattered Disk in the framework of the Nice model. The application of the procedure consistently determines that the brightest distant Lace (semi-major axis above 500 au) is fainter than the brightest classical Centaur by about one magnitude, no matter what parameters were used for the procedure. However, reality shows a reversed situation: there is an excess of Laces with lower visual magnitudes. It is not clear why this is the case. We test whether a planetary-mass solar companion could produce an excess of bright Laces in comparison with classical Centaurs. We find that with the companion there is an excess of luminous Laces compared to when there is no companion. However, the companion model also produces many classical Centaurs with lower visual magnitudes than the observed ones. Thus we conclude that the companion does not solve this visual magnitude inconsistency, although the results are in general more coherent under the model with the companion than without.

  6. New Observations of the Large Proper Motions of Radio Sources in the Orion BN/KL Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, L. F.; Gómez, L.; Loinard, L.; Lizano, S.; Allen, C.; Poveda, A.; Menten, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    We present absolute astrometry of four radio sources in the Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinman-Low (BN/KL) region, derived from archival data (taken in 1991, 1995, and 2000) as well as from new observations (taken in 2006). All data consist of 3.6 cm continuum emission and were taken with the Very Large Array in its highest angular resolution A configuration. We confirm the large transverse velocities of the BN object, the radio source I (GMR I) and the radio counterpart of the infrared source n (Orion-n), with values from 15 to 26 km s^{-1}. The three sources are receding from a point between them from where they seem to have been ejected about 500 years ago, probably via the disintegration of a multiple stellar system. The radio source Orion-n appeared as a double in the first three epochs, but as single in 2006. The fourth source in the region, GMR D, shows no statistically significant motions. We also discuss briefly a dynamical scenario for the region.

  7. 78 FR 14620 - Joint Development: Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...FTA-2013-0013] Joint Development: Proposed Circular...the docket and on its web site proposed guidance...circular, on joint development. This circular provides...when pursuing a joint development project. This following...be found on FTA's Web site at...

  8. Dark matter constraints from observations of 25 Milky Way satellite galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; Hughes, R. E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Martinez, G.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Perkins, J. S.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Sehgal, N.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spinelli, P.; Strigari, L.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via ? rays. Here we report on ?-ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in ? rays, and we present ?-ray flux upper limits between 500 MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10 TeV into prototypical standard model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse ?-ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  9. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; Perkins, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma ray flux upper limits between 500MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10TeV into prototypical standard model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse gamma ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  10. THE VELA-X PULSAR WIND NEBULA REVISITED WITH FOUR YEARS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T.; Harding, A. K.

    2013-09-10

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 3 Degree-Sign south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  11. The Vela-X Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondin, M.-H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-09-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2° × 3° south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  12. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    E-print Network

    The Fermi-LAT Collaboration; :; M. Ackermann; A. Albert; B. Anderson; L. Baldini; J. Ballet; G. Barbiellini; D. Bastieri; K. Bechtol; R. Bellazzini; E. Bissaldi; E. D. Bloom; E. Bonamente; A. Bouvier; T. J. Brandt; J. Bregeon; M. Brigida; P. Bruel; R. Buehler; S. Buson; G. A. Caliandro; R. A. Cameron; M. Caragiulo; P. A. Caraveo; C. Cecchi; E. Charles; A. Chekhtman; J. Chiang; S. Ciprini; R. Claus; J. Cohen-Tanugi; J. Conrad; F. D'Ammando; A. de Angelis; C. D. Dermer; S. W. Digel; E. do Couto e Silva; P. S. Drell; A. Drlica-Wagner; R. Essig; C. Favuzzi; E. C. Ferrara; A. Franckowiak; Y. Fukazawa; S. Funk; P. Fusco; F. Gargano; D. Gasparrini; N. Giglietto; M. Giroletti; G. Godfrey; G. A. Gomez-Vargas; I. A. Grenier; S. Guiriec; M. Gustafsson; M. Hayashida; E. Hays; J. Hewitt; R. E. Hughes; T. Jogler; T. Kamae; J. Knödlseder; D. Kocevski; M. Kuss; . Larsson; L. Latronico; M. Llena Garde; F. Longo; F. Loparco; M. N. Lovellette; P. Lubrano; G. Martinez; M. Mayer; M. N. Mazziotta; P. F. Michelson; W. Mitthumsiri; T. Mizuno; A. A. Moiseev; M. E. Monzani; A. Morselli; I. V. Moskalenko; S. Murgia; R. Nemmen; E. Nuss; T. Ohsugi; E. Orlando; J. F. Ormes; J. S. Perkins; F. Piron; G. Pivato; T. A. Porter; S. Rainò; R. Rando; M. Razzano; S. Razzaque; A. Reimer; O. Reimer; S. Ritz; M. Sànchez-Conde; N. Sehgal; C. Sgrò; E. J. Siskind; P. Spinelli; L. Strigari; D. J. Suson; H. Tajima; H. Takahashi; J. B. Thayer; L. Tibaldo; M. Tinivella; D. F. Torres; Y. Uchiyama; T. L. Usher; J. Vandenbroucke; G. Vianello; V. Vitale; M. Werner; B. L. Winer; K. S. Wood; M. Wood; G. Zaharijas; S. Zimmer

    2014-02-19

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma-ray flux upper limits between 500 MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10 TeV into prototypical Standard Model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse gamma-ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  13. The VELA-X-Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, Alice K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2deg × 3deg south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  14. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    E-print Network

    :,; Albert, A; Anderson, B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Bissaldi, E; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bouvier, A; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caragiulo, M; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Angelis, A; Dermer, C D; Digel, S W; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Essig, R; Favuzzi, C; Ferrara, E C; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giroletti, M; Godfrey, G; Gomez-Vargas, G A; Grenier, I A; Guiriec,; Gustafsson, M; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hughes, R E; Jogler, T; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kuss, M; Larsson,; Latronico, L; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Martinez, G; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Perkins, J S; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Ritz, S; Sànchez-Conde, M; Sehgal, N; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Spinelli, P; Strigari, L; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vandenbroucke, J; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wood, M; Zaharijas, G; Zimmer, S

    2013-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma-ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma-ray flux upper limits between 500 MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10 TeV into prototypical Standard Model channels. W...

  15. Circular Polarization of Transmitted Light by Sapphirinidae Copepods

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Joseph

    observed occurring naturally only near the water surface [3,4]. Among animals, the production of circularly. versicolor firefly larvae, in reflections from beetles of the Scarabaeidae family, in Panulirus argus microfibril layers in the exocuticle of beetles belonging to the Scarabaeidae family is usually left handed [5

  16. Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.

  17. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of Local Group galaxies: detection of M 31 and search for M 33

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. Do Couto E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashi, K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Healey, S. E.; Jean, P.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pepe, M.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Strigari, L.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-11-01

    Context. Cosmic rays (CRs) can be studied through the galaxy-wide gamma-ray emission that they generate when propagating in the interstellar medium. The comparison of the diffuse signals from different systems may inform us about the key parameters in CR acceleration and transport. Aims: We aim to determine and compare the properties of the cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission of several Local Group galaxies. Methods: We use 2 years of nearly continuous sky-survey observations obtained with the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to search for gamma-ray emission from M 31 and M 33. We compare the results with those for the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Small Magellanic Cloud, the Milky Way, and the starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. Results: We detect a gamma-ray signal at 5? significance in the energy range 200 MeV-20 GeV that is consistent with originating from M 31. The integral photon flux above 100 MeV amounts to (9.1 ± 1.9stat ± 1.0sys) × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1. We find no evidence for emission from M 33 and derive an upper limit on the photon flux >100 MeV of 5.1 × 10-9 ph cm-2 s-1 (2?). Comparing these results to the properties of other Local Group galaxies, we find indications of a correlation between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity that also holds for the starburst galaxies. Conclusions: The gamma-ray luminosity of M 31 is about half that of the Milky Way, which implies that the ratio between the average CR densities in M 31 and the Milky Way amounts to ? = 0.35 ± 0.25. The observed correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and star formation rate suggests that the flux of M 33 is not far below the current upper limit from the LAT observations. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  18. Harmonic generation by circularly polarized laser beams propagating in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Ekta; Hemlata,; Jha, Pallavi

    2015-04-15

    An analytical theory is developed for studying the phenomenon of generation of harmonics by the propagation of an obliquely incident, circularly polarized laser beam in homogeneous, underdense plasma. The amplitudes of second and third harmonic radiation as well as detuning distance have been obtained and their variation with the angle of incidence is analyzed. The amplitude of harmonic radiation increases with the angle of incidence while the detuning distance decreases, for a given plasma electron density. It is observed that the generated second and third harmonic radiation is linearly and elliptically polarized, respectively. The harmonic radiation vanishes at normal incidence of the circularly polarized laser beam.

  19. Circular polarization in star- formation regions: implications for biomolecular homochirality

    PubMed

    Bailey; Chrysostomou; Hough; Gledhill; McCall; Clark; Menard; Tamura

    1998-07-31

    Strong infrared circular polarization resulting from dust scattering in reflection nebulae in the Orion OMC-1 star-formation region has been observed. Circular polarization at shorter wavelengths might have been important in inducing chiral asymmetry in interstellar organic molecules that could be subsequently delivered to the early Earth by comets, interplanetary dust particles, or meteors. This could account for the excess of L-amino acids found in the Murchison meteorite and could explain the origin of the homochirality of biological molecules. PMID:9685254

  20. The Kinematics of Circular Motion

    E-print Network

    L. A. N. de Paula

    2008-10-22

    In this paper we introduce a proposal for the kinematics of bodies in uniform circular motion. This model could contribute for the explanation of the two main problems of contemporary cosmology: dark matter and dark energy. We use one of the physical properties of space - the gravitational waves - to define a reference frame at rest with respect to the space and to determine a mechanism for the synchronization of clocks. So we derive through a Postulate the so-called transformations of Lorentz and a new velocity of the bodies in uniform circular motion. This rotational velocity could contribute to clarify both cosmological problems. This contribution would come from effects due to a single phenomenon: the rotational velocity of bodies with respect to the reference frame at rest on the space. And finally, we interpret physically the Postulate - the major point in this model - which allows, inclusive, a comparison with the Relativity Principle and also new theoretical previews.

  1. `Circular type' quantum key distribution

    E-print Network

    Tsuyoshi Nishioka; Hirokazu Ishizuka; Toshio Hasegawa

    2001-06-15

    `Circular type' interferometric system for quantum key distribution is proposed. The system has naturally self-alignment and compensation of birefringence and also has enough efficiency against polarisation dependence. Moreover it is easily applicable to multi-party. Key creation with 0.1 photon per pulse at a rate of 1.2KHz with a 5.4% QBER over a 200m fiber was realized.

  2. Plasmonic magnetization during circularly polarized excitation (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Matthew T.

    2015-09-01

    In contrast with linearly polarized excitation, which necessarily has zero magnitude electrical field twice during an optical cycle, the electrical field vector of circularly polarized light has constant magnitude. During an optical cycle the electric field vector rotates in the plane normal to the wave propagation. Consequently, if plasmonic structures are resonant with circularly polarized excitation, it is possible for them to exhibit regions of strongly modified carrier density for the duration of the optical cycle. Here, we study a class of achiral toroid and `sun burst' nano-patterned plasmonic surfaces that show persistent, circulating charge density waves during circularly polarized illumination. The direction of the continuously circulating wave (clockwise or counterclockwise) depends on the handedness of the incident beam. Our interest stems from whether these charge density waves can support circular electric currents (DC) manifest experimentally as static magnetic fields during illumination. Using full-wave optical modeling (FDTD method), and mechanistic calculations of the circulating potential acting on electrons in the toroid resonators, we outline the conditions that maximize optical excitation of both circulating displacement currents and electron transport currents. We show that in the limit of very weak coupling to the solenoid-like electron transport, or when < 1 x 10^-6% of the plasmonically active electron population enters the circular transport modes, relatively strong magnetic fields, > 1 G, can be expected. We discuss scanning probe measurements for monitoring the induced magnetic field, as well as the relationship between this phenomenon and the inverse Faraday effect observed in continuous media.

  3. Circular Polarization of Circumstellar Water Masers around S Per

    E-print Network

    W. Vlemmings; P. J. Diamond; H. J. van Langevelde

    2001-07-04

    We present the first circular polarization measurements of circumstellar H2O masers. Previously the magnetic field in circumstellar envelopes has been estimated using polarization observations of SiO and OH masers. SiO masers are probes of the high temperature and density regime close to the central star. OH masers are found at much lower densities and temperatures, generally much further out in the circumstellar envelope. The detection of the circular polarization of the (6_16 - 5_23) rotational transition of the H2O maser could be attributed to Zeeman splitting due to the magnetic field in the intermediate temperature and density regime. The fields inferred here agree well with predicted values for a combination of the r^{-2} dependence of a solar-type magnetic field, and the coupling of the field to the high density masing regions. We also discuss the unexpected narrowing of the circular polarization spectrum.

  4. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active ? and ? isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of ?/? isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the ?/? iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the ?/? isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes. PMID:26446521

  5. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active ? and ? isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of ?/? isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a “handedness” for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the ?/? iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the ?/? isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes.

  6. Circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence and electroluminescence of iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Yi; Jing, Yi-Ming; Liu, Xuan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Lin; Tang, Zhiyong; Zheng, You-Xuan; Zuo, Jing-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Nearly all the neutral iridium complexes widely used as dopants in PhOLEDs are racemic mixtures; however, this study observed that these complexes can be separated into stable optically active ? and ? isomers and that their chirality is an intrinsic property. The circularly polarised phosphorescent photoluminescence (CPPPL) signals of ?/? isomers are perfect mirror images with opposite polarisation and equal intensity exhibiting a "handedness" for the polarisation. For the first time, we applied the ?/? iridium isomers as emitters in OLEDs, and the circularly polarised phosphorescent electroluminescence (CPPEL) spectra reveal completely positive or negative broad peaks consistent with the CPPPL spectra. The results demonstrate that the ?/? isomers have potential application for 3D OLEDs because they can exhibit high efficiency and luminance, and 3D display technology based on circularly polarised light is the most comfortable for the eyes. PMID:26446521

  7. Digital Circularity and Its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmick, Partha; Bera, Sahadev; Bhattacharya, Bhargab B.

