Science.gov

Sample records for observed large circular

  1. Large Circular Basin - 1300-km diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Close-up view of one-half of a 1300-km diameter circular basin the largest observed on Mercury. The other half is hidden beyond the terminator to the left. Hills and valleys extend in a radial fashion outward from the main ring. Interior of the large basin is completely flooded by plains materials; adjacent lowlands are also partially flooded and superimposed on the plains are bowl shaped craters. Wrinkle ridges are abundant on the plains materials. The area shown is 1008 miles (1600 km) from the top to the bottom of the picture. Sun's illumination is from the right. Blurred linear lines extending across the picture near bottom are missing data lines that have been filled in by the computer. Mariner 10 encountered Mercury on Friday, March 29th, 1974, passing the planet on the darkside 431 miles (690-km) from the surface.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    NOTE: This image was scanned from physical media.

  2. Impedance of a large circular loop antenna in a magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnuki, S.; Sawaya, K.; Adachi, S.

    1986-08-01

    The input impedance of a large circular loop antenna with arbitrary orientation in a cold magnetoplasma is calculated by using a transmission line theory. New impedance resonances for antennas of finite size in a magnetoplasma in the frequency region below and near the electron cyclotron frequency are indicated theoretically. The resonance peak of the impedance at the lower hybrid resonance frequency is also predicted to exist for arbitrarily oriented antennas of finite size. The experiments on the impedance of a large circular loop antenna are carried out for the cases of normal and parallel orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the plane of the loop immersed in a radio frequency-generated laboratory plasma. The newly predicted impedance resonances for the antenna of finite size are observed. It is also shown that the measured impedances agree fairly well with the calculated ones.

  3. Large quasi-circular features beneath frost on triton.

    PubMed

    Helfenstein, P; Veverka, J; McCarthy, D; Lee, P; Hillier, J

    1992-02-14

    Specially processed Voyager 2 images of Neptune's largest moon, Triton, reveal three large quasi-circular features ranging in diameter from 280 to 935 kilometers within Triton's equatorial region. The largest of these features contains a central, irregularly shaped area of comparatively low albedo about 380 kilometers in diameter, surrounded by crudely concentric annuli of higher albedo materials. None of the features exhibit significant topographic expression, and all appear to be primarily albedo markings. The features are located within a broad equatorial band of anomalously transparent frost that renders them nearly invisible at the large phase angles (alpha > 90 degrees ) at which Voyager obtained its highest resolution coverage of Triton. The features can be discerned at smaller phase angles (alpha = 66 degrees ) at which the frost only partially masks underlying albedo contrasts. The origin of the features is uncertain but may have involved regional cryovolcanic activity. PMID:17756427

  4. Large quasi-circular features beneath frost on Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Mccarthy, Derek; Lee, Pascal; Hillier, John

    1992-01-01

    Specially processed Voyager 2 images of Neptune's largest moon, Triton, reveal three large quasi-circular features ranging in diameter from 280 to 935 km within Triton's equatorial region. The largest of these features contains a central irregularly shaped area of comparatively low albedo about 380 km in diameter, surrounded by crudely concentric annuli of higher albedo materials. None of the features exhibit significant topographic expression, and all appear to be primarily albedo markings. The features are located within a broad equatorial band of anomalously transparent frost that renders them nearly invisible at the large phase angles (alpha greater than 90 deg) at which Voyager obtained its highest resolution coverage of Triton. The features can be discerned at smaller phase angles (alpha = 66 deg) at which the frost only partially masks underlying albedo contrasts. The origin of the features is uncertain but may have involved regional cryovolcanic activity.

  5. Large-amplitude circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vasko, I. Y. Artemyev, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M.

    2014-05-15

    We consider large-amplitude circularly polarized (LACP) waves propagating in a magnetized plasma. It is well-known that the dispersion relation for such waves coincides with the dispersion relation given by the linear theory. We develop the model of LACP wave containing a finite population of Cerenkov resonant particles. We find that the current of resonant particles modifies the linear dispersion relation. Dispersion curves of low-frequency (i.e., whistler and magnetosonic) waves are shifted toward larger values of the wave vector, i.e., waves with arbitrarily large wavelengths do not exist in this case. Dispersion curves of high-frequency waves are modified so that the wave phase velocity becomes smaller than the speed of light.

  6. Large-eddy simulation of flow past a circular cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittal, R.

    1995-01-01

    Some of the most challenging applications of large-eddy simulation are those in complex geometries where spectral methods are of limited use. For such applications more conventional methods such as finite difference or finite element have to be used. However, it has become clear in recent years that dissipative numerical schemes which are routinely used in viscous flow simulations are not good candidates for use in LES of turbulent flows. Except in cases where the flow is extremely well resolved, it has been found that upwind schemes tend to damp out a significant portion of the small scales that can be resolved on the grid. Furthermore, it has been found that even specially designed higher-order upwind schemes that have been used successfully in the direct numerical simulation of turbulent flows produce too much dissipation when used in conjunction with large-eddy simulation. The objective of the current study is to perform a LES of incompressible flow past a circular cylinder at a Reynolds number of 3900 using a solver which employs an energy-conservative second-order central difference scheme for spatial discretization and compare the results obtained with those of Beaudan & Moin (1994) and with the experiments in order to assess the performance of the central scheme for this relatively complex geometry.

  7. Characterization of the 'unusual' mobility of large circular DNAs in pulsed field-gradient electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M

    1988-01-01

    Large circular amplified DNAs (30 and 85 kb) present in methotrexate-resistant Leishmania major appear to migrate anomalously in pulsed field-gradient electrophoresis (PFGE), exhibiting pulse time-dependent mobility and migrating along a different apparent path relative to the large linear chromosomal DNAs. Quantitative studies indicate that the relative pulse-time dependence is actually conferred by the mobility properties of the large linear DNAs. One contributing factor to the difference in migration path is variability in the intrinsic voltage-dependence of mobility of supercoiled and linear DNAs, in combination with the asymmetrical/inhomogeneous voltage gradients. Certain linear chromosomes exhibit a previously undescribed pulse-time dependence in the voltage-dependence of mobility. When enzymatically relaxed or physically nicked the large circular DNAs fail to leave the well using any pulse time, a property also observed in conventional electrophoresis. These findings are relevant to PFGE theory, and its application to the study of circular DNA amplification in Leishmania and other species. Images PMID:3344223

  8. Reading Materials in Large Type. Reference Circular No. 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This circular provides information about reading materials in large type, i.e., materials set in type that is a minimum size of 14-point and, most commonly, 16- to 18-point size. Most of the materials listed are typeset, but a few are photographically enlarged conventionally printed books or typewritten materials prepared using a large-print

  9. Large-eddy simulation of turbulent circular jet flows

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S. C.; Sotiropoulos, F.; Sale, M. J.

    2002-07-01

    This report presents a numerical method for carrying out large-eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent free shear flows and an application of a method to simulate the flow generated by a nozzle discharging into a stagnant reservoir. The objective of the study was to elucidate the complex features of the instantaneous flow field to help interpret the results of recent biological experiments in which live fish were exposed to the jet shear zone. The fish-jet experiments were conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energys Advanced Hydropower Turbine Systems program. The experiments were designed to establish critical thresholds of shear and turbulence-induced loads to guide the development of innovative, fish-friendly hydropower turbine designs.

  10. The Role of Erupting Sigmoid in Triggering a Flare with Parallel and Large-scale Quasi-circular Ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Liu, Chang; Sun, Xudong; Wang, Haimin; Magara, Tetsuya; Moon, Y.-J.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present observations and analysis of an interesting sigmoid formation, eruption, and the associated flare that occurred on 2014 April 18 using multi-wavelength data sets. We discuss the possible role of the sigmoid eruption in triggering the flare, which consists of two different sets of ribbons: parallel ribbons and a large-scale quasi-circular ribbon. Several observational evidence and nonlinear force-free field extrapolation results show the existence of a large-scale fan-spine type magnetic configuration with a sigmoid lying under a section of the fan dome. The event can be explained with the following two phases. During the preflare phase, we observed the formation and appearance of the sigmoid via tether-cutting reconnection between the two sets of sheared fields under the fan dome. The second, main flare phase features the eruption of the sigmoid, the subsequent flare with parallel ribbons, and a quasi-circular ribbon. We propose the following multi-stage successive reconnection scenario for the main flare. First, tether-cutting reconnection is responsible for the formation and the eruption of the sigmoid structure. Second, the reconnection occurring in the wake of the erupting sigmoid produces the parallel flare ribbons on the both sides of the circular polarity inversion line. Third, the null-type reconnection higher in the corona, possibly triggered by the erupting sigmoid, leads to the formation of a large quasi-circular ribbon. For the first time, we suggest a mechanism for this type of flare consisting of a double set of ribbons triggered by an erupting sigmoid in a large-scale fan-spine-type magnetic configuration.

  11. Circularity measuring system: A shape gauge designed especially for use on large objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrkaste, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    The Circularity Measuring System (CMS) was developed to make an in-situ determination of shape similarity for selected fit large cylinders (RSRM segments). It does this to a repeatable accuracy of 0.10 mm (0.004 inch). This is less that the goal of 0.07 mm (0.003 inch), but was determined adequate because of the addition of an assembly aid that increased the entry chamfer of the clevis side of the joint. The usefulness of the CMS is demonstrated by the application to measurements other than its specified design purpose, such as submarine hull circularity, SRM mid-case circularity, as well as circularity of interfacing SRM tooling, specifically the rounding devices and horizontal disassembly devices. Commercialization of the tool is being pursued, since it is an enhancement of metrology technology for circularity determination. The most accurate in-situ technology it replaces is determined from a template. The CMS is an improvement in accuracy and operation.

  12. Optimum transfers between circular coplanar orbits for spacecraft with rocket engine of large limited thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, K. G.; Fedyna, A. V.

    1995-10-01

    By taking the principle of the maximum as a basis and solving the boundary value problems by a shooting method, the authors present a numerical study of thrust-vector controlled optimum transfers between the coplanar circular orbits of a spacecraft with rocket engines of large limited thrust. Solutions are found for problems of the fastest transfers with and without prescribed limitations on mass expenditure, and for problems of transfers with minimum expenditures of mass with and without prescribed limitations on transfer time.

  13. A pattern recognition scheme for large curvature circular tracks and an FPGA implementation using hash sorter

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Strong magnetic field in today's colliding detectors causes track recognition more difficult due to large track curvatures. In this document, we present a global track recognition scheme based on track angle measurements for circular tracks passing the collision point. It uses no approximations in the track equation and therefore is suitable for both large and small curvature tracks. The scheme can be implemented both in hardware for lower-level trigger or in software for higher-level trigger or offline analysis codes. We will discuss an example of FPGA implementations using ''hash sorter''.

  14. Large-Scale periodic solar velocities: An observational study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmer, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Observations of large-scale solar velocities were made using the mean field telescope and Babcock magnetograph of the Stanford Solar Observatory. Observations were made in the magnetically insensitive ion line at 5124 A, with light from the center (limb) of the disk right (left) circularly polarized, so that the magnetograph measures the difference in wavelength between center and limb. Computer calculations are made of the wavelength difference produced by global pulsations for spherical harmonics up to second order and of the signal produced by displacing the solar image relative to polarizing optics or diffraction grating.

  15. Intensity-dependent circular polarization and circumstellar magnetic fields from the observation of SiO masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1994-01-01

    A new aspect of the propagation of astrophysical maser radiation in the presence of a magnetic field is described in which circular polarization is created. The resulting antisymmetric spectral line profile for this circular polarization resembles that produced by the ordinary Zeeman effect when the Zeeman splittings are much less than the spectral line breadth. It is caused by the change, with increasing maser intensity, in the axis of symmetry for the molecular quantum states from a direction that is parallel to the magnetic field to a direction that is parallel to the direction of propagation. When the maser is radiatively saturated, and the rate for stimulated emission is within an order of magnitude of the Zeeman splitting in frequency units, this 'intensity-dependent circular polarization' is greater than that due to the ordinary Zeeman effect by factors as large as 1000. The circular polarization that is observed in the spectra of circumstellar SiO (J = 1-0) masers associated with late-type giants and supergiants may then be caused by magnetic fields as weak as about 10 mG. With the standard Zeeman interpretation of the observations, magnetic fields of 10-100 G are indicated. The lower fields are similar to the limits obtained from the observation of the 22 GHz water masers which are typically somewhat further from the central star. The observed tendency for the fractional linear polarization of SiO masers to increase with increasing angular momentum of the molecular state is shown to be a likely result of anisotropic pumping. Errors are identified that invalidate a recent conflicting claim in the literature about the basic theory of maser polarization in the regime that is relevant here.

  16. Semi-circular microgrooves to observe active movements of individual Navicula pavillardii cells.

    PubMed

    Umemura, Kazuo; Haneda, Takahiro; Tanabe, Masashi; Suzuki, Akira; Kumashiro, Yoshikazu; Itoga, Kazuyoshi; Okano, Teruo; Mayama, Shigeki

    2013-03-01

    We performed a trajectory analysis of movements of Navicula pavillardii diatom cells that were confined to semi-circular microgrooves with several different curvature radii. Using the semi-circular micropattern, we succeeded in observing change of velocity of the same cell before and after the stimulation by N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine (DMT). Because the looped grooves had longer contour length than straight grooves, it was effective to achieve the long term observation of the stimulated active cells. Although average velocity of 150 cells was significantly increased with DMT, the maximum velocity (19 ?m/s) of the cells was not increased after the DMT injection. This may suggest that existence of the mechanical limit of the velocity of the diatom cells. Secondly, trajectories of individual cell movements along the walls of the semi-circular microgrooves were analyzed in detail. As a result, the velocity of the cells was not affected by the curvature radii of the grooves although the trajectories indicated an obvious restriction of area of the cell motion. This suggests that the surface of the diatom is effective in minimizing the frictional force between the cell body and the wall of a groove. Finally, a simple model of cell motion in the semi-circular groove was proposed to clarify the relationships among the forces that determine cell movement. PMID:23337812

  17. Experimental study of noise emitted by circular cylinders with large roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomar, Antoni; Angland, David; Zhang, Xin; Molin, Nicolas

    2014-12-01

    The aerodynamic noise generated by high Reynolds number flow around a bluff body with large surface roughness was investigated. This is a relevant problem in many applications, in particular aircraft landing gear noise. A circular cylinder in cross-flow and a zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer with various types of roughness was tested in a series of wind tunnel experiments. It has been shown that distributed roughness covering a circular cylinder affects the spectra over the entire frequency range. Roughness noise is dominant at high frequencies, and the peak frequency is well described by Howe's roughness noise model when scaled with the maximum outer velocity. There are differences between hemispherical and cylindrical roughness elements for both the circular cylinder and the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer cases, indicating a dependence on roughness shape, not described by the considered roughness noise models. Cylindrical roughness generates higher noise levels at the highest frequencies, especially for the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer case. Cable-type roughness aligned with the mean flow does not generate roughness noise, and its spectrum has been found to collapse with the smooth cylinder at medium and high frequencies. At low and medium frequencies the noise spectra have the same features as the smooth cylinder, but with higher shedding peak levels and fall-off levels, despite the decrease in spanwise correlation length. Roughness induces early separation, and thus a shift of the spectra to lower frequencies.

  18. A comparison of shell theories for large-amplitude vibrations of circular cylindrical shells: Lagrangian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.

    2003-07-01

    Large-amplitude (geometrically non-linear) vibrations of circular cylindrical shells subjected to radial harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of the lowest resonances are investigated. The Lagrange equations of motion are obtained by an energy approach, retaining damping through Rayleigh's dissipation function. Four different non-linear thin shell theories, namely Donnell's, Sanders-Koiter, Flgge-Lur'e-Byrne and Novozhilov's theories, which neglect rotary inertia and shear deformation, are used to calculate the elastic strain energy. The formulation is also valid for orthotropic and symmetric cross-ply laminated composite shells. The large-amplitude response of perfect and imperfect, simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of the lowest natural frequency is computed for all these shell theories. Numerical responses obtained by using these four non-linear shell theories are also compared to results obtained by using the Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell equation of motion. A validation of calculations by comparison with experimental results is also performed. Both empty and fluid-filled shells are investigated by using a potential fluid model. The effects of radial pressure and axial load are also studied. Boundary conditions for simply supported shells are exactly satisfied. Different expansions involving from 14 to 48 generalized co-ordinates, associated with natural modes of simply supported shells, are used. The non-linear equations of motion are studied by using a code based on an arclength continuation method allowing bifurcation analysis.

  19. Circular depressions on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko observed by the OSIRIS instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besse, S. B.; Guilbert-Lepoutre, A.; Vincent, J.-B.; Bodewits, D.; Pajola, M.

    2015-10-01

    Since it close encounter with comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P) in August 2014, the OSIRIS instrument [1] on-board the Rosetta Spacecraft has imaged the surface of the nucleus with unprecedented resolution. From its global morphology description, numerous circular depressions of different sizes and shapes have been observed [2, 3]. Few of these circular depressions, also called pits, have shown sign of activity with the detection of faint jet-like features originated most likely from their walls [4]. The mechanism responsible for the formation of these morphological features is not yet well understood, although different hypotheses have been raised such as the collapse of a ceiling above internal voids [4]. These voids could either be due to primordial structure of the comet's interior, or they could have been created with subsequentevolution of the nucleus. In both case, these features provide important constrains on the formation and evolution of cometary nucleus. Follow-up observations of the OSIRIS instrument should both confirm the nature of the activity (i.e., sporadic vs. regular) and the number of active depressions. In this analysis, we provide a thorough identificationand description of the circular depressions on the surface of the comet nucleus. These circular depressions exhibit different shapes, from pits to alcoves, with sizes varying from tens to hundred of meters, and ultimately with different texture on their walls (i.e., with fractures and polygons, or not). The accumulation of boulders at the bottom of some of these depressions indicates that whatever is creating these features, they are changing and evolving significantly trough time. These variations may reflect different formation mechanisms, or/and time of formation and evolution, and also probably internal heterogeneities below the comet's surface.

  20. Distribution of circular proteins in plants: large-scale mapping of cyclotides in the Violaceae

    PubMed Central

    Burman, Robert; Yeshak, Mariamawit Y.; Larsson, Sonny; Craik, David J.; Rosengren, K. Johan; Göransson, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade there has been increasing interest in small circular proteins found in plants of the violet family (Violaceae). These so-called cyclotides consist of a circular chain of approximately 30 amino acids, including six cysteines forming three disulfide bonds, arranged in a cyclic cystine knot (CCK) motif. In this study we map the occurrence and distribution of cyclotides throughout the Violaceae. Plant material was obtained from herbarium sheets containing samples up to 200 years of age. Even the oldest specimens contained cyclotides in the preserved leaves, with no degradation products observable, confirming their place as one of the most stable proteins in nature. Over 200 samples covering 17 of the 23–31 genera in Violaceae were analyzed, and cyclotides were positively identified in 150 species. Each species contained a unique set of between one and 25 cyclotides, with many exclusive to individual plant species. We estimate the number of different cyclotides in the Violaceae to be 5000–25,000, and propose that cyclotides are ubiquitous among all Violaceae species. Twelve new cyclotides from six phylogenetically dispersed genera were sequenced. Furthermore, the first glycosylated derivatives of cyclotides were identified and characterized, further increasing the diversity and complexity of this unique protein family. PMID:26579135

  1. Null reconstruction of orthogonal circular polarization hologram with large recording angle.

    PubMed

    Wu, An'an; Kang, Guoguo; Zang, Jinliang; Liu, Ying; Tan, Xiaodi; Shimura, Tsutomu; Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    We report on the null reconstruction of polarization volume hologram recorded by orthogonal circularly polarized waves with a large cross angle. Based on the recently developed tensor theory for polarization holography, the disappearance of the reconstruction was analytically verified, where a nice agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical results. When the polarization and intensity hologram attain a balance, not only the null reconstruction but also the faithful reconstruction can be realized by the illumination of the orthogonal reference wave and original reference wave. As a consequence of the hologram recorded without paraxial approximation, the null reconstruction may lead to important applications, such as a potential enhancement in optical storage capacity for volume holograms. PMID:25968725

  2. Post Main Sequence Orbital Circularization of Binary Stars in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.

    SciTech Connect

    Faccioli, L; Alcock, C; Cook, K

    2007-11-20

    We present results from a study of the orbits of eclipsing binary stars (EBs) in the Magellanic Clouds. The samples comprise 4510 EBs found in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) by the MACHO project, 2474 LMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 1182 are also in the MACHO sample), 1380 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) found by the MACHO project, and 1317 SMC EBs found by the OGLE-II project (of which 677 are also in the MACHO sample); we also consider the EROS sample of 79 EBs in the bar of the LMC. Statistics of the phase differences between primary and secondary minima allow us to infer the statistics of orbital eccentricities within these samples. We confirm the well-known absence of eccentric orbit in close binary stars. We also find evidence for rapid circularization in longer period systems when one member evolves beyond the main sequence, as also found by previous studies.

  3. Comparison of turbulent flow through hexagram and hexagon orifices in circular pipes using large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Nicolleau, Franck C. G. A.; Qin, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular, a hexagon and a hexagram orifice with the same flow area in circular pipes are investigated using wall-modelled large-eddy simulation. Good agreements to available experimental data were obtained in both the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. The hexagram orifice with alternating convex and concave corners introduces outwards radial velocity around the concave corners downstream of the orifice plate stronger than the hexagon orifice. The stronger outwards radial velocity transfers high momentum from the pipe centre towards the pipe wall to energize the orifice-forced vortex sheet rolling-up and leads to a delayed vortex break-down. Correspondingly, the hexagram has a more gradual flow recovery to a pipe flow and a reduced pressure drop than the hexagon orifice. Both the hexagon and hexagram orifices show an axis-switching phenomenon, which is observed from both the streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy contours. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first comparison of orifice-forced turbulence development, mixing and flow dynamics between a regular and a fractal-based polygonal orifice.

  4. Capacity of the circular plate condenser: analytical solutions for large gaps between the plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, T. V.

    2005-11-01

    A solution of Love's integral equation (Love E R 1949 Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 2 428), which forms the basis for the analysis of the electrostatic field due to two equal circular co-axial parallel conducting plates, is considered for the case when the ratio, τ, of distance of separation to radius of the plates is greater than 2. The kernel of the integral equation is expanded into an infinite series in odd powers of 1/τ and an approximate kernel accurate to {\\cal O}(\\tau^{-(2N+1)}) is deduced therefrom by terminating the series after an arbitrary but finite number of terms, N. The approximate kernel is rearranged into a degenerate form and the integral equation with this kernel is reduced to a system of N linear equations. An explicit analytical solution is obtained for N = 4 and the resulting analytical expression for the capacity of the circular plate condenser is shown to be accurate to {\\cal O}(\\tau^{-9}) . Analytical expressions of lower orders of accuracy with respect to 1/τ are deduced from the four-term (i.e., N = 4) solution and predictions (of capacity) from the expressions of different orders of accuracy (with respect to 1/τ) are compared with very accurate numerical solutions obtained by solving the linear system for large enough N. It is shown that the {\\cal O}(\\tau^{-9}) approximation predicts the capacity extremely well for any τ >= 2 and an {\\cal O}(\\tau^{-3}) approximation gives, for all practical purposes, results of adequate accuracy for τ >= 4. It is further shown that an approximate solution, applicable for the case of large distances of separation between the plates, due to Sneddon (Sneddon I N 1966 Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Potential Theory (Amsterdam: North-Holland) pp 230-46) is accurate to {\\cal O}(\\tau^{-6}) for τ >= 2.

  5. Interplay of Exciton Coupling and Large-Amplitude Motions in the Vibrational Circular Dichroism Spectrum of Dehydroquinidine.

    PubMed

    Nicu, Valentin P; Domingos, Srgio R; Strudwick, Benjamin H; Brouwer, Albert M; Buma, Wybren J

    2016-01-11

    A detailed analysis of the computed structure, energies, vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of 30 low-energy conformers of dehydroquinidine reveals the existence of families of pseudo-conformers, the structures of which differ mostly in the orientation of a single O?H bond. The pseudo-conformers in a family are separated by very small energy barriers (i.e., 1.0?kcal?mol(-1) or smaller) and have very different VCD spectra. First, we demonstrate the unreliable character of the Boltzmann factors predicted with DFT. Then, we show that the large differences observed between the VCD spectra of the pseudo-conformers in a family are caused by large-amplitude motions involving the O?H bond, which trigger the appearance/disappearance of strong VCD exciton-coupling bands in the fingerprint region. This interplay between exciton coupling and large-amplitude-motion phenomena demonstrates that when dealing with flexible molecules with polar bonds, vibrational averaging of VCD spectra should not be neglected. In this regard, the dehydroquinidine molecule considered here is expected to be a typical example and not the exception to the rule. PMID:26611817

  6. An experimental approach to measure particle deposition in large circular ventilation ducts.

    PubMed

    Da, Guillaume; Ghin, Evelyne; Ben-Othmane, Mourad; Havet, Michel; Solliec, Camille; Motzkus, Charles

    2015-04-01

    The topic of this study is related to airborne particle dynamics in indoor environments. Lab-scale experiments have been performed to investigate particle deposition velocity to six different surfaces orientations (with respect to gravity) for fully developed turbulent flow in horizontal large circular ventilation ducts. Monodispersed aerosol particles (1-6?m) were used in the deposition experiments. A very low particle mass (40ng) was measured reliably above background level on duct surfaces by a means of a nondestructive stencil technique associated with fluorescence analysis. For 2-6?m particles (diffusion and impaction regime), deposition rates to floors were much greater than rates to the ceiling and greater than rates to the wall. For 1-?m particles, the effect of surface orientation to particle deposition was not significant. Results were compared to the very few similar and published studies. This work was conducted in the frame of the CleanAirNet project which aimed at producing new knowledge, models, and techniques to help controlling the safety food stuffs, through a better control of aerosol particle (bioaerosols) transport and deposition in the ventilation networks of the food industry. PMID:24756675

  7. Nonlinear characteristics of a circular plate piezoelectric harvester with relatively large deflection near resonance.

    PubMed

    Xue, Huan; Hu, Hongping

    2008-09-01

    Based on the von Karman thin circular plate theory, we report in this paper the analysis of the nonlinear behavior of a power harvester consisting of a circular piezoelectric plate and an electric resistance. Dependence of the output power of the harvester upon driving frequency for different electric loads and different applied forces is obtained. Numerical results show that the output power exhibits multi-valuedness and a jump phenomenon near resonance. PMID:18986906

  8. Geomechanical observations during the large block test

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S. C., LLNL

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start if heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller the predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior.

  9. GEOMECHANICAL OBSERVATIONS DURING THE LARGE BLOCK TEST

    SciTech Connect

    STEPHEN C. BLAIR AND STEPHANIE A. WOOD

    1998-04-10

    This paper presents an overview of the geomechanical studies conducted at the Large Block Test at Fran Ridge, near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The 3-dimensional geomechanical response of the rock to heating is being monitored using instrumentation mounted in boreholes and on the surface of the block. Results show that thermal expansion of the block began a few hours after the start of heating, and is closely correlated with the thermal history. Horizontal expansion increases as a linear function of height. Comparison of observed deformations with continuum simulations shows that below the heater plane deformation is smaller than predicted, while above the heater plane, observed deformation is larger than predicted, and is consistent with opening of vertical fractures. Fracture monitors indicate that movement on a large horizontal fracture is associated with hydrothermal behavior.

  10. Large scale density modifications: theory and observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.D.; Morales, G.J.; Duncan, L.M.; Maggs, J.E.; Dimonte, G. )

    1989-07-01

    A 2-dimensional transport code is used to investigate the self-consistent formation of large scale (several km) density depletions in the ionosphere due to HF heating under nighttime conditions. It is found that rotation of the absorption surface due to nonlinear refraction of ray trajectories near the reflection layer is an essential point in explaining the phenomena. Results obtained are in excellent agreement with observations made in the May 3-6, 1988 campaign at Areibo.

  11. Sidewall-box airlift pump provides large flows for aeration, CO2 stripping, and water rotation in large dual-drain circular tanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional gas transfer technologies for aquaculture systems occupy a large amount of space, require a considerable capital investment, and can contribute to high electricity demand. In addition, diffused aeration in a circular culture tank can interfere with the hydrodynamics of water rotation a...

  12. Infrasonic observations of large scale HE events

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.W.; Mutschlecner, J.P.; Davidson, M.B.; Noel, S.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Infrasound Program has been operating since about mid-1982, making routine measurements of low frequency atmospheric acoustic propagation. Generally, we work between 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz; however, much of our work is concerned with the narrower range of 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Two permanent stations, St. George, UT, and Los Alamos, NM, have been operational since 1983, collecting data 24 hours a day. This discussion will concentrate on measurements of large, high explosive (HE) events at ranges of 250 km to 5330 km. Because the equipment is well suited for mobile deployments, it can easily establish temporary observing sites for special events. The measurements in this report are from our permanent sites, as well as from various temporary sites. In this short report will not give detailed data from all sites for all events, but rather will present a few observations that are typical of the full data set. The Defense Nuclear Agency sponsors these large explosive tests as part of their program to study airblast effects. A wide variety of experiments are fielded near the explosive by numerous Department of Defense (DOD) services and agencies. This measurement program is independent of this work; use is made of these tests as energetic known sources, which can be measured at large distances. Ammonium nitrate and fuel oil (ANFO) is the specific explosive used by DNA in these tests. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  13. ELF Sferics Observed at Large Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, N. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Model predictions of the ELF radio atmospheric generated by rocket-triggered lightning are compared with observations performed at at large (>1 Mm) distances. The ability to infer source characteristics using observations at great distances may prove to greatly enhance the understanding of lightning processes that are associated with the production of transient luminous events (TLEs) as well as other ionospheric effects associated with lightning. The modeling of the sferic waveform is carried out using a modified version of the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code developed by the Naval Ocean Systems Center over a period of many years. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. ELF observations performed in Alaska and Antarctica during rocket-triggered lightning experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) located at Camp Blanding, Florida are presented. The lightning current waveforms directly measured at the base of the lightning channel (at the ICLRT) are used together with LWPC to predict the sferic waveform observed at the receiver locations under various ionospheric conditions. This paper critically compares observations with model predictions.

  14. Calibration of mixed-polarization interferometric observations. Tools for the reduction of interferometric data from elements with linear and circular polarization receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí-Vidal, I.; Roy, A.; Conway, J.; Zensus, A. J.

    2016-03-01

    Heterodyne receivers register the sky signal on either a circular polarization basis (where it is split into left-hand and right-hand circular polarization) or a linear polarization basis (where it is split into horizontal and vertical linear polarization). We study the problem of interferometric observations performed with telescopes that observe on different polarization bases, hence producing visibilities that we call "mixed basis" (i.e., linear in one telescope and circular in the other). We present novel algorithms for the proper calibration and treatment of such interferometric observations and test our algorithms with both simulations and real data. The use of our algorithms will be important for the optimum calibration of forthcoming observations with the Atacama Large Mm/submm Array (ALMA) in very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mode. Our algorithms will also allow us to optimally calibrate future VLBI observations at very high data rates (i.e., wide bandwidths), where linear-polarization feeds will be preferable at some stations, to overcome the polarimetric limitations due to the use of quarter-wave plates.

  15. Theory and experiments for large-amplitude vibrations of empty and fluid-filled circular cylindrical shells with imperfections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amabili, M.

    2003-05-01

    The large-amplitude response of perfect and imperfect, simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of some of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated. Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory is used and the solution is obtained by the Galerkin method. Several expansions involving 16 or more natural modes of the shell are used. The boundary conditions on the radial displacement and the continuity of circumferential displacement are exactly satisfied. The effect of internal quiescent, incompressible and inviscid fluid is investigated. The non-linear equations of motion are studied by using a code based on the arclength continuation method. A series of accurate experiments on forced vibrations of an empty and water-filled stainless-steel shell have been performed. Several modes have been intensively investigated for different vibration amplitudes. A closed loop control of the force excitation has been used. The actual geometry of the test shell has been measured and the geometric imperfections have been introduced in the theoretical model. Several interesting non-linear phenomena have been experimentally observed and numerically reproduced, such as softening-type non-linearity, different types of travelling wave response in the proximity of resonances, interaction among modes with different numbers of circumferential waves and amplitude-modulated response. For all the modes investigated, the theoretical and experimental results are in strong agreement.

  16. Large deflections of circular isotropic membranes subjected to arbitrary axisymmetric loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, A.; Elber, W.; Raju, I. S.

    1984-01-01

    Circular membranes with fixed peripheral edges, subjected to arbitrary axisymmetric loading are analyzed. A single governing differential equation in terms of radial stress is used. This nonlinear governing equation is solved using the finite difference method in conjunction with Newton-Raphson method. Three loading cases, namely (1) uniformly loaded membrane, (2) a membrane with uniform load over an inner portion, and (3) a membrane with ring load, are analyzed. Calculated central displacement and the central and edge radial stresses for uniformly loaded membrane, agree extremely well with the classical solution.

  17. Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Chen, Xian

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modeling. In this work we show that "hyperstellar" black holes (HSBs) with masses 30 ≲ MBH/M⊙ ≲ 100, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal 10 M⊙, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e. a < 0.5. We prove that this is true regardless of the formation channel, and that when two HSBs build a binary, each of the spin magnitudes is also low, and the binary members have similar masses. We also address the distribution of the eccentricities of HSB binaries in dense stellar systems using a large suite of three-body scattering experiments that include binary-single interactions and long-lived hierarchical systems with a highly accurate integrator, including relativistic corrections up to O(1/c^5). We find that most sources in the detector band will have nearly zero eccentricities. This correlation between large, similar masses, low spin and low eccentricity will help to accelerate the searches for gravitational-wave signals.

  18. Amplicon structure in multidrug-resistant murine cells: a nonrearranged region of genomic DNA corresponding to large circular DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sthl, F; Wettergren, Y; Levan, G

    1992-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cell lines is frequently correlated with amplification of one or more mdr genes. Usually the amplified domain also includes several neighboring genes. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we have established a restriction map covering approximately 2,200 kb in the drug-sensitive mouse tumor cell line TC13K. The mapped region is located on mouse chromosome 5 and includes the three mdr genes, the gene for the calcium-binding sorcin protein, and a gene with unknown function designated class 5. Long-range maps of the amplified DNA sequences in five of six MDR sublines that had been independently derived from TC13K generally displayed the same pattern as did the parental cell line. All six MDR sublines exhibited numerous double minutes, and one of them displayed a homogeneously staining region in a subpopulation. Large circular molecules, most likely identical to one chromatid of the double minutes, were detected in four of the sublines by linearization with gamma irradiation. The size of the circles was about 2,500 kb, which correlated to a single unit of the amplified domain. We therefore propose that in four independent instances of MDR development, a single unit of about 2,500 kb has been amplified in the form of circular DNA molecules. The restriction enzyme map of the amplified unit is unchanged compared with that of the parental cell line, whereas the joining sites of the circular DNA molecules are not identical but are in the same region. Images PMID:1545798

  19. Launch window analysis of satellites in high eccentricity or large circular orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renard, M. L.; Bhate, S. K.; Sridharan, R.