    This paper presents a brief survey of some recently discovered properties of digital circles, digital discs, and digital surfaces of revolution, which are related with many theoretical challenges in the digital space and have diverse applications in image processing, pattern recognition, and computer graphics. These digital-geometric properties are helpful in today's context of digital revolution to eliminate the inherent discrepancies and limitations of real circles in solving various problems on characterization, construction, reconstruction, and segmentation of digital circles/discs. As a very contemporary problem, we have discussed why and how the notion of digital circularity leads to an efficient and algorithm-friendly interpretation for segmentation and parametrization of circular arcs from graphic regions in a digital document. Another problem is generating a digital surface of revolution, which needs detecting and fixing the absentee voxels in the 3D digital space in order to ensure the irreducibility and continuity of the voxel-surface of revolution. The pattern of absentee voxels in such a surface corresponds to that of absentee pixels in a cover of digital disc with concentric digital circles. Experimental results demonstrate the impact and effectiveness of digital circularity on all these state-of-the-art practices.

  8. Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Scheduling, the task of producing a time table for resources and tasks, is well-known to be a difficult problem the more resources are involved (a NP-hard problem). This is about to become an issue in Radio astronomy as observatories consisting of hundreds to thousands of telescopes are planned and operated. The Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which Australia and New Zealand bid to host, is aiming for scales where current approaches -- in construction, operation but also scheduling -- are insufficent. Although manual scheduling is common today, the problem is becoming complicated by the demand for (1) independent sub-arrays doing simultaneous observations, which requires the scheduler to plan parallel observations and (2) dynamic re-scheduling on changed conditions. Both of these requirements apply to the SKA, especially in the construction phase. We review the scheduling approaches taken in the astronomy literature, as well as investigate techniques from human schedulers and today's observatories. The scheduling problem is specified in general for scientific observations and in particular on radio telescope arrays. Also taken into account is the fact that the observatory may be oversubscribed, requiring the scheduling problem to be integrated with a planning process. We solve this long-term scheduling problem using a time-based encoding that works in the very general case of observation scheduling. This research then compares algorithms from various approaches, including fast heuristics from CPU scheduling, Linear Integer Programming and Genetic algorithms, Branch-and-Bound enumeration schemes. Measures include not only goodness of the solution, but also scalability and re-scheduling capabilities. In conclusion, we have identified a fast and good scheduling approach that allows (re-)scheduling difficult and changing problems by combining heuristics with a Genetic algorithm using block-wise mutation operations. We are able to explain and eradicate two problems in the literature: The inability of a GA to properly improve schedules and the generation of schedules with frequent interruptions. Finally, we demonstrate the scheduling framework for several operating telescopes: (1) Dynamic re-scheduling with the AUT Warkworth 12m telescope, (2) Scheduling for the Australian Mopra 22m telescope and scheduling for the Allen Telescope Array. Furthermore, we discuss the applicability of the presented scheduling framework to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA, in construction) and the SKA. In particular, during the development phase of the SKA, this dynamic, scalable scheduling framework can accommodate changing conditions.

  9. Discovery of Optical Circular Polarization of the Crab Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiktorowicz, Sloane; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Illing, Rainer M. E.; Nofi, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 50 years ago at the Lick 3-m Shane telescope, Wampler et al. (1969) discovered optical linear depolarization of the Crab pulsar's main pulse and interpulse regions, which led to the interpretation of synchrotron radiation as the source of pulsed emission. We present phase-resolved, simultaneous linear and circular polarization of the Crab pulsar using the POLISH2 aperture-integrated, optical polarimeter at the Lick 3-m telescope. The two photoelastic modulators in this instrument, used instead of waveplates, AC couple incident Stokes Q, U, and V to unique, independent frequencies between 10 and 200 kHz. Stokes I is measured from the time-averaged intensity of the beam. Thus, this instrument is capable of simultaneous measurement of Q/I, U/I, and V/I in 20 microsecond temporal bins with part-per-million nightly sensitivity on naked eye stars. From just one hour of observations, we confirm linear depolarization of the main pulse and interpulse regions, and we also discover significant optical circular polarization at all pulsar phases. Furthermore, we observe circular depolarization of the main pulse and interpulse regions with respect to the off-pulse region. Observations of strongly polarized calibration stars, as well as lamp observations with a linear polarizer inserted upstream of the modulators, demonstrate that circular polarization results obtained on the Crab pulsar are not due to spurious, instrumental conversion of linear to circular polarization. Therefore, using novel instrumentation, our observations shed new light on this enigmatic object, and we demonstrate that the Lick 3-m Shane telescope still remains at the cutting edge for optical polarimetry.

  10. Interstellar circular polarization and the dielectric nature of dust grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chlewicki, Grzegorz; Greenberg, J. Mayo

    1989-01-01

    The implications of the observed relationship between the wavelength dependence of interstellar circular and linear polarization were reexamined. Mie theory calculations for grains with various optical constants demonstrate that any population of grains which matches the observed wavelength dependence of linear polarization also yields the correct cross-over wavelength of circular polarization. The coincidence of the peak wavelength of linear polarization and the cross-over of circular polarization is therefore independent of the optical constants of the grains and cannot be used as a critical constraint on grain properties. The observed relationship instead reflects a more fundamental connection between linear and circular polarization which was derived from the Kramers-Kronig relations by Shapiro (1975). Numerical results fully support Shapiro's conclusions and demonstrate that the apparent upper limit on the visual absorptivity of polarizing grains deduced from earlier Mie theory calculations (Martin, 1972) was spurious and resulted from a violation of the Kramers-Kronig relations in the assumed optical constants of the particles. The Kramers-Kronig interpretation of circular polarization can be used to place constraints on linear polarization outside the wavelength range in which it was observed. This approach was used to show that the peak observed in the visual is likely to be the only significant feature in the linear polarization curve, which therefore appears to be well approximated at all wavelengths by the Serkowski formula. A synthesis of available laboratory data was used to analyze the properties of dielectric core-mantel grains as the source of visual extinction and polarization.

  11. Two-color stabilization of atomic hydrogen in circularly polarized laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, D.; Ceccherini, F.

    2002-11-01

    The dynamic stabilization of atomic hydrogen against ionization in high-frequency single- and two-color, circularly polarized laser pulses is observed by numerically solving the three-dimensional, time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The single-color case is revisited and numerically determined ionization rates are compared with both, the exact and the approximate high-frequency Floquet rates. The positions of the peaks in the photoelectron spectra can be explained with the help of dressed initial states. In two-color laser fields of opposite circular polarization, the stabilized probability density may be shaped in various ways. For laser frequencies ?1 and ?2=n?1, n=2,3,..., and sufficiently large excursion amplitudes, (n+1) distinct probability density peaks are observed. This may be viewed as the generalization of the well-known ``dichotomy'' in linearly polarized laser fields, i.e, as ``trichotomy,'' ``quatrochotomy,'' ``pentachotomy'' etc. All those observed structures and their ``hula-hoop''-like dynamics can be understood with the help of high-frequency Floquet theory and the two-color Kramers-Henneberger transformation. The shaping of the probability density in the stabilization regime can be realized without additional loss in the survival probability, as compared to the corresponding single-color results.

  12. Astronomical sources of circularly polarized light and the origin of homochirality.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J

    2001-01-01

    Possible astronomical sources of ultraviolet circularly polarized light (UVCPL) which might be responsible for enantiomeric selection in interstellar organic molecules are considered, Synchrotron radiation from magnetic neutron stars has been suggested as a possible source of UVCPL. However, synchrotron radiation in these situations is not predicted to be strongly circularly polarized. Very few such sources show optical synchrotron radiation and in the few that do circular polarization has not been observed. Magnetic white dwarfs and white dwarf binaries (Polars) can be highly circularly polarized but any effect on molecular clouds and star formation regions must rely on rare chance encounters. Recent observations show that substantial levels of circular polarization are present in reflection nebulae in star formation regions. This mechanism produces polarized light exactly when and where it is needed in regions where star formation is occurring and organic molecules are known to be present. PMID:11296520

  13. Analysis of fratricide effect observed with GeMS and its relevance for large aperture astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otarola, Angel; Neichel, Benoit; Wang, Lianqi; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Rigaut, François

    2013-12-01

    Large aperture ground-based telescopes require Adaptive Optics (AO) to correct for the distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence and achieve diffraction limited imaging quality. These AO systems rely on Natural and Laser Guide Stars (NGS and LGS) to provide the information required to measure the wavefront from the astronomical sources under observation. In particular one such LGS method consists in creating an artificial star by means of fluorescence of the sodium atoms at the altitude of the Earth's mesosphere. This is achieved by propagating one or more lasers, at the wavelength of the Na D2a resonance, from the telescope up to the mesosphere. Lasers can be launched from either behind the secondary mirror or from the perimeter of the main aperture. The so-called central- and side-launch systems, respectively. The central-launch system, while helpful to reduce the LGS spot elongation, introduces the so-called "fratricide" effect. This consists of an increase in the photon-noise in the AO Wave Front Sensors (WFS) sub-apertures, with photons that are the result of laser photons back-scattering from atmospheric molecules (Rayleigh scattering) and atmospheric aerosols (dust and/or cirrus clouds ice particles). This affects the performance of the algorithms intended to compute the LGS centroids and subsequently compute and correct the turbulence-induced wavefront distortions. In the frame of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) project and using actual LGS WFS data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (Gemini MCAO a.k.a. GeMS), we show results from an analysis of the temporal variability of the observed fratricide effect, as well as comparison of the absolute magnitude of fratricide photon-flux level with simulations using models that account for molecular (Rayleigh) scattering and photons backscattered from cirrus clouds.

  14. Polarimetric Imaging of Large Cavity Structures in the Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disk Around PDS 70: Observations of the Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, J.; Dong, R.; Kudo, T.; Honda, M.; Zhu, Z.; McClure, M. K.; Muto, T.; Wisniewski, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Brandt, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Fukagawa, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K.; Ishii, M.; Iye, M.; Janson, M.; Kandori, R.; Knapp, G.; Kusakabe, N.; Kuzuhara, M.; Kwon, J.; Matsuo, T.; Mayama, S.; McElwain, M. W.; Serabyn, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present high resolution H-band polarized intensity (PI; FWHM = 0."1: 14 AU) and L'-band imaging data (FWHM = 0."11: 15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0."2) up to 210 AU (1."5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolved for the first time, and the radius of the gap is approx.70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by approx.6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of SED fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit mass of companions at approx.30 to approx.50MJ within the gap. Taking account of the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap. Subject headings: planetary systems - protoplanetary disks - stars: individual (PDS 70) - stars: pre-main sequence - polarization

  15. Polarimetric Imaging of Large Cavity Structures in the Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disk around PDS 70: Observations of the Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, J.; Hayashi, M.; Iye, M.; Kandori, R.; Kusakabe,N.; Morino, J.-I.; Suto, H.; Suzuki, R.; Tamura, M.; Serabyn, G.; McElwain, M. W.; Dong, R.; Zhu, Z.; Brandt, T.; Janson, M.; Knapp G.; Turner, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We present high resolution H-band polarized intensity (PI; FWHM = 0."1: 14 AU) and L'-band imaging data (FWHM = 0."11: 15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0."2) up to 210 AU (1."5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolvro for the first time, and the radius of the gap is approx 70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by approx 6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of SED fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit mass of companions at approx 30 to approx 50M(sub J) within the gap. Taking account of the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap.

  16. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XI. Lupus Observed With IRAC and MIPS

    E-print Network

    Merin, Bruno; Spezzi, Loredana; Alcala, Juan M; Evans, Neal J; Harvey, Paul M; Chapman, Nicholas; Huard, Tracy; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Comeron, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    We present c2d Spitzer/IRAC observations of the Lupus I, III and IV dark clouds and discuss them in combination with optical and near-infrared and c2d MIPS data. With the Spitzer data, the new sample contains 159 stars, 4 times larger than the previous one. It is dominated by low- and very-low mass stars and it is complete down to M $\\approx$ 0.1M$_\\odot$. We find 30-40 % binaries with separations between 100 to 2000 AU with no apparent effect in the disk properties of the members. A large majority of the objects are Class II or Class III objects, with only 20 (12%) of Class I or Flat spectrum sources. The disk sample is complete down to ``debris''-like systems in stars as small as M $\\approx$ 0.2 M$_\\odot$ and includes sub-stellar objects with larger IR excesses. The disk fraction in Lupus is 70 -- 80%, consistent with an age of 1 -- 2 Myr. However, the young population contains 20% optically thick accretion disks and 40% relatively less flared disks. A growing variety of inner disk structures is found for l...

  17. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Tristan G; Angilè, Francesco E; Benton, Steven J; Chapin, Edward L; Chapman, Nicholas L; Devlin, Mark J; Fissel, Laura M; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N; Gundersen, Joshua O; Hargrave, Peter C; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K; Netterfield, Calvin B; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E; Truch, Matthew D P; Tucker, Carole E; Tucker, Gregory S; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2013-01-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 {\\mu}m. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.). The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I,...

  18. Hubble Space Telescope and Very Large Array Observations of the H2O Gigamaser Galaxy TXS 2226-184.

    PubMed

    Falcke; Wilson; Henkel; Brunthaler; Braatz

    2000-02-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope/Wide-Field and Planetary Camera 2 images in Halpha + [N ii] lambdalambda6548, 6583 lines and continuum radiation and a VLA map at 8 GHz of the H2O gigamaser galaxy TXS 2226-184. This galaxy has the most luminous H2O maser emission known to date. Our red continuum images reveal a highly elongated galaxy with a dust lane crossing the nucleus. The surface brightness profile is best fitted by a bulge plus exponential disk model, favoring classification as a highly inclined spiral galaxy (i=70&j0;). The color map confirms that the dust lane is aligned with the galaxy major axis and is crossing the putative nucleus. The Halpha + [N ii] map exhibits a gaseous, jetlike structure perpendicular to the nuclear dust lane and the galaxy major axis. The radio map shows compact, steep spectrum emission that is elongated in the same direction as the Halpha + [N ii] emission. By analogy with Seyfert galaxies, we therefore suspect that this alignment reflects an interaction between the radio jet and the interstellar medium. The axes of the nuclear dust disk, the radio emission, and the optical line emission apparently define the axis of the active galactic nucleus. The observations suggest that in this galaxy the nuclear accretion disk, obscuring torus, and large-scale molecular gas layer are roughly coplanar. Our classification of the host galaxy strengthens the trend for megamasers to be found preferentially in highly inclined spiral galaxies. PMID:10642194

  19. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant RX J0852.0-4622 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, T.; Allafort, A.; Ballet, J.; Funk, S.; Giordano, F.; Hewitt, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Tajima, H.; Tibolla, O.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.04622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi-LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays, leading to the identification of the gamma-ray source with the SNR. The spectrum is well described as a power law with a photon index of = 1.85 0.06 (stat)+0.18 0.19 (sys), which smoothly connects to the H.E.S.S. spectrum in the TeV energy band. We discuss the gamma-ray emission mechanism based on multiwavelength data. The broadband data can be fit well by a model in which the gamma rays are of hadronic origin. We also consider a scenario with inverse Compton scattering of electrons as the emission mechanism of the gamma rays. Although the leptonic model predicts a harder spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range, the model can fit the data considering the statistical and systematic errors.

  20. CASE STUDY OF FOUR HOMOLOGOUS LARGE-SCALE CORONAL WAVES OBSERVED ON 2010 APRIL 28 AND 29

    SciTech Connect

    Kienreich, I. W.; Veronig, A. M.; Muhr, N.; Temmer, M.; Vrsnak, B.; Nitta, N.

    2011-02-01

    On 2010 April 28 and 29, the Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory B/Extreme Ultraviolet Imager observed four homologous large-scale coronal waves, the so-called EIT-waves, within 8 hr. All waves emerged from the same source active region, were accompanied by weak flares and faint coronal mass ejections, and propagated into the same direction at constant velocities in the range of {approx}220-340 km s{sup -1}. The last of these four coronal wave events was the strongest and fastest, with a velocity of 337 {+-} 31 km s{sup -1} and a peak perturbation amplitude of {approx}1.24, corresponding to a magnetosonic Mach number of M{sub ms} {approx} 1.09. The magnetosonic Mach numbers and velocities of the four waves are distinctly correlated, suggestive of the nonlinear fast-mode magnetosonic wave nature of the events. We also found a correlation between the magnetic energy buildup times and the velocity and magnetosonic Mach number.

  1. POLARIMETRIC IMAGING OF LARGE CAVITY STRUCTURES IN THE PRE-TRANSITIONAL PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND PDS 70: OBSERVATIONS OF THE DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, J.; Hayashi, M.; Dong, R.; Zhu, Z.; Brandt, T.; Kudo, T.; Egner, S.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Honda, M.; McClure, M. K.; Muto, T.; Wisniewski, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Carson, J.; Feldt, M.; Fukagawa, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; and others

    2012-10-10

    We present high-resolution H-band polarized intensity (FWHM = 0.''1: 14 AU) and L'-band imaging data (FWHM = 0.''11: 15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0.''2) up to 210 AU (1.''5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolved for the first time, and the radius of the gap is {approx}70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by {approx}6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of spectral energy distribution fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit of {approx}30 to {approx}50 M{sub J} on the mass of companions within the gap. Taking into account the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap.

  2. Fermi-Large Area Telescope Observations of the Exceptional Gamma-Ray Flare from 3C 279 in 2015 June

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.

    2015-08-01

    An exceptional ?-ray outburst from 3C 279 was detected by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2015 June. In the energy range of 0.1-300 GeV, the highest flux measured is (39.1 ± 2.5) × 10-6 {ph} {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1, which is the highest ?-ray flux ever detected from 3C 279, exceeding the previous historically brightest flare observed by EGRET in 1996. The high activity period consists of three major flares with the last one being the brightest. All but one flare show a faster rise and slower decay pattern, and at the peak of the activity, the ?-ray spectrum is found to show a clear signature of break/curvature. The obtained spectral parameters hint that the peak of the inverse Compton emission lies in the LAT energy range (around ˜1 GeV), which is in contrast to that seen during the 2013 December and 2014 April ?-ray flares of 3C 279. From the ?? pair opacity arguments, the minimum Doppler factor is estimated to be 14, and the location of the ?-ray emitting region is found to be either at the outer edge of the broad line region or farther out from it.

  3. Large Vertical Gradient of Reactive Nitrogen Oxides in the Boundary Layer: Modeling Analysis of DISCOVER-AQ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Smeltzer, C.; Liu, Z.; Crawford, J. H.; Olson, J. R.; Szykman, J.

    2013-12-01

    An often-used assumption of air pollution studies is the well-mixed planetary boundary layer (PBL), in which pollutants are evenly distributed. Because of the difficulty in obtaining vertically-resolved measurements, the validity of the assumption has not been thoroughly established. In this study, we use more than 200 vertical profiles observed in the DISCOVER-AQ aircraft campaign in 2011 to examine the vertical distributions of air pollutants over the Baltimore area during the summer. Contrary to the well-mixed profile, the observed median vertical profile of NOx, an important ozone precursor, shows a sharp negative gradient in the PBL. Our analysis suggests that the magnitude of NOx gradients is highly sensitive to atmospheric stability. Using a 1-D chemical transport model (REAM), we are able to reproduce the vertical profiles under different PBL stability conditions, classified based on the potential temperature gradient and the PBL height. To investigate how the parameterizations of the PBL and surface processes impact vertical profiles in 3-D chemical transport models, we test PBL mixing properties using two PBL schemes (Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ)) and two land-surface schemes (Noah and RUC) in the WRF model. Comparisons reveal that the YSU scheme performs better in turbulent and high PBL height conditions while the MYJ scheme performs better in less turbulent conditions. Results also show that the land-surface schemes in WRF do not have as large an influence as the PBL mixing schemes. Using the model results, we evaluate the impact of NOx gradient in the PBL on the calculation of the ozone production rate and satellite NO2 retrieval. We show that using the surface measurements and the well-mixed PBL assumption result in a ~30% high bias in the PBL ozone production rate. Our results also show that biases in the PBL height and the NOx gradient lead to a moderate bias (about 5%) in the retrieval of NO2 tropospheric vertical columns. In addition, we diagnose the isoprene emission flux in the 1-D model, which is constrained by in situ observations of NOx, O3, and VOCs including isoprene, and find it in good agreement with that calculated in the MEGAN model.

  4. Circular structures of the earth's continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briukhanov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Bush, Vil'iam Arturovich; Glukhovskii, Marat Zinov'evich; Zverev, A. T.; Kats, Ia. G.

    The relationship between the composition of the lithosphere and the circular structures (CSs) visible on remote images of the earth surface is investigated using space observations and geological, geophysical, geomorphological, and mapping data. The CSs are divided into classes according to their structural, or size, parameters (megastructures, macrostructures, mesostructures, ministructures, and microstructures) and their genetic types (e.g., nuclear, abyssal, metagenic, and exogenic). The distribution of these structural-genetic CS types on the earth's continents (with the exception of the Antarctic) is discussed, and the specificity of the features of these CS types is examined. Special attention is given to the correlations between the distribution of CSs and the regional distribution of metallogenic rocks.

  5. Numerical investigations of transition in hypersonic flows over circular cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husmeier, Frank

    This thesis focuses on secondary instability mechanisms of high-speed boundary layers over cones with a circular cross section. Hypersonic transition investigations at Mach 8 are performed using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). At wind-tunnel conditions, these simulations allow for comparison with experimental measurements to verify fundamental stability characteristics. To better understand geometrical influences, flat-plate and cylindrical geometries are studied using after-shock conditions of the conical investigations. This allows for a direct comparison with the results of the sharp cone to evaluate the influence of the spanwise curvature and the cone opening angle. The ratio of the boundary-layer thickness to the spanwise radius is used to determine the importance of spanwise curvature effects. When advancing in the downstream direction the radius increases linearly while the boundary-layer thickness stays almost constant. Hence, spanwise curvature effects are strongest close to the nose and decrease in downstream direction. Their influences on the secondary instability mechanisms provide some rudimentary guidance in the design of future high-speed air vehicles. In experiments, blunting of the nose tip of the circular cone results in an increase in critical Reynolds number (c.f. Stetson et al. (1984)). However, once a certain threshold of the nose radius is exceeded, the critical Reynolds number decreases even to lower values than for the sharp cone. So far, conclusive explanations for this behavior could not be derived based on the available experimental data. Therefore, here DNS is used to study the effect of nose bluntness on secondary instability mechanisms in order to shed light on the underlying flow physics. To this end, three different nose tip radii are considered-the sharp cone, a small nose radius and a large nose radius. A small nose radius moves the transition on-set downstream, while for a large nose radius the so-called transition reversal is observed. Experimentalists hold influences of the entropy layer responsible but detailed numerical studies may lead to alternate conclusions.

  6. Observations of large-amplitude cross-shore internal bores near the shelf break, Santa Monica Bay, CA.

    PubMed

    Noble, Marlene A; Xu, J P

    2003-01-01

    Two sets of moorings were deployed along a cross-shelf transect in central Santa Monica bay for four months in the winter of 1998-1999. Both sites had an array of instruments attached to tripods set on the seafloor to monitor currents over the entire water column, surface waves, near-bed temperature, water clarity and suspended sediment. A companion mooring had temperature sensors spaced approximately 10 m apart to measure temperature profiles between the surface and the seafloor. One array was deployed in 70 m of water at a site adjacent to the shelf break, just northwest of a major ocean outfall. The other was deployed on the mid shelf in 35 m of water approximately 6 km from the shelf break site. The subtidal currents in the region flowed parallel to the isobaths with fluctuating time scales around 10 days, a typical coastal-ocean pattern. However, during the falling phase of the barotropic spring tide, sets of large-amplitude, sheared cross-shore current pulses with a duration of 2-5 h were observed at the shelf break site. Currents in these pulses flowed exclusively offshore in a thin layer near the bed with amplitudes reaching 30-40 cm/s. Simultaneously, currents with amplitudes around 15-20 cm/s flowed exclusively onshore in the thicker layer between the offshore flow layer and the sea surface. The net offshore transport was about half the onshore transport. Near-surface isotherms were depressed 30-40 m. These pulses were likely internal bores generated by tidal currents. Bed stresses associated with these events exceeded 3 dynes/cm(2). These amplitudes are large enough to resuspend and transport not only fine-grained material, but also medium to coarse sands from the shelf toward the slope. Consequently, the seafloor over the shelf break was swept clear of fine sediments. The data suggest that the internal bores dissipate and are reduced in amplitude as they propagate across this relatively narrow shelf. There is evidence that they reach the 35 m site, but other coastal ocean processes obscure their distinctive characteristics. PMID:12648953

  7. GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 0, NO. 0, PAGES 0-0, M 0, 2001 Slip-length scaling in large earthquakes: Observations

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Bruce E.

    earthquakes: Observations and theory and implications for earthquake physics Bruce E. Shaw and Christopher H there has been a dilemma in earthquake physics, because the observed scaling law for large earthquakes did not appear to be consistent with the stress-drop invariance of small earthquake scaling. Surpris- ingly, slip

  8. 12A.3 RADAR OBSERVATIONS OF CONVECTION IN A LARGE-SCALE DISTURBANCE DURING NAMMA Robert Cifelli T.J. Lang, and S.A. Rutledge

    E-print Network

    Rutledge, Steven

    and circulation structures within maritime mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the vicinity of the CV islands12A.3 RADAR OBSERVATIONS OF CONVECTION IN A LARGE-SCALE DISTURBANCE DURING NAMMA Robert Cifelli T (CV) during the NAMMA campaign. Preliminary analyses of convection associated with an AEW observed

  9. SEARCH FOR A MAGNETIC FIELD VIA CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IN THE WOLF-RAYET STAR EZ CMa

    SciTech Connect

    De la Chevrotiere, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Collaboration: MiMeS Collaboration

    2013-02-20

    We report on the first deep, direct search for a magnetic field via the circular polarization of Zeeman splitting in a Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star. Using the highly efficient ESPaDOnS spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we observed at three different epochs one of the best W-R candidates in the sky expected to harbor a magnetic field, the bright, highly variable WN4 star EZ CMa = WR6 = HD 50896. We looked for the characteristic circular polarization (Stokes V) pattern in strong emission lines that would arise as a consequence of a global, rotating magnetic field with a split monopole configuration. We also obtained nearly simultaneous linear polarization spectra (Stokes Q and U), which are dominated by electron scattering, most likely from a flattened wind with large-scale corotating structures. As the star rotates with a period of 3.766 days, our view of the wind changes, which in turn affects the value of the linear polarization in lines versus continuum at the {approx}0.2% level. Depending on the epoch of observation, our Stokes V data were affected by significant crosstalk from Stokes Q and U to V. We removed this spurious signal from the circular polarization data and experimented with various levels of spectral binning to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of our data. In the end, no magnetic field is unambiguously detected in EZ CMa. Assuming that the star is intrinsically magnetic and harbors a split monopole configuration, we find an upper limit of B {approx} 100 G for the intensity of its field in the line-forming regions of the stellar wind.

  10. First evidence for chorus at a large geocentric distance as a source of plasmaspheric hiss: Coordinated THEMIS and Van Allen Probes observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.