    1973-01-01

    Numerical methods and computer programs for studying the stability and evolution of orbits of large eccentricity are presented. Methods for determining launch windows and target dates are developed. Mathematical models are prepared to analyze the characteristics of specific missions.

  20. Large-eddy simulation of circular cylinder flow at subcritical Reynolds number: Turbulent wake and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei

    2016-02-01

    The flows past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 are simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES) and the far-field sound is calculated from the LES results. A low dissipation energy-conserving finite volume scheme is used to discretize the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamic global coefficient version of the Vreman's subgrid scale (SGS) model is used to compute the sub-grid stresses. Curle's integral of Lighthill's acoustic analogy is used to extract the sound radiated from the cylinder. The profiles of mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations obtained are consistent with the previous experimental and computational results. The sound radiation at far field exhibits the characteristic of a dipole and directivity. The sound spectra display the -5/3 power law. It is shown that Vreman's SGS model in company with dynamic procedure is suitable for LES of turbulence generated noise.

  1. Large-eddy simulation of circular cylinder flow at subcritical Reynolds number: Turbulent wake and sound radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei

    2015-10-01

    The flows past a circular cylinder at Reynolds number 3900 are simulated using large-eddy simulation (LES) and the far-field sound is calculated from the LES results. A low dissipation energy-conserving finite volume scheme is used to discretize the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The dynamic global coefficient version of the Vreman's subgrid scale (SGS) model is used to compute the sub-grid stresses. Curle's integral of Lighthill's acoustic analogy is used to extract the sound radiated from the cylinder. The profiles of mean velocity and turbulent fluctuations obtained are consistent with the previous experimental and computational results. The sound radiation at far field exhibits the characteristic of a dipole and directivity. The sound spectra display the -5/3 power law. It is shown that Vreman's SGS model in company with dynamic procedure is suitable for LES of turbulence generated noise.

  2. Very large array observations of Jupiter's nonthermal radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.; Jaffe, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    The VLA has been used at 18 and 20 cm to obtain observational data on Jupiter at all rotational aspects in all four Stokes parameters, yielding maps of the total, linearly polarized and circularly polarized intensity with a resolution of 0.25 Jupiter radii. These maps reveal such previously undetected phenomena as an emission feature close to the planetary surface north and south of each of the two main radiation peaks. The emission from 1.8 to about 3 Jupiter radii from the planet's center is sharply confined to the magnetic equator.

  3. Large deflection of clamped circular plate and accuracy of its approximate analytical solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yin

    2016-02-01

    A different set of governing equations on the large deflection of plates are derived by the principle of virtual work (PVW), which also leads to a different set of boundary conditions. Boundary conditions play an important role in determining the computation accuracy of the large deflection of plates. Our boundary conditions are shown to be more appropriate by analyzing their difference with the previous ones. The accuracy of approximate analytical solutions is important to the bulge/blister tests and the application of various sensors with the plate structure. Different approximate analytical solutions are presented and their accuracies are evaluated by comparing them with the numerical results. The error sources are also analyzed. A new approximate analytical solution is proposed and shown to have a better approximation. The approximate analytical solution offers a much simpler and more direct framework to study the plate-membrane transition behavior of deflection as compared with the previous approaches of complex numerical integration.

  4. A model for simulating the influence of a spatial distribution of large circular macropores on surface runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léonard, J.; Perrier, E.; de Marsily, G.

    2001-12-01

    This paper reports the development and test, at the scale of 1 m2, of an event- based model that aims at simulating the influence of a spatial distribution of large circular macropores on surface runoff. The main originality of this model is that it focuses on the way macropores are supplied with water at the soil surface, by coupling an original model for water interception by individual macropores to a high-resolution spatialized overland flow model. A three-step evaluation of the model was carried out, involving (1) an experimental test of the model for water interception by macropores; (2) a sensitivity analysis of the model to time and space discretization; and (3) a comparison between numerical and field results in the case of runoff on a crusted soil surface with a population of large macropores made by termites in the Sahel. The model was found to accurately simulate the effect of a spatial distribution of large macropores on runoff, and it showed that small heterogeneities, like macropores or areas where a crust has been destroyed, which cover a very limited proportion of the soil surface, can have a high impact on runoff.

  5. On the stability of self-consistent large amplitude waves in a cold plasma. I - Transverse circularly polarized waves in the absence of a large scale magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. A.; Lerche, I.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated that a self-consistent circularly polarized wave in an otherwise field-free homogeneous cold plasma is unstable to small amplitude perturbations. For either an electron-positron plasma or an electron-proton plasma the instability rate is at least about the order of the effective plasma frequency when the bulk flow speed is zero. For finite bulk flow speeds of the plasma, it is shown that the electron-positron plasma is unstable, again with a growth rate of the order of the effective plasma frequency; it is also shown that the electron-proton plasma is unstable (at least at small wave numbers, k) with a growth rate proportional to k. The calculated instability rates are conservative, for other modes not investigated here may be more unstable. The results of these calculations bear directly on the understanding of plasma systems thought to be driven by large amplitude waves.

  6. Direct observation of odd-even effect for chiral alkyl alcohols in solution using vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Souko; Futamura, Shigeru; Nafie, Laurence A; Dukor, Rina K

    2004-01-14

    The odd-even effect of chiral alkyl alcohols, (S)-CH(3)CHOHC(n)()H(2)(n)()(+1) (n = 2-8), in solution state has been observed spectroscopically for the first time. The vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) bands at 1148 cm(-)(1) exhibit a clear odd-even effect. The observed VCD bands of (R)-(-)-2-hexanol correspond well to those predicted (population weighted). Density functional theory calculations indicate that the most prevalent conformations in solution are the all-trans forms. The odd-even effect of the VCD bands is ascribed to the alternating terminal methyl motions in the alkyl chains relative to fixed motions near the chiral center in the trans conformations. The conformational sensitivity of VCD for the chiral alcohols in the solution state may be useful for the design of liquid crystals and ligands in the future. PMID:14709084

  7. Observation of x-ray absorption magnetic circular dichroism in well-characterized iron-cobalt-platinum multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A.F.; Waddill, G.D.; Tobin, J.G.

    1993-04-01

    Magnetic circular dichroism in the Fe 2p x-ray absorption is observed in multilayers of(Fe9.5{Angstrom}/Pt9.5{Angstrom}){sub 92}. The magnetization and helicity are both in the plane of this multilayer which is prepared by magnetron sputter deposition. This sample is part of a study to examine magnetization in the ternary multilayer system of FeCo/Pt. Lattice and layer pair spacings are measured using x-ray scattering. The atomic concentration profiles of the multilayer films are characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy coupled with depth profiling. Conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy are used to examine the thin film, growth morphology and atomic structure.

  8. Circular Coinduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosu, Grigore; Goguen, Joseph; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Circular coinduction is a technique for behavioral reasoning that extends cobasis coinduction to specifications with circularities. Because behavioral satisfaction is not recursively enumerable, no algorithm can work for every behavioral statement. However. algorithms using circular coinduction can prove every practical behavioral result that we know. This paper proves the correctness of circular coinduction and some consequences.

  9. Grid-independent large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent flow around a circular cylinder using explicit filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satbir; You, Donghyun

    2013-11-01

    The explicit filtering technique has the potential to provide grid-independent and error-quantified large-eddy-simulation (LES) solutions. recently obtained grid-independent LES solutions for turbulent channel flow using one-dimensional discrete filter functions implemented on Cartesian grids. Many complex flow configurations, however, employ arbitrary shape grids, for which it is difficult to design such discrete filter functions. In the present work, we employ an elliptic differential filter to solve explicit-filter LES equations on arbitrary shaped grids. The coefficients of the elliptic filter are determined by comparing its filtering characteristics with those of a Gausian filter. The elliptic filter is applied to a homogeneous isotropic turbulence flow field and the coefficient is adjusted until a filtered energy spectra similar to that of the Gaussian filter is obtained. The filter coefficients thus obtained are then employed to solve explicit-filter LES equations for turbulent channel flow at Re? = 395 and turbulent flow over a circular cylinder at ReD = 3900 . Grid-independent solutions are obtained for both flow configurations.

  10. Genome Analysis of a Glossina pallidipes Salivary Gland Hypertrophy Virus Reveals a Novel, Large, Double-Stranded Circular DNA Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alla, Adly M. M.; Cousserans, François; Parker, Andrew G.; Jehle, Johannes A.; Parker, Nicolas J.; Vlak, Just M.; Robinson, Alan S.; Bergoin, Max

    2008-01-01

    Several species of tsetse flies can be infected by the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV). Infection causes salivary gland hypertrophy and also significantly reduces the fecundity of the infected flies. To better understand the molecular basis underlying the pathogenesis of this unusual virus, we sequenced and analyzed its genome. The GpSGHV genome is a double-stranded circular DNA molecule of 190,032 bp containing 160 nonoverlapping open reading frames (ORFs), which are distributed equally on both strands with a gene density of one per 1.2 kb. It has a high A+T content of 72%. About 3% of the GpSGHV genome is composed of 15 sequence repeats, distributed throughout the genome. Although sharing the same morphological features (enveloped rod-shaped nucleocapsid) as baculoviruses, nudiviruses, and nimaviruses, analysis of its genome revealed that GpSGHV differs significantly from these viruses at the level of its genes. Sequence comparisons indicated that only 23% of GpSGHV genes displayed moderate homologies to genes from other invertebrate viruses, principally baculoviruses and entomopoxviruses. Most strikingly, the GpSGHV genome encodes homologues to the four baculoviral per os infectivity factors (p74 [pif-0], pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3). The DNA polymerase encoded by GpSGHV is of type B and appears to be phylogenetically distant from all DNA polymerases encoded by large double-stranded DNA viruses. The majority of the remaining ORFs could not be assigned by sequence comparison. Furthermore, no homologues to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits were detected. Taken together, these data indicate that GpSGHV is the prototype member of a novel group of insect viruses. PMID:18272583

  11. Multi-Wavelength Observations of Large Amplitude Prominence Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yuandeng; Shibata, Kazunari; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Liu, Yu

    Multi-Wavelength observations of large amplitude prominence oscillations are important in diagnosing the physical property and eruption mechanism of prominences, as well as their ambient coronal magnetic fields. Such studies has led to a new discipline dubbed Prominence Seismology. However, up to the present, high-resolution and multi-wavelength observations of large amplitude oscillations are very scarce. Using high-resolution spectroscopic Halpha observations taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope (SMART) and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we studied a series of intriguing large amplitude prominence (filament) oscillation events. We find that large amplitude horizontal and vertical prominence oscillations are often launched by large-scale shock waves associated with remote flares, while large amplitude longitudinal prominence oscillations are often associated with nearby micro jets or flare activities. Sometimes, longitudinal oscillations can also be launched by large-scale shocks. With the spectroscopic observations taken by the SMART, we can measure the Doppler velocity and even the three-dimensional velocity of the oscillations, with the so-called ``Clould Model. The oscillation period, amplitude, and damping time are also determined from the Halpha observations. These prominence parameters are used to estimate the magnetic fields of the prominence and the surrounding corona using the method of prominence seismology. Other property of large amplitude oscillation prominences such as restoring forces and damping mechanisms are also discussed in our study.

  12. The use of a circular external skeletal fixation device for the management of long bone osteotomies in large ruminants: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Aithal, H P; Singh, G R; Hoque, M; Maiti, S K; Kinjavdekar, P; Pawde, A M; Setia, H C

    2004-08-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a simple, inexpensive model of circular external fixator (CEF) for use in large ruminants. A simple model of CEF frames consisting of four full rings (13-19 cm diameter, 4 cm wide and 4 mm thick with 18-24 holes) connected by threaded rods (8 mm diameter, 10-15 cm long) and nuts was developed using mild (low carbon) steel and were nickel-plated. In the first phase of the study, three male cow calves were utilized to study the feasibility of application of the fixators in the metatarsus, tibia and radius, in reference of adaptation and tolerance by animals. In the second phase, the fixators were tested in osteotomized bones. Six bull calves of 1.5-2 years of age weighing about 200-250 kg were utilized for this purpose. After preparing the area for aseptic surgery, under xylazine (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.m.)-ketamine (i.v. till effect) general anaesthesia, the test bone (metatarsus, radius and tibia in two animals each) was approached through the medial surface and an osteotomy was created with a saw and chisel at the mid-diaphysis. The pre-constructed 4-ring CEF was mounted on the limb around the test bone in such a way that it formed a cylinder with the axis of the limb at the centre. Each ring was then fixed to the bone with a pair of beaded wires (316 SS) of 3.5 mm diameter. During the post-operative period, the animals were observed for any change in behaviour, tolerance of the fixators, the weight bearing on the test limb, the status of the fixator, and the level of reduction of the osteotomy, alignment and healing at different intervals. The fixation of CEF was easier in the metatarsus and radius than in the tibia. The inner ring diameters found adequate for metatarsus, radius and tibia were 13-15 cm, 15-17 cm and 17-19 cm, respectively. The fixators applied to different bones were well-tolerated, and the animals could lay down, stand and walk freely with the fixator without any problems. All the animals showed good weight bearing in the immediate post-operative period. Weight bearing, however, slightly reduced in the inflammatory period and showed improvement after about 4 weeks. Wire tract infection was seen in all the animals, which was more on proximal wire tracts on lateral aspect of limbs. Circular fixators were well-tolerated by all the animals, and there was no breaking/bending of connecting rods, slotted bolts or the rings at any stage of observation. Slight bowing of some wires was noticed in cases of tibia and radius (in phase II) and bending of some wires was noticed from first week in two animals one each in radius and tibia. Bone fragments were well maintained until healing occurred (appearance of bridging periosteal callus) at 60-70 days. The functional results were good in all but one case of tibia, where a mal-union was recorded. From this study, it can be concluded that CEF are well-tolerated by large ruminants and can be used to treat long bone fractures. The fixator assembly using mild steel is sufficiently strong to maintain fracture fixation and is inexpensive. The simple design of the CEF appears to be sufficient to treat simple diaphyseal fractures of the metatarsus and radius. Improvement in the technique of fixation and design-like coupling of linear and circular fixator components into hybrid constructs may help to provide greater rigidity in treating tibial and open long bone fractures. PMID:15485564

  13. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iv: Large-Amplitude Vibrations with Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PADOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of a shell conveying fluid to harmonic excitation, in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies, is investigated for different flow velocities. The theoretical model has already been presented in Part I of the present study. Non-linearities due to moderately large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction by using the model proposed by Pa??doussis and Denise. For different amplitudes and frequencies of the excitation and for different flow velocities, the following are investigated numerically: (1) periodic response of the system; (2) unsteady and stochastic motion; (3) loss of stability by jumps to bifurcated branches. The effect of the flow velocity on the non-linear periodic response of the system has also been investigated. Poincar maps and bifurcation diagrams are used to study the unsteady and stochastic dynamics of the system. Amplitude modulated motions, multi-periodic solutions, chaotic responses, cascades of bifurcations as the route to chaos and the so-called blue sky catastrophe phenomenon have all been observed for different values of the system parameters; the latter two have been predicted here probably for the first time for the dynamics of circular cylindrical shells.

  14. Large-scale structure observables in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Donghui; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-02-01

    We review recent studies that rigorously define several key observables of the large-scale structure of the Universe in a general relativistic context. Specifically, we consider (i) redshift perturbation of cosmic clock events; (ii) distortion of cosmic rulers, including weak lensing shear and magnification; and (iii) observed number density of tracers of the large-scale structure. We provide covariant and gauge-invariant expressions of these observables. Our expressions are given for a linearly perturbed flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric including scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. While we restrict ourselves to linear order in perturbation theory, the approach can be straightforwardly generalized to higher order.

  15. Large-amplitude, Circularly Polarized, Compressive, Obliquely Propagating Electromagnetic Proton Cyclotron Waves Throughout the Earth's Magnetosheath: Low Plasma ? Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remya, B.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Falkowski, B. J.; Echer, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2014-09-01

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ~14 nT (peak to peak) in a ~55 nT ambient magnetic field B 0. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f scf) below the proton cyclotron frequency (fp ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f scf > fp are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame fpf < fp . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (~55%) were found to be propagating along B 0 (\\theta _{kB_{0}}<30^{\\circ}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B 0. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B max - B min]/B max, where B max and B min are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma ? (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream (langVsw rang = 598 km s-1) was the source of this low-? plasma.

  16. Large-amplitude, circularly polarized, compressive, obliquely propagating electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves throughout the Earth's magnetosheath: low plasma β conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Remya, B.; Reddy, R. V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Falkowski, B. J.; Echer, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2014-09-20

    During 1999 August 18, both Cassini and WIND were in the Earth's magnetosheath and detected transverse electromagnetic waves instead of the more typical mirror-mode emissions. The Cassini wave amplitudes were as large as ∼14 nT (peak to peak) in a ∼55 nT ambient magnetic field B {sub 0}. A new method of analysis is applied to study these waves. The general wave characteristics found were as follows. They were left-hand polarized and had frequencies in the spacecraft frame (f {sub scf}) below the proton cyclotron frequency (f{sub p} ). Waves that were either right-hand polarized or had f {sub scf} > f{sub p} are shown to be consistent with Doppler-shifted left-hand waves with frequencies in the plasma frame f{sub pf} < f{sub p} . Thus, almost all waves studied are consistent with their being electromagnetic proton cyclotron waves. Most of the waves (∼55%) were found to be propagating along B {sub 0} (θ{sub kB{sub 0}}<30{sup ∘}), as expected from theory. However, a significant fraction of the waves were found to be propagating oblique to B {sub 0}. These waves were also circularly polarized. This feature and the compressive ([B {sub max} – B {sub min}]/B {sub max}, where B {sub max} and B {sub min} are the maximum and minimum field magnitudes) nature (ranging from 0.27 to 1.0) of the waves are noted but not well understood at this time. The proton cyclotron waves were shown to be quasi-coherent, theoretically allowing for rapid pitch-angle transport of resonant protons. Because Cassini traversed the entire subsolar magnetosheath and WIND was in the dusk-side flank of the magnetosheath, it is surmised that the entire region was filled with these waves. In agreement with past theory, it was the exceptionally low plasma β (0.35) that led to the dominance of the proton cyclotron wave generation during this interval. A high-speed solar wind stream ((V{sub sw} ) = 598 km s{sup –1}) was the source of this low-β plasma.

  17. Evolutionary outcomes for pairs of planets undergoing orbital migration and circularization: second-order resonances and observed period ratios in Kepler's planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Gruess, M.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2015-05-01

    In order to study the origin of the architectures of low-mass planetary systems, we perform numerical surveys of the evolution of pairs of coplanar planets in the mass range (1-4) M?. These evolve for up to 2 107 yr under a range of orbital migration torques and circularization rates assumed to arise through interaction with a protoplanetary disc. Near the inner disc boundary, significant variations of viscosity, interaction with density waves or with the stellar magnetic field could occur and halt migration, but allow circularization to continue. This was modelled by modifying the migration and circularization rates. Runs terminated without an extended period of circularization in the absence of migration torques gave rise to either a collision, or a system close to a resonance. These were mostly first order with a few per cent terminating in second-order resonances. Both planetary eccentricities were small <0.1 and all resonant angles liberated. This type of survey produced only a limited range of period ratios and cannot reproduce Kepler observations. When circularization alone operates in the final stages, divergent migration occurs causing period ratios to increase. Depending on its strength the whole period ratio range between 1 and 2 can be obtained. A few systems close to second-order commensurabilities also occur. In contrast to when arising through convergent migration, resonant trapping does not occur and resonant angles circulate. Thus, the behaviour of the resonant angles may indicate the form of migration that led to near resonance.

  18. Photoelectron circular dichroism observed in the above-threshold ionization signal from chiral molecules with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lux, Christian; Senftleben, Arne; Sarpe, Cristian; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron circular dichroism is investigated experimentally as a function of the number of absorbed circularly polarized photons. Three structurally different chiral molecules yet showing similar absorption spectra are studied. They are isotropically distributed in the gas phase and ionized with femtosecond laser pulses. We measure and analyze the photoelectron angular distribution of threshold electrons ionized with three photons and compare them to those of above-threshold (ATI) electrons ionized with four photons. Additionally to an increase in high even order Legendre polynomials the coefficients of the high odd order Legendre polynomials rise with increasing photon number. Consequently, the ATI electrons also carry the chirality signature. All investigated chiral molecules reveal an individual set of coefficients for the threshold and ATI signatures despite their similarities in chemical structure. The presented data set can serve as a guideline for theoretical modeling of the interaction of circularly polarized light with chiral molecules in the multiphoton regime.

  19. Large deployable reflectors for telecom and earth observation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scialino, L.; Ihle, A.; Migliorelli, M.; Gatti, N.; Datashvili, L.; 't Klooster, K.; Santiago Prowald, J.

    2013-12-01

    Large deployable antennas are one of the key components for advanced missions in the fields of telecom and earth observation. In the recent past, missions have taken on board large deployable reflector (LDR) up to 22 m of diameter and several missions have already planned embarking large reflectors, such as the 12 m of INMARSAT XL or BIOMASS. At the moment, no European LDR providers are available and the market is dominated by Northrop-Grumman and Harris. Consequently, the development of European large reflector technology is considered a key step to maintain commercial and strategic competitiveness (ESA Large Reflector Antenna Working Group Final Report, TEC-EEA/2010.595/CM, 2010). In this scenario, the ESA General Study Project RESTEO (REflector Synergy between Telecom and Earth Observation), starting from the identification of future missions needs, has identified the most promising reflector concepts based on European heritage/technology, able to cover the largest range of potential future missions for both telecom and earth observation. This paper summarizes the activities and findings of the RESTEO Study.

  20. Quantum tunneling observed without its characteristic large kinetic isotope effects.

    PubMed

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ueta, Hirokazu; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2015-06-16

    Classical transition-state theory is fundamental to describing chemical kinetics; however, quantum tunneling is also important in explaining the unexpectedly large reaction efficiencies observed in many chemical systems. Tunneling is often indicated by anomalously large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), because a particle's ability to tunnel decreases significantly with its increasing mass. Here we experimentally demonstrate that cold hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms can add to solid benzene by tunneling; however, the observed H/D KIE was very small (1-1.5) despite the large intrinsic H/D KIE of tunneling (≳ 100). This strong reduction is due to the chemical kinetics being controlled not by tunneling but by the surface diffusion of the H/D atoms, a process not greatly affected by the isotope type. Because tunneling need not be accompanied by a large KIE in surface and interfacial chemical systems, it might be overlooked in other systems such as aerosols or enzymes. Our results suggest that surface tunneling reactions on interstellar dust may contribute to the deuteration of interstellar aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which could represent a major source of the deuterium enrichment observed in carbonaceous meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These findings could improve our understanding of interstellar physicochemical processes, including those during the formation of the solar system. PMID:26034285

  1. Quantum tunneling observed without its characteristic large kinetic isotope effects

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Tetsuya; Ueta, Hirokazu; Kouchi, Akira; Watanabe, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Classical transition-state theory is fundamental to describing chemical kinetics; however, quantum tunneling is also important in explaining the unexpectedly large reaction efficiencies observed in many chemical systems. Tunneling is often indicated by anomalously large kinetic isotope effects (KIEs), because a particle’s ability to tunnel decreases significantly with its increasing mass. Here we experimentally demonstrate that cold hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) atoms can add to solid benzene by tunneling; however, the observed H/D KIE was very small (1–1.5) despite the large intrinsic H/D KIE of tunneling (≳100). This strong reduction is due to the chemical kinetics being controlled not by tunneling but by the surface diffusion of the H/D atoms, a process not greatly affected by the isotope type. Because tunneling need not be accompanied by a large KIE in surface and interfacial chemical systems, it might be overlooked in other systems such as aerosols or enzymes. Our results suggest that surface tunneling reactions on interstellar dust may contribute to the deuteration of interstellar aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which could represent a major source of the deuterium enrichment observed in carbonaceous meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These findings could improve our understanding of interstellar physicochemical processes, including those during the formation of the solar system. PMID:26034285

  2. Circular polarization of twilight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Illing, R.; Martin, P. G.

    1972-01-01

    Review of observations of circular polarization of twilight performed with a polarimeter which uses an electronically switched Pockels cell operated as a reversible quarter-wave plate to convert circular into linear polarization. The latter was then analyzed by a Wollaston prism followed by two gallium-arsenide photomultipliers. The discovery of a definite natural circular polarization at twilight does suggest that, with increased observation precision, measurements of the small daylight component are possible. These could give useful information about particles in the atmosphere and be valuable in studies of meteorology and air pollution.

  3. Considerations for Observational Research using Large Datasets in Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based datasets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the Red Journal assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytic challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold substantial promise for advancing our understanding of many unanswered questions of importance to the field of radiation oncology. PMID:25195986

  4. Local layer structures in circular domains of an achiral bent-core mesogen observed by x-ray microbeam diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo; Watanabe, Junji; Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atsuo

    2003-07-01

    The local layer structures have been investigated by x-ray microbeam diffraction in the circular domains of the SmCP phase of a banana-shaped molecule. Originally, the molecules form tilted layers with a certain tilt angle as well as nontilted ones. The application of a low electric field induces a tilted layer with a continuous change of the tilt angle; i.e., the tilted layer gradually changes the tilt angle, finally being upright at the center of circular domains. Upon application of a high electric field, the smectic layer forms a cylindrical-type structure. The layer structure changes from cylindrical to onionlike after turning off the high field.

  5. Mid-latitude lidar observations of large sporadic sodium layers

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.C.; Collins, R.L.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1989-07-01

    During the early morning of October 31, 1988 two large sporadic Na (Na{sub s}) layers were observed near the mesopause above Urbana, IL (40{degree}N, 88{degree}W) with a Na lidar system. The layers began forming near 102 km at 0026 LST and 0110 LST and moved downward with vertical velocities as high as 4 ms{sup {minus}1} before dissipating between 94 and 96 km. The duration of each layer was approximately 80 min. The layers were narrow ({approximately} 1 km FWHM) and dense with maximum densities approaching 7,800 cm{sup {minus}3}. The characteristics of these two Na{sub s} layers are very similar to those of similar phenomena observed recently at Andoya, Norway and Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Lidar observations of the mesospheric Na layer have been conducted routinely by several groups at mid-latitudes for almost 20 years. Although large Na{sub s} layers now appear to be relatively common at low- and high-latitudes, to our knowledge the two layers described in this letter are only the second observation of this puzzling phenomenon at mid-latitudes.

  6. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 110625A

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, P. H. T.; Kong, A. K. H.; Fan Yizhong

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) that emit photons at GeV energies form a small but significant population of GRBs. However, the number of GRBs whose GeV-emitting period is simultaneously observed in X-rays remains small. We report {gamma}-ray observations of GRB 110625A using Fermi's Large Area Telescope in the energy range 100 MeV-20 GeV. Gamma-ray emission at these energies was clearly detected using data taken between 180 s and 580 s after the burst, an epoch after the prompt emission phase. The GeV light curve differs from a simple power-law decay, and probably consists of two emission periods. Simultaneous Swift X-Ray Telescope observations did not show flaring behaviors as in the case of GRB 100728A. We discuss the possibility that the GeV emission is the synchrotron self-Compton radiation of underlying ultraviolet flares.

  7. Doppler lidar observations of plume dynamics from large wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lareau, N.; Clements, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Novel Doppler lidar observations of smoke plumes from large wildfires are made from a mobile atmospheric profiling system. Few quantitative observations exist that resolve the plume dynamics of active wildfires. Our observations elucidate three important and poorly understood aspects of convective columns: (1) column rotation, (2) penetrative convection, and (3) deep pyrocumulus clouds. Our first observational case examines vigorus anti-cyclonic rotation that occurred in a rapidly developing wildfire. The convective column was first purely convergent, then as the fire intensified, the column acquired strong (+/- 15 m s-1) anticyclonic rotation. The Doppler lidar recorded the vortex structure, strength, and evolution, including the merger of smaller vorticies into a single long-lived vortex. The second case examines the interaction of the convective plumes with shear layers and capping stable layers. These data show explosive convective growth as fire-induced buoyancy penetrated into the free troposphere. Observations of entrainment into the plumes is expecitly resolved in the lidar scans. The final case examines rarely observed deep pyrocumulus clouds associated with an intense forest fire. The lidar data reveal plume structure, including t the height of the lifted condensation level and the full height of the plume top which was in excess of 8 km AGL.

  8. Laser mass spectrometry with circularly polarized light: circular dichroism of molecular ions.

    PubMed

    Log, Christoph; Boesl, Ulrich

    2012-12-21

    In recent experiments of resonance-enhanced laser ionization, large differences between circular dichroism measured for molecular and fragment ions were found by several research groups for different molecular systems. In the case of 3-methylcyclopentanone (3-MCP) we attributed this effect to a large circular dichroism of the molecular ion. In the work presented here, this effect in 3-MCP is studied by ion spectroscopy, by varying the neutral intermediate excited state involved in resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and by performing REMPI-induced measurements of circular dichroism at different laser pulse energies. It turns out that the dynamics of structural changes in the ionic ground state strongly influences the observed ionic circular dichroism. PMID:23090920

  9. Interferometric observations of large biologically interesting interstellar and cometary molecules

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lewis E.

    2006-01-01

    Interferometric observations of high-mass regions in interstellar molecular clouds have revealed hot molecular cores that have substantial column densities of large, partly hydrogen-saturated molecules. Many of these molecules are of interest to biology and thus are labeled “biomolecules.” Because the clouds containing these molecules provide the material for star formation, they may provide insight into presolar nebular chemistry, and the biomolecules may provide information about the potential of the associated interstellar chemistry for seeding newly formed planets with prebiotic organic chemistry. In this overview, events are outlined that led to the current interferometric array observations. Clues that connect this interstellar hot core chemistry to the solar system can be found in the cometary detection of methyl formate and the interferometric maps of cometary methanol. Major obstacles to understanding hot core chemistry remain because chemical models are not well developed and interferometric observations have not been very sensitive. Differentiation in the molecular isomers glycolaldehdye, methyl formate, and acetic acid has been observed, but not explained. The extended source structure for certain sugars, aldehydes, and alcohols may require nonthermal formation mechanisms such as shock heating of grains. Major advances in understanding the formation chemistry of hot core species can come from observations with the next generation of sensitive, high-resolution arrays. PMID:16894168

  10. Satellite observations of large power plants and megacities from GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Tom; Maksyutov, Shamil; Boesch, Hartmut; Butz, Andre; Ganshin, Alexander; Guerlet, Sandrine; Parker, Robert; O'Dell, Chris; Oshchepkov, Sergey; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhuravlev, Ruslan; Yokota, Tatsuya

    2013-04-01

    Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are a major source of CO2 to the global carbon cycle over decadal time scales and international efforts to curb those missions are required for mitigating climate change. Although emissions from nations are estimated and reported to help monitor their compliance of emission reductions, we still lack an objective method to monitor emissions directly. Future carbon-observing space missions are thus expected to provide an independent tool for directly measuring emissions. We proposed and have implemented satellite observations specifically over intense large point sources (LPS), including large fossil-fueled power plants and megacities, worldwide (N > 300) using the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing SATelllite (GOSAT). Our target LPS sites have been occasionally included in the observation schedule of GOSAT and the measurements are made using the target observation mode. This proposal was officially accepted by the GOSAT project office and we have attempted to use these data to detect signatures of man-made greenhouse gas emissions. We have submitted our locations of interest on a monthly basis two month prior to observation. We calculated the X_CO2 concentration enhancement due to the LPS emissions. We analyzed GOSAT X_CO2 retrievals from four research groups (five products total): the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) (both the NIES standard Level 2 and NIES-PPDF products), the NASA Atmospheric CO2 from Space (ACOS) team (ACOS Level 2 product), the Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SRON)/Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany (RemoTeC), and the University of Leicester, UK (Full-Physics CO2 retrieval dataset). Although we obtained fewer retrieved soundings relative to what we requested (probably due to geophysical difficulties in the retrievals), we did obtain statistically significant enhancements at some LPS sites where weather condition were ideal for viewing. We also implemented simulations of enhanced X_CO2 using a global Eulerian-Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model (GELCA) and a high-resolution fossil fuel emissions dataset (Odiac). Odiac includes emissions information on the power plants requested in our target observations. Our model simulations tend to underestimate the enhancements, but showed good correlation with observed enhancements.

  11. Circular motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Isaac; Henry, Richard Conn

    2000-07-01

    An extraordinarily simple and transparent derivation of the formula for the acceleration that occurs in uniform circular motion is presented, and is advocated for use in high school and college freshman physics textbooks.

  12. Circular Motion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul D.

    1995-01-01

    Provides a period-long activity using battery powered cars rolling in a circular motion on a tile floor. Students measure the time and distance as the car moves to derive the equation for centripetal acceleration. (MVL)

  13. Very Large Array (VLA) observations of coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in ground based Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the Sun, and how they complement and extend EUV and X-ray observations from space are reviewed. The VLA provides high resolution, full disk images that include hot, dense coronal loops within individual active regions (at 20 cm), and cooler, higher, more extended structures (at 90 cm) that can connect widely separated active regions, describe high lying noise storms, or act as a transition sheath between cool dark filaments and the hot enveloping corona. VLA images of both cool and hot corona loops can be compared with data from most of the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments, thereby enhancing the scientific return of the SOHO mission beyond that expected from using its instruments alone.

  14. Linking very short arcs from large database of asteroid observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, Giovanni Federico

    2015-08-01

    With the improvements of the observational technology for the new surveys the number of asteroid detections is rapidly increasing. For this reason we must use very efficient methods to compute orbits with these data. We have to identify observations taken in different nights as belonging to the same asteroid. If we do not have an efficient algorithm for that, the unidentifiedobservation database can increase without control, and we risk to detect the same objects multiple times without being able to realize it.If a short arc of asteroid observations is not enough to compute an orbit we usually can compute an 'attributable', i.e. a vector whose components are the topocentric angular position and velocity of the asteroid at the mean epoch of the observations. To define an orbit we only need to know the topocentric radial distance and velocity of the observed body at that epoch.Solving the linkage problem means to use the information encoded in two attributables to compute one or more preliminary orbits. Among the different ways to deal with this problem, we can use the first integrals of Kepler's motion to derive polynomial equations for this purpose.We present a recent achievement with this approach: we can derive a polynomial equation of degree 9 in the topocentric radial distance of the asteroid at the mean epoch of one of the two attributables.Note that the classical orbit determination method by Gauss, using three angular positions of the asteroid, employs a polynomial equation of degree 8.However, if N is the number of observations per night of a survey, we have to check O(N^2) pairs of data with the linkage method and O(N^3) triples with Gauss method.We also show the results of the application of this new method to a large database of asteroid detections.