    2015-01-01

    ray tracing suggests that plasmaspheric hiss can originate from chorus observed outside of the plasmapause. Although a few individual events have been reported to support this mechanism, the number of reported conjugate events is still very limited. Using coordinated observations between Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) and Van Allen Probes, we report on an interesting event, where chorus was observed at a large L shell (~9.8), different from previously reported events at L < 6, but still exhibited a remarkable correlation with hiss observed in the outer plasmasphere (L ~ 5.5). Ray tracing indicates that a subset of chorus can propagate into the observed location of hiss on a timescale of ~5-6 s, in excellent agreement with the observed time lag between chorus and hiss. This provides quantitative support that chorus from large L shells, where it was previously considered unable to propagate into the plasmasphere, can in fact be the source of hiss.

  11. Evidence from Impact Crater Observations for Few Large Impacts on the Moon 0.8-1.7 Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchoff, M. R.; Bottke, W. F.; Marchi, S.; Chapman, C. R.; Enke, B.

    2012-12-01

    Our Moon is a keystone for understanding the inner solar system impact flux through time, because it is the only body for which we have crater size-frequency distributions (SFDs) through most of bombardment history and radiometric ages of probable associated terrains. Even so, the bombardment rate over the last 3.5 Gyr is poorly understood. According to the spatial density of sub-km craters on dated lunar terrains, the lunar impact flux has been roughly constant over this interval [e.g., 1 and references therein]. If so, one may expect that craters with diameter (D) > 50 km should also be equally dispersed in time over the last 3.5 Gyr. Surprisingly, our new work indicates this may not be so. We have compiled SFDs for small, superposed craters with D~0.6-15 km on the original floors of several previously designated Copernican and Eratothenian craters (USGS Geological Atlas of the Moon and [2]) with D > 50 km using JMARS. Using these data we compute the large craters' formation model ages with the Model Production Function chronology developed by Marchi et al. [3]. Many of these craters, especially on the farside (e.g., Sharnov, Birkeland), can now be suitably examined only because of the excellent LROC imaging (we use the Wide Angle Camera mosaic). As a test of our methods, we calculated the model age of the 55 km crater Aristillus (34°N, 1°E), a relatively young crater thought to have showered the Apollo 15 landing site with ejecta. Interestingly, our model age of 2.2 ± 0.6 Ga is surprisingly consistent with a 2.1 Ga-old impact-derived clast (radiometric age) returned by the Apollo 15 astronauts [4]. We find that nearly all of our computed ages for the large craters are older than indicated by previous work, with very few having ages younger than 3 Ga. Reasons for these discrepancies include (i) use of poor resolution Lunar Orbiter images (especially away from the near side) and (ii) application of the unreliable "DL" method, which involves simplified assumptions about how craters degrade. In addition, when our crater ages are combined with others determined (e.g., Copernicus, Tycho, King; [5-9]), we preliminarily observe a relative lull in lunar impact cratering for ~0.8-1.7 Ga. Intriguingly, this interval appears to roughly coincide with a period on Earth called the "boring billion" [10], when the evolution of life appears to have been stagnant and oceans were euxinic (poorly mixed, largely starved of oxygen). We speculate that absence of major terrestrial impacts may have surprising implications for the history of life and our biosphere. References: [1] Neukum, G., et al. (2001) SSR 96, 55-86. [2] Wilhelms, D.E. (1987) Geologic History of the Moon USGS, Paper 1348. [3] Marchi, S., et al. (2009) AJ 137, 4936-4948. [4] Ryder, G., et al. (1991) Geology 19, 143-146. [5] Neukum, G. and B. König (1976). Lunar Sci. VII. Proc., 2867-2881. [6] Hiesinger, H., et al. (2012) JGR 117, E00H10, doi: 10.1029/2011je003935. [7] van der Bogert, C.H., et al. (2010). LPSC XLI. Abst. #2165. [8] McEwen, A.S., et al. (1993) JGR 98, 17207-17231. [9] Ashley, J.W., et al. (2011). 42nd LPSC, Abst. #2437. [10] Holland, H.D. (2006) Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 361, 903-915.

  12. Polarimetric Imaging of Large Cavity Structures in the Pre-transitional Protoplanetary Disk Around PDS 70: Observations of the Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, J.; Dong, R.; Kudo, T.; Honda, M.; McClure, M. K.; Zhu, Z.; Muto, T.; Wisniewski, J.; Abe, L.; Brandner, W.; Brandt, T.; Carson, J.; Egner, S.; Feldt, M.; Fukagawa, M.; Goto, M.; Grady, C. A.; Guyon, O.; Hayano, Y.; Hayashi, M.; Hayashi, S.; Henning, T.; Hodapp, K.; Ishii, M.; McElwain, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution H-band polarized intensity (FWHM=0".1:14AU) and L'-band imaging data(FWHM= 0".11:15 AU) of the circumstellar disk around the weak-lined T Tauri star PDS 70 in Centaurus at a radial distance of 28 AU (0".2) up to 210 AU (1".5). In both images, a giant inner gap is clearly resolved for the first time, and the radius of the gap is approx.70 AU. Our data show that the geometric center of the disk shifts by approx.6 AU toward the minor axis. We confirm that the brown dwarf companion candidate to the north of PDS 70 is a background star based on its proper motion. As a result of spectral energy distribution fitting by Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, we infer the existence of an optically thick inner disk at a few AU. Combining our observations and modeling, we classify the disk of PDS 70 as a pre-transitional disk. Furthermore, based on the analysis of L'-band imaging data, we put an upper limit of approx.30 to approx.50 M(sub J) on the mass of companions within the gap. Taking into account the presence of the large and sharp gap, we suggest that the gap could be formed by dynamical interactions of sub-stellar companions or multiple unseen giant planets in the gap. Key words: planetary systems - polarization - protoplanetary disks - stars: individual (PDS 70) - stars: pre-main sequence.

  13. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XI. Lupus Observed With IRAC and MIPS

    E-print Network

    Bruno Merin; Jes Jorgensen; Loredana Spezzi; Juan M. Alcala; Neal J. Evans II; Paul M. Harvey; Nicholas Chapman; Tracy Huard; Ewine F. van Dishoeck; Fernando Comeron

    2008-03-10

    We present c2d Spitzer/IRAC observations of the Lupus I, III and IV dark clouds and discuss them in combination with optical and near-infrared and c2d MIPS data. With the Spitzer data, the new sample contains 159 stars, 4 times larger than the previous one. It is dominated by low- and very-low mass stars and it is complete down to M $\\approx$ 0.1M$_\\odot$. We find 30-40 % binaries with separations between 100 to 2000 AU with no apparent effect in the disk properties of the members. A large majority of the objects are Class II or Class III objects, with only 20 (12%) of Class I or Flat spectrum sources. The disk sample is complete down to ``debris''-like systems in stars as small as M $\\approx$ 0.2 M$_\\odot$ and includes sub-stellar objects with larger IR excesses. The disk fraction in Lupus is 70 -- 80%, consistent with an age of 1 -- 2 Myr. However, the young population contains 20% optically thick accretion disks and 40% relatively less flared disks. A growing variety of inner disk structures is found for larger inner disk clearings for equal disk masses. Lupus III is the most centrally populated and rich, followed by Lupus I with a filamentary structure and by Lupus IV, where a very high density core with little star-formation activity has been found. We estimate star formation rates in Lupus of 2 -- 10 M$_\\odot$ Myr$^{-1}$ and star formation efficiencies of a few percent, apparently correlated with the associated cloud masses.

  14. Total positive curvature of circular DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper W.

    2013-11-01

    The properties of double-stranded DNA and other chiral molecules depend on the local geometry, i.e., on curvature and torsion, yet the paths of closed chain molecules are globally restricted by topology. When both of these characteristics are to be incorporated in the description of circular chain molecules, e.g., plasmids, it is shown to have implications for the total positive curvature integral. For small circular micro-DNAs it follows as a consequence of Fenchel's inequality that there must exist a minimum length for the circular plasmids to be double stranded. It also follows that all circular micro-DNAs longer than the minimum length must be concave, a result that is consistent with typical atomic force microscopy images of plasmids. Predictions for the total positive curvature of circular micro-DNAs are given as a function of length, and comparisons with circular DNAs from the literature are presented.

  15. Dinucleotide circular codes and bijective transformations.

    PubMed

    Fimmel, Elena; Giannerini, Simone; Gonzalez, Diego Luis; Strüngmann, Lutz

    2015-12-01

    The presence of circular codes in mRNA coding sequences is postulated to be involved in informational mechanisms aimed at detecting and maintaining the normal reading frame during protein synthesis. Most of the recent research is focused on trinucleotide circular codes. However, also dinucleotide circular codes are important since dinucleotides are ubiquitous in genomes and associated to important biological functions. In this work we adopt the group theoretic approach used for trinucleotide codes in Fimmel et al. (2015) to study dinucleotide circular codes and highlight their symmetry properties. Moreover, we characterize such codes in terms of n-circularity and provide a graph representation that allows to visualize them geometrically. The results establish a theoretical framework for the study of the biological implications of dinucleotide circular codes in genomic sequences. PMID:26423358

  16. Method of oriented circular dichroism.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; Huang, H W; Olah, G A

    1990-01-01

    We present a new method for determining the orientation of alpha-helical sections of proteins or peptides in membrane. To apply this method, membranes containing proteins must be prepared in a multilayer array. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the multilayer sample are then measured at the normal as well as oblique incident angles with respect to the bilayer planes; we call such spectra oriented circular dichroism (OCD). The procedure of OCD measurement, particularly the ways to avoid the spectral artifacts due to the effects of dielectric interfaces, linear dichroism and birefringence, and the method of data analysis are described in detail. To illustrate the method, we analyze the OCD of alamethicin in diphytanoylphosphatidylcholine multilayers. We conclude unambiguously that the helical section of alamethicin is parallel to the membrane normal when the sample is in the full-hydration state, but the helical section rotates to the plane of membrane when the sample is in a low-hydration state. We also obtained the parallel and perpendicular CD spectra of alpha-helix, and found them to be in agreement with previous theoretical calculations based on the exciton theory. These spectra are useful for analyzing protein orientations in future experiments. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:2344464

  17. Circular motion of bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    The circular motion for airship-like bodies has thus far been calculated only for a prolate ellipsoid of revolution (reference 1, p.133 and reference 2). In this paper, however, the circular motion of elongated bodies of revolution more nearly resembling airships will be investigated. The results will give the effect of rotation on the pressure distribution and thus yield some information as to the stresses set up in an airship in circular flight.

  18. Simulations of multipactor in circular waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Semenov, V. E.; Zharova, N. A.; Anderson, D.; Lisak, M.; Puech, J.

    2010-12-15

    Detailed numerical simulations have been done to investigate the properties of multipactor breakdown in circular waveguides operating in the propagating fundamental TE11 mode. Main attention has been given to a comparison between the two fundamental cases corresponding to linear and circular polarizations, respectively, of the propagating electromagnetic wave. It is found that circular polarization is considerably more susceptible to multipactor than linear polarization. The reason for this difference is clarified by a comprehensive study of the electron motion in the waveguide.

  19. Rain Characteristics and Large-Scale Environments of Precipitation Objects with Extreme Rain Volumes from TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yaping; Lau, William K M.; Liu, Chuntao

    2013-01-01

    This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using 14 years of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Feature (PF) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis data to study rainfall structure and environmental factors associated with extreme heavy rain events. Characteristics of instantaneous extreme volumetric PFs are examined and compared to those of intermediate and small systems. It is found that instantaneous PFs exhibit a much wider scale range compared to the daily gridded precipitation accumulation range. The top 1% of the rainiest PFs contribute over 55% of total rainfall and have 2 orders of rain volume magnitude greater than those of the median PFs. We find a threshold near the top 10% beyond which the PFs grow exponentially into larger, deeper, and colder rain systems. NCEP reanalyses show that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase steadily with increasingly larger PFs, along with a rapid increase of 500 hPa upward vertical velocity beyond the top 10%. This provides the necessary moisture convergence to amplify and sustain the extreme events. The rapid increase in vertical motion is associated with the release of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in mature systems, as is evident in the increase in CAPE of PFs up to 10% and the subsequent dropoff. The study illustrates distinct stages in the development of an extreme rainfall event including: (1) a systematic buildup in large-scale temperature and moisture, (2) a rapid change in rain structure, (3) explosive growth of the PF size, and (4) a release of CAPE before the demise of the event. XXXX This study adopts a "precipitation object" approach by using the Precipitation Feature (PF) database developed at the University of Utah to analyze the characteristics and large-scale environment of extreme precipitation from 14 year TRMM observations. We define extreme PF with the volumetric rain of the PF in order to capture the effect of both spatial extent and rain intensity. We have found that instantaneous PFs have much larger dynamic ranges than the daily gridded precipitation, with those in the top 1% being 2 orders of magnitude larger than the medium PFs and contributing to over 55% of instantaneous rainfall. Ninety percent of the PFs that contribute about 20% of total precipitation belong to meso-? systems (less than 20 km in the horizontal direction) or broken patches from large systems. The most abrupt change is found to be around the top 10%-1%, where the rain systems expand from a few hundred to a few thousand kilometers in size and from 2300 to 40,000 mm/h km2 in rain volume. Spatial and temporal distributions and the mean characteristics of extreme PFs are discussed in comparison to intermediate and smaller PFs. We find that regional differences in rain characteristics mainly come from land-ocean differences for smaller PFs. As the VRR of PF increases, the regional differences mainly come from the tropics and subtropics. While extreme PFs in the top 1% are found to be significantly larger, deeper, and colder than the lower 90% of PFs, extreme PFs in the tropics are even deeper and colder than the subtropical systems and present no significant seasonal variations. The extreme PFs in the subtropics in the summertime resemble those in the tropics, characterized by locally convection-driven rain systems. The extreme PFs in subtropical winter are much broader and shallower, which reanalysis shows that midlevel relative humidity and total precipitable water increase consistently with increasingly larger rain systems, along with sharp increases of upward vertical velocities to provide necessary dynamic support. Instantaneous CAPE also generally increases with larger PF, but the mean CAPE levels off for the extremely large systems due to the release of CAPE in mature systems in subtropical land regions. The study illustrates important roles of large-scale moisture and dynamic conditions for occurrences of extreme precipitation. [40] It has been widely acce

  20. Black Hole Mergers and Unstable Circular Orbits

    E-print Network

    Frans Pretorius; Deepak Khurana

    2007-06-22

    We describe recent numerical simulations of the merger of a class of equal mass, non-spinning, eccentric binary black hole systems in general relativity. We show that with appropriate fine-tuning of the initial conditions to a region of parameter space we denote the threshold of immediate merger, the binary enters a phase of close interaction in a near-circular orbit, stays there for an amount of time proportional to logarithmic distance from the threshold in parameter space, then either separates or merges to form a single Kerr black hole. To gain a better understanding of this phenomena we study an analogous problem in the evolution of equatorial geodesics about a central Kerr black hole. A similar threshold of capture exists for appropriate classes of initial conditions, and tuning to threshold the geodesics approach one of the unstable circular geodesics of the Kerr spacetime. Remarkably, with a natural mapping of the parameters of the geodesic to that of the equal mass system, the scaling exponent describing the whirl phase of each system turns out to be quite similar. Armed with this lone piece of evidence that an approximate correspondence might exist between near-threshold evolution of geodesics and generic binary mergers, we illustrate how this information can be used to estimate the cross section and energy emitted in the ultra relativistic black hole scattering problem. This could eventually be of use in providing estimates for the related problem of parton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider in extra dimension scenarios where black holes are produced.

  1. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-06-24

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  2. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-02-12

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  3. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2013-04-16

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  4. Circular permutant GFP insertion folding reporters

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S. (Santa Fe, NM); Cabantous, Stephanie (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14

    Provided are methods of assaying and improving protein folding using circular permutants of fluorescent proteins, including circular permutants of GFP variants and combinations thereof. The invention further provides various nucleic acid molecules and vectors incorporating such nucleic acid molecules, comprising polynucleotides encoding fluorescent protein circular permutants derived from superfolder GFP, which polynucleotides include an internal cloning site into which a heterologous polynucleotide may be inserted in-frame with the circular permutant coding sequence, and which when expressed are capable of reporting on the degree to which a polypeptide encoded by such an inserted heterologous polynucleotide is correctly folded by correlation with the degree of fluorescence exhibited.

  5. Circular domain features based condition monitoring for low speed slewing bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesarendra, Wahyu; Kosasih, Buyung; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Moodie, Craig A. S.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel application of circular domain features calculation based condition monitoring method for low rotational speed slewing bearing. The method employs data reduction process using piecewise aggregate approximation (PAA) to detect frequency alteration in the bearing signal when the fault occurs. From the processed data, circular domain features such as circular mean, circular variance, circular skewness and circular kurtosis are calculated and monitored. It is shown that the slight changes of bearing condition during operation can be identified more clearly in circular domain analysis compared to time domain analysis and other advanced signal processing methods such as wavelet decomposition and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) allowing the engineer to better schedule the maintenance work. Four circular domain features were shown to consistently and clearly identify the onset (initiation) of fault from the peak feature value which is not clearly observable in time domain features. The application of the method is demonstrated with simulated data, laboratory slewing bearing data and industrial bearing data from Coal Bridge Reclaimer used in a local steel mill.

  6. Long-term Observations of Ecohydrology, Climate, Energy Fluxes, and Eddy Covariance Error in a Large, Semiarid Floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleverly, J. R.; Thibault, J. R.; Dahm, C. N.; Allred Coonrod, J. E.; Slusher, M.; Teet, S.; Schuetz, J.

    2008-12-01

    Some of the highest rates of water and energy fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere occur over large floodplains in arid and semiarid areas. Often located in high-pressure zones near 35 degrees latitude, abundant radiation and easily accessible groundwater contribute few limitations on growth and production in desert phreatophytes. Desert regions typically undergo cycles of drought and floods, and phreatophytic communities wax or wane in cover, density, and structure with cumulative species responses to timing and severity in these regional weather cycles. The Rio-ET Laboratory at the University of New Mexico has been collecting long-term data from a flux network of riparian monitoring stations, mounted on towers along the Middle Rio Grande. Ongoing measurements of energy, water and carbon dioxide fluxes, groundwater dynamics, meteorology, leaf area index, and community dynamics began at some locations in 1999. Recent reanalysis of the flux dataset was performed in which error correction procedures were compared to each and other and in relation to an irrigated crop under advection. Most riparian sites exhibited stable atmospheric stratification and an energy balance consistent with evaporative cooling. Evaporative cooling was more prominent in the late afternoon and evening, during wet conditions. Reduced latent heat fluxes were observed in a cottonwood forest following restoration and fire, but only in years when the forest floor was not re-vegetated by opportunistic annuals or target removal species. Water use by riparian phreatophytes was 1) non-responsive to drought during the monsoon season (non-native Russian olive and monospecific saltcedar communities), 2) responded negatively to monsoon-season drought (xeroriparian saltcedar and saltgrass mosaic community), or 3) responded positively to monsoon-season drought (cottonwood forests). Water salvage related to ecological restoration is dependent upon restoration strategy, emphasizing the importance of due diligent followup to prevent unintentional re-vegetation of the site. Restoration of monospecific saltcedar provides the greatest opportunity for water salvage although restoration of cottonwood forests through removal of densely-packed non-native understory results in marginal water salvage. Benefits of ecosystem restoration increase with drought and during the period of explosive growth following a period of prolonged drought.

  7. Arctic-HYCOS: a Large Sample observing system for estimating freshwater fluxes in the drainage basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietroniro, Al; Korhonen, Johanna; Looser, Ulrich; Hardardóttir, Jórunn; Johnsrud, Morten; Vuglinsky, Valery; Gustafsson, David; Lins, Harry F.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.; Lammers, Richard; Stewart, Bruce; Abrate, Tommaso; Pilon, Paul; Sighomnou, Daniel; Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic region is an important regulating component of the global climate system, and is also experiencing a considerable change during recent decades. More than 10% of world's river-runoff flows to the Arctic Ocean and there is evidence of changes in its fresh-water balance. However, about 30% of the Arctic basin is still ungauged, with differing monitoring practices and data availability from the countries in the region. A consistent system for monitoring and sharing of hydrological information throughout the Arctic region is thus of highest interest for further studies and monitoring of the freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean. The purpose of the Arctic-HYCOS project is to allow for collection and sharing of hydrological data. Preliminary 616 stations were identified with long-term daily discharge data available, and around 250 of these already provide online available data in near real time. This large sample will be used in the following scientific analysis: 1) to evaluate freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean and Seas, 2) to monitor changes and enhance understanding of the hydrological regime and 3) to estimate flows in ungauged regions and develop models for enhanced hydrological prediction in the Arctic region. The project is intended as a component of the WMO (World Meteorological Organization) WHYCOS (World Hydrological Cycle Observing System) initiative, covering the area of the expansive transnational Arctic basin with participation from Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russian Federation, Sweden and United States of America. The overall objective is to regularly collect, manage and share high quality data from a defined basic network of hydrological stations in the Arctic basin. The project focus on collecting data on discharge and possibly sediment transport and temperature. Data should be provisional in near-real time if available, whereas time-series of historical data should be provided once quality assurance has been completed. The initial stages of the project will focus on collecting data on discharge and revise station selection criteria. For monitoring freshwater flow to oceans, stations close to the mouths of rivers and immediately inland for back-up purposes will be preferred. For studies of change emphasis is placed on hydrological regime stations located in headwaters small sub-catchments, including pristine basins. Stations outside the Arctic Ocean basin, such as at the mouth of the Yukon River, Baltic Sea and Hudson Bay, can also be considered to allow a better understanding of hydrological processes occurring in the general region. Countries shall facilitate, to the extent possible, access to their data currently published online, and also access to those not yet regularly published on the web. At a later stage data exchange standards such as WaterML2.0 will be implemented. The project will also perform pan-Arctic hydrological modelling (geo-statistical, deterministic and probabilistic methods) for the assessment and integration of observational and modelled data to improve estimates of ungauged discharge and the overall estimates of freshwater flux to the Arctic Ocean, as well as understanding of hydrological processes.

  8. Circular geodesics in the Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we investigate the equatorial causal (time-like and null) circular geodesics of the Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (Newman-Unti-Tamburino) black hole in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. The special characteristics of this black hole are that it is of Petrov-Pirani type-D and the photon trajectories are doubly degenerate principal null congruence. We derive the conditions for the existence of the innermost stable circular orbit, marginally bound circular orbit and circular photon orbit in the background of Kerr-Newman-Taub-NUT (KNTN) spacetime. The effective potential for both time-like and null cases have been studied. It is shown that the presence of the NUT parameter deforms the shape of the effective potential in contrast with the zero NUT parameter. We further investigate the energy extraction by the Penrose process for this spacetime. It is shown that the efficiency of this black hole depends on both the charge and NUT parameter. It is observed that the energy gain is maximum when the NUT parameter goes to zero value and for the maximum spin value. When the value of the NUT parameter is increasing, the energy gain is decreasing.

  9. Tsunami trapping near circular islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinti, Stefano; Vannini, Cesare

    1995-09-01

    Trapping of long water waves that are induced by submarine earthquakes and that attack circular islands is studied by applying a theoretical model ( Tinti and Vannini, 1994) that is based on the linear shallow water approximation. The solution is computed as the superposition of the eigenmodes of the water basin. The tsunami trapping is seen in terms of the capability of the source to excite the “trapped” eigenmodes of the basin. The bottom depth dependence around the island is shown to be quite important in determining the trapping capability of the island: a depth profile that is downwardly concave as the distance from the island coasts increases is substantially more efficient in amplifying the incoming waves and in trapping their energy than a profile exhibiting an upward concavity.

  10. Dual-polarity metamaterial circular polarizer based on giant extrinsic chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, J. H.; Shi, Q. C.; Li, Y. X.; Nie, G. Y.; Guan, C. Y.; Cui, T. J.

    2015-11-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in nature. The associated optical activity has received much attention due to important applications in spectroscopy, analytical chemistry, crystallography and optics, however, artificial chiral optical materials are complex and difficult to fabricate, especially in the optical range. Here, we propose an ultrathin dual-polarity metamaterial circular polarizer by exploiting the mechanism of giant extrinsic chirality. The polarity of the circular polarizer with large suppression of linear anisotropy can be switched by changing the sign of incident angle. The microwave experiments and optical simulations demonstrate that the large angle of incidence facilitates the high-efficiency circular polarizer, which can be realized in the whole spectra from microwave to visible frequencies. The ultrathin single-layer metamaterials with extrinsic chirality will be a promising candidate for circular polarization devices.

  11. Dual-polarity metamaterial circular polarizer based on giant extrinsic chirality

    PubMed Central

    Shi, J. H.; Shi, Q. C.; Li, Y. X.; Nie, G. Y.; Guan, C. Y.; Cui, T. J.

    2015-01-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in nature. The associated optical activity has received much attention due to important applications in spectroscopy, analytical chemistry, crystallography and optics, however, artificial chiral optical materials are complex and difficult to fabricate, especially in the optical range. Here, we propose an ultrathin dual-polarity metamaterial circular polarizer by exploiting the mechanism of giant extrinsic chirality. The polarity of the circular polarizer with large suppression of linear anisotropy can be switched by changing the sign of incident angle. The microwave experiments and optical simulations demonstrate that the large angle of incidence facilitates the high-efficiency circular polarizer, which can be realized in the whole spectra from microwave to visible frequencies. The ultrathin single-layer metamaterials with extrinsic chirality will be a promising candidate for circular polarization devices. PMID:26559746

  12. Dual-polarity metamaterial circular polarizer based on giant extrinsic chirality.

    PubMed

    Shi, J H; Shi, Q C; Li, Y X; Nie, G Y; Guan, C Y; Cui, T J

    2015-01-01

    Chirality is ubiquitous in nature. The associated optical activity has received much attention due to important applications in spectroscopy, analytical chemistry, crystallography and optics, however, artificial chiral optical materials are complex and difficult to fabricate, especially in the optical range. Here, we propose an ultrathin dual-polarity metamaterial circular polarizer by exploiting the mechanism of giant extrinsic chirality. The polarity of the circular polarizer with large suppression of linear anisotropy can be switched by changing the sign of incident angle. The microwave experiments and optical simulations demonstrate that the large angle of incidence facilitates the high-efficiency circular polarizer, which can be realized in the whole spectra from microwave to visible frequencies. The ultrathin single-layer metamaterials with extrinsic chirality will be a promising candidate for circular polarization devices. PMID:26559746

  13. 5 CFR 1310.5 - List of current circulars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false List of current circulars. 1310.5 Section 1310.5 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES OMB CIRCULARS § 1310.5 List of current circulars. The following list includes all circulars in effect as of December 1, 1998. No. and Title A-1—“System of Circulars...

  14. Evaluating the Reliability of Reanalysis as a Substitute for Observational Data in Large-scale Agricultural Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotter, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Moyer, E. J.; Elliott, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Future projections of food security require historical agricultural assessments to validate, improve, and understand the limitations of yield estimates. Poor observational climate networks often force historical assessments to rely on reanalysis data- climate model output nudged by observations- for inputs to crop models. However, agricultural yields are sensitive to changes in precipitation, and since reanalysis products generally use little or no observational precipitation in the data assimilation process, its use may compromise the validation exercise. Previous studies do not systematically assess whether reanalysis data is sufficient or data measurements are required. We test the reliability of reanalysis data for agricultural analyses with simulations of maize yields in the U.S., where observational data are extensive. We drive the widely used Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model with climate inputs from a combination of data sources: bias- and unbias-corrected reanalyses, and observation-based precipitation and solar radiation. We find that driving DSSAT with reanalysis precipitation produces unreliable yield estimates, but driving it with reanalysis bias-corrected with monthly observations is more robust. Bias corrections do require observational data, but gathering reliable monthly data may be easier than gathering daily data. The approach is therefore promising for data-poor regions where observational precipitation is less available and existing data is unreliable. The priority for climate monitoring networks may not be in daily records but instead in lower-cost observational systems that estimate data over coarser temporal resolutions.