  15. Large-Amplitude Electromagnetic Proton Cyclotron Waves throughout the Earth's Magnetosheath: Cassini and Wind Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu, R.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Reddy, V.; Lakhina, G. S.; Falkowski, B. J.; Echer, E.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    A rare and unique observation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves has been studied for the Cassini and WIND satellites during the Cassini Earth flyby on 18th August, 1999, across the Earth's magnetosheath. Magnetic field data from Cassini and WIND for the time interval 0152-0226 UT are analyzed to characterize the wave modes when the satellites were present in the subsolar and dusk side magnetosheath, respectively. A new technique/program called Rosetta Automatic Wave Analysis (RAWA) has been developed based on the method initiated by Tsurutani et. al., 2013 to study the wave cycles. Various wave mode characteristics like frequency, ellipticity, propagation angle, and wave polarization are determined and are characterized statistically. Cassini and WIND wave cycle analysis suggest that almost all the waves (> 80%) were left hand circularly polarized waves with frequencies lying at or below the proton cyclotron frequency. This indicates abundance of ion (proton) cyclotron mode propagation in the Earth's magnetosheath for the aforementioned interval. No obvious mirror mode indications were found as there were no linearly polarized waves detected. The waves which were either right hand polarized or had frequencies greater than the proton cyclotron frequency were consistent with their being left hand waves with frequencies less than proton cyclotron frequency in the plasma frame. We thus conclude that the waves detected at both Cassini and WIND are electromagnetic left hand polarized proton cyclotron waves. There is no evidence of mode conversion to (plasma frame) right hand waves, even though the wave amplitudes are exceptionally large (10 nT). Majority of the waves were found to propagate parallel (<30o) to the ambient magnetic field and were circularly polarized. However it is also found that for waves propagating at oblique angles to B0, the polarization is still circular. This is not understood at this time. Proton cyclotron waves detected at Cassini and WIND were found to be quasi-coherent and compressive. The Earth's magnetosheath was found to have unusually low plasma beta (?=0.35) during the Cassini traversal which would have possibly favored the ion cyclotron modes over mirror modes.

  16. Observation of large-amplitude magnetosonic waves at dipolarization fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Meng; Ni, Binbin; Huang, Shiyong; Deng, Xiaohua; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Nishimura, Yukitoshi; Yuan, Zhigang; Pang, Ye; Li, Huimin

    2014-06-01

    Various plasma waves have been observed in the vicinity of dipolarization fronts (DFs) and the rarefaction regions behind them. It was suggested that these waves not only play crucial roles in regulating particle kinetics at the DFs but also may potentially affect the large-scale dynamics of the magnetotail. In this paper, we present the observations of large-amplitude electromagnetic waves at DFs that occurred during magnetospheric substorms. The DFs were embedded in either the tailward or earthward flows in the near-Earth magnetotail. The wave frequencies were near the local proton cyclotron frequency. The waves propagated at highly oblique angles with respect to the ambient magnetic field (~80-100). Their corresponding wavelengths were on the order of the local ion gyroradii. The major magnetic field fluctuations were along the background magnetic field, while the electric field fluctuations were predominantly perpendicular to the background magnetic field. The waves were compressional waves as there was an anticorrelation between the plasma density and the wave magnetic field strength. The electric potential associated with the waves reached to more than half of the electron temperature, indicating the waves are nonlinear. We suggest that the waves were magnetosonic or ion Bernstein mode waves driven by the ion ring distribution. The waves were able to provide significant anomalous resistivity at the front, with major contributions from the electric field fluctuations. The effects of these waves on the electron pitch angle scattering and energy diffusion are also discussed.

  17. Observation of an unusually large atomic parity-violation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigutkin, Konstantin

    2010-03-01

    We report on observation of a large parity-violation effect in the atoms of ytterbium (Yb). This left-right asymmetry appears naturally in the Standard Model, and is associated with the exchange of a virtual heavy ``gauge" boson between subatomic particles. Eventually, parity violation has been observed and precisely measured by a number of groups in several different atoms, culminating in a 0.3% measurement in cesium (Cs) by Carl Wieman and co-workers at Boulder. The parity-violating amplitude of the 6x^2 ^1S0 -> 5d6s ^3D1 408-nm forbidden transition of ytterbium is found to be two orders of magnitude larger than in cesium. This is the largest atomic parity-violating amplitude yet observed. This also opens the way to future measurements of the parity violation effects for different Yb isotopes in order to test the effect of the neutron distributions within the nucleus and detect the so-called ``anapole moment" by comparing parity-violating amplitudes for various hyperfine components of the transition. So far, Cs is the only system where such a moment has been detected. Measurements of anapole moments are important for understanding the electroweak interactions within the nucleus which are hard to probe by other means.

  18. Titan's 5-?m window: observations with the Very Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lellouch, E.; Coustenis, A.; Sebag, B.; Cuby, J.-G.; Lpez-Valverde, M.; Schmitt, B.; Fouchet, T.; Crovisier, J.

    2003-03-01

    We report on mid-resolution ( R2000) spectroscopic observations of Titan, acquired in November 2000 with the Very Large Telescope and covering the range 4.75-5.07 ?m. These observations provide a detailed characterization of the CO (1-0) vibrational band, clearly separating for the first time individual CO lines (P10 to P19 lines of 13CO). They indicate that the CO/N 2 mixing ratio in Titan's troposphere is 3210 ppm. Comparison with photochemical models indicates that CO is not in a steady state in Titan's atmosphere. The observations confirm that Titan's 5-?m continuum geometric albedo is 0.06, and further indicates a 20% albedo decrease over 4.98-5.07 ?m. Nonzero flux is detected at the 0.01 geometric albedo level in the saturated core of the 12CO (1-0) band, at 4.75-4.85 ?m, providing evidence for backscattering on the stratospheric haze. Finally, emission lines are detected at 4.75-4.835 ?m, coinciding in position with lines from the CO(1-0) and/or CO(2-1) bands. Matching them by thermal emission would require Titan's stratosphere to be much warmer (by 25 K at 0.1 mbar) than indicated by the methane 7.7-?m emission and the Voyager radio-occultation. We show instead that a nonthermal mechanism, namely solar-excited fluorescence, is a more plausible source for these emissions. Improved observations and laboratory measurements on the vibrational-translational relaxation of CO are needed for further interpretation of these emissions in terms of a CO stratospheric mixing ratio.

  19. Observational Signatures of Modified Gravity on Ultra-large Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Tessa; Bull, Philip

    2015-10-01

    Extremely large surveys with future experiments like Euclid and the SKA will soon allow us to access perturbation modes close to the Hubble scale, with wavenumbers k∼ {H}. If a modified gravity (MG) theory is responsible for cosmic acceleration, then the Hubble scale is a natural regime for deviations from General Relativity (GR) to become manifest. However, the majority of studies to date have concentrated on the consequences of alternative gravity theories for the subhorizon, quasi-static regime. In this paper, we investigate how modifications to the gravitational field equations affect perturbations around the Hubble scale. We choose functional forms to represent the generic scale-dependent behavior of gravity theories that modify GR at long wavelengths, and study the resulting deviations of ultra-large-scale relativistic observables from their GR behavior. We find that these are small unless modifications to the field equations are drastic. The angular dependence and redshift evolution of the deviations is highly parameterization- and survey-dependent, however, and so they are possibly a rich source of MG phenomenology if they can be measured.

  20. Testing coupled dark energy with large scale structure observation

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Weiqiang; Xu, Lixin E-mail: lxxu@dlut.edu.cn

    2014-08-01

    The coupling between the dark components provides a new approach to mitigate the coincidence problem of cosmological standard model. In this paper, dark energy is treated as a fluid with a constant equation of state, whose coupling with dark matter is Q-bar =3H?{sub x}?-bar {sub x}. In the frame of dark energy, we derive the evolution equations for the density and velocity perturbations. According to the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we constrain the model by currently available cosmic observations which include cosmic microwave background radiation, baryon acoustic oscillation, type Ia supernovae, and f?{sub 8}(z) data points from redshift-space distortion. The results show the interaction rate in ? regions: ?{sub x}=0.00328{sub -0.00328-0.00328-0.00328}{sup +0.000736+0.00549+0.00816}, which means that the recently cosmic observations favor a small interaction rate which is up to the order of 10{sup -2}, meanwhile, the measurement of redshift-space distortion could rule out the large interaction rate in the ? region.

  1. Evaluation of forest fire models on a large observation database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, J. B.; Mallet, V.; Nader, B.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of several fire propagation models using a large set of observed fires. The observation base is composed of 80 Mediterranean fire cases of different sizes, which come with the limited information available in an operational context (burned surface and approximative ignition point). Simulations for all cases are carried out with four different front velocity models. The results are compared with several error scoring methods applied to each of the 320 simulations. All tasks are performed in a fully automated manner, with simulations run as first guesses with no tuning for any of the models or cases. This approach leads to a wide range of simulation performance, including some of the bad simulation results to be expected in an operational context. Disregarding the quality of the input data, it is found that the models can be ranked based on their performance and that the most complex models outperform the more empirical ones. Data and source codes used for this paper are freely available to the community.

  2. Evaluation of forest fire models on a large observation database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, J.-B.; Mallet, V.; Nader, B.

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of several fire propagation models using a large set of observed fires. The observation base is composed of 80 Mediterranean fire cases of different sizes, which come with the limited information available in an operational context (burned surface and approximative ignition point). Simulations for all cases are carried out with 4 different front velocity models. The results are compared with several error scoring methods applied to each of the 320 simulations. All tasks are performed in a fully automated manner, with simulations ran as first guesses with no tuning for any of the models or cases. This approach leads a wide range of simulation performance, including some of the bad simulation results to be expected in an operational context. Regardless the quality of the input data, it is found that the models can be ranked based on their performance and that the most complex models outperform the more empirical ones. Data and source code used for this paper are freely available to the community.

  3. Large Scale Constraints on Methane Emissions Determined from Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugokencky, E. J.; Lang, P.; Masarie, K.; Crotwell, A. M.; Bruhwiler, L.

    2011-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric CH4 from the NOAA Global Monitoring Division's, Global Cooperative Air Sampling Network began in 1983. These high-precision observations offer key constraints on CH4's budget including the global burden, the rate of increase, and the spatial distribution of CH4 at the surface. These observations allow estimates of total global CH4 emissions without using a chemical transport model. A surprising result of this analysis is that, if the CH4 lifetime has been constant, then total global emissions have been approximately constant since the mid-1980s. This result is difficult to reconcile with bottom-up inventories that report increasing anthropogenic emissions, unless natural emissions have decreased considerably. Analysis of anomalies in CH4 growth rate also allow us to test our understanding of the processes that affect the atmospheric CH4 burden. Large anomalies have been attributed to decreased CH4 sink after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1992, decreased emissions from wetlands because of cooler than normal temperatures in 1992, and increased emissions from biomass burning and wetlands in 1997/98. The most recent anomaly, starting in 2007 and continuing into early-2011 with an average rate of increase of ~6 ppb yr-1, is more persistent than previous ones and may indicate a permanent change to the global CH4 budget. Dlugokencky et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, 2009] attributed the increases in 2007 and 2008 to anomalously high temperatures in the Arctic (2007) and greater than average precipitation in the tropics (2007 and 2008). Continuing increases in 2009 and 2010 may be related to a very strong La Nia starting in 2010, the same climate pattern responsible for large positive precipitation anomalies in tropical wetland regions in 2007 and 2008. Indeed, strong precipitation anomalies were observed in SE Asia during 2010. This is a likely cause of continued CH4 increase, and it is consistent with the observation that the largest growth rates in 2010 were in the southern tropics. For 2009, when we were in a weak El Nio, no clear cause has emerged. The observations indicate the largest growth rates were observed in mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere, a departure from 2007, 2008, and 2010 when signals were clearly dominated by the tropics. A recent model study by Bousquet et al. (Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3689-3700, 2011) is consistent with our earlier study on the role of tropical and high northern latitude wetlands in increased CH4 growth during 2007, but unclear as to the causes of increase in 2008. Little additional information about the causes of the recent anomaly has been determined from satellite retrievals of CH4 column abundance (Frankenberg et al., J. Geophys. Res., 116, 2011).

  4. The flux of large meteoroids observed with lunar impact monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, W.; Suggs, R.; Moser, D.; Suggs, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    The flux of large meteoroids is not well determined due to relatively low number statistics, due mainly to the lack of collecting area available to meteor camera systems (10^2-10^5 km^2). Larger collecting areas are needed to provide reasonable statistics for flux calculations. The Moon, with millions of square kilometers of lunar surface, can be used as a detector for observing the population of large meteoroids in the tens of grams to kilogram mass range. This is accomplished by observing the flash of light produced when a meteoroid impacts the lunar surface, converting a portion of its kinetic energy to visible light detectable from the Earth. A routine monitoring program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has recorded over 300 impact flashes since early 2006. The program utilizes multiple 0.35-m (14-inch) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, outfitted with video cameras using the 1?2 inch Sony EXview HAD CCDTM chip, to perform simultaneous observations of the earthshine hemisphere of the Moon when the lunar phase is between 0.1 and 0.5. This optical arrangement permits monitoring of approximately 3.810^6 km^2 of lunar surface. A selection of 126 flashes recorded in 266.88 hours of photometric skies was analyzed, creating the largest and most homogeneous dataset of lunar impact flashes to date. Standard CCD photometric techniques outlined in [1] were applied to the video to determine the luminous energy, kinetic energy, and mass for each impactor, considering a range of luminous efficiencies. The flux to a limiting energy of 2.510^{-6} kT TNT or 1.0510^7 J is 1.0310^{-7} km^{-2} hr^{-1} and the flux to a limiting mass of 30 g is 6.1410^{-10} m^{-2} yr^{-1}. Comparisons made with measurements and models of the meteoroid population indicate that the flux of objects in this size range is slightly lower (but within the error bars) than the power law distribution determined for the near-Earth-object population by [2].

  5. The Flux of Large Meteoroids Observed with Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. J.; Suggs, R. M.; Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    The flux of large meteoroids is not well determined due to relatively low number statistics, due mainly to the lack of collecting area available to meteor camera systems (10(2)-10(5) km2). Larger collecting areas are needed to provide reasonable statistics for flux calculations. The Moon, with millions of square kilometers of lunar surface, can be used as a detector for observing the population of large meteoroids in the tens of grams to kilogram mass range. This is accomplished by observing the flash of light produced when a meteoroid impacts the lunar surface, converting a portion of its kinetic energy to visible light detectable from Earth. A routine monitoring program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has recorded over 300 impact flashes since early 2006. The program utilizes multiple 0.35 m (14 inch) Schmidt-Cassegrain telescopes, outfitted with video cameras using the 1/2 inch Sony EXview HAD CCDTM chip, to perform simultaneous observations of the earthshine hemisphere of the Moon when the lunar phase is between 0.1 and 0.5. This optical arrangement permits monitoring of approximately 3.8x10(6) km2 of lunar surface. A selection of 126 flashes recorded in 266.88 hours of photometric skies was analyzed, creating the largest and most homogeneous dataset of lunar impact flashes to date. Standard CCD photometric techniques outlined in [1] were applied to the video to determine the luminous energy, kinetic energy, and mass for each impactor, considering a range of luminous efficiencies. The flux to a limiting energy of 2.5x10(-6) kT TNT or 1.0510(7) J is 1.0310(-7) km(-2) hr(-1) and the flux to a limiting mass of 30 g is 6.1410(-10) m(-2) yr(-1). Comparisons made with measurements and models of the meteoroid population indicate that the flux of objects in this size range is slightly lower (but within the error bars) than the power law distribution determined for the near Earth object population by [2].

  6. Observing Planetary Nebulae with JWST and Extremely Large Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra

    2015-01-01

    Most stars in the Universe that leave the main sequence in a Hubble time will end their lives evolving through the Planetary Nebula (PN) evolutionary phase. The heavy mass loss which occurs during the preceding AGB phase is important across astrophysics, dramatically changing the course of stellar evolution, dominantly contributing to the dust content of the interstellar medium, and influencing its chemical composition. The evolution from the AGB phase to the PN phases remains poorly understood, especially the dramatic transformation that occurs in the morphology of the mass-ejecta as AGB stars and their round circumstellar envelopes evolve into mostly PNe, the majority of which deviate strongly from spherical symmetry. In addition, although the PN [OIII] luminosity function (PNLF) has been used as a standard candle (on par with distance indicators such as Cepheids), we do not understand why it works. It has been argued that the resolution of these issues may be linked to binarity and associated processes such as mass transfer and common envelope evolution.Thus, understanding the formation and evolution of PNe is of wide astrophysical importance. PNe have long been known to emit across a very large span of wavelengths, from the radio to X-rays. Extensive use of space-based observatories at X-ray (Chandra/ XMM-Newton), optical (HST) and far-infrared (Spitzer, Herschel) wavelengths in recent years has produced significant new advances in our knowledge of these objects. Given the expected advent of the James Webb Space Telescope in the near future, and ground-based Extremely Large Telescope(s) somewhat later, this talk will focus on future high-angular-resolution, high-sensitivity observations at near and mid-IR wavelengths with these facilities that can help in addressing the major unsolved problems in the study of PNe.

  7. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Vela Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bartelt, J.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bisello, D.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Corbet, R.; Corucci, L.; Cutini, S.; Davis, D. S.; DeKlotz, M.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Dormody, M.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Flath, D. L.; Fleury, P.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giannitrapani, R.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Haller, G.; Harding, A. K.; Hart, P. A.; Hartman, R. C.; Hays, E.; Hobbs, G.; Hughes, R. E.; Jhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kanbach, G.; Kaspi, V. M.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kavelaars, A.; Kawai, N.; Kelly, H.; Kerr, M.; Kiziltan, B.; Klamra, W.; Kndlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuehn, F.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Landriu, D.; Latronico, L.; Lee, B.; Lee, S.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Livingstone, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Manchester, R. N.; Marangelli, B.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Menon, N.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mineo, T.; Mirizzi, N.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Mongelli, M.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pearce, M.; Pepe, M.; Perchiazzi, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pieri, L.; Pinchera, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rain, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Rapposelli, E.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Reyes, L. C.; Ritz, S.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sacchetti, A.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Saggini, N.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Segal, K. N.; Sellerholm, A.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Starck, J.-L.; Stecker, F. W.; Stephens, T. E.; Strickman, M. S.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Tenze, A.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Turri, M.; Usher, T. L.; Vigiani, L.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-05-01

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new ?-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E >= 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of ? = 1.51+0.05 -0.04 with an exponential cutoff at Ec = 2.9 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e^{-(E/E_c)^b} require b <= 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  8. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF THE VELA PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bartelt, J.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bogart, J. R.; Atwood, W. B.; Bagagli, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellardi, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bisello, D.; Baughman, B. M. E-mail: massimiliano.razzano@pi.infn.it

    2009-05-10

    The Vela pulsar is the brightest persistent source in the GeV sky and thus is the traditional first target for new {gamma}-ray observatories. We report here on initial Fermi Large Area Telescope observations during verification phase pointed exposure and early sky survey scanning. We have used the Vela signal to verify Fermi timing and angular resolution. The high-quality pulse profile, with some 32,400 pulsed photons at E {>=} 0.03 GeV, shows new features, including pulse structure as fine as 0.3 ms and a distinct third peak, which shifts in phase with energy. We examine the high-energy behavior of the pulsed emission; initial spectra suggest a phase-averaged power-law index of {gamma} = 1.51{sup +0.05} {sub -0.04} with an exponential cutoff at E{sub c} = 2.9 {+-} 0.1 GeV. Spectral fits with generalized cutoffs of the form e{sup -(E/E{sub c}){sup b}} require b {<=} 1, which is inconsistent with magnetic pair attenuation, and thus favor outer-magnetosphere emission models. Finally, we report on upper limits to any unpulsed component, as might be associated with a surrounding pulsar wind nebula.

  9. Large breast compressions: Observations and evaluation of simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, Christine; White, Mark; Guarino, Salvatore; Hall-Craggs, Margaret A.; Douek, Michael; Hawkes, David J.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Several methods have been proposed to simulate large breast compressions such as those occurring during x-ray mammography. However, the evaluation of these methods against real data is rare. The aim of this study is to learn more about the deformation behavior of breasts and to assess a simulation method. Methods: Magnetic resonance (MR) images of 11 breasts before and after applying a relatively large in vivo compression in the medial direction were acquired. Nonrigid registration was employed to study the deformation behavior. Optimal material properties for finite element modeling were determined and their prediction performance was assessed. The realism of simulated compressions was evaluated by comparing the breast shapes on simulated and real mammograms. Results: Following image registration, 19 breast compressions from 8 women were studied. An anisotropic deformation behavior, with a reduced elongation in the anterior-posterior direction and an increased stretch in the inferior-superior direction was observed. Using finite element simulations, the performance of isotropic and transverse isotropic material models to predict the displacement of internal landmarks was compared. Isotropic materials reduced the mean displacement error of the landmarks from 23.3 to 4.7 mm, on average, after optimizing material properties with respect to breast surface alignment and image similarity. Statistically significantly smaller errors were achieved with transverse isotropic materials (4.1 mm, P=0.0045). Homogeneous material models performed substantially worse (transverse isotropic: 5.5 mm; isotropic: 6.7 mm). Of the parameters varied, the amount of anisotropy had the greatest influence on the results. Optimal material properties varied less when grouped by patient rather than by compression magnitude (mean: 0.72 vs 1.44). Employing these optimal materials for simulating mammograms from ten MR breast images of a different cohort resulted in more realistic breast shapes than when using established material models. Conclusions: Breasts in the prone position exhibited an anisotropic compression behavior. Transverse isotropic materials with an increased stiffness in the anterior-posterior direction improved the prediction of these deformations and produced more realistic mammogram simulations from MR images.

  10. Observations Regarding Small Eolian Dunes and Large Ripples on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2001-01-01

    Eolian bedforms occur at the interface between a planetary surface and its atmosphere; they present a proxy record of the influence of climate, expressed in sediment transport, over that surface. High resolution images (1.5 - 12 m/pixel) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera provide glimpses of the most recent events shaping the martian landscape. Thousands of images exhibit small transverse dunes or large eolian ripples that have crest-to-crest spacings of 10 to 60 m, heights of a few to 10 m. Bedforms of the size and patterns seen in the Mars photographs are rarely described among Earth's eolian landforms; in terms of size and morphology, most of these fall between traditional definitions of "ripples" and "dunes". Dunes are composed chiefly of materials transported by saltation, ripples are smaller forms moved along by the impact of saltating grains (traction). The largest reported eolian ripples on Earth (granule ripples, megaripples) are typically smaller than the bedforms observed on Mars; likewise, most dunes are typically larger. The small dunes and large ripples on Mars come in a variety of relative albedos, despite an early MGS impression that they are all of high albedo. Some ripples occur on the surfaces of sand dunes; these are most likely true granule ripples. However, most of these bedforms occur in troughs, pits, craters, and on deflated plains. Despite impressions early in the MGS mission, they do not occur everywhere (e.g., they are rare on the northern plains) but they do occur at a range of elevations from the highest volcanoes to the deepest basins. Where they occur on a hard substrate among larger sand dunes, the big dunes have over-ridden the smaller bedforms, indicating that the smaller features are older and perhaps indurated or very coarse-grained. At other locales, the small bedforms have been mantled by material settled from suspension, in other cases they are being exhumed and may be lithified. Still other examples are peppered with small impact craters, implying considerable age. These bedforms present a complicated record of the geologically-recent past, one that has involved changes in climate, sediment transport capabilities, and sediment sources and sinks over time.

  11. Circular dichroism in double photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Berakdar, J.; Klar, H. )

    1992-08-24

    One-photon two-electron ionization of an atom by circularly polarized light yields triplet differential cross sections different for left and right circular polarization. Necessary kinematical conditions for a finite dichroism are worked out. A numerical calculation for helium which employs correlated wave functions shows the angular correlations of the escaping electron pair to be very different for left and right circular polarization such that the effect should be observable in a coincidence experiment.

  12. Circular structures of earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byler, W. H.

    There is evidence of intensive impact cratering on the satellites and terrestrial-type planets of the solar system. On the basis of data from manned lunar excursions, it has been established that the heaviest bombardment occurred 3.2 to 3.9 Gyrs ago and has been continuing at a reduced rate ever since. It is, therefore, safe to conclude that the earth received its share of such a bombardment. Saul (1978) has considered 'circular structures of large scale and great age on the earth's surface'. He attributes the circles to impacts of meteorites four billion years ago. The use of remote sensing data for the determination of circular structures is considered. A table listing circular structures is presented, taking into account the name or center location, the diameter, and the latitude and longitude of the center location.

  13. Linking very short arcs from large database of asteroid observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, Giovanni F.; Ba, Giulio; Mar, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    With the improvements of the observational technology for the new surveys the number of asteroid detections is rapidly increasing. For this reason we must use very efficient methods to compute orbits with these data. We have to identify observations taken in different nights as belonging to the same asteroid. If we do not have an efficient algorithm for that, the unidentified observation database can increase without control, and we risk to detect the same objects multiple times.

  14. Large Scale Surface Radiation Budget from Satellite Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinker, R. T.

    1995-01-01

    During the current reporting period, the focus of our work was on preparing and testing an improved version of our Surface Radiation Budget algorithm for processing the ISCCP D1 data routinely at the SRB Satellite Data Analysis Center (SDAC) at NASA Langley Research Center. The major issues addressed are related to gap filling and to testing whether observations made from ERBE could be used to improve current procedures of converting narrowband observations, as available from ISCCP, into broadband observations at the TOA. The criteria for selecting the optimal version are to be based on results of intercomparison with ground truth.

  15. SEARCH Workshop on Large-Scale Atmosphere/Cryosphere Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop held in Seattle during 27-29 November 2001 was to review existing land, sea ice, and atmospheric observations and the prospect for an Arctic System Reanalysis, through white papers, invited speakers, and panels. A major task for SEARCH was to determine how existing observation systems can be best used and enhanced to understand and anticipate the course of the ongoing changes in the Arctic. The primary workshop conclusion is that there is no cohesion among various Arctic disciplines and data types to form a complete observation set of Arctic change; a second workshop conclusion is that present data sets are vastly underutilized in understanding Arctic change; a third conclusion is that a distributed observing system must accommodate a wide range of spatial patterns of variability.

  16. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Travnicek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (MI and M2). For MI the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward 1M F turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx.32 s later by a 7-s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to detem11ne PTE dimensions and flux content The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury's radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx.30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  17. MESSENGER Observations of Large Flux Transfer Events at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.; Lepping, Ronald P.; Wu, Chin-Chun; Anderson, Brian J.; Baker, Daniel N.; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McClintock, William E.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Schriver, David; Solomon, Sean C.; Travnicek, Pavel; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Six flux transfer events (FTEs) were encountered during MESSENGER's first two flybys of Mercury (M1 and M2). For M1 the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was predominantly northward and four FTEs with durations of 1 to 6 s were observed in the magnetosheath following southward IMF turnings. The IMF was steadily southward during M2, and an FTE 4 s in duration was observed just inside the dawn magnetopause followed approx. 32 s later by a 7 s FTE in the magnetosheath. Flux rope models were fit to the magnetic field data to determine FTE dimensions and flux content. The largest FTE observed by MESSENGER had a diameter of approx. 1 R(sub M) (where R(sub M) is Mercury s radius), and its open magnetic field increased the fraction of the surface exposed to the solar wind by 10 - 20 percent and contributed up to approx. 30 kV to the cross-magnetospheric electric potential.

  18. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2. 0 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Berge, G.L.; Muhleman, D.O.; Linfield, R.P.

    1988-07-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image. 15 references.

  19. Observation of a Large Atomic Parity Violation Effect in Ytterbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Dounas-Frazer, D.; Family, A.; Stalnaker, J. E.; Yashchuk, V. V.; Budker, D.

    2009-08-01

    Atomic parity violation has been observed in the 6s2S01→5d6sD13 408-nm forbidden transition of ytterbium. The parity-violating amplitude is found to be 2 orders of magnitude larger than in cesium, where the most precise experiments to date have been performed. This is in accordance with theoretical predictions and constitutes the largest atomic parity-violating amplitude yet observed. This also opens the way to future measurements of neutron distributions and anapole moments by comparing parity-violating amplitudes for various isotopes and hyperfine components of the transition.

  20. Parallel Large-Scale Computation of an Oldroyd-B Fluid Past a Confined Circular Cylinder in a Rectangular Channel using an Unstructured Finite Volume Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Mehmet

    2010-11-01

    A new stable unstructured finite volume method is presented for parallel large-scale simulation of viscoelastic fluid flows. The numerical method based on side-centered finite volume method where the velocity vector components are defined at the mid-point of each cell face, while the pressure term and the extra stress tensor are defined at element centroids. The present arrangement of the primitive variables leads to a stable numerical scheme and it does not require any ad-hoc modifications in order to enhance the pressure-velocity-stress coupling. The log-conformation representation has been implemented in order improve the limiting Weissenberg numbers in the proposed finite volume method. The time stepping algorithm used decouples the calculation of the extra stresses from the evaluation of the velocity and pressure fields by solving a generalised Stokes problem. The present numerical method is verified for the three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a confined sphere in a cylindrical tube. Then the method is applied to the three-dimensional flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid past a confined circular cylinder in a rectangular channel. The computed results at relatively high Weissenberg numbers are discussed and compared to those obtained for Newtonian fluids.

  1. Experimental Observation of Large Chern Numbers in Photonic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skirlo, Scott A.; Lu, Ling; Igarashi, Yuichi; Yan, Qinghui; Joannopoulos, John; Solja?i?, Marin

    2015-12-01

    Despite great interest in the quantum anomalous Hall phase and its analogs, all experimental studies in electronic and bosonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. Here, we perform microwave transmission measurements in the bulk and at the edge of ferrimagnetic photonic crystals. Band gaps with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4 are present in the experimental results, which show excellent agreement with theory. We measure the mode profiles and Fourier transform them to produce dispersion relations of the edge modes, whose number and direction match our Chern number calculations.

  2. Experimental Observation of Large Chern Numbers in Photonic Crystals.

    PubMed

    Skirlo, Scott A; Lu, Ling; Igarashi, Yuichi; Yan, Qinghui; Joannopoulos, John; Solja?i?, Marin

    2015-12-18

    Despite great interest in the quantum anomalous Hall phase and its analogs, all experimental studies in electronic and bosonic systems have been limited to a Chern number of one. Here, we perform microwave transmission measurements in the bulk and at the edge of ferrimagnetic photonic crystals. Band gaps with large Chern numbers of 2, 3, and 4 are present in the experimental results, which show excellent agreement with theory. We measure the mode profiles and Fourier transform them to produce dispersion relations of the edge modes, whose number and direction match our Chern number calculations. PMID:26722920

  3. IRAS observations of a large sample of normal irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Deidre A.; Gallagher, John S., III; Rice, Walter L.; Gillett, Fred C.

    1989-01-01

    IRAS 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron data are presented for a sample of Irr galaxies which span a large range in star-formation activity. It is found that the dwarf, giant, and amorphous Irr's generally have similar IR properties. The typical L(IR)/L(H-alpha) ratios of most classes of Irr's, except for many of the luminous blue galaxies, are low compared with those of spiral galaxies and are consistent with the Irr's being relatively transparent systems without large amounts of optically hidden star formation. Compared with spiral galaxies, the Irr's have similar L(IR)/L(B) ratios, warmer S(100)/S(60) ratios, cooler S(25)/S(12) ratios, and lower dust-to-H I gas mass ratios. The temperature, dust-to-H I gas mass ratios, and L(IR)/L(B) ratios do not correlate with the metallicity of the ionized gas of the Irr's. A correlation between the IR fluxes and both the H-alpha and the blue stellar fluxes is found for the Irr's.

  4. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-08-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  5. Observation of EAS using a large water tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakuyama, H.; Suzuki, N.; Suzuki, T.

    1985-01-01

    Using a large water tank (30 m in diameter, 4.5 m in depth) transition of extensive air showers (EAS) was investigated at Taro (200 m above sea level). There are set 150,0.4 sq m proportional counters on the bottom of the water tank. A conventional EAS array of 25 plastic scintillation detectors was arranged within several tens meter from the water tank. A proportional counter (10x10x200 cc x2) is made of a square shaped pipe of iron. Tungsten wire (100 mu m phi) is stretched tight in the center of the counter. A gas mixture of 90% argon and 10% methane is used at 760 mmHg. About 3000 EAS were obtained through 1 m of water since 1984.

  6. Observation of a turbulence-induced large scale magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Spence, E J; Nornberg, M D; Jacobson, C M; Kendrick, R D; Forest, C B

    2006-02-10

    An axisymmetric magnetic field is applied to a spherical, turbulent flow of liquid sodium. An induced magnetic dipole moment is measured which cannot be generated by the interaction of the axisymmetric mean flow with the applied field, indicating the presence of a turbulent electromotive force. It is shown that the induced dipole moment should vanish for any axisymmetric laminar flow. Also observed is the production of toroidal magnetic field from applied poloidal magnetic field (the omega effect). Its potential role in the production of the induced dipole is discussed. PMID:16486942

  7. Cold Rydberg atoms in circular states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Circular-state Rydberg atoms are interesting in that they exhibit a unique combination of extraordinary properties; long lifetimes (˜n^5), large magnetic moments (l=|m|=n-1) and no first order Stark shift. Circular states have found applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and precision measurements [1,2], among other studies. In this work we present the production of circular states in an atom trapping apparatus using an adiabatic state-switching method (the crossed-field method [3]). To date, we have observed lifetimes of adiabatically prepared states of several milliseconds. Their relatively large ionization electric fields have been verified by time-of-flight signatures of ion trajectories. We intend to explore the magnetic trapping of circular state Rydberg atoms, as well as their production and interaction properties in ultra-cold and degenerate samples.[4pt] [1] P. Bertet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 14 (2002)[0pt] [2] M. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 21 (1994)[0pt] [3] D. Delande and J.C. Gay, Europhys. Lett., 5, 303-308 (1988).

  8. Interactive analysis of a large aperture Earth observations satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Smith, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A system level design and analysis has been conducted on an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis program. The IDEAS program consists of about 40 user-friendly technical modules and an interactive graphics display. The reflector support system and feed mast of the EOS spacecraft are constructed with box-truss structural concept, a lattice configuration which can be packaged for delivery in a single Shuttle flight and deployed in orbit. The deployed spacecraft consists of a 120-m by 60-m parabolic focal axis. The spacecraft was modeled for structural, thermal, and control systems analysis and structural elements were designed. On-orbit dynamic and thermal loading analyses were conducted; spacecraft weights and developmental and first unit costs were determined.

  9. Interactive analysis of a large aperture Earth Observations Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.; Smith, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A system level design and analysis has been conducted on an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Spacecraft (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis program. The IDEAS program consists of about 40 user-friendly technical modules and an interactive graphics display. The reflector support system and feed mast of the EOS spacecraft are constructed with a box-truss structural concept, a lattice configuration which can be packaged for delivery in a single Shuttle flight and deployed in orbit. The deployed spacecraft consists of a 120-m by 60-m parabolic reflector, a 120-m-long support structure, and a 30-m feed arc beam on the focal axis. The spacecraft was modeled for structural, thermal, and control systems analysis and structural elements were designed. On-orbit dynamic and thermal loading analyses were conducted and spacecraft weights were determined.

  10. Cosmological parameter estimation with large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect

    Dio, Enea Di; Montanari, Francesco; Durrer, Ruth; Lesgourgues, Julien E-mail: Francesco.Montanari@unige.ch E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2014-01-01

    We estimate the sensitivity of future galaxy surveys to cosmological parameters, using the redshift dependent angular power spectra of galaxy number counts, C{sub ℓ}(z{sub 1},z{sub 2}), calculated with all relativistic corrections at first order in perturbation theory. We pay special attention to the redshift dependence of the non-linearity scale and present Fisher matrix forecasts for Euclid-like and DES-like galaxy surveys. We compare the standard P(k) analysis with the new C{sub ℓ}(z{sub 1},z{sub 2}) method. We show that for surveys with photometric redshifts the new analysis performs significantly better than the P(k) analysis. For spectroscopic redshifts, however, the large number of redshift bins which would be needed to fully profit from the redshift information, is severely limited by shot noise. We also identify surveys which can measure the lensing contribution and we study the monopole, C{sub 0}(z{sub 1},z{sub 2})

  11. Hadronic effects and observables in B ?? ?+?- decay at large recoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambrock, Christian; Khodjamirian, Alexander; Rusov, Aleksey

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the amplitude of the rare flavor-changing neutral-current decay B ?? ?+?- at large recoil of the pion. The nonlocal contributions in which the weak effective operators are combined with the electromagnetic lepton-pair emission are systematically taken into account. These amplitudes are calculated at off-shell values of the lepton-pair mass squared, q2<0 , employing the operator-product expansion, QCD factorization and light-cone sum rules. The results are fitted to hadronic dispersion relations in q2, including the intermediate vector meson contributions. The dispersion relations are then used in the physical region q2>0 . Our main result is the process-dependent addition ? C9(B ? )(q2) to the Wilson coefficient C9 obtained at 4 m?2

  12. Magnetic trapping of circular Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg

    2013-05-01

    Circular Rydberg atoms exhibit a unique combination of properties: long lifetimes ( n5), large magnetic moments and angular momenta (|m | = l =n - 1), and no first order Stark shift. Here, n , l and m are the principal, orbital and magnetic quantum numbers, respectively. Several of these features have made circular Rydberg atoms attractive for a number of applications including photon-atom interaction and Rydberg interaction experiments. We present here the realization of a magnetic trap for circular Rydberg atoms. The Rydberg-atom trap is characterized using state-selective electric-field ionization, direct spatial imaging of the atom distributions and time-of-flight analysis of the ion signal. At room temperature, we observe 70 percent of the trapped atoms remaining after 6ms. We measure an increase of the center-of-mass trap oscillation frequency by the expected factor of √{ | m | }. Simulations of the state-evolution of circular-state atoms in our magnetic trap, held at 300K radiation temperature, are performed and results are in good agreement with the observed phenomena. This work was supported by the AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0453).

  13. GIS for large-scale watershed observational data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patino-Gomez, Carlos

    Because integrated management of a river basin requires the development of models that are used for many purposes, e.g., to assess risks and possible mitigation of droughts and floods, manage water rights, assess water quality, and simply to understand the hydrology of the basin, the development of a relational database from which models can access the various data needed to describe the systems being modeled is fundamental. In order for this concept to be useful and widely applicable, however, it must have a standard design. The recently developed ArcHydro data model facilitates the organization of data according to the "basin" principle and allows access to hydrologic information by models. The development of a basin-scale relational database for the Rio Grande/Bravo basin implemented in a Geographic Information System is one of the contributions of this research. This geodatabase represents the first major attempt to establish a more complete understanding of the basin as a whole, including spatial and temporal information obtained from the United States of America and Mexico. Difficulties in processing raster datasets over large regions are studied in this research. One of the most important contributions is the application of a Raster-Network Regionalization technique, which utilizes raster-based analysis at the subregional scale in an efficient manner and combines the resulting subregional vector datasets into a regional database. Another important contribution of this research is focused on implementing a robust structure for handling huge temporal data sets related to monitoring points such as hydrometric and climatic stations, reservoir inlets and outlets, water rights, etc. For the Rio Grande study area, the ArcHydro format is applied to the historical information collected in order to include and relate these time series to the monitoring points in the geodatabase. Its standard time series format is changed to include a relationship to the agency from which data is obtained. Since ArcHydro was designed to store hydrologic GIS data in a manner conducive to data export for model use, a toolset is proposed to exchange temporal information between the Geodatabase and the Data Storage System (HEC-DSS).

  14. Circular RNA Is Expressed across the Eukaryotic Tree of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peter L.; Bao, Yun; Yee, Muh-Ching; Barrett, Steven P.; Hogan, Gregory J.; Olsen, Mari N.; Dinneny, José R.; Brown, Patrick O.; Salzman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    An unexpectedly large fraction of genes in metazoans (human, mouse, zebrafish, worm, fruit fly) express high levels of circularized RNAs containing canonical exons. Here we report that circular RNA isoforms are found in diverse species whose most recent common ancestor existed more than one billion years ago: fungi (Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), and protists (Plasmodium falciparum and Dictyostelium discoideum). For all species studied to date, including those in this report, only a small fraction of the theoretically possible circular RNA isoforms from a given gene are actually observed. Unlike metazoans, Arabidopsis, D. discoideum, P. falciparum, S. cerevisiae, and S. pombe have very short introns (∼100 nucleotides or shorter), yet they still produce circular RNAs. A minority of genes in S. pombe and P. falciparum have documented examples of canonical alternative splicing, making it unlikely that all circular RNAs are by-products of alternative splicing or ‘piggyback’ on signals used in alternative RNA processing. In S. pombe, the relative abundance of circular to linear transcript isoforms changed in a gene-specific pattern during nitrogen starvation. Circular RNA may be an ancient, conserved feature of eukaryotic gene expression programs. PMID:24609083

  15. Negative circular polarization as a universal property of quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Matthew W.; Spencer, Peter; Murray, Ray

    2015-03-23

    This paper shows that negative circular polarization, a spin flip of polarized carriers resulting in emission of opposite helicity, can be observed in undoped, n-doped, and p-doped InAs/GaAs quantum dots. These results contradict the usual interpretation of the effect. We show using power dependent and time resolved spectroscopy that the generation of negative circular polarization correlates with excited state emission. Furthermore, a longer spin lifetime of negatively polarized excitons is observed where emission is largely ground state in character.

  16. Circular inferences in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Jardri, Renaud; Denve, Sophie

    2013-11-01

    A considerable number of recent experimental and computational studies suggest that subtle impairments of excitatory to inhibitory balance or regulation are involved in many neurological and psychiatric conditions. The current paper aims to relate, specifically and quantitatively, excitatory to inhibitory imbalance with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. Considering that the brain constructs hierarchical causal models of the external world, we show that the failure to maintain the excitatory to inhibitory balance results in hallucinations as well as in the formation and subsequent consolidation of delusional beliefs. Indeed, the consequence of excitatory to inhibitory imbalance in a hierarchical neural network is equated to a pathological form of causal inference called 'circular belief propagation'. In circular belief propagation, bottom-up sensory information and top-down predictions are reverberated, i.e. prior beliefs are misinterpreted as sensory observations and vice versa. As a result, these predictions are counted multiple times. Circular inference explains the emergence of erroneous percepts, the patient's overconfidence when facing probabilistic choices, the learning of 'unshakable' causal relationships between unrelated events and a paradoxical immunity to perceptual illusions, which are all known to be associated with schizophrenia. PMID:24065721

  17. A circular twin paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranor, Maria B.; Heider, Elizabeth M.; Price, Richard H.

    2000-11-01

    In the special relativistic twin paradox presented here, each twin lives on one ring of a counterrotating pair of infinitesimally separated rings, so that the twins travel on the same circular path but in opposite directions. The observers on the ring of one twin should see the clock of the other twin slowed by time dilation, but at each meeting of the twins symmetry demands that they agree on the amount of time that has passed since their previous meeting. The resolution of the paradox focuses attention on the relation of time dilation to clock synchronization.

  18. An observer for a deployable antenna. [for large space structure flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waites, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    An observer is derived for use on an Orbiter-Deployable Antenna configuration. The unique feature of this observer design for this flight experiment is that all the plant inputs are not required to be directly accessible for the observer to ferret out the system states. The observer uses state and rate of the state information to reconstruct the plant states. Results are presented which show how effectively this observer design works for this large space structure flight experiment.

  19. Observation of low-energy electrons in the photoelectron energy distribution from strong-field ionization of naphthalene by circularly polarized pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrovski, D.; Maurer, J.; Stapelfeldt, H.; Madsen, L. B.

    2015-06-01

    In a joint experimental and theoretical study we reveal the presence of low-energy photoelectrons created by strong circularly polarized laser pulses for both 3D aligned and randomly oriented naphthalene molecules. The analysis within a semiclassical model highlights the essential role of the induced dipole of the molecular cation in the creation of these low-energy electrons. The detailed comparison of experiment and theory points to significant modification of the molecular orbital nodal planes in strong fields.

  20. Synthetic-Aperture Coherent Imaging From A Circular Path

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Michael Y.

    1995-01-01

    Imaging algorithms based on exact point-target responses. Developed for use in reconstructing image of target from data gathered by radar, sonar, or other transmitting/receiving coherent-signal sensory apparatus following circular observation path around target. Potential applications include: Wide-beam synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) from aboard spacecraft in circular orbit around target planet; SAR from aboard airplane flying circular course at constant elevation around central ground point, toward which spotlight radar beam pointed; Ultrasonic reflection tomography in medical setting, using one transducer moving in circle around patient or else multiple transducers at fixed positions on circle around patient; and Sonar imaging of sea floor to high resolution, without need for large sensory apparatus.

  1. Modeling a decrease in hydraulic losses during turbulent flow in a U-bend channel with a circular cavern with a large opening angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, S. A.; Kalinin, E. I.; Tereshkin, A. A.; Usachov, A. E.

    2015-03-01

    The Reynolds equations for incompressible viscous fluid, closed using the Menter shear-stress-transfer model modified with allowance for the curvature of flow lines, have been numerically solved using multiblock computational technologies. The obtained solution has been used to calculate the turbulent flow in a U-bend channel containing a circular cavern with a variable opening angle. Predictions based on the results of numerical simulations agree well with the experimental data of Savelsberg and Castro at moderate cavern opening angles. It is established that hydraulic losses in a U-bend channel with completely open cavern are significantly (by 25%) decreased as compared to those in a smooth channel at Re = 105.

  2. Circular orbits in modified gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamzawi, Ahmed; Alhamzawi, Rahim

    2015-08-01

    A slight modification of the general relativistic metric under modified gravity is presented. The circular motion of massive particles is discussed in the new metric. It is shown that there are two roots at which circular motion can happen. However, while one root results in a stable circular orbit, the second represents a maxima which is very unstable because the attractive forces dominate as radius gets small and draw towards zero. Furthermore, we derive an equation for the orbital angular speed for the stable root in modified gravity and show that for large values of , the modified orbital angular speed approaches the well known orbital angular speed. Finally, a description of photon orbits in the new metric is given and a derivation of the deflection angle is presented. Its shown that modified gravity can give a considerable contribution to the deflection angles of light rays.

  3. Observation of a neutrino burst in coincidence with supernova 1987A in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bionta, R. M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C. B.; Caspere, D.; Ciocio, A.

    1987-01-01

    A burst of eight neutrino events a preceding the optical detection of the supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud has been observed in a large underground water Cherenkov detector. The events span an interval of 6 s and have visible energies in the range 20-40 MeV.

  4. A LEKID-based CMB instrument design for large-scale observations in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, D. C.; Ade, P. A. R.; Bond, J. R.; Bradford, K. J.; Chapman, D.; Che, G.; Day, P. K.; Didier, J.; Doyle, S.; Eriksen, H. K.; Flanigan, D.; Groppi, C. E.; Hillbrand, Seth N.; Johnson, B. R.; Jones, G.; Limon, Michele; Miller, A. D.; Mauskopf, P.; McCarrick, H.; Mroczkowski, T.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, B.; Smiley, B.; Sobrin, Joshua; Wehus, I. K.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-08-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study, which examined deployment of a ground-based millimeter-wave polarimeter, tailored for observing the cosmic microwave background (CMB), to Isi Station in Greenland. The instrument for this study is based on lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) and an F/2.4 catoptric, crossed-Dragone telescope with a 500 mm aperture. The telescope is mounted inside the receiver and cooled to < 4 K by a closed-cycle 4He refrigerator to reduce background loading on the detectors. Linearly polarized signals from the sky are modulated with a metal-mesh half-wave plate that is rotated at the aperture stop of the telescope with a hollow-shaft motor based on a superconducting magnetic bearing. The modular detector array design includes at least 2300 LEKIDs, and it can be configured for spectral bands centered on 150 GHz or greater. Our study considered configurations for observing in spectral bands centered on 150, 210 and 267 GHz. The entire polarimeter is mounted on a commercial precision rotary air bearing, which allows fast azimuth scan speeds with negligible vibration and mechanical wear over time. A slip ring provides power to the instrument, enabling circular scans (360 degrees of continuous rotation). This mount, when combined with sky rotation and the latitude of the observation site, produces a hypotrochoid scan pattern, which yields excellent cross-linking and enables 34% of the sky to be observed using a range of constant elevation scans. This scan pattern and sky coverage combined with the beam size (15 arcmin at 150 GHz) makes the instrument sensitive to 5 < ` < 1000 in the angular power spectra.

  5. Time-resolved demagnetization of Co2MnSi observed using x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and an ultrafast streak camera.

    PubMed

    Opachich, Y P; Comin, A; Bartelt, A F; Young, A T; Scholl, A; Feng, J; Schmalhorst, J; Shin, H J; Engelhorn, K; Risbud, S H; Reiss, G; Padmore, H A

    2010-04-21

    The demagnetization dynamics of the Heusler alloy Co(2)MnSi was studied using picosecond time-resolved x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. The sample was excited using femtosecond laser pulses. In contrast to the sub-picosecond demagnetization of the metal ferromagnet Ni, substantially slower demagnetization with a time constant of 3.5 0.5 ps was measured. This could be explained by a spin-dependent band gap inhibiting the spin-flip scattering of hot electrons in Co(2)MnSi, which is predicted to be half-metallic. A universal demagnetization time constant was measured across a range of pump power levels. PMID:21389561

  6. Large scale evaluation of soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture from the Earth’s surface. Several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and WindSat have been used for this purpose using multi-channel observations. Large sc...

  7. Large 0/12 GMT Differences of US Vaisala RS80 Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large differences been observations taken at 0 and 12 GMT have been revealed during routine monitoring of observations at the Data Assimilation Office (DAO) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). As a result, an investigation has been conducted to confirm the large differences and isolate its source. The data clearly shows that 0/12 GMT differences are largely artificial especially over the central US and that the differences largely originate in the post processing software at the observing stations. In particular, the release time of the rawinsonde balloon may be misspecified to be the synoptic time which would lead to the miscalculation of the bias correction that accounts for solar radiation effects on the thermistor.

  8. SPITZER, VERY LARGE TELESCOPE, AND VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC LUMINOUS BLUE VARIABLE CANDIDATE HD 168625

    SciTech Connect

    Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Hora, J. L.

    2010-08-01

    We present mid-IR and radio observations of the Galactic luminous blue variables (LBVs) candidate HD 168625 and its associated nebula. We obtained mid-IR spectroscopic observations using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, and performed mid-IR and radio imaging observations using VISIR on the Very Large Telescope and the Very Large Array with comparable angular resolution. Our spectroscopic observations detected spectral features attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and therefore indicate the presence of a photodissociation region (PDR) around the ionized nebula. This result increases the number of LBVs and LBV candidates where a PDR has been found, confirming the importance of such a component in the total mass-loss budget of the central object during this elusive phase of massive star evolution. We have analyzed and compared the mid-IR and radio maps, and derive several results concerning the associated nebula. There is evidence for grain distribution variations across the nebula, with a predominant contribution from bigger grains in the northern part of the nebula while PAH and smaller grains are more concentrated in the southern part. A compact radio component located where there is a lack of thermal dust grains corroborates the presence of a shock in the southern nebula, which could arise as a consequence of the interaction of a fast outflow with the slower, expanding dusty nebula. Such a shock would be a viable means for PAH production as well as for changes in the grain size distribution. Finally, from the detection of a central radio component probably associated with the wind from the central massive supergiant, we derive a current mass-loss rate of M-dot =(1.46{+-}0.15)x10{sup -6} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}.

  9. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid, Part II: Large-Amplitude Vibrations Without Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PADOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-12-01

    The non-linear response of empty and fluid-filled circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitations is investigated. Both modal and point excitations have been considered. The model is suitable to study simply supported shells with and without axial constraints. Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory is used. The boundary conditions on radial displacement and the continuity of circumferential displacement are exactly satisfied. The radial deflection of the shell is expanded by using a basis of seven linear modes. The effect of internal quiescent, incompressible and inviscid fluid is investigated. The equations of motion, obtained in Part I of this study, are studied by using a code based on the collocation method. The validation of the present model is obtained by comparison with other authoritative results. The effect of the number of axisymmetric modes used in the expansion on the response of the shell is investigated, clarifying questions open for a long time. The results show the occurrence of travelling wave response in the proximity of the resonance frequency, the fundamental role of the first and third axisymmetric modes in the expansion of the radial deflection with one longitudinal half-wave, and limit cycle responses. Modes with two longitudinal half-waves are also investigated.

  10. Study of a prototypical convective boundary layer observed during BLLAST: contributions by large-scale forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietersen, H. P.; Vil-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Augustin, P.; van de Boer, A.; de Coster, O.; Delbarre, H.; Durand, P.; Fourmentin, M.; Gioli, B.; Hartogensis, O.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Ouwersloot, H. G.; Pino, D.; Reuder, J.

    2015-04-01

    We study the influence of the large-scale atmospheric contribution to the dynamics of the convective boundary layer (CBL) in a situation observed during the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign. We employ two modeling approaches, the mixed-layer theory and large-eddy simulation (LES), with a complete data set of surface and upper-air atmospheric observations, to quantify the contributions of the advection of heat and moisture, and subsidence. We find that by only taking surface and entrainment fluxes into account, the boundary-layer height is overestimated by 70%. Constrained by surface and upper-air observations, we infer the large-scale vertical motions and horizontal advection of heat and moisture. Our findings show that subsidence has a clear diurnal pattern. Supported by the presence of a nearby mountain range, this pattern suggests that not only synoptic scales exert their influence on the boundary layer, but also mesoscale circulations. LES results show a satisfactory correspondence of the vertical structure of turbulent variables with observations. We also find that when large-scale advection and subsidence are included in the simulation, the values for turbulent kinetic energy are lower than without these large-scale forcings. We conclude that the prototypical CBL is a valid representation of the boundary-layer dynamics near regions characterized by complex topography and small-scale surface heterogeneity, provided that surface- and large-scale forcings are representative for the local boundary layer.

  11. 17 CFR 230.253 - Offering circular.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... presented in a clear, concise and understandable manner and in a type size that is easily readable... in boldfaced type at least as large as that used generally in the body of such offering circular:...

  12. Very Large Array H92α and H53α Radio Recombination Line Observations of M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Rico, C. A.; Viallefond, F.; Zhao, J.-H.; Goss, W. M.; Anantharamaiah, K. R.

    2004-12-01

    We present high angular resolution (0.6") observations made with the Very Large Array of the radio continuum at 8.3 and 43 GHz, as well as H92α and H53α radio recombination lines from the nearby (~3 Mpc) starburst galaxy M82. In the continuum we identify 58 sources at 8.3 GHz, of which 19 have no counterparts in catalogs published at other frequencies. At 43 GHz we identify 18 sources, unresolved at 0.6" resolution, of which five were unknown previously. The spatial distribution of the H92α line is inhomogeneous; we identify 27 features; about half of them are associated with continuum emission sources. Their sizes are typically in the range 2-10 pc. Although observed with poorer signal-to-noise ratio, the H53α line is detected. The line and continuum emission are modeled using a collection of H II regions at different distances from the nucleus. The observations can be interpreted assuming a single-density component, but equally well with two components if constraints originating from previous high-resolution continuum observations are used. The high-density component has a density of ~4×104 cm-3. However, the bulk of the ionization is in regions with densities that are typically a factor of 10 lower. The gas kinematics, using the H92α line, confirms the presence of steep velocity gradient (26 km s-1 arcsec-1) in the nuclear region, as previously reported, in particular from observations of the [Ne II] line at 12 μm. This gradient has about the same amplitude on both sides of the nucleus. Since this steep gradient is observed not only on the major axis but also at large distances along a band at P.A.~150deg, the interpretation in terms of x2 orbits elongated along the minor axis of the bar, which would be observed at an angle close to the inclination of the main disk, seems inadequate. The observed kinematics cannot be modeled using a simple model that consists of a set of circular orbits observed at different tilt angles. Ad hoc radial motions must be introduced to reproduce the pattern of the velocity field. Different families of orbits are indicated since we detect a signature in the kinematics at the transition between the two plateaus observed in the NIR light distribution. These H92α data also reveal the base of the outflow where the injection toward the halo on the northern side occurs. The outflow has a major effect on the observed kinematics, present even in the disk at distances close to the nucleus. The kinematic pattern suggests a connection between the gas flowing in the plane of M82 toward the center; this behavior most likely is due to the presence of a bar and the outflow out of the plane.

  13. Spectra of circularly polarized radiation from astrophysical OH masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Watson, William D.

    1990-01-01

    A striking feature of astrophysical masers is the tendency for either one or the other of the circular polarizations to dominate in the radiation from the strong, widely observed masing transitions of OH at 18 cm. Spectral line profiles are calculated for polarized maser radiation due to the combined effects of a velocity gradient and, as is indicated for these transitions, a Zeeman splitting that is at least comparable with the thermal contributions to the breadths of the spectral lines. The resulting spectral features are similar in appearance, including the presence of large net circular polarization and narrow line breadths, to the commonly observed spectra of OH masers in molecular clouds. The calculations presented here are performed as a function of frequency without making the approximations of a large velocity gradient. Rapid cross relaxation, which has been advocated by others for the OH masers, is assumed.

  14. Circular photon drag effect in bulk tellurium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalygin, V. A.; Moldavskaya, M. D.; Danilov, S. N.; Farbshtein, I. I.; Golub, L. E.

    2016-01-01

    The circular photon drag effect is observed in a bulk semiconductor. The photocurrent caused by a transfer of both translational and angular momenta of light to charge carriers is detected in tellurium in the midinfrared frequency range. Dependencies of the photocurrent on the light polarization and on the incidence angle agree with the symmetry analysis of the circular photon drag effect. Microscopic models of the effect are developed for both intra- and intersubband optical absorption in the valence band of tellurium. The shift contribution to the circular photon drag current is calculated. An observed decrease of the circular photon drag current with the increase of the photon energy is explained by the theory for intersubband optical transitions. Theoretical estimates of the circular photon drag current agree with the experimental data.

  15. Observation of large magnetocaloric effect in HoRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Paramanik, Tapas Das, Kalipada; Das, I.

    2014-02-28

    Detailed magnetic, magnetotransport, and magnetocaloric measurements on HoRu{sub 2}Si{sub 2} have been performed. In this Letter, we report presence of spin reorientation transition below paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub N}?=?19?K). Large magnetic entropy change 9.1?J/kg K and large negative magnetoresistance ?21% in a magnetic field of 5?T has been observed around T{sub N}, which is associated with field induced spin-flip metamagnetic transition.

  16. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    SciTech Connect

    Zamudio-Bayer, V.; Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; Kossick, M.; Ławicki, A.; Lau, J. T.; Terasaki, A.; Issendorff, B. von

    2015-06-21

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and Mn{sub 3}{sup +} are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 μ{sub B} are created by 3d{sup 5}({sup 6}S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 2}{sup +} and 16 μ{sub B} for Mn{sub 3}{sup +}, with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  17. Direct observation of high-spin states in manganese dimer and trimer cations by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in an ion trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamudio-Bayer, V.; Hirsch, K.; Langenberg, A.; Kossick, M.; ?awicki, A.; Terasaki, A.; v. Issendorff, B.; Lau, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    The electronic structure and magnetic moments of free Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ are characterized by 2p x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy in a cryogenic ion trap that is coupled to a synchrotron radiation beamline. Our results directly show that localized magnetic moments of 5 ?B are created by 3d5(6S) states at each ionic core, which are coupled ferromagnetically to form molecular high-spin states via indirect exchange that is mediated in both cases by a delocalized valence electron in a singly occupied 4s derived antibonding molecular orbital with an unpaired spin. This leads to total magnetic moments of 11 ?B for Mn 2+ and 16 ?B for Mn 3+ , with no contribution of orbital angular momentum.

  18. Anomalously Large Thermal Expansion at the (0001) Surface of Beryllium without Observable Interlayer Anharmonicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pohl, K.; Pohl, K.; Plummer, E.W.; Plummer, E.W.; Cho, J.; Terakura, K.; Scheffler, M.

    1998-03-01

    We have measured a large thermal surface expansion, 6 times larger than the bulk, on Be(0001) using low-energy electron diffraction. This observation seems to be inconsistent with previous measurements reporting negligible anharmonicity in the surface phonon modes normal to the surface. Density-functional theory calculations for the thermal expansion from the minimum in the free energy within the quasiharmonic approximation agree with the experimental observations and demonstrate that the enhanced thermal expansion is caused largely by a softening of the in-plane vibrations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Radiosonde observations of large-amplitude gravity waves in the lower and middle stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, M.; Shutts, G.J. )

    1990-11-20

    Radiosondes ascending near to mountainous areas in the United Kingdom occasionally encounter very large-amplitude gravity waves in the stratosphere. These ascents are characterized by large perturbations in the temperature ({approximately}5K) and vertical velocity (2-10 m s{sup {minus}1}) on vertical scales of about 2 km. Some of the profiles suggest a large vertical flux of horizontal momentum (order 1 N m{sup {minus}2}). Examples of these waves are illustrated, and the situations in which they are observed are described. Simple linear wave theory has been used to diagnose many of the important wave properties.

  20. Direct observation of large chiral domains in chloroplast thylakoid membranes by differential polarization microscopy.

    PubMed

    Finzi, L; Bustamante, C; Garab, G; Juang, C B

    1989-11-01

    Long-range chiral organization of the pigment-protein complexes in mature granal chloroplasts has been established by differential polarization imaging and local circular dichroism spectra. Linear and circular dichroism images of oriented chloroplasts were obtained in a confocal differential polarization microscope. The circular dichroism images display signals of opposite signs emerging from discrete regions with local dichroic values much larger than anticipated, indicating domains in the thylakoid membranes having long-range chiral organization. These domains are associated with positive and negative circular dichroism bands obtained at specific locations on the chloroplasts. Surprisingly, the local circular dichroism spectra do not display the excitonic shape of spectra obtained for macroscopic suspensions, but the latter can be produced by superposition of two local spectra of opposite sign. These data are evidence for the existence of long-range chiral order of the pigment-protein complexes in thylakoid membranes. The possible role of the long-range chiral domains in the efficiency of energy delocalization through the thylakoid membranes is discussed. PMID:2813422

  1. ARRIVAL TIME CALCULATION FOR INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS WITH CIRCULAR FRONTS AND APPLICATION TO STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF THE 2009 FEBRUARY 13 ERUPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Moestl, C.; Rollett, T.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Biernat, H. K.; Lugaz, N.; Farrugia, C. J.; Galvin, A. B.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Crothers, S.; Luhmann, J. G.; Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.

    2011-11-01

    One of the goals of the NASA Solar TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) mission is to study the feasibility of forecasting the direction, arrival time, and internal structure of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from a vantage point outside the Sun-Earth line. Through a case study, we discuss the arrival time calculation of interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) in the ecliptic plane using data from STEREO/SECCHI at large elongations from the Sun in combination with different geometric assumptions about the ICME front shape [fixed-{Phi} (FP): a point and harmonic mean (HM): a circle]. These forecasting techniques use single-spacecraft imaging data and are based on the assumption of constant velocity and direction. We show that for the slow (350 km s{sup -1}) ICME on 2009 February 13-18, observed at quadrature by the two STEREO spacecraft, the results for the arrival time given by the HM approximation are more accurate by 12 hr than those for FP in comparison to in situ observations of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters by STEREO/IMPACT/PLASTIC, and by 6 hr for the arrival time at Venus Express (MAG). We propose that the improvement is directly related to the ICME front shape being more accurately described by HM for an ICME with a low inclination of its symmetry axis to the ecliptic. In this case, the ICME has to be tracked to >30{sup 0} elongation to obtain arrival time errors < {+-} 5 hr. A newly derived formula for calculating arrival times with the HM method is also useful for a triangulation technique assuming the same geometry.

  2. Implications from clean observables for the binned analysis of B ? K ? ? + ? - at large recoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descotes-Genon, Sbastien; Matias, Joaquim; Ramon, Marc; Virto, Javier

    2013-01-01

    We perform a frequentist analysis of q 2-dependent B ? K ?(? K?) ? + ? - angular observables at large recoil, aiming at bridging the gap between current theoretical analyses and the actual experimental measurements. We focus on the most appropriate set of observables to measure and on the role of the q 2-binning. We highlight the importance of the observables P i exhibiting a limited sensitivity to soft form factors for the search for New Physics contributions. We compute predictions for these binned observables in the Standard Model, and we compare them with their experimental determination extracted from recent LHCb data. Analysing b ? s and b ? s? + ? - transitions within four different New Physics scenarios, we identify several New Physics benchmark points which can be discriminated through the measurement of P i observables with a fine q 2-binning. We emphasise the importance (and risks) of using observables with (un)suppressed dependence on soft form factors for the search of New Physics, which we illustrate by the different size of hadronic uncertainties attached to two related observables ( P 1 and S 3). We illustrate how the q 2-dependent angular observables measured in several bins can help to unravel New Physics contributions to B ? K ?(? K?) ? + ? -, and show the extraordinary constraining power that the clean observables will have in the near future. We provide semi-numerical expressions for these observables as functions of the relevant Wilson coefficients at the low scale.

  3. Wideband very large array observations of A2256. I. Continuum, rotation measure, and spectral imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, Frazer N.; Rau, Urvashi; Bhatnagar, Sanjay; Kogan, Leonid; Rudnick, Lawrence; Jean Eilek

    2014-10-10

    We report new observations of A2256 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at frequencies between 1 and 8 GHz. These observations take advantage of the 2:1 bandwidths available during a single observation to study the spectral index, polarization, and rotation measure as well as using the associated higher sensitivity per unit time to image total intensity features down to ∼0.''5 resolution. We find that the Large Relic, which dominates the cluster, is made up of a complex of filaments that show correlated distributions in intensity, spectral index, and fractional polarization. The rotation measure varies across the face of the Large Relic but is not well correlated with the other properties of the source. The shape of individual filaments suggests that the Large Relic is at least 25 kpc thick. We detect a low surface brightness arc connecting the Large Relic to the Halo and other radio structures, suggesting a physical connection between these features. The center of the F-complex is dominated by a very steep-spectrum, polarized, ring-like structure, F2, without an obvious optical identification, but the entire F-complex does have interesting morphological similarities to the radio structure of NGC 1265. Source C, the Long Tail, is unresolved in width near the galaxy core and is ≲ 100 pc in diameter there. This morphology suggests either that C is a one-sided jet or that the bending of the tails takes place very near the core, consistent with the parent galaxy having undergone extreme stripping. Overall it seems that many of the unusual phenomena can be understood in the context of A2256 being near the pericenter of a slightly off-axis merger between a cluster and a smaller group. Given the lack of evidence for a strong shock associated with the Large Relic, other models should be considered, such as reconnection between two large-scale magnetic domains.

  4. Elastic spin observables and proton wave function normalization at large t

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, G.P. |

    1993-11-29

    We summarize the role of spin observables in testing the foundations of exclusive QCD at large t. Polarized elastic scattering experiments can shed light on fundamental properties of protons, such as helicity conservation, normalization of the wave function and structure. Specific QCD motivated predictions for the spin observables are presented, which can be tested at polarized proton beam facilities. In this paper, two kinematic regions are considered: 90{degrees} c.m. at large {vert_bar} t {vert_bar} and the intermediate hard scattering regime: m{sub p}{sup 2} {much_lt}{vert_bar} t {vert_bar}{much_lt} s. Theoretical models, which predict the spin observables in these regions, are reviewed. These are compared with present elastic pp data and a program is suggested for future elastic polarized pp scattering experiments, which can be used to further our knowledge of proton structure.

  5. The x ray properties of a large, uniform QSO sample: Einstein observations of the LBQS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S. F.; Xu, X.; Green, P. J.; Foltz, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Although there are large numbers of Quasi Stellar Objects (QSO's) now observed in X rays, extensive X-ray observations of uniformly selected, 'complete' QSO samples are more rare. The Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS) consists of about 1000 objects with well understood properties, most brighter than B = 18.8 and thus amenable to X-ray detections in relatively brief exposures. The sample is thought to be highly complete in the range 0.2 less than z less than 3.3, a significantly broader interval than many other surveys. The Einstein IPC observed 150 of these objects, mostly serendipitously, during its lifetime. We report the results of an analysis of these IPC data, considering not only the 20 percent of the objects we find to have positive X-ray detections, but also the ensemble X-ray properties derived by 'image stacking'.

  6. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of solar active regions with the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and the Very Large Array (VLA) have been obtained and analyzed. Combined results enhance the scientific return for beyond that expeted from using either SMM or VLA alone. A total of two weeks of simultaneous SMM/VLA data were obtained. The multiple wavelength VLA observations were used to determine the temperature and magnetic structure at different heights within coronal loops. These data are compared with simultaneous SMM observations. Several papers on the subject are in progress. They include VLA observations of compact, transient sources in the transition region; simultaneous SMM/VLA observations of the coronal loops in one active region and the evolution of another one; and sampling of the coronal plasma using thermal cyclotron lines (magnetic field - VLA) and soft X ray spectral lines (electron density and electron temperaure-SMM).

  7. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland: Large Ice-Discharge Episodes from 20 Years of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiker, M.; Johannessen, O. M.; Miles, M. W.; Miles, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    The major marine-terminating outlet glaciers of Greenland can undergo large mass losses through calving of icebergs and bottom melting from floating ice tongues. Recent observations of outlet glaiers around Greenland have shown that large and rapid changes in solid-ice fluxes are possible. The Petermann glacier in remote northern Greenland is the regions largest floating-tongue glacier (~70 km by 10 km). In summer 2008 a large calving event was observed, as well as large cracks upstream of the remaining calving front, portending a more massive near-term loss. These observations may herald extraordinary and unprecedented change. However, the long-term variability of calving events and ice velocities are poorly known. Our research goal here is to identify the temporal variability and possible trends in solid-ice flux indicators - variability of the calving front and ice velocity - for Petermann glacier. The methodological approach is observational, based primarily on analysis of 20 years of repetitive satellite data over a period starting from 1990, together with sporadic earlier observations. The multisensor data range from high-resolution optical images from Landsat, SPOT and Terra ASTER and high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from ERS and ENVISAT. These disparate data have been imported, geo-registered and analysed within a Geographic Information System. The following measurements are made: (1) delineating changes in the calving front, (2) estimating the area of glacial ice loss during calving events, and (3) estimating the ice-surface velocity using sequential satellite images. We find evidence of a number of previous calving episodes of similar magnitude to the summer 2008. The ice-velocity estimates compare well with other estimates for particular years, and moreover are relatively consistent during the 20-year period. These findings suggest business-as-usual for Petermann glacier; however, a near-term calving event exceeding those observed over the past 20 years cannot be ruled out.