  15. 77 FR 42077 - Environmental Justice: Final Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has placed in the docket and on its Web site final guidance in the form of a Circular (hereinafter ``EJ Circular'') on incorporating environmental justice principles into plans, projects, and activities that receive funding from FTA. This final guidance provides recommendations to State Departments of Transportation, Metropolitan Planning Organizations,......

  16. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... administration recommendations. (j) (k) For Red Blood Cells, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red Blood Cells are substituted when Whole... Red Blood Cell products. (l) For Platelets, the instruction circular shall contain: (1)...

  17. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hazards, dosage and administration recommendations. (j) (k) For Red Blood Cells, the instruction circular shall contain: (1) Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red Blood Cells are....S.P. solution to Red Blood Cell products. (l) For Platelets, the instruction circular shall...

  18. Combined use of car based and satellite observations for the characterisation and quantification of large emission source like megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaiganfar, R.; Ibrahim, O.; Beirle, S.; Wagner, T.

    2009-04-01

    Megacities are localized, heterogeneous and variable sources of various air pollutants, having impact on air quality and ultimately on climate. Within the European project MEGAPOLI we will characterise and quantify these emissions using spectroscopic observations using satellite instruments and ground based instruments mounted on cars. The car observations are conducted on circles around localised emission sources or even whole cities. From these observations, together with meteorological information, the total emissions of trace gases like NO2, HCHO, and Glyoxal can be quantified. The car measurements are also used for validation of the satellite observations. Satellites provide long time series with global cover, which is an important advantage to study the satellite measurements. From the satellite observations the link from local to regional and global scales can be made. Especially the impact of important sources like megacities on the surrounding areas and also over longer distances can be studied. The combination with the car measurements adds valuable information on the diurnal cycles, which is not well captured from satellite observations. Here we present first results from car-based Multi-Axis-DOAS (MAX-DOAS) observations of NO2 and relate them to the results from satellite observations. For selected megacities, we analyzed temporal patterns like annual or weekly cycles and trends, as well as spatial patterns. We provide an overview on our future activities within the MEGAPOLI project.

  19. The circular Bragg phenomenon for oblique incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erten, Sema; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Barber, Greg D.

    2015-02-01

    Structurally chiral materials exhibit the circular Bragg phenomenon (CBP). These materials preferentially reflect circularly polarized light of the same handedness while transmitting circularly polarized light of the opposite handedness within a range of wavelengths called the circular Bragg regime. The CBP has been extensively investigated experimentally for normal incidence, but not for oblique incidence. After fabricating a 20-periodthick chiral sculptured thin film, we measured all of its circular remittances over a 60° range of the angle of incidence and a 300-nm range of the free-space wavelength. Provided the incidence is not very oblique, the obtained dependencies of the center wavelength and the bandwidth of the CBP on the angle of incidence match theoretical estimates.

  20. Circular motion of asymmetric self-propelling particles

    E-print Network

    Felix Kümmel; Borge ten Hagen; Raphael Wittkowski; Ivo Buttinoni; Ralf Eichhorn; Giovanni Volpe; Hartmut Löwen; Clemens Bechinger

    2013-04-15

    Micron-sized self-propelled (active) particles can be considered as model systems for characterizing more complex biological organisms like swimming bacteria or motile cells. We produce asymmetric microswimmers by soft lithography and study their circular motion on a substrate and near channel boundaries. Our experimental observations are in full agreement with a theory of Brownian dynamics for asymmetric self-propelled particles, which couples their translational and orientational motion.

  1. Chandra And HST Observations of Gamma-Ray Blazars: Comparing Jet Emission at Small And Large Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Maraschi, L.; Wolter, A.; Cheung, C.C.; Sambruna, R.M.; Urry, C.M.; /Yale U., Dept. Astron.

    2007-03-20

    We present new Chandra and HST data for four gamma-ray blazars selected on the basis of radio morphology with the aim of revealing X-ray and optical emission from their jets at large scales. All the sources have been detected. Spectral Energy Distributions of the large scale jets are obtained as well as new X-ray spectra for the blazar cores. Modeling for each object the core (sub-pc scale) and large-scale ({approx}> 100 kpc) jet SEDs, we derive the properties of the same jet at the two scales. The comparison of speeds and powers at different scales supports a simple scenario for the dynamics and propagation of high power relativistic jets.

  2. Combined MIPAS (airborne/satellite), CALIPSO and in situ study on large potential NAT particles observed in early Arctic winter stratosphere in December 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woiwode, Wolfgang; Höpfner, Michael; Pitts, Michael; Poole, Lamont; Oelhaf, Hermann; Molleker, Sergej; Borrmann, Stephan; Ebersoldt, Andreas; Frey, Wiebke; Gulde, Thomas; Maucher, Guido; Piesch, Christof; Sartorius, Christian; Orphal, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of the characteristics of large HNO3-containing particles (potential 'NAT-rocks') involved in vertical redistribution of HNO3 in the polar winter stratosphere is limited due to the difficult accessibility of these particles by observations. While robust polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) classification schemes exist for observations by the space-borne lidar aboard CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) as well as for the passive mid-infrared limb observations by MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding), these observations are hardly exploited for the detection of large (diameter >10 ?m) NAT particles. This is due to the facts that these particles have low overall number densities, resulting in weak detectable signatures, and that the physical characteristics of these particles (i.e. shape, morphology, HNO3-content and optical characteristics) are uncertain. We investigate collocated and complementary observations of a low-density potential large NAT particle field by the space-borne instruments CALIPSO and MIPAS-ENVISAT as well as the airborne observations by the limb-sounder MIPAS-STR and the in situ particle probe FSSP-100 (Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe 100) aboard the high-altitude aircraft Geophysica. The observations aboard the Geophysica on 11 December 2011 associated to ESSenCe (ESa Sounder Campaign 2011) provided us the unique opportunity to study in detail the lower boundary region of a PSC where large potential NAT particles (>20 ?m in diameter) were detected in situ. We analyse the ambient temperatures and gas-phase composition (HNO3 and H2O), the signatures of the observed particles in the CALIPSO and MIPAS observations, the HNO3-content of these particles suggested by the FSSP-100 and MIPAS-STR observations, and focus on the spectral fingerprint of these particles in the MIPAS-STR observations. While the spectral characterisation of the observed particles is subject of ongoing work, our results support that these particles consist of NAT and that the particle shape plays a crucial role.

  3. Soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism on a paramagnetic bioinorganic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elp, J.; George, S. J.; Peng, G.; Searle, B. G.; Zhou, Z. H.; Adams, M. W.; Chen, Chien T.; Cramer, Stephen P.

    1994-02-01

    In this paper we report soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism experiments on paramagnetic bioinorganic systems. We measured the Fe L-edges and the Co L-edges of the Co substituted form of Pyrococcus furiosus rubredoxin, using circularly polarized synchrotron radiation, a split coil superconducting magnet, low sample temperatures, and fluorescence detection. The observed dichroism effects are strong and they can be interpreted by established theoretical procedures. Soft X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism demonstrates enormous potential as a new probe for studying paramagnetic bioinorganic systems.

  4. Modeling of circular-grating surface-emitting lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams-Zadeh-Amiri, Ali M.

    Grating-coupled surface-emitting lasers became an area of growing interest due to their salient features. Emission from a broad area normal to the wafer surface, makes them very well suited in high power applications and two- dimensional laser arrays. These new possibilities have caused an interest in different geometries to fully develop their potential. Among them, circular-grating lasers have the additional advantage of producing a narrow beam with a circular cross section. This special feature makes them ideal for coupling to optical fibers. All existing theoretical models dealing with circular- grating lasers only consider first-order gratings, or second-order gratings, neglecting surface emission. In this thesis, the emphasis is to develop accurate models describing the laser performance by considering the radiation field. Toward this aim, and due to the importance of the radiation modes in surface-emitting structures, a theoretical study of these modes in multilayer planar structures has been done in a rigorous and systematic fashion. Problems like orthogonality of the radiation modes have been treated very accurately. We have considered the inner product of radiation modes using the distribution theory. Orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes is an important issue. We have examined its validity using the transfer matrix method. It has been shown that orthogonality of degenerate radiation modes in a very special case leads to the Brewster theorem. In addition, simple analytical formulas for the normalization of radiation modes have been derived. We have shown that radiation modes can be handled in a much easier way than has been thought before. A closed-form spectral dyadic Green's function formulation of multilayer planar structures has been developed. In this formulation, both rectangular and cylindrical structures can be treated within the same mathematical framework. The Hankel transform of some auxiliary functions defined on a circular aperture has been used to obtain the far-field pattern of the aperture. It has been shown that the far-field patterns of all circular apertures except those with the first harmonic azimuthal variation have a dark spot at their centers. Threshold analysis of circular-grating lasers has been performed by considering surface emission. In this study, we have assumed that the laser beam is circularly symmetric. Based on the large argument approximation of the Hankel functions, we have shown that the interaction between the amplitudes of the guided modes can be described by coupled-mode equations containing coupling factors to the radiation field. These factors have been obtained by using the Green's function approach. The transfer matrix method is essential in obtaining the Green's function. The relationship between the input current and the output power of circular-grating lasers producing circularly symmetric beams has been derived by developing suitable rate equations for the total number of photons and the phase of the optical amplitude in the laser cavity. We have solved the rate equations above the threshold under steady state conditions. Formulas for radiating power and far-field patterns have also been presented. The theoretical treatment of the radiation modes developed earlier makes it possible to include radiation modes in coupled-mode equations in cylindrical structures. We have done so to pave the way for treating laser fields that are not circularly symmetric. Among them, the laser fields that have the first harmonic azimuthal variation are highly desirable due to the nonzero value of the radiation field on the axis of the laser.

  5. DETECTION OF A LARGE VARIATION IN THE DEGREE OF SPACE WEATHERING ON THE SURFACE OF ITOKAWA BY HAYABUSA/AMICA OBSERVATIONS. M. Ishiguro

    E-print Network

    Hiroi, Takahiro

    DETECTION OF A LARGE VARIATION IN THE DEGREE OF SPACE WEATHERING ON THE SURFACE OF ITOKAWA rendezvoused the sub- km S-type asteroid 25143 Itokawa and performed a color imaging using its onboard camera]. AMICA Observations of Itokawa: AMICA is the Asteroid Multiband Imaging CAmera onboard Ha- yabusa

  6. Circular polarization of primordial gravitational waves in string-inspired inflationary cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, Masaki; Soda, Jiro; Kanno, Sugumi

    2008-01-15

    We study a mechanism to produce the circular polarization of primordial gravitational waves. The circular polarization is generated during the superinflation driven by the Gauss-Bonnet term in the string-inspired cosmology. The instability in the tensor mode caused by the Gauss-Bonnet term and the parity violation due to the gravitational Chern-Simons term are the essential ingredients of the mechanism. We also discuss detectability of the produced circular polarization of gravitational waves. It turns out that the simple model of single-field inflation contradicts cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose a two-field inflation model. In this two-field model, the circular polarization of gravitational waves is created in the frequency range designed by the big-bang observer (BBO) or the deci-hertz gravitational-wave observatory (DECIGO)

  7. THE CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF SAGITTARIUS A* AT SUBMILLIMETER WAVELENGTHS

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, D. J.; Moran, J. M.; Marrone, D. P.; Rao, R.

    2012-02-01

    We report the first detections of circularly polarized emission at submillimeter wavelengths from the compact radio source and supermassive black hole candidate Sgr A* at a level of 1.2% {+-} 0.3% at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) and 1.6% {+-} 0.3% at 860 {mu}m (345 GHz) with the same handedness, left circular polarization (LCP), as observed at all lower frequencies (1.4-15 GHz). The observations, taken with the Submillimeter Array in multiple epochs, also show simultaneous linear polarization (LP) at both wavelengths of about 6%. These properties differ sharply from those at wavelengths longer than 1 cm (frequencies below 30 GHz), where weak circular polarization (CP) ({approx}0.5%) dominates over LP, which is not detected at similar fractional limits. We describe an extensive set of tests to ensure the accuracy of our measurements. We find no CP in any other source, including the bright quasar 1924-292, which traces the same path on the sky as Sgr A* and therefore should be subject to identical systematic errors originating in the instrument frame. Since a relativistic synchrotron plasma is expected to produce little CP, the observed CP is probably generated close to the event horizon by the Faraday conversion process. We use a simple approximation to show that the phase shift associated with Faraday conversion can be nearly independent of frequency, a sufficient condition to make the handedness of CP independent of frequency. Because the size of the {tau} = 1 surface changes by more than an order of magnitude between 1.4 and 345 GHz, the magnetic field must be coherent over such scales to consistently produce LCP. To improve our understanding of the environment of SgrA* critical future measurements includes determining whether the Faraday rotation deviates from a {lambda}{sup 2} dependence in wavelength and whether the circular and linear components of the flux density are correlated.

  8. Vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism reveals DNA duplex formation between short strands of adenine and thymine.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Lisbeth Munksgaard; Hoffmann, Søren Vrønning; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2012-11-21

    Absorbance spectroscopy is used extensively to tell when two DNA single strands come together and form a double strand. Here we show that circular dichroism in the vacuum ultraviolet region provides an even stronger indication for duplex formation in the case of short strands of adenine and thymine (4 to 16 bases in each strand). Indeed, our results show that a strong positive CD band appears at 179 nm when double strands are formed. Melting experiments were done in aqueous solution with and without added Na(+) counter ions. With additional salt present a huge increase in the 179 nm CD band was observed when lowering the temperature. A 179 nm CD marker band for duplex formation can be used to measure the kinetics for the association of two single strands. Such experiments rely on large changes at one particular wavelength since it is too time-consuming to record a full-wavelength spectrum. PMID:23034556

  9. Numerical investigation of vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder with a hinged flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J.; Shu, C.; Zhao, N.