  8. Direct observation of ferromagnetism in grain boundary phase of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnet using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, T.; Yasui, A.; Kotani, Y.; Iwai, H.; Akiya, T.; Ohkubo, T.; Hono, K.; Hirosawa, S.; Gohda, Y.

    2014-11-17

    We have investigated the magnetism of the grain boundary (GB) phase in a Nd{sub 14.0}Fe{sub 79.7}Cu{sub 0.1}B{sub 6.2} sintered magnet using soft x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Fe L{sub 2,3}-edges. Soft XMCD spectra were measured from the fractured surface that was confirmed to be covered with a thin GB phase by Auger electron spectroscopy. The magnetic moment of Fe in the GB phase was estimated to be m{sub GB}=1.4 μ{sub B} at 30 °C using the sum rule analysis for XMCD spectra, which is 60% of that of Fe in the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B compound. The temperature dependence of m{sub GB} evaluated with reference to Fe in the Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B phase indicated that the Curie temperature of the GB phase is more than 50 °C lower compared to that of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B.

  9. 2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northwest circular bastion, seen from edge of southwest circular bastion wall. Metal roof beams extend up to form peak. World War II gun installation at right. - Fort Hamilton, Northwest Circular Bastion, Rose Island, Newport, Newport County, RI

  10. Observations of large scale steady magnetic fields in the dayside Venus ionosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, J.G.; Elphic, R.C.; Russell, C.T.; Mihalov, J.D.; Wolfe, J.H.

    1980-11-01

    Although the dayside ionosphere of Venus is often field-free except for fine scale features, large scale, steady iosospheric magnetic fields with magnitudes sometimes exceeding 100 gammas are occasionally observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter magnetometer. These fields are mainly horizontal and can assume any angle in the horizontal plane. The orientation of the field may change along the spacecraft trajectory. The field magnitude in the upper ionosphere usually shows a distinct minimum near approx.200 km altitude, but the altitude profile is otherwise arbitrary. With few exceptions, the observations of these large scale fields occur when periapsis is at solar zenith angles < 50/sup 0/. The occurrences of large scale fields is often coincident with the observation of high solar wind dynamic pressures by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter plasma analyzer closely following the ionosphere encounter. However, the detection of this phenomenon even during some orbits for which the dynamic pressure is not extraordinarly high suggests that other factors, such as hysteresis effects, must also play a role in determining the occurrence frequency of large scale magnetic fields in the dayside Venus ionosphere.

  11. On the air motion in continental shallow cumulus clouds: large-eddy simulation versus radar observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Chandra, A.; Klein, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Summertime observations for 13 years at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are used to study air motion in non-precipitating fair-weather shallow cumulus clouds. A composite shallow cumulus case is constructed based on an ensemble of days with observed active shallow cumulus clouds. Large-scale forcing for this composite case is derived accordingly based on observation-constrained variational analysis and is used to drive the large-eddy simulation (LES), whose set-up is most suitable to make an apple-to-apple comparison with radar observation at the site. At the same time, a novel retrieval algorithm, which can remove the insects' contamination on radar reflectivity, is applied to millimeter cloud radar 10s observations to get vertical velocity of air motion in the shallow cumulus cloud ensembles. We then focus on the behavior of cloudy profiles with liquid water path greater than 80 g/m^2. This is done because we believe this portion of cloud makes a major contribution to the total mass flux and by so doing, the uncertainty is minimized in the comparison between observation and LES results. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-641597

  12. A large-sample atomic force microscope observing in both air and liquid.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xia; Zhang, Dongxian; Zhang, Haijun; Xie, Zhigang

    2011-11-01

    A large-sample atomic force microscope (AFM) that allows high resolution observation in both air and liquid has been developed. With a unique beam tracking method, laser beam is capable of reflecting off the same spot on the AFM cantilever throughout raster scan over the entire scan area, either operating in air or in liquid environment. Incorporating the stand-alone AFM probe unit with an automated large sample stage, wide-scan-range imaging can be realized with high resolution and slight distortion. In addition, an image stitching method is utilized to build a broad merged image with range up to millimeters while keeping nanometer order resolution. By using a large-volume liquid bath, large and massive sample can be observed in liquid with this AFM system. Several typical experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the imaging ability and stability of this AFM. Topographic structures of gold pattern on a glass substrate are scanned at two different places on the same specimen surface. The porosity of a sheet of filter paper is then characterized in both air and water. Finally, larger-area AFM image of anodic aluminum oxide template in oxalic acid is on spot obtained by merging several individually scanned images together. Experiments show that this AFM system can offer high resolution and wide range AFM images even for large samples with remarkable capabilities in various environments. PMID:21484944

  13. Large-Scale Covariability Between Aerosol and Precipitation Over the 7-SEAS Region: Observations and Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Chee; Zhang, Chidong; Jeong, Myeong Jae; Gautam, Ritesh; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Hansell, Richard A.; Liu, Xiaohong; Jiang, Jonathan H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the seven scientific areas of interests of the 7-SEAS field campaign is to evaluate the impact of aerosol on cloud and precipitation (http://7-seas.gsfc.nasa.gov). However, large-scale covariability between aerosol, cloud and precipitation is complicated not only by ambient environment and a variety of aerosol effects, but also by effects from rain washout and climate factors. This study characterizes large-scale aerosol-cloud-precipitation covariability through synergy of long-term multi ]sensor satellite observations with model simulations over the 7-SEAS region [10S-30N, 95E-130E]. Results show that climate factors such as ENSO significantly modulate aerosol and precipitation over the region simultaneously. After removal of climate factor effects, aerosol and precipitation are significantly anti-correlated over the southern part of the region, where high aerosols loading is associated with overall reduced total precipitation with intensified rain rates and decreased rain frequency, decreased tropospheric latent heating, suppressed cloud top height and increased outgoing longwave radiation, enhanced clear-sky shortwave TOA flux but reduced all-sky shortwave TOA flux in deep convective regimes; but such covariability becomes less notable over the northern counterpart of the region where low ]level stratus are found. Using CO as a proxy of biomass burning aerosols to minimize the washout effect, large-scale covariability between CO and precipitation was also investigated and similar large-scale covariability observed. Model simulations with NCAR CAM5 were found to show similar effects to observations in the spatio-temporal patterns. Results from both observations and simulations are valuable for improving our understanding of this region's meteorological system and the roles of aerosol within it. Key words: aerosol; precipitation; large-scale covariability; aerosol effects; washout; climate factors; 7- SEAS; CO; CAM5

  14. Characteristics of Electron Distributions Observed During Large Amplitude Whistler Wave Events in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lynn B., III

    2010-01-01

    We present a statistical study of the characteristics of electron distributions associated with large amplitude whistler waves inside the terrestrial magnetosphere using waveform capture data as an addition of the study by Kellogg et al., [2010b]. We identified three types of electron distributions observed simultaneously with the whistler waves including beam-like, beam/flattop, and anisotropic distributions. The whistlers exhibited different characteristics dependent upon the observed electron distributions. The majority of the waveforms observed in our study have f/fce < or = 0.5 and are observed primarily in the radiation belts outside the plasmapause simultaneously with anisotropic electron distributions. We also present an example waveform capture of the largest magnetic field amplitude (> or = 8 nT pk-pk) whistler wave measured in the radiation belts. The majority of the largest amplitude whistlers occur during magnetically active periods (AE > 200 nT).

  15. Laboratory Observation of Large-Amplitude Electrostatic Fluctuations Driven by Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Porkolab, M.; Egedal, J.; Katz, N.

    2007-12-01

    We report recent observations of nonlinear electrostatic fluctuations excited during spontaneous reconnection events on the VTF experiment~[1]. Electrostatic fluctuations are observed by small, high-bandwidth, impedance- matched Langmuir probes. Among a large number of wave phenomena, we observe narrow, large-amplitude, positive potential spikes, with fluctuations in probe current on the order of the ion saturation current drawn by the probe, implying /n ~ 1, or e\\tilde{?} / k Te ~ 1. The spikes are observed in conjunction with large inductive electric fields (the "reconnection electric field"). With arrays of such probes we have observed the speed and shape of these propagating structures. The spike drift speed, which is parallel to the electron drift, is roughly 5 106~m/s, or 2vte (vte = \\sqrt{2kTe/me}). Based on the drift speed and the time to cross a single probe tip, we infer that the parallel size is 1-2~mm (50-100~?D, or 5-10~?e). Observations with probes spaced perpendicular to the magnetic field shows that the perpendicular size is also 1-2~mm. Finally, we will discuss our interpretation of the structures and their generation mechanism, with insights from a newly installed electron energy analyzer. [1] J. Egedal, W. Fox, N. Katz, M. Porkolab, K. Reim, and E. Zhang. (2007). PRL 98, 015003. This was supported by DOE contracts DE-FC02-04ER54786 and DE-FG02-06ER54878, and NSF/DOE PHY-0613734

  16. Ultraviolet interstellar extinction in the large Magellanic Cloud using observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koornneef, J.; Code, A. D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten early-type supergiants in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE). The spectra (1150-3200 A) are shown, and their photometric properties are discussed. It is confirmed that the LMC interstellar extinction law for these stars deviates significantly from the average galactic law in the sense that the 2200 A feature is deficient in strength and that, in the far-ultraviolet (wavelength less than 2000 A), the observed LMC extinction law is significantly above the galactic curve.

  17. ISIS observations of auroral particles and large-scale Birkeland currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneous electron and positive ion observations made with single-component magnetic perturbations on the ISIS-2 satellite are used to compare and contrast the relationships between primary and secondary auroral particle distributions at 5 eV-15 keV, and the large-scale Birkeland currents, in the pre- and post-midnight local time sectors. No unique relation is found between the regions of the Birkeland current system and regions of auroral particle distribution, though repeatable systematics in the region of upward-directed current are observed, and little evidence exists in either local time sector for the direct detection of the downward current-associated current carriers.

  18. Large-scale horizontal flows from SOUP observations of solar granulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    November, L. J.; Simon, G. W.; Tarbell, T. D.; Title, A. M.; Ferguson, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Using high resolution time sequence photographs of solar granulation from the SOUP experiment on Spacelab 2, large scale horizontal flows were observed in the solar surface. The measurement method is based upon a local spatial cross correlation analysis. The horizontal motions have amplitudes in the range 300 to 1000 m/s. Radial outflow of granulation from a sunspot penumbra into surrounding photosphere is a striking new discovery. Both the supergranulation pattern and cellular structures having the scale of mesogranulation are seen. The vertical flows that are inferred by continuity of mass from these observed horizontal flows have larger upflow amplitudes in cell centers than downflow amplitudes at cell boundaries.

  19. Observations of the earth's polar cleft at large radial distances with the Hawkeye 1 magnetometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, W. M.; Van Allen, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Based on 364 spacecraft passes through the dayside region, the position of the polar cleft at large radial distances was determined with the magnetometer flown on Hawkeye 1. This data set is ideal for the study of the cusp and cleft region. Identification of the cleft depended on noting strong negative deviations of the magnetic field strength in the region from that of the dipole field. In solar magnetic coordinates, cleft observations were found between 40 deg and 70 deg latitude and + or - 75 deg latitude and + or - 75 deg longitude, while in geocentricmagnetospheric coordinates, these observations were found between 20 deg and 75 deg latitude and + or - 75 deg longitude. The extreme longitudinal extent of 150 deg is larger than those reported in some previous studies. Large magnetic depressions associated with the cleft extend out to 12 earth radii.

  20. Simultaneous effect of modified gravity and primordial non-Gaussianity in large scale structure observations

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzatuny, Nareg; Khosravi, Shahram; Baghram, Shant; Moshafi, Hossein E-mail: khosravi@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: hosseinmoshafi@iasbs.ac.ir

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study the simultaneous effect of primordial non-Gaussianity and the modification of the gravity in f(R) framework on large scale structure observations. We show that non-Gaussianity and modified gravity introduce a scale dependent bias and growth rate functions. The deviation from ΛCDM in the case of primordial non-Gaussian models is in large scales, while the growth rate deviates from ΛCDM in small scales for modified gravity theories. We show that the redshift space distortion can be used to distinguish positive and negative f{sub NL} in standard background, while in f(R) theories they are not easily distinguishable. The galaxy power spectrum is generally enhanced in presence of non-Gaussianity and modified gravity. We also obtain the scale dependence of this enhancement. Finally we define galaxy growth rate and galaxy growth rate bias as new observational parameters to constrain cosmology.

  1. Exotic high-isospin baryons in the Skyrme model: Experimental observable or large- N artifact

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.D.; Griegel, D.K. )

    1991-05-01

    The Skyrme model and other models based on hedgehog intrinsic states predict a band of exotic baryon resonances with {ital I}={ital J}=5/2 and higher. We discuss whether these states are artifacts of the implicit large-{ital N} physics of the Skyrme model, and estimate the production cross section and width of the lowest lying of these resonances (with {ital I}={ital J}=5/2), which we denote the {Gamma} baryon. Although the cross section is sufficiently large to be experimentally observed, the resonance, to leading order in 1/{ital N}, is much too wide to separate from the background. We discuss the breakdown of the 1/{ital N} expansion for these states, and suggest that the width is very sensitive to sub-leading-order 1/{ital N} effects, which could decrease the width sufficiently to make the {Gamma} baryon observable.

  2. Observation of large group index enhancement in Doppler-broadened rubidium vapor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo-Xun; Liu, Chih-Yuan; Han, D J

    2015-07-27

    We report experimental observation of large group index across the Lamb dips of ground hyperfine states in Doppler-broadened 87Rb vapor. By sweeping the laser frequency through each hyperfine transition we measure the saturated absorption and optical phase shift using a phase-locked Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our measurements provide a direct demonstration of the theoretical prediction by Agarwal et al. [G. S. Agarwal and T. N. Dey, Phys. Rev. A 68, 063816, (2003)] for the first time. An enhancement factor as large as 1005 in group index was observed for Rb vapor at temperature of 85 °C. The experimental data are in good agreement with the theory. PMID:26367544

  3. Very Large Array and Ratan 600 Observations in Support of the Coronas I Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1997-01-01

    The world's two largest radio telescopes, the VLA and RATAN 600, were used to observe the Sun in support of the Terek Soft X-ray telescope aboard CORONA-1 spacecraft, thereby enhancing the scientific return of all three instruments beyond that expected from using each one alone. The large collecting areas of these radio telescopes were uniquely suited for investigating quiescent coronal structures, and they each provided unique perspectives of high spatial resolution (VLA) and high frequency resolution with polarization (RATAN 600).

  4. Observation of d(d,p)t reactions in the Princeton Large Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.; Strachan, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    Protons from d(d,p)t fusion reactions have been observed in the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) using a surface-barrier detector. The time evolution of the escaping protons agrees with the d-d neutron evolution. The proton energy spectrum was measured during ohmic, lower-hybrid, and ICRF heating. The proton spectrum during lower-hybrid heating indicates non-thermal enhancement of the d-d fusion rate.

  5. Orbital circularization of a planet accreting disk gas: the formation of distant jupiters in circular orbits based on a core accretion model

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Arika; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: higuchia@geo.titech.ac.jp

    2014-12-10

    Recently, gas giant planets in nearly circular orbits with large semimajor axes (a ∼ 30-1000 AU) have been detected by direct imaging. We have investigated orbital evolution in a formation scenario for such planets, based on a core accretion model. (1) Icy cores accrete from planetesimals at ≲ 30 AU, (2) they are scattered outward by an emerging nearby gas giant to acquire highly eccentric orbits, and (3) their orbits are circularized through the accretion of disk gas in outer regions, where they spend most of their time. We analytically derived equations to describe the orbital circularization through gas accretion. Numerical integrations of these equations show that the eccentricity decreases by a factor of more than 5 while the planetary mass increases by a factor of 10. Because runaway gas accretion increases planetary mass by ∼10-300, the orbits are sufficiently circularized. On the other hand, a is reduced at most only by a factor of two, leaving the planets in the outer regions. If the relative velocity damping by shock is considered, the circularization slows down, but is still efficient enough. Therefore, this scenario potentially accounts for the formation of observed distant jupiters in nearly circular orbits. If the apocenter distances of the scattered cores are larger than the disk sizes, their a shrink to a quarter of the disk sizes; the a-distribution of distant giants could reflect the outer edges of the disks in a similar way that those of hot jupiters may reflect inner edges.

  6. Radiometer requirements for Earth-observation systems using large space antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keafer, L. S., Jr.; Harrington, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Requirements are defined for Earth observation microwave radiometry for the decade of the 1990's by using large space antenna (LSA) systems with apertures in the range from 50 to 200 m. General Earth observation needs, specific measurement requirements, orbit mission guidelines and constraints, and general radiometer requirements are defined. General Earth observation needs are derived from NASA's basic space science program. Specific measurands include soil moisture, sea surface temperature, salinity, water roughness, ice boundaries, and water pollutants. Measurements are required with spatial resolution from 10 to 1 km and with temporal resolution from 3 days to 1 day. The primary orbit altitude and inclination ranges are 450 to 2200 km and 60 to 98 deg, respectively. Contiguous large scale coverage of several land and ocean areas over the globe dictates large (several hundred kilometers) swaths. Radiometer measurements are made in the bandwidth range from 1 to 37 GHz, preferably with dual polarization radiometers with a minimum of 90 percent beam efficiency. Reflector surface, root mean square deviation tolerances are in the wavelength range from 1/30 to 1/100.

  7. Considerations for observational research using large data sets in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C; Hoffman, Karen; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Smith, Benjamin D; Yu, James B

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold substantial promise for advancing our understanding of many unanswered questions of importance to the field of radiation oncology. PMID:25195986

  8. Considerations for Observational Research Using Large Data Sets in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Jagsi, Reshma; Bekelman, Justin E.; Chen, Aileen; Chen, Ronald C.; Hoffman, Karen; Tina Shih, Ya-Chen; Smith, Benjamin D.; Yu, James B.

    2014-09-01

    The radiation oncology community has witnessed growing interest in observational research conducted using large-scale data sources such as registries and claims-based data sets. With the growing emphasis on observational analyses in health care, the radiation oncology community must possess a sophisticated understanding of the methodological considerations of such studies in order to evaluate evidence appropriately to guide practice and policy. Because observational research has unique features that distinguish it from clinical trials and other forms of traditional radiation oncology research, the International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics assembled a panel of experts in health services research to provide a concise and well-referenced review, intended to be informative for the lay reader, as well as for scholars who wish to embark on such research without prior experience. This review begins by discussing the types of research questions relevant to radiation oncology that large-scale databases may help illuminate. It then describes major potential data sources for such endeavors, including information regarding access and insights regarding the strengths and limitations of each. Finally, it provides guidance regarding the analytical challenges that observational studies must confront, along with discussion of the techniques that have been developed to help minimize the impact of certain common analytical issues in observational analysis. Features characterizing a well-designed observational study include clearly defined research questions, careful selection of an appropriate data source, consultation with investigators with relevant methodological expertise, inclusion of sensitivity analyses, caution not to overinterpret small but significant differences, and recognition of limitations when trying to evaluate causality. This review concludes that carefully designed and executed studies using observational data that possess these qualities hold substantial promise for advancing our understanding of many unanswered questions of importance to the field of radiation oncology.

  9. Bridging the Gap between Large-Scale Simulations and Observations of Star Forming Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frimann, Sren; Jrgensen, Jes Kristian

    2014-07-01

    Numerical simulations and observations of star forming cores are topics that both see a lot of progress these years. MHD simulations of molecular clouds have reached a level, where it is possible to evolve the cloud on parsec scale, while simultaneously resolving the neighbourhood around the individual protostars on AU scale. At the same time interferometers such as ALMA, with its increased sensitivity and resolving capabilities, are making it possible to zoom in on the protostellar cores in their earliest stages and map their gas and dust content. The advances in simulations and observations also open the possibility of comparing the two directly. I will present synthetic observations of a large number of protostellar cores, created from the high resolution numerical simulations of Haugblle, Padoan and Nordlund in prep (see Padoan et al 2012 for similar lower resolution models). The synthetic observations are compared directly to real observations obtained from a range of different submm telescopes. The motivation for comparing real and synthetic observations is twofold. It enables us to test the validity of the simulations by ensuring that the synthetic observations agree with the real ones, and in the cases where they differ to identify the issues. In addition to this, through the simulations we are able to gain additional insight into the physics behind the observations. I will present several cases where synthetic and real observations have been compared. In one example of this we used 24 ?m Spitzer maps, and 850 ?m SCUBA maps from Perseus and Ophiuchus to calculate the distribution of distances between protostars and their parental cores (Jrgensen et. al. 2007, 2008). Both real and synthetic observations produce a centrally peaked distribution (HWHM smaller than the typical core radius). This indicates that on average newly formed protostars do not migrate far away from their parental core.

  10. Can Large Time Delays Observed in Light Curves of Coronal Loops Be Explained in Impulsive Heating?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lionello, Roberto; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Linker, Jon A.; Mikić, Zoran

    2016-02-01

    The light curves of solar coronal loops often peak first in channels associated with higher temperatures and then in those associated with lower temperatures. The delay times between the different narrowband EUV channels have been measured for many individual loops and recently for every pixel of an active region observation. The time delays between channels for an active region exhibit a wide range of values. The maximum time delay in each channel pair can be quite large, i.e., >5000 s. These large time delays make-up 3%–26% (depending on the channel pair) of the pixels where a trustworthy, positive time delay is measured. It has been suggested that these time delays can be explained by simple impulsive heating, i.e., a short burst of energy that heats the plasma to a high temperature, after which the plasma is allowed to cool through radiation and conduction back to its original state. In this paper, we investigate whether the largest observed time delays can be explained by this hypothesis by simulating a series of coronal loops with different heating rates, loop lengths, abundances, and geometries to determine the range of expected time delays between a set of four EUV channels. We find that impulsive heating cannot address the largest time delays observed in two of the channel pairs and that the majority of the large time delays can only be explained by long, expanding loops with photospheric abundances. Additional observations may rule out these simulations as an explanation for the long time delays. We suggest that either the time delays found in this manner may not be representative of real loop evolution, or that the impulsive heating and cooling scenario may be too simple to explain the observations, and other potential heating scenarios must be explored.

  11. Very Large Array and Jansky Very Large Array observations of the compact radio sources in M8

    SciTech Connect

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Dzib, Sergio

    2014-12-10

    We analyze high-resolution Very Large Array continuum observations of the M8 region carried out at several epochs that span a period of 30 yr. Our maps reveal two compact sources. One is associated with Her 36 SE, a possible companion of the O7 luminous massive star Her 36, and the other is associated with G5.97–1.17, whose proplyd nature was previously established. Using the analyzed data, we do not find significant time variability in any of these sources. The derived spectral index of ≥0.1 for Her 36 SE, the marginal offset of the radio emission with the previous infrared detection, and the associated X-ray emission previously reported suggest the presence of an unresolved interaction region between the strong winds of Her 36 and Her 36 SE. This region would contribute non-thermal contamination to the global wind emission of Her 36, flattening its spectral index. On the other hand, the emission of G5.97–1.17 can also be explained by a mixture of thermal and non-thermal emission components, with different relative contributions of both emission mechanisms along the proplyd. We argue that the shock created by the photo-evaporation flow of the proplyd with the collimated stellar wind of Her 36 accelerates charged particles in G5.97–1.17, producing considerable synchrotron emission. On the contrary, an electron density enhancement at the southwest of G5.97–1.17 makes the thermal emission dominant over this region.

  12. Observations of CO2 and CH4 enhancements over large point sources using GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Ganshin, A.; Andres, R. J.; Yoshida, Y.; Yokota, T.

    2010-12-01

    We present the first results of the effort to directly monitor GHG emissions from intense sources such as large power plants and populated cities (large point sources, LPS) using Greenhouse gas Observing SATellite (GOSAT). National GHG emissions are calculated according to the local activity statistics by sector and their inventories are compiled and reported on annual basis by country. Such inventories are presently the only measure of national emissions, although these might not accurate due to statistical data quality and calculation methods. Towards monitoring of emission reductions an independent method to monitor emissions and verify emission inventories is required. Since August 2009 till December 2009, we have requested targeted mode measurements every 6 days over more than 300 LPS observation sites worldwide. The number is limited by GOSAT targeted mode observation allocation to one research project. Observation points include large power plants selected from CARMA (Carbon Monitoring and Action) global power plant database by emission intensity, and cities selected by population ranking. During 5 months, 154 XCO2 measurements over 74 LPS sites and 170 XCH4 measurements over 80 LPS sites were successfully retrieved. The observed concentrations at LPS sites were compared to zonal mean concentrations and local background values, which were calculated using GOSAT observational data. We also perfomed point-wise model simulations for XCO2 using high resolution (1 km x 1 km) emission dataset and an Eulerian-Lagrangian coupled atmospheric transport model. The majority of the observation over LPS were higher than zonal mean concentrations, and also higher than background values on average. The average CO2 and CH4 enhancements for whole period were +0.51 0.30 ppm (std. 3.51) for CO2 and +2.65 0.78 ppb (std.15.8) for CH4. We can expect lower errors with the use of later versions of the retrieval (The versions of GOSAT L2 product use in this study are V00.03 and V00.10). The observed CO2 enhancement appeared to be close to model simulations (+0.78 ppm 0.10 ppm, std. 1.23), suggesting the observation data are in realistic range and there is only minor contamination by aerosols and clouds. Better results were obtained for countries with large percentage of the clear sky observations like Mexico and South Africa, where we observe good correlation between the model predictions and observations for CO2 on country average level. The level of uncertainty at this point (61% for CO2 and 29% for CH4 of the mean value) is still close to the level of the value itself, however a simple estimate suggests that it could be reduced to about 12% for CO2 and 5.9% for CH4 for whole 5-year operation of GOSAT with reasonably improved retrieval. These results demonstrate feasibility of observing man-made CO2 and CH4 emissions from space, which is being actively discussed in context of the planned satellite mission such as OCO-II and CarbonSat.

  13. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  14. High-resolution infrared maps from IRAS observations of large galaxies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, S. K.; Verma, R. P.; Rengarajan, T. N.; Das, B.; Saraiya, H. T.

    1993-06-01

    A sample of 18 large optical galaxies from the Large Galaxy Catalog, has been studied for structural properties by processing the IR images taken by IRAS pointed observations. Survey detectors (POSD) observations at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns, as well as the Chopped Photometric Channel observations (CPC) at 50 and 100 microns, have been used for IRAS pointed observations. High angular resolution intensity maps of several of these galaxies have been obtained using a self-adaptive dynamically controlled image deconvolution scheme based on the maximum entropy method. From a comparative study of the processed CPC and POSD maps in the FIR, it has been shown that the CPC maps do give new reliable structural information, although only for sufficiently strong sources. The flux densities as well as the color temperatures correlate quite well. The POSD intensity maps have been additionally used to obtain maps of interband temperature and optical depth. From the optical depth maps at 25, 60, and 100 microns, it is found that for most of these cases the peaks are close to the galactic nuclei.

  15. CARMA LARGE AREA STAR FORMATION SURVEY: OBSERVATIONAL ANALYSIS OF FILAMENTS IN THE SERPENS SOUTH MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-López, M.; Looney, L.; Lee, K.; Segura-Cox, D.; Arce, H. G.; Plunkett, A.; Mundy, L. G.; Storm, S.; Teuben, P. J.; Pound, M.; Isella, A.; Kauffmann, J.; Tobin, J. J.; Rosolowsky, E.; Kwon, W.; Ostriker, E.; Tassis, K.; Shirley, Y. L.

    2014-08-01

    We present the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (J = 1 → 0) map of the Serpens South molecular cloud obtained as part of the CARMA Large Area Star Formation Survey. The observations cover 250 arcmin{sup 2} and fully sample structures from 3000 AU to 3 pc with a velocity resolution of 0.16 km s{sup –1}, and they can be used to constrain the origin and evolution of molecular cloud filaments. The spatial distribution of the N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is characterized by long filaments that resemble those observed in the dust continuum emission by Herschel. However, the gas filaments are typically narrower such that, in some cases, two or three quasi-parallel N{sub 2}H{sup +} filaments comprise a single observed dust continuum filament. The difference between the dust and gas filament widths casts doubt on Herschel ability to resolve the Serpens South filaments. Some molecular filaments show velocity gradients along their major axis, and two are characterized by a steep velocity gradient in the direction perpendicular to the filament axis. The observed velocity gradient along one of these filaments was previously postulated as evidence for mass infall toward the central cluster, but these kind of gradients can be interpreted as projection of large-scale turbulence.

  16. Simulating observations with HARMONI: the integral field spectrograph for the European Extremely Large Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieleniewski, Simon; Thatte, Niranjan; Kendrew, Sarah; Houghton, Ryan; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Fusco, Thierry; Swinbank, Mark

    2014-07-01

    With the next generation of extremely large telescopes commencing construction, there is an urgent need for detailed quantitative predictions of the scientific observations that these new telescopes will enable. Most of these new telescopes will have adaptive optics fully integrated with the telescope itself, allowing unprecedented spatial resolution combined with enormous sensitivity. However, the adaptive optics point spread function will be strongly wavelength dependent, requiring detailed simulations that accurately model these variations. We have developed a simulation pipeline for the HARMONI integral field spectrograph, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope. The simulator takes high-resolution input data-cubes of astrophysical objects and processes them with accurate atmospheric, telescope and instrumental effects, to produce mock observed cubes for chosen observing parameters. The output cubes represent the result of a perfect data reduc- tion process, enabling a detailed analysis and comparison between input and output, showcasing HARMONI's capabilities. The simulations utilise a detailed knowledge of the telescope's wavelength dependent adaptive op- tics point spread function. We discuss the simulation pipeline and present an early example of the pipeline functionality for simulating observations of high redshift galaxies.

  17. Estimating the Concentration of Large Raindrops from Polarimetric Radar and Disdrometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A; Gatlink, Patrick N.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of rainfall integral parameters, including radar observables, and empirical relations between them are sensitive to the truncation of the drop size distribution (DSD), particularly at the large drop end. The sensitivity of rainfall integral parameters to the maximum drop diameter (D(sub max)) is exacerbated at C-band since resonance effects are pronounced for large drops in excess of 5 mm diameter (D). Due to sampling limitations, it is often difficult to reliably estimate D(sub max) with disdrometers. The resulting uncertainties in D(sub max0 potentially increase errors in radar retrieval methods, particularly at C-band, that rely on disdrometer observations for DSD input to radar models. In fact, D(sub max) is typically an assumed DSD parameter in the development of radar retrieval methods. Because of these very uncertainties, it is difficult to independently confirm disdrometer estimates of D(sub max) with polarimetric radar observations. A couple of approaches can be taken to reduce uncertainty in large drop measurement. Longer integration times can be used for the collection of larger disdrometer samples. However, integration periods must be consistent with a radar resolution volume (RRV) and the temporal and spatial scales of the physical processes affecting the DSD therein. Multiple co-located disdrometers can be combined into a network to increase the sample size within a RRV. However, over a reasonable integration period, a single disdrometer sample volume is many orders of magnitudes less than a RRV so it is not practical to devise a network of disdrometers that has an equivalent volume to a typical RRV. Since knowledge of DSD heterogeneity and large drop occurrence in time and space is lacking, the specific accuracy or even general representativeness of disdrometer based D(sub max) and large drop concentration estimates within a RRV are currently unknown. To address this complex issue, we begin with a simpler question. Is the frequency of occurrence of large rain drops (D > 5 mm) in disdrometer observations, either stand alone or networked, generally representative and consistent with polarimetric radar observations? We first show from simulations that the concentration of large (D > 5 mm) rain drops (N(sub T5)) can be estimated from polarimetric observations of specific differential phase (K(sub dp)) and differential reflectivity (Z(sub dr)), N(sub T5)=F(K(sub dp),Z(sub dr)), or horizontal reflectivity (Z(sub h)) and Z(sub dr), N(sub T5)=(Z(sub h),Z(sub dr)). We assess the error associated with polarimetric retrieval of N(sub T5), including sensitivity to D(sub max) parameterization assumptions and measurement error in the radar simulations. Polarimetric measurements at S-band and C-band will then be used to retrieve estimates of N(sub T5) and compared to disdrometer estimates of N(sub T5). After careful consideration of retrieval error, we will check consistency between disdrometer and polarimetric radar estimates of N(sub T5) and the frequency of occurrence of large rain drops in a variety of precipitating regimes using data from NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) program, including field campaigns such as MC3E (Oklahoma) and IFloodS (Iowa) and extended measurements over Huntsville, Alabama and NASA Wallops Flight Facility in coastal Virginia.

  18. Dione - circular impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Circular impact craters up to about 100 kilometers (60 miles) in diameter are seen in this view of Saturn's icy moon Dione. The image was taken by Voyager 1 from a range of 790,000 kilometers (500,000 miles) at 2:20 a.m. PST on November 12. Bright, wispy markings form complex arcuate patterns on the surface. These markings are slightly brighter than the brightest features seen by Voyager on Jupiter's moons, suggesting that they are surface frost deposits. The patterns of the bright bands hint at an origin due to internal geologic activity, but the resolution is not yet sufficient to prove or disprove this idea. Dione's diameter is only 1100 kilometers (700 miles), much smaller than any of Jupiter's icy moons. It thus belongs to a class of small, icy objects never observed before the Voyager I Saturn encounter. The view here is of the face which trails in orbit. The Voyager Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA.

  19. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and very large array observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research deals mainly with Very Large Array and Solar Maximum Mission observations of the ubiquitous coronal loops that dominate the structure of the low corona. As illustrated, the observations of thermal cyclotron lines at microwave wavelengths provide a powerful new method of accurately specifying the coronal magnetic field strength. Processes are delineated that trigger solar eruptions from coronal loops, including preburst heating and the magnetic interaction of coronal loops. Evidence for coherent burst mechanisms is provided for both the Sun and nearby stars, while other observations suggest the presence of currents that may amplify the coronal magnetic field to unexpectedly high levels. The existence is reported of a new class of compact, variable moving sources in regions of apparently weak photospheric field.

  20. Observation of the Crab Pulsar and Nebula with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.

    2010-03-26

    The Crab Pulsar and Nebula are the remnants of the explosion of the supernova SN1054, which was observed by Chinese astronomers. Previously detected by EGRET, the Crab Pulsar and Nebula have been extensively observed in the gamma-ray energy band by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The data collected by the LAT during its early operation stage have allowed a detailed measurement of the fluxes and of the energy spectra of both sources. The pulsar spectrum is consistent with the EGRET measurement in the region below 1 GeV and is well described by a power law with exponential cutoff at a few GeV. The nebula spectrum is well modeled by a sum of two power laws, identified respectively as the falling edge of the synchrotron and the rising edge of the inverse Compton components, and is in agreement with the observations from Earth-based telescopes.

  1. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian…

  2. Squaring a Circular Segment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Consider a circular segment (the smaller portion of a circle cut off by one of its chords) with chord length c and height h (the greatest distance from a point on the arc of the circle to the chord). Is there a simple formula involving c and h that can be used to closely approximate the area of this circular segment? Ancient Chinese and Egyptian

  3. First definitive observations of meteor shower particles using a high-power large-aperture radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; Galindo, Freddy

    2008-03-01

    We present the first clear observations of meteor shower activity from meteor-head echoes detected by a high-power large-aperture radar (HPLAR). Such observations have been performed at the Jicamarca VHF radar using its interferometric capabilities allowing the discrimination of meteor shower echoes from the much more frequent sporadic meteors. Until now, HPLARs were unable to distinguish meteor shower from the much more common sporadic meteor ones. In this work we have been able to detect and characterize the ?-Aquariids (ETA) as well as the Perseids (PER) showers. The shower activity is more conspicuous for the ETA than for the PER shower due to the more favorable geometry. Namely, PER meteors come from low elevation angles, experiencing more filtering due to the combined Earth-atmosphere-radar instrument. In both cases, there is an excellent agreement between the measured mean velocity of the shower echoes and their expected velocity, within a fraction of 1 km s -1. Besides the good agreement with expected visual results, HPLARs observe meteors with a variety of particles sizes and masses, not observed by any other technique. Taking into account the different viewing volumes, compare to optical observations Jicamarca observes more than 1000 times more ETA meteors. Our results indicate that Jicamarca and other HPLARs are able to detect the echoes from meteor showers, but without interferometric capabilities such populations are difficult to identify just from their velocity distributions, particularly if their velocity distributions are expected to be similar to the more dominant distributions of sporadic meteors.

  4. Climatic physical snowpack properties for large-scale modeling examined by observations and a physical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Iwata, Hiroki; Harazono, Yoshinobu; Kosugi, Kenji; Lehning, Michael; Shulski, Martha

    2012-04-01

    Here we have conducted an integral study using site observations and a model with detailed snow dynamics, to examine the capability of the model for deriving a simple relationship between the density and thermal conductivity of the snowpack within different climatic zones used in large-scale climate modeling. Snow and meteorological observations were conducted at multiple sites in different climatic regions (two in Interior Alaska, two in Japan). A series of thermal conductivity measurements in snow pit observations done in Alaska provided useful information for constructing the relationship. The one-dimensional snow dynamics model, SNOWPACK, simulated the evolution of the snowpack and compared observations between all sites. Overall, model simulations tended to underestimate the density and overestimate the thermal conductivity, and failed to foster the relationship evident in the observations from the current and previous research. The causes for the deficiency were analyzed and discussed, regarding a low density of the new snow layer and a slow compaction rate. Our working relationships were compared to the equations derived by previous investigators. Discrepancy from the regression for the melting season observations in Alaska was found in common.

  5. Large-Scale Overlays and Trends: Visually Mining, Panning and Zooming the Observable Universe.

    PubMed

    Luciani, Timothy Basil; Cherinka, Brian; Oliphant, Daniel; Myers, Sean; Wood-Vasey, W Michael; Labrinidis, Alexandros; Marai, G Elisabeta

    2014-07-01

    We introduce a web-based computing infrastructure to assist the visual integration, mining and interactive navigation of large-scale astronomy observations. Following an analysis of the application domain, we design a client-server architecture to fetch distributed image data and to partition local data into a spatial index structure that allows prefix-matching of spatial objects. In conjunction with hardware-accelerated pixel-based overlays and an online cross-registration pipeline, this approach allows the fetching, displaying, panning and zooming of gigabit panoramas of the sky in real time. To further facilitate the integration and mining of spatial and non-spatial data, we introduce interactive trend images-compact visual representations for identifying outlier objects and for studying trends within large collections of spatial objects of a given class. In a demonstration, images from three sky surveys (SDSS, FIRST and simulated LSST results) are cross-registered and integrated as overlays, allowing cross-spectrum analysis of astronomy observations. Trend images are interactively generated from catalog data and used to visually mine astronomy observations of similar type. The front-end of the infrastructure uses the web technologies WebGL and HTML5 to enable cross-platform, web-based functionality. Our approach attains interactive rendering framerates; its power and flexibility enables it to serve the needs of the astronomy community. Evaluation on three case studies, as well as feedback from domain experts emphasize the benefits of this visual approach to the observational astronomy field; and its potential benefits to large scale geospatial visualization in general. PMID:26357360

  6. Challenging Large-scale Hydrological Simulations with Streamflow Observations: Response versus Persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface models and large-scale hydrological models are often used to study climate change impacts on hydrology at regional to global scales. These impacts are then presented as maps of change in specific runoff metrics that are relevant to basin management and water resources planning. Knowing the limits of model performance for the respective metrics of interest at different spatial and temporal scales is thus important, but often performance is only known for annual or long-term means. This contribution summarizes and reflects on the challenge of continental hydrological model simulations from the WATCH multi-model ensemble with distributed streamflow observations from small basins of reference networks in Europe. Characteristics of hydrological dynamics that were compared include spatial and temporal runoff persistence, high and low flows, and long-term trends and variability. Whereas common annual statistics between models and observations correlate well even if the amounts disagree, larger differences were found for metrics that focus on the dynamics of streamflow response and persistence. For example, models appear to respond comparably fast to precipitation, and as a consequence underestimate the duration of streamflow drought events. Investigating the general streamflow persistence in time and space, however, also showed large differences among the different models. Long-term trends in annual flow and annual weekly peak flow in Europe agreed on the large-scale patterns, but particularly seasonal trends and trends in extremes in regions with mixed observed runoff trends or in complex terrain revealed discrepancies to the observations even regarding the sign of the trend. Before the display of changes in hydrological characteristics related to response and persistence of flow situations, models should therefore always be tested specifically for their limits to represent such metrics.

  7. Observing Large Ionospheric Spatial Decorrelation for Ground-Based Augmentation System in the Brazilian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.; Yoon, M.; Choi, P.; Lee, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ground-Based Augmentation Systems (GBAS) support aircraft precision approach and landing by broadcasting differential Global Positioning System (GPS) corrections and integrity information to aviation users. Under anomalous ionospheric condition, unacceptably large residual errors can occur due to anomalously large ionospheric spatial decorrelation, and this can pose integrity threats to GBAS users. Thus, the development of an ionospheric anomaly threat model is required to simulate worst-case ionospheric errors and develop mitigation strategies. Ionosphere in low latitudes is known to be much more intense than that in mid latitudes due to active geomagnetic effect, and investigation of low latitude ionospheric anomalies must take precedence before operation of GBAS. In this paper, ionospheric spatial decorrelation is investigated for GBAS operation in the Brazilian region. Dual-frequency observation data are collected from Brazilian GPS reference stations. This analysis is performed using data sets collected on scintillating days, less-scintillating days, and storm days from 2012 to 2014. Precise ionospheric spatial gradient on the L1 signal is automatically estimated from dual-frequency observation data using simple truth method and station pair method. In the Brazilian region, however, intense ionospheric scintillations cause a large numbers of cycle slips in carrier-phase data. The simple truth process removes a considerably large number of those data through short-arc and outlier removals, and thus potential ionospheric gradients may not be detected. This motivates a data recovery process which skips short-arc and outlier removals if there appears a large ionospheric spatial gradient in the removed data. We also use a series of methods to validate anomalous ionospheric spatial gradients using manual validation with L1 single frequency measurement, station-wide check, satellite-wide check, and time-step check. In particular, the time-step check validates localized ionospheric anomalies in a scale of several tens of kilometers. This method is useful when the anomalies are not validated by station-wide and satellite-wide checks due to the sparse distribution of Brazilian GPS reference stations. Using the above methods, we observe and validate large ionospheric spatial gradients.

  8. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY CONTINUUM OBSERVATIONS TOWARD HOT MOLECULAR CORE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Hofner, P.; Kurtz, S.; Loinard, L.; RodrIguez, L. F.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Araya, E. D.; Cesaroni, R.

    2011-09-20

    We have used the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) with two 1 GHz wide bands to obtain K-band (1.3 cm) continuum observations toward the following five hot molecular core candidates: IRAS 18151 - 1208, IRAS 18182 - 1433, IRAS 18345 - 0641, IRAS 18470 - 0044, and IRAS 19012 + 0536. The sources were selected from the 2002 list of Sridharan et al. and are characterized by high FIR luminosity, dense molecular and dust condensations, massive large-scale CO flows, and the absence of strong cm continuum emission. These properties are indicative of massive star-forming regions in an evolutionary phase prior to ultra- or hypercompact H II regions. We detect a total of 10 individual 1.3 cm continuum sources toward this sample, and derive in-band spectral indices between 19.3 and 25.5 GHz consistent with thermal free-free emission, for all sources except component A in IRAS 18182 - 1433, which has a negative spectral index indicative of synchrotron emission. We suggest that in most cases the 1.3 cm sources are due to shock-induced ionization, rather than direct photoionization by massive objects. The momentum rate present in these ionized flows is sufficient to drive the large-scale molecular flows. We discuss a number of morphological features supporting this hypothesis. The present observations demonstrate that the EVLA has sufficient sensitivity to study the regions near very young massive stars in the cm continuum.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: VLTI/MIDI AGN Large Program observations (Burtscher+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, L.; Meisenheimer, K.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Jaffe, W.; Honig, S. F.; Davies, R. I.; Kishimoto, M.; Pott, J.-U.; Rottgering, H.; Schartmann, M.; Weigelt, G.; Wolf, S.

    2013-10-01

    All interferometric observations were carried out with MIDI, the MID-infrared interferometric Instrument at the European Southern Observatory's (ESO's) Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) on Cerro Paranal, Chile. The MIDI AGN Large Program (ESO program number 184.B-0832) consisted of 13.1 nights of Visitor Mode observations. Between December 2009 and August 2011, in total 228 science fringe track observations of 15 AGNs have been observed in this program. For this paper, we also include from the archive 159 previously observed tracks for these sources, 156 fringe tracks of other weak AGNs and 132 tracks for the two mid-IR brightest AGNs (NGC 1068 and the Circinus galaxy). The observing logs of each galaxy can be upload in the subdirectory log. OIFITS is the standard for the exchange of reduced optical interferometry data. It is an IAU accepted standard and defined in Pauls et al. (2005PASP..117.1255P). Since we use a special observing technique, detailed in the paper, our primary observable is not the visibility but the "correlated flux". This is not yet part of the OIFITS specification (version 1), but is currently discussed for OIFITS version 2.0 (http://ipag.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr/twiki/bin/view/Jmmc/OIFITSTwoProject# Proposalforcorrelated_flux). For the attached data I include both the standard VISAMP/VISAMPERR fields which is the corr. flux divided by the spectrum used for this source (from VISIR, if available, for all sources except Mrk 1239, see the paper) and also new CFLUX/CFLUXERR fields that are proposed for OIFITS version 2.0. These fields comply with the FITS standard and are ignored by strict OIFITS viewers; less strict OIFITS readers like MIA+EWS's oirgetvis() routine will read these fields. For NGC 1068, I have downsampled the early GRISM observations to PRISM resolution so that they can be combined in one file. The total flux can be retrieved from CFLUX/VISAMP and its error from flux * sqrt((VISAMPERR/VISAMP)2 - (CFLUXERR/CFLUX)2). (5 data files).

  10. Large-Amplitude Oscillation of an Erupting Filament as Seen in EUV, H?, and Microwave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Tripathi, D.; Asai, A.; Jain, R.

    2007-11-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of a large-amplitude oscillation of a polar-crown filament on 15 October 2002, which has been reported by Isobe and Tripathi ( Astron. Astrophys. 449, L17, 2006). The oscillation occurred during the slow rise (?1 km s-1) of the filament. It completed three cycles before sudden acceleration and eruption. The oscillation and following eruption were clearly seen in observations recorded by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The oscillation was seen only in a part of the filament, and it appears to be a standing oscillation rather than a propagating wave. The amplitudes of velocity and spatial displacement of the oscillation in the plane of the sky were about 5 km s-1 and 15 000 km, respectively. The period of oscillation was about two hours and did not change significantly during the oscillation. The oscillation was also observed in H? by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at the Hida Observatory. We determine the three-dimensional motion of the oscillation from the H? wing images. The maximum line-of-sight velocity was estimated to be a few tens of kilometers per second, although the uncertainty is large owing to the lack of line-profile information. Furthermore, we also identified the spatial displacement of the oscillation in 17-GHz microwave images from Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH). The filament oscillation seems to be triggered by magnetic reconnection between a filament barb and nearby emerging magnetic flux as was evident from the MDI magnetogram observations. No flare was observed to be associated with the onset of the oscillation. We also discuss possible implications of the oscillation as a diagnostic tool for the eruption mechanisms. We suggest that in the early phase of eruption a part of the filament lost its equilibrium first, while the remaining part was still in an equilibrium and oscillated.

  11. The Large Aperture Gamma Ray Observatory as an Observational Alternative at High Altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, M.

    2011-10-01

    Although satellite observations have revealed some mysteries about the origin and location of cosmic rays at low energies, questions remain to be resolved in higher energy ranges (>1 GeV). However, the flow of particles at high energies is very low, large sensitive areas are necessary, so that the detection of secondary particles from observatories on the surface of the earth is a technically viable solution. While the Pierre Auger Observatory has such capacity given its 16000 m^2 of detectors, low height above sea level greatly reduces its detection capability. The Large Aperture Gamma Ray Observatory (LAGO) is an observational alternative that attempts to overcome this limitation. This project was started in 2005, placing water Cherenkov Detectors at high altitude. Observation sites have been selected with some basic requirements: altitude, academic and technical infrastructure, existence of a research group responsible for assembly and maintenance of the detectors and the analysis, visualization, divulgation and data storage. This paper presents the general status of the observatories of Sierra Negra-Mxico, Chacaltaya-Bolvia, Marcapomacocha-Per, Mrida-Venezuela and Bucaramanga-Colombia.

  12. Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-02-01

    Unusually large wind shears across the inversion in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL) were frequently observed during VOCALS-REx. To investigate the impact of wind shear on the MBL turbulence structure, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model is used to simulate the strongly sheared MBL observed from Twin-Otter RF 18 on 13 November 2008. The LES simulated turbulence statistics agree in general with those derived from the measurements, with the MBL exhibiting a decoupled structure characterized by an enhanced entrainment and a turbulence intensity minimum just below the clouds. Sensitivity simulations show that the shear tends to reduce the dynamic stability of the inversion, enhance the entrainment mixing, and decrease the cloud water. Consequently, the turbulence intensity in the MBL is significantly weakened by the intense wind shear. The inversion thickens considerably and the MBL top separates from the cloud top, creating a finite cloud-free sublayer of 10-50 m thickness within the inversion, depending on the shear intensity. The wind shear enhances the turbulence buoyant consumption within the inversion, and simultaneously weakens the buoyant production in the cloud layer. These effects may result in different heating rates between the cloud and subcloud layer, leading to a process that tends to decouple the cloud from the subcloud layer. The decoupling process occurs even without solar radiation in the case of an intense wind shear similar to the observations.

  13. On the observation of large mixing ratios of total alkyl nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, D. A.; Dillon, M. B.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Thornton, J. A.; Rosen, R. S.; Wood, E. C.; Cohen, R. C.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of NO2, total peroxy nitrates, total alkyl nitrates, and HNO3 using thermal dissociation followed by laser-induced fluorescence detection of NO2 have been made at three continental locations. At a rural site in California, measurements over a full annual cycle show that total alkyl nitrates are routinely 10-20% of NOy. At this rural site, at a suburban site in California and an urban site in Houston, Texas, both the absolute concentration of total alkyl nitrates and the fraction of the higher oxides of nitrogen, NOz, represented by total alkyl nitrates are greater than or equal to values reported in any prior observations. Although the contrast with prior observations is striking, we show that large abundances of total alkyl nitrates are consistent with simple chemical models of tropospheric ozone production and with the few prior comprehensive model studies. We also show that total alkyl nitrates are a large part, if not all, of the "missing NOy" reported in many prior experiments and emphasize that the ratio of total alkyl nitrates to NOz and of O3 to total alkyl nitrates are especially useful for evaluating chemical models and comparing observations at different sites.

  14. CONTEMPORANEOUS VLBA 5 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DETECTED BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Linford, J. D.; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R. W.; Helmboldt, J. F.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.

    2012-01-10

    The radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been observed contemporaneously by the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). In total, 232 sources were observed with the VLBA. Ninety sources that were previously observed as part of the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS) have been included in the sample, as well as 142 sources not found in VIPS. This very large, 5 GHz flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong {gamma}-ray emission. In particular, we see that {gamma}-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields in the cores of the host AGN. Included in this sample are non-blazar AGNs such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251. For the blazars, the total VLBA radio flux density at 5 GHz correlates strongly with {gamma}-ray flux. The LAT BL Lac objects tend to be similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects, but the LAT flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from the non-LAT FSRQs. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, and core fractional polarization appears to increase during LAT detection.

  15. Large Deployable Reflector Technologies for Future European Telecom and Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihle, A.; Breunig, E.; Dadashvili, L.; Migliorelli, M.; Scialino, L.; van't Klosters, K.; Santiago-Prowald, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents requirements, analysis and design results for European large deployable reflectors (LDR) for space applications. For telecommunications, the foreseeable use of large reflectors is associated to the continuous demand for improved performance of mobile services. On the other hand, several earth observation (EO) missions can be identified carrying either active or passive remote sensing instruments (or both), in which a large effective aperture is needed e.g. BIOMASS. From the European point of view there is a total dependence of USA industry as such LDRs are not available from European suppliers. The RESTEO study is part of a number of ESA led activities to facilitate European LDR development. This paper is focused on the structural-mechanical aspects of this study. We identify the general requirements for LDRs with special emphasis on launcher accommodation for EO mission. In the next step, optimal concepts for the LDR structure and the RF-Surface are reviewed. Regarding the RF surface, both, a knitted metal mesh and a shell membrane based on carbon fibre reinforced silicon (CFRS) are considered. In terms of the backing structure, the peripheral ring concept is identified as most promising and a large number of options for the deployment kinematics are discussed. Of those, pantographic kinematics and a conical peripheral ring are selected. A preliminary design for these two most promising LDR concepts is performed which includes static, modal and kinematic simulation and also techniques to generate the reflector nets.

  16. Expanded Very Large Array Nova Project Observations of the Classical NovaV1723 Aquilae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Nelson, Thomas; Mukai, Koji; Bode, M. F.; Eyres, S. P. S.; OBrien, T. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova VI723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of VI723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of VI723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  17. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE BARNARD 5 STAR-FORMING CORE: EMBEDDED FILAMENTS REVEALED

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Longmore, Steven; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Arce, Hector G.; Caselli, Paola; Corder, Stuartt

    2011-09-20

    We present {approx}6.'5 x 8' Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) mosaic observations of the NH{sub 3} (1,1) emission in the Barnard 5 region in Perseus, with an angular resolution of 6''. This map covers the coherent region, where the dense gas presents subsonic non-thermal motions (as seen from single dish observations with the Green Bank Telescope, GBT). The combined EVLA and GBT observations reveal, for the first time, a striking filamentary structure (20'' wide or 5000 AU at the distance of Perseus) in this low-mass star-forming region. The integrated intensity profile of this structure is consistent with models of an isothermal filament in hydrostatic equilibrium. The observed separation between the B5-IRS1 young stellar object (YSO), in the central region of the core, and the northern starless condensation matches the Jeans length of the dense gas. This suggests that the dense gas in the coherent region is fragmenting. The observed region displays a narrow velocity dispersion, where most of the gas shows evidence for subsonic turbulence and where little spatial variations are present. It is only close to the YSO where an increase in the velocity dispersion is found, but still displaying subsonic non-thermal motions.

  18. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY NOVA PROJECT OBSERVATIONS OF THE CLASSICAL NOVA V1723 AQUILAE

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Miriam I.; Chomiuk, Laura; Rupen, Michael; Roy, Nirupam; Mioduszewski, Amy J. E-mail: lchomiuk@nrao.edu E-mail: nroy@nrao.edu

    2011-09-20

    We present radio light curves and spectra of the classical nova V1723 Aql obtained with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA). This is the first paper to showcase results from the EVLA Nova Project, which comprises a team of observers and theorists utilizing the greatly enhanced sensitivity and frequency coverage of EVLA radio observations, along with observations at other wavelengths, to reach a deeper understanding of the energetics, morphology, and temporal characteristics of nova explosions. Our observations of V1723 Aql span 1-37 GHz in frequency, and we report on data from 14 to 175 days following the time of the nova explosion. The broad frequency coverage and frequent monitoring show that the radio behavior of V1723 Aql does not follow the classic Hubble-flow model of homologous spherically expanding thermal ejecta. The spectra are always at least partially optically thin, and the flux rises on faster timescales than can be reproduced with linear expansion. Therefore, any description of the underlying physical processes must go beyond this simple picture. The unusual spectral properties and light curve evolution might be explained by multiple emitting regions or shocked material. Indeed, X-ray observations from Swift reveal that shocks are likely present.

  19. Bursts of energetic electron induced large surface charging observed by Chang'E-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Zhang, A. B.; Zhang, X. G.; Reme, H.; Kong, L. G.; Zhang, S. Y.; Yu, D. J.; Wang, S. J.; Zhu, G. W.

    2012-10-01

    A relationship between surface charging and bursts of energetic electron (BEE) event is presented in this paper. In a 200 km lunar polar orbit, during quiet time, 0.1-2.0 MeV BEE events were observed by High Energetic Particles Detectors (HPD) on board Chang'E-1, on December 22, 2007, when the spacecraft was within the inner terrestrial magnetosheath. At the same time, a large surface charging of ∼-5.4 kV was observed by Chang'E-1, which was evidenced by increasing the ions energy observed by Solar Wind Ion Detectors (SWIDs). We found that the surface charging is strongly correlated with BEE events, and the potentials of spacecraft surface charging was experientially expressed as U≈3.6×10-5·fT (kV). The BEE events did occur in the solar wind, geomagnetic tail and magnetosheath alternately, whereas the surface charging during the BEE events is in the magnetosheath or transition region of boundaries. Though the observed surface charging was fewer than the BEE events, it is expected that the occurrence of the charging events caused by the bursts of energetic electrons should be more frequent than the Chang'E-1 observations. Meanwhile, the spacecraft charging indicates the lunar surface can be charged to negative kilovolt-scale by the BEE events even in quiet times.

  20. Interstellar Chemistry Special Feature: Interferometric observations of large biologically interesting interstellar and cometary molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Lewis E.

    2006-08-01

    Interferometric observations of high-mass regions in interstellar molecular clouds have revealed hot molecular cores that have substantial column densities of large, partly hydrogen-saturated molecules. Many of these molecules are of interest to biology and thus are labeled "biomolecules." Because the clouds containing these molecules provide the material for star formation, they may provide insight into presolar nebular chemistry, and the biomolecules may provide information about the potential of the associated interstellar chemistry for seeding newly formed planets with prebiotic organic chemistry. In this overview, events are outlined that led to the current interferometric array observations. Clues that connect this interstellar hot core chemistry to the solar system can be found in the cometary detection of methyl formate and the interferometric maps of cometary methanol. Major obstacles to understanding hot core chemistry remain because chemical models are not well developed and interferometric observations have not been very sensitive. Differentiation in the molecular isomers glycolaldehdye, methyl formate, and acetic acid has been observed, but not explained. The extended source structure for certain sugars, aldehydes, and alcohols may require nonthermal formation mechanisms such as shock heating of grains. Major advances in understanding the formation chemistry of hot core species can come from observations with the next generation of sensitive, high-resolution arrays. biomolecules | comets | chemistry

  1. Large Binocular Telescope Observations of Europa Occulting Io's Volcanoes at 4.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrutskie, Michael F.; Conrad, Albert; Resnick, Aaron; Leisenring, Jarron; Hinz, Phil; de Pater, Imke; de Kleer, Katherine; Spencer, John; Skemer, Andrew; Woodward, Charles E.; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Defrére, Denis

    2015-11-01

    On 8 March 2015 Europa passed nearly centrally in front of Io. The Large Binocular Telescope observed this event in dual-aperture AO-corrected Fizeau interferometric imaging mode using the mid-infrared imager LMIRcam operating behind the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) at a broadband wavelength of 4.8 μm (M-band). Occultation light curves generated from frames recorded every 123 milliseconds show that both Loki and Pele/Pillan were well resolved. Europa's center shifted by 2 kilometers relative to Io from frame-to-frame. The derived light curve for Loki is consistent with the double-lobed structure reported by Conrad et al. (2015) using direct interferometric imaging with LBTI.

  2. Observing the temperature of the big bang through large scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Pedro G.; Magueijo, Joo

    2008-09-01

    It is an interesting possibility that the Universe underwent a period of thermal equilibrium at very early times. One expects a residue of this primordial state to be imprinted on the large scale structure of space time. In this paper, we study the morphology of this thermal residue in a universe whose early dynamics is governed by a scalar field. We calculate the amplitude of fluctuations on large scales and compare it with the imprint of vacuum fluctuations. We then use the observed power spectrum of fluctuations on the cosmic microwave background to place a constraint on the temperature of the Universe before and during inflation. We also present an alternative scenario, where the fluctuations are predominantly thermal and near scale-invariant.

  3. Ultraviolet observations by the IUE of 31 clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassatella, A.; Barbero, J.; Geyer, E. H.

    1987-05-01

    Ultraviolet observations of 31 star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer are presented. The clusters, mostly globular, span the range of ages from about 10 to the 7th to 10 to the 10th yr. The sample includes several young globular clusters, which have no counterpart in the Galaxy. The paper is devoted to the study of the basic properties of the clusters in the ultraviolet, such as the interstellar reddening, the spatial extension in the ultraviolet, and the ultraviolet color indices. These data are essential for a later study of the evolutionary stage of the clusters. One important result of this study is that a discontinuity exists in the UV two-color diagram, a fact which deserves further investigation, since it might support the suggestion made by other authors that an active star formation phase took place in the Large Magellanic Cloud starting about 100 million yr ago.

  4. Observations of two peculiar emission objects in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kafatos, M.; Michalitsianos, A. G.; Allen, D. A.; Stencel, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visual wavelength spectra were obtained of two peculiar emission objects, Henize S63 and Sanduleak's star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Previously not observed in the near- or far-ultraviolet, both objects exhibit strong permitted and semiforbidden line emissions. Estimates based on the absolute continuum flux of the hot companion star in Hen S63 indicate that it rivals the luminosity of the carbon star primary. The emission-line profile structure in both objects does not suggest Wolf-Rayet type emission. Carbon in Sanduleak's star (LMC anonymous) is conspicuously absent, while N V, semiforbidden N IV, and semiforbidden N III dominate the UV emission-line spectrum. Nitrogen is overabundant with respect to carbon and oxygen in both objects. The large overabundance of nitrogen in Sanduleak's star suggests evidence for CNO processes material similar to that seen in Nu Car.

  5. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin S; Wong, Yvonne Y Y E-mail: sth@phys.au.dk E-mail: ywong@mppmu.mpg.de

    2008-09-15

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter {epsilon} ({approx}>0.001), a positive detection of trans-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10{sup -4}. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound, a scale of new physics as high as {approx}0.2 M{sub P} could lead to observable signatures.

  6. IRAS observations of a large circumstellar dust shell around W Hydrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, G. W.

    1990-01-01

    IRAS observations at 60 and 100 microns reveal a large 30-40-arcmin (about 1-pc) diameter dust shell centered on the oxygen-rich red giant W Hya. Except for SNRs, this is the largest mass-loss envelope, in apparent diameter, known around any evolved star, including PN. W Hya's radiation field, stronger than the interstellar radiation field in the outer envelope, is sufficient to heat dust grains with IR emissivity proportional to lambda exp -1.2 to temperatures of about 40 K implied by the ratio of intensities at 60 and 100 microns.

  7. The 2-D Curvature of Large Angle Interplanetary MHD Discontinuity Surfaces: IMP-8 and WIND Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.; McClernan, K.

    2002-12-01

    This study examines the degree of 2-D curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large ``discontinuity angles" of 90 or greater. The discontinuity angle (? ) is measured in the DDs current sheet, the normal to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft, and the DDs center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points; average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probably value is 290 RE. The average ? is 140 with a relatively large spread (? =28). The average direction of propagation is: longitude = 194 and latitude = 7 (but < ? lat? > = 27). Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, defined in terms the ratio of speed of propagation to net speed (``ratio") of the DD surface, (the RD ratio is high and the TD ratio is very low or zero). The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of the normal component of the magnetic field. There is little difference in any average parameter value according to type. However, the average ? appears to depend slightly on type with the < ? > for the RDs being smaller. A DDs type was shown to change in either direction between the two observation positions about 40% of the time. It is not clear if these changes are spatial or temporal. Shortcomings of the analysis are: (1) the need to impose an upper limit on the angular difference of the DD normals between the two observing positions (which eliminated most surfaces of very small radii of curvature), and (2) the inability to distinguish real curvature from shorter-scale surface variations, from only two spacecraft data sets. The results of the study should help to caution us as to the simplistic use of the planar DD surface assumption in projecting, to the distance of Earth's magnetosphere, a distantly observed DD surface (e.g., one near L1), especially for studies that depend on accurately predicting the timing and characteristics of magnetospheric events.

  8. Large scale 21 CM H I observations of the CYG OB1/OB3 supershell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewdney, P. E.; Lozinskaya, T. A.

    1994-12-01

    We present new large-scale 21 cm H I observations of the Cyg OB1/OB3 supershell, which is visible with varying degrees of prominence in the IR, radio, and optical ranges. Our data reveal a 4.6x6.1 deg H I feature, larger than the IR and optical supershell. A shell-like structure of neutral gas is seen over a wide velocity range (+30 to -70 km/s) with a possible expansion velocity up to about 30 to 50 km/s. The H I morphology varies substantially in different velocity ranges, implying a very irregular shape of the shell. The mass of the H I supershell is estimated to be 5400 to 13,000 solar masses. The H I supershell that we have detected most likely represents the huge superbubble hypothesized by Nichols-Bohlin & Fesen (1993) from observations along individual lines of sight to stars in Cygnus region.

  9. Observation of MHD Instabilities Driven by Energetic Electrons in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsutaka, Isobe; Kunihiro, Ogawa; Akihiro, Shimizu; Masaki, Osakabe; Shin, Kubo; Toi, K.; LHD Experiment Group

    2015-04-01

    Coherent magnetic fluctuations in an acoustic range of frequency have been regularly observed in low-density (ne < 0.21019 m-3) plasmas with strong second harmonic electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on the Large Helical Device. Hard X-ray measurements indicated that energetic electrons are generated in these ECRH discharges. The magnetic fluctuations are suppressed in higher density discharges where energetic electrons are not present. The ECRH power modulation experiment indicated that the observed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mode has an acoustic nature rather than an Alfvnic nature. supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Encouragement of Scientists from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 20656150). This work was also partly supported by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the field of Plasma Physics (NSFC: No. 11261140328 and NRF: No. 2012K2A2A6000443)

  10. FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS INTERACTING WITH MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Daniel; Slane, Patrick

    2010-07-01

    We report the detection of {gamma}-ray emission coincident with four supernova remnants (SNRs) using data from the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. G349.7+0.2, CTB 37A, 3C 391, and G8.7-0.1 are SNRs known to be interacting with molecular clouds, as evidenced by observations of hydroxyl (OH) maser emission at 1720 MHz in their directions. SNR shocks are expected to be sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and clouds of dense material can provide effective targets for production of {gamma}-rays from {pi}{sup 0} decay. The observations reveal unresolved sources in the direction of G349.7+0.2, CTB 37A, and 3C 391, and a possibly extended source coincident with G8.7-0.1, all with significance levels greater than 10{sigma}.

  11. Observation of visible forbidden lines from highly charged tungsten ions at the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, D.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.; Murakami, I.; Sakaue, H. A.; Ding, X. B.; Sudo, S.; Suzuki, C.; Tamura, N.; Nakamura, N.; Watanabe, H.; Koike, F.

    2013-09-01

    Visible line emission from highly charged tungsten ions has been observed at the large helical device (LHD) using a tracer encapsulated solid pellet. One of the measured lines is assigned to a magnetic-dipole (M1) line of the ground-term fine-structure transition of W26+. The other line is unidentified but probably due to a highly charged tungsten ion. Photon emission was observed at 40 lines of sight divided along the vertical direction of a horizontally elongated poloidal cross section of the LHD plasma. The line-integrated intensity of the M1 line along each line of sight indicates a peaked profile at the plasma center where the electron temperatures are high enough so that tungsten ions are highly ionized.

  12. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cosmic-Ray Induced

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A.

    2012-02-29

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced {gamma}-ray emission of Earth's atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The LAT has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth-limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded {approx} 6.4 x 10{sup 6} photons with energies > 100 MeV and {approx} 250 hours total livetime for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission - often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission - has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index {Lambda} = 2.79 {+-} 0.06.

  13. Large Amplitude Whistlers in the Magnetosphere Observed with Wind-Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, P. J.; Cattell, C. A.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2011-01-01

    We describe the results of a statistical survey of Wind-Waves data motivated by the recent STEREO/Waves discovery of large-amplitude whistlers in the inner magnetosphere. Although Wind was primarily intended to monitor the solar wind, the spacecraft spent 47 h inside 5 R(sub E) and 431 h inside 10 R(sub E) during the 8 years (1994-2002) that it orbited the Earth. Five episodes were found when whistlers had amplitudes comparable to those of Cattell et al. (2008), i.e., electric fields of 100 m V/m or greater. The whistlers usually occurred near the plasmapause. The observations are generally consistent with the whistlers observed by STEREO. In contrast with STEREO, Wind-Waves had a search coil, so magnetic measurements are available, enabling determination of the wave vector without a model. Eleven whistler events with useable magnetic measurements were found. The wave vectors of these are distributed around the magnetic field direction with angles from 4 to 48deg. Approximations to observed electron distribution functions show a Kennel-Petschek instability which, however, does not seem to produce the observed whistlers. One Wind episode was sampled at 120,000 samples/s, and these events showed a signature that is interpreted as trapping of electrons in the electrostatic potential of an oblique whistler. Similar waveforms are found in the STEREO data. In addition to the whistler waves, large amplitude, short duration solitary waves (up to 100 mV/m), presumed to be electron holes, occur in these passes, primarily on plasma sheet field lines mapping to the auroral zone.

  14. STEREO observations of large amplitude electrostatic waves at the Earth's bowshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breneman, A. W.; Cattell, C. A.; Wilson, L. B., III; Kersten, K.; Goetz, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Earth's bowshock as well as interplanetary shocks host a variety of mechanisms that provide for the dissipation of bulk flow energy. Wilson et al., 2007 suggested that wave-particle interactions, in addition to previously suggested particle reflection, may be an important part of the energy dissipation at high mach number shocks. Supporting this idea, two recent papers have identified very large amplitude electrostatic waves upstream of the Earth's bowshock and an interplanetary shock. These waves are expected to contribute significantly to particle scattering and heating. Large amplitude turbulent electrostatic waveforms (up to 40 mV/m), identified as ion acoustic waves, were first observed by Hull et al., 2006 from Polar spacecraft data upstream of the Earth's bowshock during active solar wind conditions. Similar waveforms were observed on Wind by Wilson et al., 2010 (up to 100 mV/m) at a supercritical interplanetary shock and were identified as electron Bernstein waves. These studies were limited to two bowshock crossings and a single interplanetary shock, respectively. We present a preliminary study of a much larger data set of these waves from high time resolution STEREO burst waveform data. Over 200 burst capture electric field waveforms are seen in twelve separate groups on all four Earth swing-by orbits in 2006. They are observed not only at each bowshock crossing, but also within the magnetosheath and at the magnetopause. Wave amplitudes range from ~20 to 200 mV/m. With this dataset we will provide statistical context to the observations of the aforementioned papers and attempt to resolve the discrepancy in wave identification. The results of this study will elucidate the plasma conditions under which these waves are generated and constrain possible generation mechanisms. The ubiquity of these waves, under a variety of solar wind conditions, suggests that they may indeed play an important role in the dissipation of energy at the bowshock.