    2014-06-01

    The flow characteristics of the vortex-induced vibration of an elastically mounted circular cylinder with a hinged flat plate are investigated numerically in this study. By fixing the Reynolds number, the mass ratio, the damping ratio, and the plate length, we systematically examine the influence of the reduced velocities of cylinder and plate as well as the ratio of moment of inertia on the flow behaviors. With the help of the hinged plate, the cylinder vibration and the force fluctuations can be efficiently suppressed. Meanwhile, the drag force can also be reduced significantly compared to the situation of an isolated cylinder. Moreover, because of the large pitching angle of the hinged plate, smoother vortex shedding can be observed.

  10. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations. The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.

  11. RACORO continental boundary layer cloud investigations. 2. Large-eddy simulations of cumulus clouds and evaluation with in-situ and ground-based observations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Endo, Satoshi; Fridlind, Ann M.; Lin, Wuyin; Vogelmann, Andrew M.; Toto, Tami; Ackerman, Andrew S.; McFarquhar, Greg M.; Jackson, Robert C.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Liu, Yangang

    2015-06-19

    A 60-hour case study of continental boundary layer cumulus clouds is examined using two large-eddy simulation (LES) models. The case is based on observations obtained during the RACORO Campaign (Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement [ARM] Aerial Facility [AAF] Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths [CLOWD] Optical Radiative Observations) at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains site. The LES models are driven by continuous large-scale and surface forcings, and are constrained by multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles derived from aircraft observations. We compare simulated cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties with ground-based remote sensing and aircraft observations.more »The LES simulations capture the observed transitions of the evolving cumulus-topped boundary layers during the three daytime periods, and generally reproduce variations of droplet number concentration with liquid water content (LWC), corresponding to the gradient between the cloud centers and cloud edges at given heights. The observed LWC values fall within the range of simulated values; the observed droplet number concentrations are commonly higher than simulated, but differences remain on par with potential estimation errors in the aircraft measurements. Sensitivity studies examine the influences of bin microphysics versus bulk microphysics, aerosol advection, supersaturation treatment, and aerosol hygroscopicity. Simulated macrophysical cloud properties are found to be insensitive in this non-precipitating case, but microphysical properties are especially sensitive to bulk microphysics supersaturation treatment and aerosol hygroscopicity.« less

  12. Search for very high-energy neutrinos by SHALON (Cherenkov radiation of extensive air showers observed at large zenith angles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Arsov, T. P.; Borisov, S. S.; Musin, F. I.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Malyshko, A. A.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Platonov, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    The detection of extraterrestrial very high energy neutrinos by the atmospheric Cherenkov telescopic system SHALON is discussed. The analysis of results of observation of extensive air showers at 3338 m above sea level by means of the gamma-telescope SHALON at zenith angles 72°, 76°, 84°, 96° are presented. The observed results are compared with the data of of shower according to zenith angle. The observation has been carried out at Tien-Shan station with SHALON gamma-telescope. The SHALON telescopic system has mirror with area of 11.2m2 and 144 PMT matrix with 0.2° angular resolution, and has the largest angular acceptance in the world - > 8°. It allows to continuously control the background of cosmic ray particle emission and the atmospheric transparency with observation thus increasing observation efficiency. It is the telescope characteristics that permit to start searching for local neutrino sources with energy 10-10 eV on EAS generated in mountain-range located at some 5 and more kilometers from the gamma-telescope (in Russian the SHALON abbreviation means - the Extensive Air Showers from Neutrino).

  13. The Spectrum and Variability of Circular Polarization in Sagittarius A* from 1.4 to 15 GHz

    E-print Network

    Bower, Geoffrey

    The Spectrum and Variability of Circular Polarization in Sagittarius A* from 1.4 to 15 GHz Geoffrey­epoch, multi­frequency observations of the circular po­ larization in Sagittarius A*, the compact radio source 1. Introduction The compact radio source in the Galactic Center, Sagittarius A*, is the best

  14. LED downlights with non-circular spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkyn, William A.; Pelka, David G.

    2005-09-01

    The ubiquitous downlight inhabits our ceilings by the millions. Hot, inefficient, and electrically wasteful, it is next in line for replacement by the latest high-brightness, high-efficacy white LEDs. The conventional downlight configuration of a large incandescent spotlight in a low-cost, ceiling-recessed metal can, represents the culmination of old technology, fated never to improve significantly. Incandescent downlights add greatly both to direct and indirect electrical consumption, with the lamps requiring relatively frequent replacement. The small size of LED emitters means small optical elements can produce much higher-quality beams than incandescent spotlight-lamps can produce. Herein we introduce compact high-luminosity LED downlights with lenses that deliver uniform illumination to delimited targets such as tables. One version utilizes circular lenses and micro-diffuser films to deliver square outputs. The other uses lenses cut to the target shape. In particular, one of these lenses is the first to offer a semicircular spot suitable for gambling tables.

  15. Instrument Design of the Large Aperture Solar UV Visible and IR Observing Telescope (SUVIT) for the SOLAR-C Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, Y.; Katsukawa, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Takeyama, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present an instrumental design of one major solar observation payload planned for the SOLAR-C mission: the Solar Ultra-violet Visible and near IR observing Telescope (SUVIT). The SUVIT is designed to provide high-angular-resolution investigation of the lower solar atmosphere, from the photosphere to the uppermost chromosphere, with enhanced spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric capability in wide wavelength regions from 280 nm (Mg II h&k lines) to 1100 nm (He I 1083 nm line) with 1.5 m class aperture and filtergraphic and spectrographic instruments.

  16. Textures in thin films of nematic liquid crystals induced by strongly focusing a circularly polarized laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyakawa, K.; Yoshinaga, A.; Ariyoshi, D.

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the rearrangement of the director in thin films of nematic liquid crystals caused by tightly focusing circularly polarized laser beams. We find either target or spiral patterns, depending on the topology of the director configuration at the position of the beam focus. The induced rearrangements of the director are governed by the viscosity of the media, the handedness of circular polarization, and the irradiation power of the laser. Experimental observations are interpreted using a model derived from nematic continuum theory.

  17. A large hydrothermal reservoir beneath Taal Volcano (Philippines) revealed by magnetotelluric observations and its implications to the volcanic activity.

    PubMed

    Alanis, Paul K B; Yamaya, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Sasai, Yoichi; Okada, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Toshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Taal Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines. The magnetotelluric 3D forward analyses indicate the existence of a large high resistivity anomaly (?100 ?·m) with a volume of at least 3 km×3 km×3 km, which is capped by a conductive layer (?10 ?·m), beneath the Main Crater. This high resistivity anomaly is hypothesized to be a large hydrothermal reservoir, consisting of the aggregate of interconnected cracks in rigid and dense host rocks, which are filled with hydrothermal fluids coming from a magma batch below the reservoir. The hydrothermal fluids are considered partly in gas phase and liquid phase. The presence of such a large hydrothermal reservoir and the stagnant magma below may have influences on the volcano's activity. Two possibilities are presented. First, the 30 January 1911 explosion event was a magmatic hydrothermal eruption rather than a base-surge associated with a phreato-magmatic eruption. Second, the earlier proposed four eruption series may be better interpreted by two cycles, each consisting of series of summit and flank eruptions. PMID:24126286

  18. Observations of wild hunting behaviour and bioluminescence of a large deep-sea, eight-armed squid, Taningia danae

    PubMed Central

    Kubodera, Tsunemi; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Mori, Kyoichi

    2007-01-01

    Our newly developed underwater high definition video camera system took the first live images of adults of the mesopelagic large squid, Taningia danae, between 240 and 940?m deep off Ogasawara Islands, western North Pacific. The resulting footage includes attacking and bioluminescence behaviours, and reveals that T. danae is far from the sluggish neutrally buoyant deep-sea squid previously suspected. It can actively swim both forward and backward freely by flapping its large muscular triangular fins and changes direction quickly through bending its flexible body. It can attain speeds of 2–2.5?m?s?1 (7.2–9?km?h?1) when attacking bait rigs. They emitted short bright light flashes from their large arm-tip photophores before final assault, which might act as a blinding flash for prey as well as a means of measuring target distance in a dark deep-sea environment. They also emitted long and short glows separated by intervals while wandering around the double torch lights attached to the bait rig, suggestive of potential courtship behaviours during mating. PMID:17301020

  19. A large hydrothermal reservoir beneath Taal Volcano (Philippines) revealed by magnetotelluric observations and its implications to the volcanic activity

    PubMed Central

    ALANIS, Paul K. B.; YAMAYA, Yusuke; TAKEUCHI, Akihiro; SASAI, Yoichi; OKADA, Yoshihiro; NAGAO, Toshiyasu

    2013-01-01

    Taal Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Philippines. The magnetotelluric 3D forward analyses indicate the existence of a large high resistivity anomaly (?100 ?·m) with a volume of at least 3 km × 3 km × 3 km, which is capped by a conductive layer (?10 ?·m), beneath the Main Crater. This high resistivity anomaly is hypothesized to be a large hydrothermal reservoir, consisting of the aggregate of interconnected cracks in rigid and dense host rocks, which are filled with hydrothermal fluids coming from a magma batch below the reservoir. The hydrothermal fluids are considered partly in gas phase and liquid phase. The presence of such a large hydrothermal reservoir and the stagnant magma below may have influences on the volcano’s activity. Two possibilities are presented. First, the 30 January 1911 explosion event was a magmatic hydrothermal eruption rather than a base-surge associated with a phreato-magmatic eruption. Second, the earlier proposed four eruption series may be better interpreted by two cycles, each consisting of series of summit and flank eruptions. PMID:24126286

  20. Large-Scale Dynamics of the Magnetospheric Boundary: Comparisons between Global MHD Simulation Results and ISTP Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berchem, J.; Raeder, J.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Ackerson, K. L.; Kokubun, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Lepping, R. P.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the large-scale dynamics of the magnetospheric boundary is an important step towards achieving the ISTP mission's broad objective of assessing the global transport of plasma and energy through the geospace environment. Our approach is based on three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the solar wind-magnetosphere- ionosphere system, and consists of using interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma parameters measured by solar wind monitors upstream of the bow shock as input to the simulations for predicting the large-scale dynamics of the magnetospheric boundary. The validity of these predictions is tested by comparing local data streams with time series measured by downstream spacecraft crossing the magnetospheric boundary. In this paper, we review results from several case studies which confirm that our MHD model reproduces very well the large-scale motion of the magnetospheric boundary. The first case illustrates the complexity of the magnetic field topology that can occur at the dayside magnetospheric boundary for periods of northward IMF with strong Bx and By components. The second comparison reviewed combines dynamic and topological aspects in an investigation of the evolution of the distant tail at 200 R(sub E) from the Earth.

  1. Can the cosmological constant be mimicked by smooth large-scale inhomogeneities for more than one observable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enea Romano, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    As an alternative to dark energy it has been suggested that we may be at the center of an inhomogeneous isotropic universe described by a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) solution of Einstein's field equations. In order to test such an hypothesis we calculate the low redshift expansion of the luminosity distance DL(z) and the redshift spherical shell mass density mn(z) for a central observer in a LTB space without cosmological constant and show how they cannot fit the observations implied by a ?CDM model if the conditions to avoid a weak central singularity are imposed, i.e. if the matter distribution is smooth everywhere. Our conclusions are valid for any value of the cosmological constant, not only for ?? > 1/3 as implied by previous proofs that qapp0 has to be positive in a smooth LTB space, based on considering only the luminosity distance. The observational signatures of smooth LTB matter dominated models are fundamentally different from the ones of ?CDM models not only because it is not possible to reproduce a negative apparent central deceleration qapp0, but because of deeper differences in their space-time geometry which make impossible solve the inversion problem when more than one observable is considered, and emerge at any redshift, not only for z = 0.

  2. Implementation of a quality control for radio occultation observations in the presence of large gradients of atmospheric refractivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucurull, L.

    2015-03-01

    In preparation for the launch of the first six satellites of the COSMIC-2 mission in equatorial orbit, and the larger number of observations that such a mission will provide in the lower tropical troposphere, work is underway at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to improve the assimilation of radio occultation (RO) observations, particularly in the lower tropical troposphere. As part of the improvement of the bending angle forward operator at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), additional quality controls aimed to detect and reject observations that might have been affected by super-refraction conditions have been implemented and tested. The updated quality control procedures also address the situation where the model detects atmospheric super-refraction conditions. This paper describes the limitations of the current standard quality controls and discusses the implementation of additional quality control procedures to address the limitations of assimilating observations likely affected by the super-refraction conditions, either in the model simulation or in the retrieval process.

  3. Observations on Physiology and Symbiosis of the Large Benthic Foraminiferan Operculina Ammonoides from the Gulf of Eilat

    E-print Network

    Einat, Aharonov

    and symbiont photosynthesis were measured during 30 days of incubation experiments. Two groups of 100 specimens we observed significantly higher photosynthesis rates then respiration (positive O2 budget enhanced calcification did not increase with light intensity or with photosynthesis. Higher calcification

  4. Observed trends in extreme precipitation events in China during 19612001 and the associated changes in large-scale circulation

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yuqing

    China to four seasons and study the inter-relation between circulation trends and trends in both May 2005. [1] The observed trends in extreme precipitation events, and those in annual and seasonal trends in most of northwest China occurred in all seasons. Patterns of the trends in extreme daily

  5. NON-ZEEMAN CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF MOLECULAR ROTATIONAL SPECTRAL LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Martin; Jones, Scott; Rajabi, Fereshte; Hezareh, Talayeh

    2013-02-10

    We present measurements of circular polarization from rotational spectral lines of molecular species in Orion KL, most notably {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1), obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory with the Four-Stokes-Parameter Spectral Line Polarimeter. We find levels of polarization of up to 1%-2% in general; for {sup 12}CO (J = 2 {yields} 1) this level is comparable to that of linear polarization also measured for that line. We present a physical model based on resonant scattering in an attempt to explain our observations. We discuss how slight differences in scattering amplitudes for radiation polarized parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, responsible for the alignment of the scattering molecules, can lead to the observed circular polarization. We also show that the effect is proportional to the square of the magnitude of the plane of the sky component of the magnetic field and therefore opens up the possibility of measuring this parameter from circular polarization measurements of Zeeman insensitive molecules.

  6. EFFECTS OF NON-CIRCULAR MOTIONS ON AZIMUTHAL COLOR GRADIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eric E.; Gonzalez-Lopezlira, Rosa A.; Gomez, Gilberto C. E-mail: r.gonzalez@crya.unam.m

    2009-12-20

    Assuming that density waves trigger star formation, and that young stars preserve the velocity components of the molecular gas where they are born, we analyze the effects that non-circular gas orbits have on color gradients across spiral arms. We try two approaches, one involving semianalytical solutions for spiral shocks, and another with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation data. We find that, if non-circular motions are ignored, the comparison between observed color gradients and stellar population synthesis models would in principle yield pattern speed values that are systematically too high for regions inside corotation, with the difference between the real and the measured pattern speeds increasing with decreasing radius. On the other hand, image processing and pixel averaging result in systematically lower measured spiral pattern speed values, regardless of the kinematics of stellar orbits. The net effect is that roughly the correct pattern speeds are recovered, although the trend of higher measured OMEGA{sub p} at lower radii (as expected when non-circular motions exist but are neglected) should still be observed. We examine the MartInez-GarcIa et al. photometric data and confirm that this is indeed the case. The comparison of the size of the systematic pattern speed offset in the data with the predictions of the semianalytical and MHD models corroborates that spirals are more likely to end at outer Lindblad resonance, as these authors had already found.

  7. Circular geodesics and thick tori around rotating boson stars

    E-print Network

    Meliani, Z; Grandclément, P; Gourgoulhon, E; Monceau-Baroux, R; Straub, O

    2015-01-01

    Accretion disks play an important role in the evolution of their relativistic inner compact objects. The emergence of a new generation of interferometers will allow to resolve these accretion disks and provide more information about the properties of the central gravitating object. Due to this instrumental leap forward it is crucial to investigate the accretion disk physics near various types of inner compact objects now to deduce later constraints on the central objects from observations. A possible candidate for the inner object is the boson star. Here, we will try to analyze the differences between accretion structures surrounding boson stars and black holes. We aim at analysing the physics of circular geodesics around boson stars and study simple thick accretion tori (so-called Polish doughnuts) in the vicinity of these stars. We realize a detailed study of the properties of circular geodesics around boson stars. We then perform a parameter study of thick tori with constant angular momentum surrounding bo...

  8. Large-scale circulation classification and its links to observed precipitation in the eastern and central Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Deliang; Tu, Kai; Ruan, Chengqing; Hu, Zengyun

    2015-08-01

    The relationship between the large-scale circulation dynamics and regional precipitation regime in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has so far not been well understood. In this study, we classify the circulation types using the self-organizing maps based on the daily field of 500 hPa geopotential height and link them to the precipitation climatology in the eastern and central TP. By virtue of an objective determining method, 18 circulation types are quantified. The results show that the large amount of precipitation in summer is closely related to the circulation types in which the enhanced and northward shifted subtropical high (SH) over the northwest Pacific and the obvious cyclconic circulation anomaly over the Bay of Bengal are helpful for the Indian summer monsoon and East Asian summer monsoon to take abundant low-latitude moisture to the eastern and southern TP. On the contrary, the dry winter in the central and eastern Tibet corresponds to the circulation types with divergence over the central and eastern TP and the water vapor transportations of East Asian winter monsoon and mid-latitude westerly are very weak. Some circulation types are associated with some well-known circulation patterns/monsoons influencing the TP (e.g. East Atlantic Pattern, El Niño Southern Oscillation, Indian Summer Monsoon and the mid-latitude westerly), and exhibit an overall good potential for explaining the variability of regional seasonal precipitation. Moreover, the climate shift signals in the late 1970s over the eastern Pacific/North Pacific Oceans could also be reflected by both the variability of some circulation types and their correspondingly composite precipitations. This study extends our understandings for the large-scale atmospheric dynamics and their linkages with regional precipitation and is beneficial for the climate change projection and related adaptation activities in the highest and largest plateau in the world.

  9. Frequency-tunable circular polarization beam splitter using a graphene-dielectric sub-wavelength film.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tuo; He, Sailing

    2014-08-11

    Manipulating the circular polarization of light is of great importance in chemistry and biology, as chiral molecules exhibit different physiological properties when exposed to different circularly polarized waves. Here we suggest a graphene/dielectric-stacked structure, which has both the properties of an epsilon-near-zero material and the high Hall conductivity of graphene. The proposed sub-wavelength structure demonstrates efficient manipulation of circular polarization properties of light. In a quite broad frequency range and at a large oblique incidence angle, the present magnetically active structure is transparent for one circularly polarized wave, and opaque for another. Such an effect can be further tuned by changing the magnitude of the applied magnetic field and chemical potential of graphene. PMID:25321057

  10. Observing large-scale solar surface flows with GONG: Investigation of a key element in solar activity buildup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, John G.; Simon, George W.; Hathaway, David H.

    1996-01-01

    The Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) solar telescope network has begun regular operations, and will provide continuous Doppler images of large-scale nearly-steady motions at the solar surface, primarily those due to supergranulation. Not only the Sun's well-known magnetic network, but also flux diffusion, dispersal, and concentration at the surface appear to be controlled by supergranulation. Through such magnetoconvective interactions, magnetic stresses develop, leading to solar activity. We show a Doppler movie made from a 45.5 hr time series obtained 1995 May 9-10 using data from three of the six GONG sites (Learmonth, Tenerife, Tucson), to demonstrate the capability of this system.

  11. Observation of Large Arrays of Plasma Filaments in Air Breakdown by 1.5-MW 110-GHz Gyrotron Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidaka, Yoshiteru; Choi, E. M.; Mastovsky, I.; Shapiro, M. A.; Sirigiri, J. R.; Temkin, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    We report the observation of two-dimensional plasma filamentary arrays with more than 100 elements generated during breakdown of air at atmospheric pressure by a focused Gaussian beam from a 1.5-MW, 110-GHz gyrotron operating in 3-?s pulses. Each element is a plasma filament elongated in the electric field direction and regularly spaced about one-quarter wavelength apart in the plane perpendicular to the electric field. The development of the array is explained as a result of diffraction of the beam around the filaments, leading to the sequential generation of high intensity spots, at which new filaments are created, about a quarter wavelength upstream from each existing filament. Electromagnetic wave simulations corroborate this explanation and show very good correlation to the observed pattern of filaments.

  12. Observations on computational methodologies for use in large-scale, gradient-based, multidisciplinary design incorporating advanced CFD codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P. A.; Hou, G. J.-W.; Jones, H. E.; Taylor, A. C., III; Korivi, V. M.

    1992-01-01

    How a combination of various computational methodologies could reduce the enormous computational costs envisioned in using advanced CFD codes in gradient based optimized multidisciplinary design (MdD) procedures is briefly outlined. Implications of these MdD requirements upon advanced CFD codes are somewhat different than those imposed by a single discipline design. A means for satisfying these MdD requirements for gradient information is presented which appear to permit: (1) some leeway in the CFD solution algorithms which can be used; (2) an extension to 3-D problems; and (3) straightforward use of other computational methodologies. Many of these observations have previously been discussed as possibilities for doing parts of the problem more efficiently; the contribution here is observing how they fit together in a mutually beneficial way.

  13. Biosignatures from circular spectropolarimetry: key science for ELTs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T. A.; Mallonn, M.

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation has a fivefold higher reflectivity in the NIR than in the optical domain. The steep gradient at around 700 nm, the Vegetation Red Edge (VRE), can in principle be used to discriminate exo-planets with and without vegetation. Transiting exo-planets pose the possibility to isolate their (absorption-line) spectrum from that of its host star without the need for spatially resolving the planet. While the expected difference of the Stokes-I amplitude between a Super- Earth with and without an atmosphere in front of a G2V star would be just ?3×10-5, its differential Stokes-V signal could be larger by up to an order of magnitude. Thus, a possible way out is to observe in polarized light and use the known albedo-polarization relation for planetary surfaces and/or atmospheres. Polarization degrees of up to 20% are expected from planets in short-period orbits. Already the isolation of the VRE from a transmission spectrum is beyond current instrumentation, the aim to detect a differential circular polarization (CP) signal from wavelengths blueward-minus-redward of the VRE in transmission spectra of exoplanets is clearly left to the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). While it is tempting to interpret such a simple CP detection as a sign of chirality in the atmosphere of the exoplanet, e.g. due to chlorophyll, its signal will be deeply buried in the photon noise and systematics, even for ELTs. We present our current status of signal-reconstruction algorithms used for magnetic- field mapping of stellar surfaces and how these could be employed for the isolation of biosignatures. We also present the current spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for the LBT and the ESO E-ELT.

  14. The Compatibility of Friedmann Cosmological Models with Observed Properties of Gamma-Ray Bursts and a Large Hubble Constant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horack, John M.; Koshut, Thomas M.; Mallozzi, Robert S.; Emslie, A. Gordon; Meegan, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    The distance scale to cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRB's) is still uncertain by many orders of magnitude; however, one viable scenario places GRB's at cosmological distances, thereby permitting them to be used as tracers of the cosmological expansion over a significant range of redshifts zeta. Also, several recent measurements of the Hubble constant H(sub 0) appearing in the referred literature report values of 70-80 km/s /Mpc. Although there is significant debate regarding these measurements, we proceed here under the assumption that they are evidence of a large value for H(sub 0). This is done in order to investigate the additional constraints on cosmological models that can be obtained under this hypothesis when combined with the age of the universe and the brightness distribution of cosmological gamma-ray bursts. We show that the range of cosmological models that can be consistent with the GRB brightness distribution, a Hubble constant of 70-80 km/s/Mpc, and a minimum age of the universe of 13-15 Gyr is constrained significantly, largely independent of a wide range of assumptions regarding the evolutionary nature of the burst population. Low-density, Lambda greater than 0 cosmological models with deceleration parameter in the range -1 less than q(sub 0) less than 0 and density parameter sigma(sub 0) in the range approximately equals 0.10-0.25(Omega(sub 0) approximately equals 0.2-0.5) are strongly favored.

  15. Obfuscation (IND-CPA Security Circular Security)

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    )). A natural question is whether every IND-CPA encryption scheme is also circular secure. It is trivial to see [CL01]. Suppose now that the the evil eavesdropper Eve gets to see these encryptions of secret keys

  16. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red Blood Cells are...contain: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets...after entering the container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall...

  17. 21 CFR 606.122 - Instruction circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Instructions to administer a suitable plasma volume expander if Red Blood Cells are...contain: (1) The approximate volume of plasma from which a sample unit of Platelets...after entering the container. (m) For Plasma, the instruction circular shall...

  18. Observations of Reduced Electron Gyro-scale Fluctuations in National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode Plasmas with Large E × B Flow Shear

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. R.; Kaye, S. M.; Lee, W.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H. K.; Bell, R. E.; Domier, C. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, Jr., N. C.; Menard, J. E.; Yu, H.

    2009-02-13

    Electron gyro-scale fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) H-mode plasmas with large toroidal rotation reveal fluctuations consistent with electron temper- ature gradient (ETG) turbulence. Large toroidal rotation in NSTX plasmas with neutral beam injection generates E × B flow shear rates comparable to ETG linear growth rates. Enhanced fluctuations occur when the electron temperature gradient is marginally stable with respect to the ETG linear critical gradient. Fluctuation amplitudes decrease when the E × B flow shear rate exceeds ETG linear growth rates. The observations indicate E × B flow shear can be an effective suppression mechanism for ETG turbulence.

  19. History matching for exploring and reducing climate model parameter space using observations and a large perturbed physics ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Daniel; Goldstein, Michael; Allison, Lesley; Blaker, Adam; Challenor, Peter; Jackson, Laura; Yamazaki, Kuniko

    2013-10-01

    We apply an established statistical methodology called history matching to constrain the parameter space of a coupled non-flux-adjusted climate model (the third Hadley Centre Climate Model; HadCM3) by using a 10,000-member perturbed physics ensemble and observational metrics. History matching uses emulators (fast statistical representations of climate models that include a measure of uncertainty in the prediction of climate model output) to rule out regions of the parameter space of the climate model that are inconsistent with physical observations given the relevant uncertainties. Our methods rule out about half of the parameter space of the climate model even though we only use a small number of historical observations. We explore 2 dimensional projections of the remaining space and observe a region whose shape mainly depends on parameters controlling cloud processes and one ocean mixing parameter. We find that global mean surface air temperature (SAT) is the dominant constraint of those used, and that the others provide little further constraint after matching to SAT. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) has a non linear relationship with SAT and is not a good proxy for the meridional heat transport in the unconstrained parameter space, but these relationships are linear in our reduced space. We find that the transient response of the AMOC to idealised CO2 forcing at 1 and 2 % per year shows a greater average reduction in strength in the constrained parameter space than in the unconstrained space. We test extended ranges of a number of parameters of HadCM3 and discover that no part of the extended ranges can by ruled out using any of our constraints. Constraining parameter space using easy to emulate observational metrics prior to analysis of more complex processes is an important and powerful tool. It can remove complex and irrelevant behaviour in unrealistic parts of parameter space, allowing the processes in question to be more easily studied or emulated, perhaps as a precursor to the application of further relevant constraints.

  20. Comparative study of microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistive oscillations induced by circularly- and linearly- polarized photo-excitation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Tianyu; Liu, Han-Chun; Wang, Zhuo; Wegscheider, W.; Mani, Ramesh G.

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron system (2DES) under linearly- and circularly- polarized microwave excitation indicates a profound difference in the response observed upon rotating the microwave launcher for the two cases, although circularly polarized microwave radiation induced magnetoresistance oscillations observed at low magnetic fields are similar to the oscillations observed with linearly polarized radiation. For the linearly polarized radiation, the magnetoresistive response is a strong sinusoidal function of the launcher rotation (or linear polarization) angle, ?. For circularly polarized radiation, the oscillatory magnetoresistive response is hardly sensitive to ?. PMID:26450679