  15. Marine Stratocumulus during VOCALS: Comparing Microphysical Observations to Large-Eddy Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, J.; Rossiter, D. L.; Feingold, G.; Jiang, H.; Chuang, P. Y.

    2010-12-01

    Large-eddy simulation (LES) is a tool capable of resolving cloud-scale processes and has been used extensively for study of the stratocumulus-topped boundary layer. Understanding the strengths and deficiencies of LES is crucial if we are to use it effectively. The ability of LES to accurately represent detailed microphysics has been sparsely investigated (Khairoutdinov and Kogan, 1999), and we seek to advance knowledge in this area. Here we study how well LES coupled with an explicit binned resolving model can simulate daytime observations of stratocumulus dynamics and microphysics during VOCALS. Our observations were acquired from the CIRPAS Twin Otter on October 19th, 2008 centered around 20 S, 72 W. During this day a well-mixed, non-drizzling stratus-topped boundary layer of ~300m thickness was observed. The cloud top height, thermodynamic profile, and wind profile all remained relatively stationary throughout the observation period. Potential temperature and moisture content jumps were 15.2 K and -6.55 g/kg, respectively. The Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe (PCASP) showed aerosol concentrations elevated (~600 cm^-3) from what is expected for clean maritime conditions. The Twin Otter was outfitted an airborne phase Doppler Interferometer (PDI) providing detailed microphysical information about the cloud layer. The PDI data show a monomodal drop size distribution that exhibits little change in shape with change in liquid water content (LWC), consistent with extreme inhomogeneous mixing of air parcels. For our numerical model we employ the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS, Cotton et al., 2001) in LES mode. So that the results of our LES best matched the detailed microphysical data from the PDI, we coupled a binned microphysical model to our LES (Feingold et al., 1996; Tzivion et al., 1987). Our LES cloud top height after model spin-up then matches the observations while model cloud base is 25 m than observations. Comparisons between probability distribution functions of LWC at matched heights in the observations and the LES results show reasonable agreement. The strength of simulated boundary-layer circulations is substantially weaker than what the observations suggest. These weak circulations are associated with a somewhat decoupled cloud layer in the LES which was not evident in our daytime observations. We suggest that this decoupling could be related to modeled overentrainment of free tropospheric air. Our model cloud top increases by 10 m over one hour of simulation, while no cloud top height increase was observed. For large LWCs (0.3 g/kg or greater) LES predicts drop size distribution remarkably well. For lower LWCs, the LES shows a substantial tail to smaller drop sizes not present in the observations. We attribute this discrepancy to the assumption of purely homogeneous mixing in the LES model. The LES also predicts a substantial number of small cloud droplets (~ 2 micron diameter) that are not observed by the PDI.

  16. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF DG TAU'S RADIO JET: A HIGHLY COLLIMATED THERMAL OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, C.; Mutel, R. L.; Gayley, K. G.; Guedel, M.; Ray, T.; Skinner, S. L.; Schneider, P. C.

    2013-03-20

    The active young protostar DG Tau has an extended jet that has been well studied at radio, optical, and X-ray wavelengths. We report sensitive new Very Large Array (VLA) full-polarization observations of the core and jet between 5 GHz and 8 GHz. Our high angular resolution observation at 8 GHz clearly shows an unpolarized inner jet with a size of 42 AU (0.''35) extending along a position angle similar to the optical-X ray outer jet. Using our nearly coeval 2012 VLA observations, we find a spectral index {alpha} = +0.46 {+-} 0.05, which combined with the lack of polarization is consistent with bremsstrahlung (free-free) emission, with no evidence for a non-thermal coronal component. By identifying the end of the radio jet as the optical depth unity surface, and calculating the resulting emission measure, we find that our radio results are in agreement with previous optical line studies of electron density and consequent mass-loss rate. We also detect a weak radio knot at 5 GHz located 7'' from the base of the jet, coincident with the inner radio knot detected by Rodriguez et al. in 2009 but at lower surface brightness. We interpret this as due to expansion of post-shock ionized gas in the three years between observations.

  17. BATSE Observations of the Large-Scale Isotropy of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Horack, John M.; Brock, Martin N.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Hakkila, Jon

    1996-01-01

    We use dipole and quadrupole statistics to test the large-scale isotropy of the first 1005 gamma-ray bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). In addition to the entire sample of 1005 gamma-ray bursts, many subsets are examined. We use a variety of dipole and quadrupole statistics to search for Galactic and other predicted anisotropies and for anisotropies in a coordinate-system independent manner. We find the gamma-ray burst locations to be consistent with isotropy, e.g., for the total sample the observed Galactic dipole moment (cos theta) differs from the value predicted for isotropy by 0.9 sigma and the observed Galactic quadrupole moment (sin(exp 2) b - 1/3) by 0.3 sigma. We estimate for various models the anisotropies that could have been detected. If one-half of the locations were within 86 deg of the Galactic center, or within 28 deg of the Galactic plane, the ensuing dipole or quadrupole moment would have typically been detected at the 99% confidence level. We compare the observations with the dipole and quadrupole moments of various Galactic models. Several Galactic gamma-ray bursts models have moments within 2 sigma of the observations; most of the Galactic models proposed to date are no longer in acceptable agreement with the data. Although a spherical dark matter halo distribution could be consistent with the data, the required core radius is larger than the core radius of the dark matter halo used to explain the Galaxy's rotation curve. Gamma-ray bursts are much more isotropic than any observed Galactic population, strongly favoring but not requiring an origin at cosmological distances.

  18. Observations of a large-scale gravity wave propagating over an extremely large horizontal distance in the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianpeng; Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Wei, Fengsi; Feng, Xueshang; Liu, Huixin; Wan, Weixing; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Chaoxu; Emery, Barbara A.; Deng, Yue

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report the detection of a large-scale gravity wave propagating over an extremely large horizontal distance in the thermosphere on 28 July 2006. Specifically, after being launched at the northern auroral region on the dayside, this wave propagated equatorward with phase speeds on the order of 720 m/s and finally almost traveled around the Earth once horizontally in the thermosphere prior to dissipation. The time taken to dissipate is about 15.5 h. It is the farthest-traveling large-scale gravity wave currently tracked by satellite measurements, made possible by a sudden injection of energy in an unusually clean propagation environment. This experiment of opportunity serves as an important step in furthering our theoretical understanding of gravity wave propagation and dissipation in the thermosphere.

  19. The deterioration of Circular Mausoleum, Roman Necropolis of Carmona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Cañaveras, Juan C; Fernandez-Cortes, Angel; Elez, Javier; Cuezva, Soledad; Jurado, Valme; Miller, Ana Zelia; Rogerio-Candelera, Miguel A; Benavente, David; Hernandez-Marine, Mariona; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio

    2015-06-15

    The Circular Mausoleum tomb in the Roman Necropolis of Carmona was carved on a calcarenite sequence in an ancient quarry located in the town of Carmona, Southern Spain. This rock-cut tomb, representative of Roman burial practices, currently suffers from serious deterioration. A detailed survey over several years permitted the identification of the main tomb's pathologies and damaging processes, which include loss of material (scaling, flaking, granular disintegration), surface modifications (efflorescences, crusts and deposits) and extensive biological colonization. The results obtained in this study indicated that anthropogenic changes were largely responsible and enhanced the main alteration mechanisms observed in the Circular Mausoleum. Based on the deterioration diagnosis, effective corrective actions were proposed. This study shows that any conservative intervention in the interior of the tomb should be preceded by accurate in situ measurements and laboratory analyses to ascribe the source of the deterioration damages and thus designing effective treatments. PMID:25747366

  20. THEMIS Observations of the Magnetopause Electron Diffusion Region: Large Amplitude Waves and Heated Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Xiangwei; Cattell, Cynthia; Dombeck, John; Dai, Lei; Wilson, Lynn B. III; Breneman, Aaron; Hupack, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We present the first observations of large amplitude waves in a well-defined electron diffusion region based on the criteria described by Scudder et al at the subsolar magnetopause using data from one Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) satellite. These waves identified as whistler mode waves, electrostatic solitary waves, lower hybrid waves, and electrostatic electron cyclotron waves, are observed in the same 12 s waveform capture and in association with signatures of active magnetic reconnection. The large amplitude waves in the electron diffusion region are coincident with abrupt increases in electron parallel temperature suggesting strong wave heating. The whistler mode waves, which are at the electron scale and which enable us to probe electron dynamics in the diffusion region were analyzed in detail. The energetic electrons (approx. 30 keV) within the electron diffusion region have anisotropic distributions with T(sub e(right angle))/T(sub e(parallel)) > 1 that may provide the free energy for the whistler mode waves. The energetic anisotropic electrons may be produced during the reconnection process. The whistler mode waves propagate away from the center of the "X-line" along magnetic field lines, suggesting that the electron diffusion region is a possible source region of the whistler mode waves.

  1. Strongly sheared stratocumulus convection: an observationally based large-eddy simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zheng, X.; Jiang, Q.

    2012-06-01

    Unusually large wind shears across the inversion in the stratocumulus-topped marine boundary layer (MBL) were frequently observed during VOCALS-REx. To investigate the impact of wind shear on the MBL turbulence structure, a large-eddy simulation (LES) model is used to simulate the strongly sheared MBL observed from Twin-Otter RF 18 on 13 November 2008. The LES simulated turbulence statistics agree in general with those derived from the measurements, with the MBL exhibiting a decoupled structure characterized by an enhanced entrainment and a turbulence intensity minimum just below the clouds. Sensitivity simulations show that the shear forcing tends to reduce the dynamic stability of the inversion, characterized by the bulk (or gradient) Richardson number. This decrease enhances the entrainment mixing, leading to reduced cloud water. Consequently, the turbulence intensity in the MBL is significantly weakened by the intense wind shear. The inversion thickens considerably and the MBL top separates from the cloud top, creating a finite cloud-free sublayer of 10-50 m thickness within the inversion, depending on the Richardson number. The weakened inversion tends to enhance the turbulence buoyant consumption and simultaneously lead to a reduced buoyant production in the cloud layer due to less radiative cooling. These effects may result in a decoupling process that creates the different heating/moistening rates between the cloud and subcloud layer, leading to a two-layered structure in the strongly sheared stratocumulus-topped MBL.

  2. The characteristics of quasistatic electric field perturbations observed by DEMETER satellite before large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Shen, X.; Zhao, S.; Yao, Lu; Ouyang, X.; Qian, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new results after processing the ULF electric field (DC-15 Hz) observed by DEMETER satellite (h = 660-710 km). Typical perturbations were picked up in quasistatic electric field around some large earthquakes in 2010 at first. And then, 27 earthquakes were selected to be analyzed on quasistatic electric field in two seismic regions of Indonesia and Chile at equatorial and middle latitude area respectively. Three-component electric field data related to earthquakes were collected along all the up-orbits (in local nighttime) in a limited distance of 2000 km to the epicenters during 9 days with 7 days before and 1 day after those cases, and totally 57 perturbations were found around them. All the results show that the amplitude of quasistatic electric field perturbations varies from 1.5 to 16 mV/m in the upper ionosphere, mostly smaller than 10 mV/m. And the perturbations were mainly located just over the epicentral area or at the end of seismic faults constructed by a series of earthquakes where electromagnetic emissions may be easily formed during preparation and development processes of seismic sequences. Among all 27 cases, there are 10 earthquakes with perturbations occurring just one day before, which demonstrates the close correlation in time domain between quasistatic electric field in ionosphere and large earthquakes. Finally, combined with in situ observation of plasma parameters, the coupling mechanism of quasistatic electric field in different earth spheres was discussed.

  3. Confronting the relaxation mechanism for a large cosmological constant with observations

    SciTech Connect

    Basilakos, Spyros; Bauer, Florian; Solà, Joan E-mail: fbauerphysik@eml.cc

    2012-01-01

    In order to deal with a large cosmological constant a relaxation mechanism based on modified gravity has been proposed recently. By virtue of this mechanism the effect of the vacuum energy density of a given quantum field/string theory (no matter how big is its initial value in the early universe) can be neutralized dynamically, i.e. without fine tuning, and hence a Big Bang-like evolution of the cosmos becomes possible. Remarkably, a large class (F{sup n}{sub m}) of models of this kind, namely capable of dynamically adjusting the vacuum energy irrespective of its value and size, has been identified. In this paper, we carefully put them to the experimental test. By performing a joint likelihood analysis we confront these models with the most recent observational data on type Ia supernovae (SNIa), the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) and the high redshift data on the expansion rate, so as to determine which ones are the most favored by observations. We compare the optimal relaxation models F{sup n}{sub m} found by this method with the standard or concordance ΛCDM model, and find that some of these models may appear as almost indistinguishable from it. Interestingly enough, this shows that it is possible to construct viable solutions to the tough cosmological fine tuning problem with models that display the same basic phenomenological features as the concordance model.

  4. A Large Biogenic Source of Formic Acid Revealed From Space Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Muller, J. J.; Peeters, J.; Razavi, A.; Clarisse, L.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.; Hurtmans, D.

    2011-12-01

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is a ubiquitous trace gas in ambient air and a major contributor to acidic rain in remote environments. Its sources, however, are far from being fully understood. Along with direct emissions from human activities, vegetation fires and green plants, its major and most uncertain source is photochemical, and predominantly biogenic. Severe underpredictions of observed formic acid concentrations by large scale models in earlier studies pointed to the existence of missing sources. New insights into our understanding of the formic acid budget are brought forward by recent measurements of global tropospheric columns of formic acid retrieved from the thermal infrared IASI satellite sensor. In this communication, we use the IASI observations as input to an advanced source inversion algorithm coupled with a global chemistry transport model to build constraints on the formic acid budget. We deduce an annual formic acid source much higher than estimated from known sources, with a biogenic contribution of about 90%, mostly from tropical and boreal forests. We evaluate the derived fluxes against an extensive compilation of independent formic acid measurements, and investigate the implications of the large formic acid source on precipitation acidity on the global scale.

  5. Very Large Rain Drops from 2D Video Disdrometers and Concomitant Polarimetric Radar Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurai, Merhala; Gatlin, Patrick; Bringi, V. N.; Carey, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Drop size distribution (DSD) measurements using ground-based disdrometers (point measurements) have often been used to derive equations to relate radar observations to the integral rainfall parameters (Atlas et al. 1999, Bringi et al., 2003, Kozu et al., 2006, Tokay and Short, 1996, Ajayi and Owolabi, 1987, Battan, 1973). Disdrometers such as JWD, MRR and several others have a major limitation in measuring drops with equi-volume diameters (D(sub eq)) larger than 5 mm because they often rely on the velocity-diameter relationship which plateaus beyond this diameter range (Atlas et al., 1973, Gunn & Kinzer, 1949). Other disdrometers such as Parsivel also lack accuracy beyond this diameter range. The 2D video disdrometer (2DVD: Schönhuber et al., 2008) on the other hand gives drop-shape contours and velocities for each individual drop/hydrometeor falling through its sensor area; this provides a unique opportunity to study the role of very-large drops on radar measurements in particular those with polarimetric radar capability where DSDs with a significant component of very large drops may require special consideration given that the differential reflectivity and other polarimetric radar parameters including attenuation-correction methods will be sensitive to the concentrations of these large drops. A recent study on the occurrence of large drops by Gatlin et al. (2014) has compiled a large and diverse set of measurements made with the 2D video disdrometers from many locations around the globe. Some of the largest drops found in this study were 9 mm D(sub eq) and larger, and in this paper, we report on three such events, with maximum D(sub eq's) of 9.0, 9.1 and 9.7 mm, which occurred in Colorado, Northern Alabama, and Oklahoma, respectively. Detailed examination of the 2DVD data - in terms of shapes and fall velocities - has confirmed that these are fully-melted hydrometeors, although for the last case in Oklahoma, a bigger and non-fully-melted hydrometeor was also observed. All three events were also captured by polarimetric radars, namely the S-band CHILL radar operated by Colorado State University (Brunkow et al., 2000), the C-band ARMOR radar (Petersen et al., 2007) operated by University of Alabama in Huntsville, and NEXRADKVNX, operated by the US National Weather Service, respectively. For the last event, several other radar observations were also made, including two X-band radars operated by the US Dept. of Energy. Analyses of 2DVD data in conjunction with the corresponding radar observations are presented, along with some discussion on sampling issues related to the measurements of such large rain drops. The latter is addressed using maximum diameter D(sub max) measurements from 1-minute DSDs using two collocated 2DVDs for 37 events in Huntsville.

  6. What controls drizzle initiation? Insights from a comparison of large-eddy simulations with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Chuang, P. Y.; Wang, L. P.; Ayala, O.

    2014-12-01

    Drizzle occurs frequently in shallow, warm boundary layer clouds. For example, in stratocumulus it occurs approximately 1/3 of the time in full cloud cover conditions (Wood 2012). Drizzle affects moisture and energy budgets, and cloud albedo, morphology and lifetime. At the cloud scale, processes that control drizzle formation include turbulence production via radiative cooling and/or shear, entrainment, and surface moisture fluxes. At the micro-scale, collision-coalescence is the primary process relevant to warm drizzle formation. Differential gravitational sedimentation and turbulent air motions cause cloud droplets to collide, creating drops much larger than can be formed by condensation alone. Other factors, such as preferential concentration and entrainment mixing may also be relevant. The process is typically subdivided into three regimes: autoconversion (small drops self-collide), accretion (large drops collect small drops), and hydrometeor self-collection (large drops self-collide). Of these regimes, autoconversion is the rate-limiting step in existing analytical representations. This study (i) evaluates whether our best theoretical understanding of collision-coalescence in the autoconversion regime can replicate observations, with a broader goal of (ii) exploring which cloud-scale factors are most important for drizzle initiation. A state-of-the-art turbulent collisional growth model is applied to a bin microphysics scheme within a large-eddy simulation such that the full range of cloud drop growth mechanisms are represented (i.e. CCN activation, condensation, collision-coalescence, mixing, etc.) at realistic atmospheric conditions. We compare cloud drop spectra produced by the LES with observations to assess the quality and limits of our theoretical knowledge. The comparison will be performed over a range of observational cases that span a range of drizzle rates. These cases differ in their radiative cooling rates, shear, cloud-top temperature and moisture jumps, and entrainment rates. Using these diverse cases, we will begin to tease apart the cloud-scale factors governing drizzle rates. Initial results for question (i) suggest that in some cases enhancements of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude over predicted collision rates are necessary to reproduce observations.

  7. Rapid formation of large aggregates during the spring bloom of Kerguelen Island: observations and model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouandet, M.-P.; Jackson, G. A.; Carlotti, F.; Picheral, M.; Stemmann, L.; Blain, S.

    2014-08-01

    While production of aggregates and their subsequent sinking is known to be one pathway for the downward movement of organic matter from the euphotic zone, the rapid transition from non-aggregated to aggregated particles has not been reported previously. We made one vertical profile of particle size distributions (PSD; sizes ranging from 0.052 to several millimeters in equivalent spherical diameter) at pre-bloom stage and seven vertical profiles 3 weeks later over a 48 h period at early bloom stage using the Underwater Vision Profiler during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau Compared Study cruise 2 (KEOPS2, October-November 2011). In these naturally iron-fertilized waters southeast of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean), the total particle numerical abundance increased by more than fourfold within this time period. A massive total volume increase associated with particle size distribution changes was observed over the 48 h survey, showing the rapid formation of large particles and their accumulation at the base of the mixed layer. The results of a one-dimensional particle dynamics model support coagulation as the mechanism responsible for the rapid aggregate formation and the development of the VT subsurface maxima. The comparison of VT profiles between early bloom stage and pre-bloom stage indicates an increase of particulate export below 200 m when bloom has developed. These results highlight the role of coagulation in forming large particles and triggering carbon export at the early stage of a naturally iron-fertilized bloom, while zooplankton grazing may dominate later in the season. The rapid changes observed illustrate the critical need to measure carbon export flux with high sampling temporal resolution. Our results are the first published in situ observations of the rapid accumulation of marine aggregates and their export and the general agreement of this rapid event with a model of phytoplankton growth and coagulation.

  8. Observational Requirements for Ly? Forest Tomographic Mapping of Large-scale Structure at z ~ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ozbek, Melih

    2014-06-01

    The z >~ 2 Ly? forest traces the underlying dark matter distribution on large scales and, given sufficient sightlines, can be used to create three-dimensional (3D) maps of large-scale structures. We examine the observational requirements to construct such maps and estimate the signal-to-noise as a function of exposure time and sightline density. Sightline densities at z = 2.25 are n los ? [360, 1200, 3300] deg-2 at limiting magnitudes of g = [24.0, 24.5, 25.0], resulting in transverse sightline separations of langd rang ? [3.6, 1.9, 1.2] h -1 Mpc, which roughly sets the reconstruction scale. We simulate these reconstructions using mock spectra with realistic noise properties and find that spectra with S/N ? 4 per angstrom can be used to generate maps that clearly trace the underlying dark matter at overdensities of ?/lang?rang ~ 1. For the VLT/VIMOS spectrograph, exposure times t exp = [4, 6, 10] hr are sufficient for maps with spatial resolution epsilon3D = [5.0, 3.2, 2.3] h -1 Mpc. Assuming ~250 h -1 Mpc is probed along the line of sight, 1 deg2 of survey area would cover a comoving volume of ?106 h -3 Mpc3 at langzrang ~ 2.3, enabling the efficient mapping of large volumes with 8-10 m telescopes. These maps could be used to study galaxy environments, the topology of large-scale structures at high z, and to detect proto-clusters.

  9. Forthcoming Coronal Mass Ejection Observations with the Very Large Array (VLA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Kooi, Jason E.; Sink, Joseph R.

    2015-04-01

    It is widely recognized that measurement of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) provides unique information on the internal plasma structure of the CME, particularly the form of the magnetic field. The Faraday rotation measure is proportional to the path integral through the CME of the electron density and the line-of-sight component of the magnetic field. In spite of this importance, there are relatively few measurements of Faraday rotation produced by a CME. The Very Large Array (VLA) of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is an outstanding instrument for measurement of Faraday rotation, and its capabilities have been greatly improved by an upgrade over the past decade. In the case of VLA observations, the trans-coronal sources of radio waves are radio galaxies and quasars. A difficulty in measuring Faraday rotation of a CME is the unpredictability of the CME phenomenon. It is difficult to predict whether a given line of sight to a background source will be occulted by a CME on a given day. We have received approval to carry out ``triggered'' CME observations with the VLA in the summer of 2015. In these observations, we will rely on coronagraph detections of a CME to initiate VLA observations of select background sources. This observing mode will improve on one previously used, in which a decision to observe had to be made a day or more in advance. The goal of these observations will be to secure Faraday rotation measurements on one or more lines of sight that pass through critical parts of a CME. In this paper, we will describe our planned triggering scheme, the selection of background sources, choice of observing frequency and selection of lines of sight that can best determine the plasma structure of a CME. Our planning also depends on prior experience in measurement of coronal Faraday rotation, and Faraday rotation ``transients'' associated with CMEs. This work was supported at the University of Iowa by grant ATM09-56901 from the National Science Foundation.

  10. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Observations Using Large-Format Millimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakon, Nicole G.

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the observable universe, and they are formed from the largest perturbations of the primordial matter power spectrum. During initial cluster collapse, matter is accelerated to supersonic velocities, and the baryonic component is heated as it passes through accretion shocks. This process stabilizes when the pressure of the bound matter prevents further gravitational collapse. Galaxy clusters are useful cosmological probes, because their formation progressively freezes out at the epoch when dark energy begins to dominate the expansion and energy density of the universe. A diverse set of observables, from radio through X-ray wavelengths, are sourced from galaxy clusters, and this is useful for self-calibration. The distributions of these observables trace a cluster's dark matter halo, which represents more than 80% of the cluster's gravitational potential. One such observable is the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE), which results when the ionized intercluster medium blueshifts the cosmic microwave background via Compton scattering. Great technical advances in the last several decades have made regular observation of the SZE possible. Resolved SZE science, such as is explored in this analysis, has benefitted from the construction of large-format camera arrays consisting of highly sensitive millimeter-wave detectors, such as Bolocam. Bolocam is a submillimeter camera, sensitive to 140 GHz and 268 GHz radiation, located at one of the best observing sites in the world: the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Bolocam fielded 144 of the original spider web NTD bolometers used in an entire generation of ground-based, balloon-borne, and satellite-borne millimeter wave instrumention. Over approximately six years, our group at Caltech has developed a mature galaxy cluster observational program with Bolocam. This thesis describes the construction of the instrument's full cluster catalog: BOXSZ. Using this catalog, I have scaled the Bolocam SZE measurements with X-ray mass approximations in an effort to characterize the SZE signal as a viable mass probe for cosmology. This work has confirmed the SZE to be a low-scatter tracer of cluster mass. The analysis has also revealed how sensitive the SZE-mass scaling is to small biases in the adopted mass approximation. Future Bolocam analysis efforts are set on resolving these discrepancies by approximating cluster mass jointly with different observational probes.

  11. Very Large Telescope observations of Gomez's Hamburger: Insights into a young protoplanet candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, O.; Fuente, A.; Pantin, E.; Bujarrabal, V.; Baruteau, C.; Pilleri, P.; Habart, E.; Mnard, F.; Cernicharo, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Joblin, C.

    2015-06-01

    Planets are thought to form in the gas and dust disks around young stars. In particular, it has been proposed that giant planets can form through the gravitational instability of massive extended disks around intermediate-mass stars. However, we still lack direct observations to constrain this mechanism. We have spatially resolved the 8.6 and 11.2 ?m emission of a massive protoplanetary disk seen edge on around an A star, Gomez's Hamburger (GoHam), using VISIR at the Very Large Telescope. A compact region situated at a projected distance of 350 50 AU south of the central star is found to have a reduced emission. This asymmetry is fully consistent with the presence of a cold density structure, or clump, identified in earlier CO observations, and we derive physical characteristics consistent with those observations: a mass of 0.8-11.4 Jupiter masses (for a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01), a radius of about 102 astronomical units, and a local density of about 107 cm-3. Based on this evidence, we argue that this clump, which we call GoHam b, is a promising candidate for a young protoplanet formed by gravitational instability that might be representative of the precursors of massive planets observed around A stars, such as HR 8799 or Beta pictoris. More detailed studies at high angular resolution are needed to better constrain the physical properties of this object to confirm this proposal. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile under program ID 385.C-0762A.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. CIRCULAR RIBBON FLARES AND HOMOLOGOUS JETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haimin; Liu Chang

    2012-12-01

    Solar flare emissions in the chromosphere often appear as elongated ribbons on both sides of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL), which has been regarded as evidence of a typical configuration of magnetic reconnection. However, flares having a circular ribbon have rarely been reported, although it is expected in the fan-spine magnetic topology involving reconnection at a three-dimensional (3D) coronal null point. We present five circular ribbon flares with associated surges, using high-resolution and high-cadence H{alpha} blue wing observations obtained from the recently digitized films of Big Bear Solar Observatory. In all the events, a central parasitic magnetic field is encompassed by the opposite polarity, forming a circular PIL traced by filament material. Consequently, a flare kernel at the center is surrounded by a circular flare ribbon. The four homologous jet-related flares on 1991 March 17 and 18 are of particular interest, as (1) the circular ribbons brighten sequentially, with cospatial surges, rather than simultaneously, (2) the central flare kernels show an intriguing 'round-trip' motion and become elongated, and (3) remote brightenings occur at a region with the same magnetic polarity as the central parasitic field and are co-temporal with a separate phase of flare emissions. In another flare on 1991 February 25, the circular flare emission and surge activity occur successively, and the event could be associated with magnetic flux cancellation across the circular PIL. We discuss the implications of these observations combining circular flare ribbons, homologous jets, and remote brightenings for understanding the dynamics of 3D magnetic restructuring.

  13. Spectral Decay Characteristics in High Frequency Range of Observed Records from Crustal Large Earthquakes (Part 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurugi, M.; Kagawa, T.; Irikura, K.

    2012-12-01

    Spectral decay characteristics in high frequency range of observed records from crustal large earthquakes occurred in Japan is examined. It is very important to make spectral decay characteristics clear in high frequency range for strong ground motion prediction in engineering purpose. The authors examined spectral decay characteristics in high frequency range of observed records among three events, the 2003 Miyagi-Ken Hokubu earthquake (Mw 6.1), the 2005 Fukuoka-Ken Seiho-oki earthquake (Mw 6.6), and the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw 6.9) in previous study [Tsurugi et al.(2010)]. Target earthquakes in this study are two events shown below. *EQ No.1 Origin time: 2011/04/11 17:16, Location of hypocenter: East of Fukushima pref., Mj: 7.0, Mw: 6.6, Fault type: Normal fault *EQ No.2 Origin time: 2011/03/15 22:31, Location of hypocenter: East of Shizuoka pref., Mj: 6.4, Mw: 5.9, Fault type: Strike slip fault The borehole data of each event are used in the analysis. The Butterworth type high-cut filter with cut-off frequency, fmax and its power coefficient of high-frequency decay, s [Boore(1983)], are assumed to express the high-cut frequency characteristics of ground motions. The four parameters such as seismic moment, corner frequency, cut-off frequency and its power coefficient of high-frequency decay are estimated by comparing observed spectra at rock sites with theoretical spectra. The theoretical spectra are calculated based on the omega squared source characteristics convolved with propagation-path effects and high-cut filter shapes. In result, the fmax's of the records from the earthquakes are estimated 8.0Hz for EQ No.1 and 8.5Hz for EQ No.2. These values are almost same with those of other large crustal earthquakes occurred in Japan. The power coefficient, s, are estimated 0.78 for EQ No.1 and 1.65 for EQ No.2. The value for EQ No.2 is notably larger than those of other large crustal earthquakes. It is seems that the value of the power coefficient, s, became large under the effect of complex ground structure and volcanic front. The obtained results may contribute to strong ground motion prediction in high frequency range for crustal earthquakes. Acknowledgement: This study commissioned by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization. We thank the National Research Institute for Earth Science Disaster Prevention to provide the strong-motion data. References: Hanks,T.C. : fmax, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 72, 1867-1879, 1982. Boore,D.M. : Stochastic simulation of high-frequency ground motion based on seismological models of the radiated spectra, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865-1894, 1983. Tsurugi,M., Kagawa,T., and Irikura,K. : Spectral Decay Characteristics in High Frequency Range of Observed Records from Crustal Large Earthquakes, AGU Fall Meeting, 2010.

  14. Sensitivity of Stratocumulus Optical Depths to Droplet Concentrations: Satellite Observations and Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A number of observations and simulations have shown that increased droplet concentrations in ship tracks increase their total cross-sectional area, thereby enhancing cloud albedo and providing a negative (cooling) radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere. In some cases cloud water has been found to be enhanced in ship tracks, which has been attributed to suppression of drizzle and implies an enhanced susceptibility of cloud albedo to droplet concentrations. However, observations from aircraft and satellite indicate that on average cloud water is instead reduced in daytime ship tracks. Such a reduction in liquid water may be attributable to cloud-burning caused by solar heating by soot within the ship exhaust, or by increased precipitation resulting from giant nuclei in the ship exhaust. We will summarize the observational evidence and present results from large-eddy simulations that evaluate these mechanisms. Along the way we will present our insights into the interpretation of satellite retrievals of cloud microphysical properties.

  15. Reduction of Cloud Water in Ship Tracks: Observations and Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackerman, A. S.; Stevens, D. E.; Toon, O. B.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Ship tracks represent a natural laboratory to study the effects of aerosols on clouds. A number of observations and simulations have shown that increased droplet concentrations in ship tracks increase their total cross-sectional area, thereby enhancing cloud albedo and providing a negative radiative forcing at the surface and the top of the atmosphere. In some cases, cloud water has been found to be enhanced in ship tracks, which has been attributed to suppression of drizzle and implies an enhanced susceptibility of cloud albedo to droplet concentrations. However, more recently compiled observations indicate that cloud water is instead reduced in daytime ship tracks on average. Such a response is consistent with cloud-burning due to solar absorption by soot (the semi-direct radiative forcing of aerosols), recently suggested to be suppressing trade cumulus cloud coverage over the Indian Ocean. We will summarize observational evidence and present large-eddy simulations that consider these competing mechanisms in the effects of aerosols on cloud albedo.

  16. A new analysis of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations of Titan's at 2 µm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cours, T.; Rannou, P.; Stelandre, J.; Negrão, A.; Hirtzig, M.; Coustenis, A.; Boudon, V.

    2008-09-01

    In this presentation, we report a new analysis of ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations of Titan at about 2 m m, in the methane band and window. The VLT data consist in two north-south cuts of Titan's disk sampled with about twenty points each point being a spectrum. In this work, we essentially focus on the distribution of the airborn scatterers (e.g, haze aerosols, clouds, mist). In a first step, we compute the outgoing intensity using the prediction of the GCM database for the haze, and we compare the results with the VLT observations. These comparisons allow us to check the validity of the haze layers provided by the GCM database. In a second step, we modify the haze properties and we include a layer of bright scatterers in the troposphere (liquid droplets as observed by DISR) to improve the fit. This work yields a latitude-altitude map of Titan's haze and mist from the VLT data, and we estimate the impact of the haze and the mist layers on the surface albedo retrieval.

  17. A Method for Observing Soil Re-Deposition and Soil Loss Rates in Large Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Y. P.; Bugna, G. C.; Nemours, D.

    2014-12-01

    The lack of quality soil erosion field data, which is required for the verification and calibration of soil erosion models, has been one of the serious problems in the soil conservation modeling today. Observing soil erosion of a relatively large field under truly unobstructed runoff conditions has rarely been done and doccumented. Report here is the results of our observation of soil erosion in a 7.3 ha peanut-cotton cropping system in the Mears Farm of Grand Ridge, FL. We used the mesh-pad method to quantify soil loss from the field and soil re-deposition in the field over the cropping season of 2010. The main slope (1-3 %) of the field is about 210 m long. We show that the amount of soil re-deposition was 50-150 times of the soil loss from the slope. The corresponding organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorous and silt and clay contents of the lost soil, however, were 20.9%, 21%, 17.6% and 14.2%, respectively, of the total amounts re-deposited on the slope. The amounts of soil loss predicted by a SWAT model was 10-20 times greater than our observed values. Soil erosion process was quite heterogeneous, as shown by the mesh-pad method, even on a seemingly uniform cultivated field. Soil erosion models need to be verified and calibrated by extensive quality field data in order to improve their performance.

  18. Circular codes revisited: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, D L; Giannerini, S; Rosa, R

    2011-04-21

    In 1996 Arqus and Michel [1996. A complementary circular code in the protein coding genes. J. Theor. Biol. 182, 45-58] discovered the existence of a common circular code in eukaryote and prokaryote genomes. Since then, circular code theory has provoked great interest and underwent a rapid development. In this paper we discuss some theoretical issues related to the synchronization properties of coding sequences and circular codes with particular emphasis on the problem of retrieval and maintenance of the reading frame. Motivated by the theoretical discussion, we adopt a rigorous statistical approach in order to try to answer different questions. First, we investigate the covering capability of the whole class of 216 self-complementary, C(3) maximal codes with respect to a large set of coding sequences. The results indicate that, on average, the code proposed by Arqus and Michel has the best covering capability but, still, there exists a great variability among sequences. Second, we focus on such code and explore the role played by the proportion of the bases by means of a hierarchy of permutation tests. The results show the existence of a sort of optimization mechanism such that coding sequences are tailored as to maximize or minimize the coverage of circular codes on specific reading frames. Such optimization clearly relates the function of circular codes with reading frame synchronization. PMID:21277862

  19. {gamma}-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF NGC 1275 OBSERVED WITH FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Stawarz, L.; Cheung, C. C.; Tosti, G.; Cavazzuti, E.; Celotti, A.; Nishino, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Thompson, D. J.; McConville, W. F.

    2010-05-20

    We report on a detailed investigation of the high-energy {gamma}-ray emission from NGC 1275, a well-known radio galaxy hosted by a giant elliptical located at the center of the nearby Perseus cluster. With the increased photon statistics, the center of the {gamma}-ray-emitting region is now measured to be separated by only 0.46 arcmin from the nucleus of NGC 1275, well within the 95% confidence error circle with radius {approx_equal}1.5 arcmin. Early Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations revealed a significant decade-timescale brightening of NGC 1275 at GeV photon energies, with a flux about 7 times higher than the one implied by the upper limit from previous EGRET observations. With the accumulation of one year of Fermi-LAT all-sky-survey exposure, we now detect flux and spectral variations of this source on month timescales, as reported in this paper. The average >100 MeV {gamma}-ray spectrum of NGC 1275 shows a possible deviation from a simple power-law shape, indicating a spectral cutoff around an observed photon energy of {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} = 42.2 {+-} 19.6 GeV, with an average flux of F{sub {gamma}} = (2.31 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -7} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a power-law photon index, {Gamma}{sub {gamma}} = 2.13 {+-} 0.02. The largest {gamma}-ray flaring event was observed in 2009 April-May and was accompanied by significant spectral variability above {epsilon}{sub {gamma} {approx}}> 1-2 GeV. The {gamma}-ray activity of NGC 1275 during this flare can be described by a hysteresis behavior in the flux versus photon index plane. The highest energy photon associated with the {gamma}-ray source was detected at the very end of the observation, with the observed energy of {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} = 67.4 GeV and an angular separation of about 2.4 arcmin from the nucleus. In this paper we present the details of the Fermi-LAT data analysis, and briefly discuss the implications of the observed {gamma}-ray spectral evolution of NGC 1275 in the context of {gamma}-ray blazar sources in general.

  20. Cherenkov Radiation of Extencive Air Showers Observed at Large Zenith Angles by SHALON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Arsov, T. P.; Borisov, S. S.; Musn, F. I.; Mirzafatikhov, R. M.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Kasparov, G. M.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.; Platonov, G. F.

    2003-07-01

    The analysis of results of observation of extensive air showers at height of 3338 m above the sea level by means of gamma-telescope SHALON at the zenith angles 72o , 76o, 84o , 96o are presented. The observation results are compared with the data of detection of showers according to the direction into the zenith. The observation has been carried out at high mountainous Tien -Shan station (3338 m) with SHALON -1 gamma-telescope functioning since 1992 and with coming into operation SHALON-2. The SHALON mirror telescopic system consists of composed mirror with area of 11.2m2 . It is equipp ed with 144 photomultipliers lightreceiver with 0.5o angular resolution, that has the most in the world angular size 8o . It allows to control the background of cosmic ray particle emission and the atmospheric transparency continuously with observation that means the increasing of observation efficiency. So it is the telescope characteristics that permit to start the search of local neutrino sources with energy 1012 - 1015 eV on EAS generating in mountain-range located at some 5 and more kilometers from gamma-telescope (in Russian the abbreviation SHALON means the Extensive Air Showers from Neutrino) The gamma-sources search is the first step of the astronomy to the very high energy range. Only neutrino astronomy in the future can complete the search and investigation of galactic and metagalactic objects where the proton and nuclei processes are realized. These processes accompanied by generation of gamma-quanta and neutrino witch are not scattered in Universe magnetic field, that gives an addition possibilities of investigation of the properties of active stelar objects at a very high energy. The observations are carried out on P.N. Leb edev Physical Institute Tien -Shan high-mountainous station with gamma-telescope SHALON-1 acting since a 1992 and started operating SHALON-2 [1-6]. The SHALON telescopes feature is the large full angle that enlarges the observation area, increases the statistical

  1. Changes in the Molar Ellipticities of HEWL Observed by Circular Dichroism and Quantitated by Time Resolved Fluorescence Anisotropy Under Crystallizing Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumida, John

    2002-01-01

    Fluid models for simple colloids predict that as the protein concentration is increased, crystallization should occur at some sufficiently high concentration regardless of the strength of attraction. However, empirical measurements do not fully support this assertion. Measurements of the second virial coefficient (B22) indicate that protein crystallization occurs only over a discrete range of solution parameters. Furthermore, observations of a strong correlation between protein solubility and B22, has led to an ongoing debate regarding the relationship between the two. Experimental work in our lab, using Hen Egg White Lysozyme (HEWL), previously revealed that the rotational anisotropy of the protein under crystallizing conditions changes systematically with pH, ionic strength and temperature. These observations are now supported by recent work revealing that small changes in the molar ellipticity also occur systematically with changes in ionic strength and temperature. This work demonstrates that under crystallization conditions, the protein native state is characterized by a conformational heterogeneity that may prove fundamental to the relationship between protein crystallization and protein solubility.

  2. A new analysis of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cours, T.; Rannou, P.; Coustenis, A.; Negrao, A.; Hirtzig, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this presentation, we report a new analysis of ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) observations of Titan at about 2 m, in the methane band and window. The VLT data consists in two north-south cuts of Titan's disk with about twenty points in resolution, each point being a spectrum. To analyze this observation, we use the atmospheric properties of Titan recently measured by Huygens, the methane coefficients proposed by Boudon et al. (2006), while the description of the haze layer is from a database derived from the simulations of the Titan Global Climate of the IPSL. We used the radiative transfer model SHDOMPP developed by Evans. This work is hence a significant improvement over the previous analysis by Negrão et al. (2007) In this work, we essentially focus on the distribution of the airborn scatterers (e.g, haze aerosols, clouds, mist). In a first step, we compute the outgoing intensity using the prediction of the GCM database for the haze, and we compare the results with the VLT observations. These comparisons allow us to check the validity of the haze layer provided by the GCM database. In a second step, we modify the haze properties and we include a layer of bright scatterers in the troposphere (liquid droplets as observed by DISR) to improve the fit. This work yields a latitude-altitude map of Titan's haze from the VLT data, and we estimate the impact of the haze and the cloud layer on the surface albedo retrieval. 1) Boudon, V., M. Rey, and M. Loete (2006), The Vibrational Levels of Methane Obtained from Analyses of High- Resolution Spectra, J. Quant Spectrosc., 98, 394-404. 2) Negrão, A., Hirtzig, M., Coustenis, A., Gendron, E., Drossart, P., Rannou, Combes, M., Boudon, V. (2007), 2-micron spectroscopy of Huygens' landing site on Titan with VLT/NACO. J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 112, E02S92.

  3. Two-dimensional curvature of large angle interplanetary MHD discontinuity surfaces: IMP-8 and WIND observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.; McClernan, K.

    2003-07-01

    This study examines the degree of two-dimensional curvature of solar wind directional discontinuity (DD) surfaces at 1 AU using magnetic field, density, and velocity data from the WIND and IMP-8 spacecraft for a large number (N = 134) of carefully selected events having large "discontinuity angles" of 90 or greater. The discontinuity angle (?) is measured in the DD's current sheet, the normal (n) to which is estimated by field variance analysis. The fundamental analysis depends on estimates of these DD surface normals at the two spacecraft and the DD's center-times and positions. On average, the transit time from one DD sighting to the other was 36 minutes, and the associated distance along the normal direction was 137 RE. The transition-interval lengths across the DDs are translated into thicknesses and examined for the amount of change between the two spacecraft observing points. The average thickness is relatively large, 14 RE.; the most probable thickness is ?6 RE. All relevant quantities are examined statistically to establish their distributions, average, and degree of change. A weighted average of the radius of curvature is estimated to be 380 RE, but its most probable value is 290 RE. The average ? is 140 with a relatively large spread (? = 28). The average direction of propagation is: longitude (?n) = 194 and latitude (?n) = 7 (but = 27), where ?n = 0 is sunward and ?n = 0 is the ecliptic plane. Various parameters are studied with respect to DD type, i.e., rotational or tangential discontinuity (RD or TD), defined in terms of the "ratio" (in percent) of speed of propagation to net speed of the DD surface, where the net speed is the sum of the convection velocity (along n) plus the propagation speed. The RD %-ratio is moderately small, but the TD ratio is very small or zero. The results by this definition of type are favorably compared to those from the more conventional method, which depends on the absolute strength of the normal component of the magnetic field. There is little difference in any average parameter value according to type. However, the average appears to depend slightly on type with the for the RDs being smaller. The discontinuity type was shown to change commonly in either direction (TD to RD or RD to TD) between the two observing positions, i.e., ?40% of the time. It is not clear if these type-changes are spatial or temporal. Shortcomings of the analysis are (1) the need to impose an upper limit on the angular difference of the DD normals between the two observing positions (which eliminated most surfaces of very small radii of curvature), and (2) the inability to distinguish real curvature from shorter-scale surface variations, from only two spacecraft data sets. The results of the study should help to caution us as to the simplistic use of the planar DD surface assumption in projecting, to the distance of Earth's magnetosphere, a distantly observed DD surface (e.g., one near L1), especially for studies that depend on accurately predicting the timing and characteristics of magnetospheric events.

  4. Observation of collision and oscillation of microdroplets with extremely large shear deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Keiji

    2012-02-01

    We measured the viscosity and surface tension of various liquids under large (˜106 s-1) shear deformation. Oscillation of a 10-μm size microdroplet is brought about by the head-on collision of two droplets. Since the Reynolds number is as small as 100, the motion of the liquid is stable and the dynamic image is obtained with high reproducibility by the stroboscopic method. By observing and evaluating the mechanical oscillation of the microdroplet, of which frequency ranges typically in 100 - 300 kHz, we found that the viscosity of ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol is smaller than the known literature value, which is considered to be the viscosity at zero-frequency. This phenomena can be attributed to the slow viscous relaxation of associated liquids due to the re-combination dynamics of the network of H-bonds.

  5. Metrics for Optimization of Large Synoptic Survey Telescope Observations of Stellar Variables and Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Michael B.; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua A.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2016-02-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be the largest time-domain photometric survey ever. In order to maximize the LSST science yield for a broad array of transient stellar phenomena, it is necessary to optimize the survey cadence, coverage, and depth via quantitative metrics that are specifically designed to characterize the time-domain behavior of various types of stellar transients. In this paper, we present three such metrics built on the LSST Metric Analysis Framework model. Two of the metrics quantify the ability of LSST to detect non-periodic and/or non-recurring transient events and the ability of LSST to reliably measure periodic signals of various timescales. The third metric provides a way to quantify the range of stellar parameters in the stellar populations that LSST will probe. We provide example uses of these metrics and discuss some implications based on these metrics for optimization of the LSST survey for observations of stellar variables and transients.

  6. Large Angular Jump Mechanism Observed for Hydrogen Bond Exchange in Aqueous Perchlorate Solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Minbiao; Odelius3, Michael; Gaffney1, K.J.

    2010-06-11

    The mechanism for hydrogen bond (H-bond) switching in solution has remained subject to debate despite extensive experimental and theoretical studies. We have applied polarization-selective multidimensional vibrational spectroscopy to investigate the H-bond exchange mechanism in aqueous NaClO{sub 4} solution. The results show that a water molecule shifts its donated H-bonds between water and perchlorate acceptors by means of large, prompt angular rotation. Using a jump-exchange kinetic model, we extract an average jump angle of 49 {+-} 4{sup o}, in qualitative agreement with the jump angle observed in molecular dynamics simulations of the same aqueous NaClO{sub 4} solution.

  7. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I - IRAS pointed observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hacking, Perry B.

    1989-01-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution.

  8. Merged interaction regions and large-scale magnetic field fluctuations during 1991: Voyager 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes Voyager 2 observations of the magnetic field between 33.6 AU and 36.2 AU during 1991 when extraordinary events were observed on the Sun and in the heliosphere. The magnetic field strength signal B(t) has the unusual form of two large transient merged interaction regions (MIRs) on a fluctuating background. The two MIRs moved past the spacecraft in 32 days and 18 days, respectively. The mean field strength in each transient MIR was approx. equals 2.6 times the mean field during the remaining part of the year (0.11 nT). Each of the MIRs is related to a fast stream. The magnetic field is strong throughout each stream, suggesting that the strong fields are carried by the streams as well as produced by shock and stream compression. The fluctuations in B(t) during 1991 are not multifractal, and the MIRs cannot be approximated as multifractal clusters of intense magnetic fields. The distribution of the hour-averaged magnetic field strengths is approximately lognormal over 90% of its intermediate range, and it has an exponential tail for B greater than the average magnetic field strength. The elevation angles of B have a normal distribution with a standard deviation of 16 deg +/- 4 deg. The distributions of the azimuthal angles of B in the ranges 1 deg - 180 deg and 180 deg - 360 deg are approximately normal over a more limited range, and non-Gaussian tails associated with nearly radial magnetic fields; the standard deviations are approx. equal to 40 deg. Individual sectors are present throughout most of the interval, even in the MIRs, but there is no recurrent sector pattern. A model of the large-scale fluctuations in 1991 will have to include both determinaistic and statistical factors.

  9. Observing the Moon at Microwave Frequencies Using a Large-Diameter Deep Space Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, David D.; Imbriale, William; Keihm, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The Moon radiates energy at infrared and microwave wavelengths, in addition to reflecting sunlight at optical wavelengths. As a result, an antenna pointed at or near the Moon will result in an increase in system operating noise temperature, which needs to be accounted for in RF telecommunications, radio science or radiometric link calculations. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) may use its large-diameter antennas in future lunar robotic or human missions, and thus it is important to understand the nature of this temperature incre ase as a function of observing frequency, lunar phase, and angular position of the antenna beam on the lunar disk. This paper reports on a comprehensive lunar noise temperature measurement campaign and associated theoretical treatment for a 34-m diameter Deep Space Network antenna observing an extended source such as the Moon. A set of measurements over a wide range of lunar phase angles was acquired at DSS-13, a 34-m diameter beam waveguide antenna (BWG) located at Goldstone, California at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). For validation purposes, independent predictions of noise temperature increase were derived using a physical optics characterization of the 34-m diameter antenna gain patterns and Apollo model-based brightness temperature maps of the Moon as input. The model-based predictions of noise temperature increase were compared with the measurements at all three frequencies. In addition, a methodology is presented that relates noise temperature increase due to the Moon to disk-centered or disk-averaged brightness temperature of the Moon at the microwave frequencies of interest. Comparisons were made between the measurements and models in the domain of lunar disk-centered and disk-averaged brightness temperatures. It is anticipated that the measurements and associated theoretical development will be useful in developing telecommunications strategies for future high-rate Ka-band communications where large diameter DSN antennas will be required.

  10. Large NAT particle formation by mother clouds: Analysis of SOLVE/THESEO-2000 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fueglistaler, S.; Luo, B. P.; Buss, S.; Wernli, H.; Voigt, C.; Mller, M.; Neuber, R.; Hostetler, C. A.; Poole, L. R.; Flentje, H.; Fahey, D. W.; Northway, M. J.; Peter, Th.

    2002-06-01

    During the SOLVE/THESEO-2000 Arctic stratospheric campaign in the winter 1999/2000 widespread occurrences of very large HNO3-containing particles, probably composed of nitric acid trihydrate (NAT), were observed in situ by instruments on board the ER-2 stratospheric research aircraft. These large NAT particles were found with low number densities (n ~ 10-4 cm-3) in vast regions, in air generally supersaturated with respect to NAT. Within the same campaign other instruments have performed airborne and ground-based measurements of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), often showing the existence of type 1a and type 1a-enh clouds. Such PSCs often occur on the mesoscale with particle number densities n >~ 10-2cm-3 and are also most likely composed of NAT. We use forward trajectories for the path of NAT particles, which are advected by winds based on ECMWF analyses and sediment due to gravity, to show that high number density NAT PSCs (mother clouds) could give rise to low number density NAT particle populations several days downstream.

  11. Rapid formation of large aggregates during the spring bloom of Kerguelen Island: observations and model comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouandet, M.-P.; Jackson, G. A.; Carlotti, F.; Picheral, M.; Stemmann, L.; Blain, S.

    2014-03-01

    We recorded vertical profiles of particle size distributions (PSD, sizes ranging from 0.052 to several mm in equivalent spherical diameter) in the natural iron-fertilized bloom southeast of Kerguelen Island (Southern Ocean) from pre-bloom to early bloom stage. PSD were measured by the Underwater Vision Profiler during the Kerguelen Ocean and Plateau Compared Study cruise 2 (KEOPS 2, October-November 2011). The total particle numerical abundance was more than 4 fold higher during the early bloom phase compared to pre-bloom conditions as a result of the 2-weeks bloom development. We witnessed the rapid formation of large particles and their accumulation at the base of the mixed layer within a two days period, as indicated by changes in total particle volume (VT) and particle size distribution. The VT profiles suggest sinking of particles from the mixed layer to 200 m, but little export deeper than 200 m during the observation period. The results of a one dimensional particles dynamic model support coagulation as the mechanism responsible for the rapid aggregate formation and the development of the VT subsurface maxima. Comparison with KEOPS1, which investigated the same area during late summer, and previous iron fertilization experiments highlights physical aggregation as the primary mechanism for large particulate production during the earlier phase of iron fertilized bloom and its export from the surface mixed layer.

  12. Observation of Impurity Accumulation After Hydrogen Multi-Pellet Injection in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chunfeng; Shigeru, Morita; Motoshi, Goto; Wang, Erhui; Gen, Motojiama; Izumi, Murakami; Ryuichi, Sakamoto; Norimasa, Yamamoto

    2013-03-01

    Impurity accumulation is studied for neutral beam-heated discharges after hydrogen multi-pellet injection in Large Helical Device (LHD). Iron density profiles are derived from radial profiles of EUV line emissions of FeXV-XXIV with the help of the collisional-radiative model. A peaked density profile of Fe23+ is simulated by using one-dimensional impurity transport code. The result indicates a large inward velocity of -6 m/s at the impurity accumulation phase. However, the discharge is not entirely affected by the impurity accumulation, since the concentration of iron impurity, estimated to be 3.3 10-5 to the electron density, is considerably small. On the other hand, a flat profile is observed for the carbon density of C6+, which is derived from the Zeff profile, indicating a small inward velocity of -1 m/s. These results suggest atomic number dependence in the impurity accumulation of LHD, which is similar to the tokamak result.

  13. An interactive environment for the analysis of large Earth observation and model data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Walsh, John E.; Wilhelmson, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Envision is an interactive environment that provides researchers in the earth sciences convenient ways to manage, browse, and visualize large observed or model data sets. Its main features are support for the netCDF and HDF file formats, an easy to use X/Motif user interface, a client-server configuration, and portability to many UNIX workstations. The Envision package also provides new ways to view and change metadata in a set of data files. It permits a scientist to conveniently and efficiently manage large data sets consisting of many data files. It also provides links to popular visualization tools so that data can be quickly browsed. Envision is a public domain package, freely available to the scientific community. Envision software (binaries and source code) and documentation can be obtained from either of these servers: ftp://vista.atmos.uiuc.edu/pub/envision/ and ftp://csrp.tamu.edu/pub/envision/. Detailed descriptions of Envision capabilities and operations can be found in the User's Guide and Reference Manuals distributed with Envision software.

  14. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a

  15. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a…

  16. Wiimote Experiments: Circular Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouh, Minjoon; Holz, Danielle; Kawam, Alae; Lamont, Mary

    2013-03-01

    The advent of new sensor technologies can provide new ways of exploring fundamental physics. In this paper, we show how a Wiimote, which is a handheld remote controller for the Nintendo Wii video game system with an accelerometer, can be used to study the dynamics of circular motion with a very simple setup such as an old record player or a bicycle wheel.

  17. Some observations of airflow over a large hill of moderate slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, M. W.; Choularton, T. W.; Hill, M. K.

    1988-02-01

    Measurements are presented of mean windspeed and turbulence over Great Dun Fell, which is rather larger than hills investigated in the past, viz., 847 m high, which is comparable to the boundary-layer depth. The Fell is well suited for study, being covered by rough grass with no trees and few other obstructions. It was found that the speed-up of the wind is dominated by the elevated stratification and generally agrees closely with the predictions of the model of Carruthers and Choularton (1982) except when the flow is blocked. On the hill summit, the turbulence is approximately in local equilibrium in at least the lowest 10 m and the turbulence measurements are similar to those obtained within the inner layer at other sites. The transverse and longitudinal components show spectral lags at wavelengths greater than 30 m. This suggests an inner-layer depth of about 1/3 that predicted by Jackson and Hunt (1975). At reduced frequencies (>0.1), a recovery in spectral energy is observed due to gravity wave activity. A large variation in the streamline tilt at the summit is observed depending on whether the airflow regime is supercritical or subcritical.

  18. The topology of large-scale structure. III - Analysis of observations. [in universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gott, J. Richard, III; Weinberg, David H.; Miller, John; Thuan, Trinh X.; Schneider, Stephen E.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed algorithm for quantitatively measuring the topology of large-scale structures in the universe was applied to a number of important observational data sets. The data sets included an Abell (1958) cluster sample out to Vmax = 22,600 km/sec, the Giovanelli and Haynes (1985) sample out to Vmax = 11,800 km/sec, the CfA sample out to Vmax = 5000 km/sec, the Thuan and Schneider (1988) dwarf sample out to Vmax = 3000 km/sec, and the Tully (1987) sample out to Vmax = 3000 km/sec. It was found that, when the topology is studied on smoothing scales significantly larger than the correlation length (i.e., smoothing length, lambda, not below 1200 km/sec), the topology is spongelike and is consistent with the standard model in which the structure seen today has grown from small fluctuations caused by random noise in the early universe. When the topology is studied on the scale of lambda of about 600 km/sec, a small shift is observed in the genus curve in the direction of a 'meatball' topology.

  19. Microwave observations of late-type stars with the Very Large Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pallavicini, R.; Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Very Large Array was used to search for microwave emission from 32 stars of late spectral type including RS CVn type stars, dwarf M stars, and stars with active chromospheres, coronae, or intense magnetic fields. The RS CVn stars were detected at 6 cm wavelength, and upper limits are established for another six. Radio emission was detected from three dwarf M flare stars, UV Cet, EQ Peg and YZ CMi. Both impulsive (no more than 20 s) and more gradual (at least ten minutes) bursts were observed from the flare star YZ CMi. Radio emission was not confirmed at 6 cm from the solar type star Chi(1) Ori, with an upper limit that is three times lower than the detections reported by other observers. Microwave emission could not be detected from any other solar type star of spectral class F to K. The quiescent radio emission from dwarf M flare stars was interpreted as nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission by mildly relativistic electrons accelerated more or less continuously in the magnetic fields of starspots.

  20. Observations of large-scale fluid transport by laser-guided plankton aggregationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmus, Monica M.; Dabiri, John O.

    2014-10-01

    Diel vertical migration of plankton has been proposed to affect global ocean circulation to a degree comparable to winds and tides. This biomixing process has never been directly observed, however, due to the inability to predict its occurrence in situ or to reproduce it in a laboratory setting. Furthermore, it has been argued that the energy imparted to the ocean by plankton migrations occurs at the scale of individual organisms, which is too small to impact ocean mixing. We describe the development of a multi-laser guidance system that leverages the phototactic abilities of plankton to achieve controllable vertical migrations concurrently with laser velocimetry of the surrounding flow. Measurements in unstratified fluid show that the hydrodynamic interactions between neighboring swimmers establish an alternate energy transfer route from the small scales of individually migrating plankton to significantly larger scales. Observations of laser-induced vertical migrations of Artemia salina reveal the appearance of a downward jet, which triggers a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability that results in the generation of eddy-like structures with characteristic length scales much larger than the organisms. The measured energy spectrum is consistent with these findings and indicates energy input at large scales, despite the small individual size of the organisms. These results motivate the study of biomixing in the presence of stratification to assess the contribution of migrating zooplankton to local and global ocean dynamics. The laser control methodology developed here enables systematic study of the relevant processes.

  1. Method for optimizing channelized quadratic observers for binary classification of large-dimensional image datasets

    PubMed Central

    Kupinski, M. K.; Clarkson, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method for computing optimized channels for channelized quadratic observers (CQO) that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. The method for calculating channels is applicable in general and optimal for Gaussian distributed image data. Gradient-based algorithms for determining the channels are presented for five different information-based figures of merit (FOMs). Analytic solutions for the optimum channels for each of the five FOMs are derived for the case of equal mean data for both classes. The optimum channels for three of the FOMs under the equal mean condition are shown to be the same. This result is critical since some of the FOMs are much easier to compute. Implementing the CQO requires a set of channels and the first- and second-order statistics of channelized image data from both classes. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of CQO since estimating image statistics from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. In a simulation study we compare the performance of ideal and Hotelling observers to CQO. The optimal CQO channels are calculated using both eigenanalysis and a new gradient-based algorithm for maximizing Jeffrey's divergence (J). Optimal channel selection without eigenanalysis makes the J-CQO on large-dimensional image data feasible. PMID:26366764

  2. Dust-obscured star formation in the Frontier Fields: New observations from the Large Millimeter Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Millimeter observations are crucial to complete the census of star formation in the Universe since we know that the majority occurs behind dust. We present a new 1.1 mm survey of two of the HST Frontier Fields clusters taken with AzTEC on the Large Millimeter Telescope. The clusters act as cosmic telescopes to amplify lower-luminosity galaxies, probing further down the millimeter luminosity function than possible with blank-field observations, and detecting dust in galaxies with star formation rates as low as <10 solar masses per year. We present our deep number counts, including detailed simulations to account for the magnifications, and the multi-wavelength properties of our millimeter detections. We discuss the nature of these sources relative to previous (sub)millimeter surveys. Finally, we highlight the discovery of dust in multiply-imaged systems that allows us to measure the dust-obscured star formation in the typical galaxies that dominated the star formation rate density.

  3. Mechanical and hydrologic basis for the rapid motion of a large tidewater glacier. 1: Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Mark; Lundstrom, Scott; Stone, Dan; Kamb, Barclay; Engelhardt, Hermann; Humphrey, Neil; Dunlap, William W.; Fahnestock, Mark; Krimmel, Robert M.; Walters, Roy

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of glacier flow velocity and basal water pressure at two sites on Columbia Glacier, Alaska, are combined with meteorological and hydrologic data to provide an observational basis for assessing the role of water storage and basal water pressure in the rapid movement of this large glacier. During the period from July 5 to August 31, 1987, coordinated observations were made of glacier surface motion and of water level in five boreholes drilled to (or in one case near to) the glacier bed at two sites, 5 and 12 km from the terminus. Glacier velocities increased downglacier in this reach from about 4 m/d to about 7 m/d. Three types of time variation in velocity and other variables were revealed: (1) Diurnal fluctuation in water input/output, borehole water level, and ice velocity (fluctuation amplitude 5 to 8%); (2) Speed-up events in glacier motion (15-30% speed-up), lasting about three days, and ocurring at times of enhanced input of water, in some cases from rain and in others from ice ablation enhanced by strong, warm winds; (3) 'Extra-slowdown' events, in which, after a speed-up event, the ice velocity decreased in about 3 days to a level consistently lower than that prior to the speed-up event. All of the time variations were due, directly or indirectly, to variations in water input to the glacier.

  4. Temperature dependent EUV spectra of Gd, Tb and Dy ions observed in the Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, C.; Koike, F.; Murakami, I.; Tamura, N.; Sudo, S.

    2015-07-01

    We have observed a number of different types of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra from highly charged gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb) and dysprosium (Dy) ions in optically thin plasmas produced in the Large Helical Device at the National Institute for Fusion Science. Temporal changes in EUV spectra in the 6-9 nm region subsequent to the injections of solid pellets were measured by a grazing incidence spectrometer. The spectra rapidly change from discrete features into unresolved transition arrays (UTAs) following a drop in the electron temperature after the heating power is reduced. In particular, extremely narrowed UTA features, which comprise spectral lines of Ag-like, Pd-like and neighboring ion stages, are observed when the peak electron temperature is less than 0.45 keV due to the formation of hollow plasmas. Some discrete spectral lines of Cu-like and Ag-like ions have been identified in the high and low temperature plasmas, respectively, some of which are experimentally identified for the first time.

  5. Observations of supernova remnants in the Large Magellanic Cloud with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.; Long, K. S.

    1980-01-01

    Consideration is given to the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), noting that above 2 keV, the X-ray luminosity of the LMC is dominated by emission from 3-5 point sources similar to the bright sources near the center of our own Galaxy. The imaging proportional counter aboard the Einstein Observatory has been used to locate about 40 X-ray sources in the LMC. Supernova remnants observed in the LMC are presented, noting X-ray position, X-ray counting rate, and radio flux. For the six brightest sources, X-ray spectra have been analyzed to determine temperatures and intrinsic luminosity corrected for the interstellar absorption. These data are compared for parameters for the young galactic remnant of Tycho's supernova. Attention is given to the ratio of X-ray luminosity to radio luminosity, and the data are discussed within the framework of the standard blast-wave theory. The results of applying the model to recorded observations are numerically presented. In addition to providing a sample of objects for investigations of supernova remnants, the data are applicable to studies of galaxies of other morphological types and individual objects, such as N49.

  6. Large-Field CO(J = 1→0) Observations of the Starburst Galaxy M 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Yamauchi, Aya; Tsuru, Takeshi G.

    2013-06-01

    We present large-field (15.7 × 16.9 arcmin2) CO(J = 1→0) observations of the starburst galaxy M 82, at an angular resolution of 22" with the NRO 45-m telescope. The CO emission was detected in the galactic disk, outflow (driven by the galactic wind) up to ˜2 kpc above the galactic plane in the halo, and in tidal streams. The kinematics of the outflow (including CO line splitting) suggests that it has the shape of a cylinder that is diverging outwards. The mass and kinetic energy of the molecular gas outflow are estimated to be (0.26-1.0) × 109 M⊙ and (1-4) × 1056 erg. A clump of CO gas was discovered 3.5 kpc above the galactic plane; it coincides with a dark lane previously found in X-ray observations, and a peak in H I emission. A comparison with H I, hot molecular hydrogen and dust suggests that the molecular gas shows signatures of warm and cool components in the outflow and tidal streams, respectively.

  7. SEISMOLOGY OF A LARGE SOLAR CORONAL LOOP FROM EUVI/STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF ITS TRANSVERSE OSCILLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Van Doorsselaere, T.; Foullon, C.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Aschwanden, M. J.

    2009-06-10

    The first analysis of a transverse loop oscillation observed by both Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatories (STEREO) spacecraft is presented, for an event on the 2007 June 27 as seen by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI). The three-dimensional loop geometry is determined using a three-dimensional reconstruction with a semicircular loop model, which allows for an accurate measurement of the loop length. The plane of wave polarization is found from comparison with a simulated loop model and shows that the oscillation is a fundamental horizontally polarized fast magnetoacoustic kink mode. The oscillation is characterized using an automated method and the results from both spacecraft are found to match closely. The oscillation period is 630 {+-} 30 s and the damping time is 1000 {+-} 300 s. Also, clear intensity variations associated with the transverse loop oscillations are reported for the first time. They are shown to be caused by the effect of line-of-sight integration. The Alfven speed and coronal magnetic field derived using coronal seismology are discussed. This study shows that EUVI/STEREO observations achieve an adequate accuracy for studying long-period, large-amplitude transverse loop oscillations.

  8. Changes in the Observing System Contributing To Perceived Changes in Large Scale Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean surface wind observations have transitioned from purely in situ systems to satellite dominated systems. Reanalyses treat satellite winds as physically identical to in situ winds (albeit with different error characteristics). However, there are systematic differences between satellite and in situ winds. Prior work has shown that this wind observing system change causes trends in latent heat flux that are consistent with trends in analyses, both in spatial pattern and magnitude. These physical differences have also been confirmed in comparisons of research vessel and scatterometer winds (May and Bourassa, 2011), and have been shown to be quite large on weather time scales (Kara et al. 2007). For the published example for 0Z on January 1, 2005, the change in wind shear (U10 - Usfc) was modified by from -15% to +10%, and the monthly average was changed by from -10% to +5%. The differences do to waves and currents are examined herein. The vector differences in seasonal averages are determined from the modern data record, and used to infer systematic changes from the purely in situ system to a satellite-based system. These differences are examined in terms of biases to long term changes in Walker circulation and Hadley circulation. While the changes in wind speed are small compared to the wind speed, they are substantial in comparison to long term trends.

  9. Catalogue of Large Magellanic Cloud star clusters observed in the Washington photometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, T.; Gramajo, L. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Lares, M.; Geisler, D.; Ahumada, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Aims: The main goal of this study is to compile a catalogue of the fundamental parameters of a complete sample of 277 star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) observed in the Washington photometric system. A set of 82 clusters was recently studied by our team. Methods: All the clusters' parameters such as radii, deprojected distances, reddenings, ages, and metallicities were obtained by applying essentially the same procedures, which are briefly described here. We used empirical cumulative distribution functions to examine age, metallicity and deprojected distance distributions for different cluster subsamples of the catalogue. Results: Our new sample of 82 additional clusters represents about a 40% increase in the total number of LMC SCs observed to date in the Washington photometric system. In particular, we report here the fundamental parameters obtained for the first time for 42 of these clusters. We found that single LMC SCs are typically older than multiple SCs. Both single and multiple SCs exhibit asymmetrical distributions in log (age). We compared cluster ages derived through isochrone fittings obtained using different models of the Padova group. Although ages obtained using recent isochrones are consistent in general terms, we found that there is some disagreement in the obtained values and their uncertainties.

  10. Deep view of the Large Magellanic Cloud with six years of Fermi-LAT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonino, R.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Desiante, R.; Digel, S. W.; Drell, P. S.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Jóhannesson, G.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Li, J.; Li, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lubrano, P.; Maldera, S.; Martin, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Murgia, S.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Romani, R. W.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spada, F.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Vianello, G.; Wood, M.; Zimmer, S.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The nearby Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) provides a rare opportunity of a spatially resolved view of an external star-forming galaxy in γ-rays. The LMC was detected at 0.1-100 GeV as an extended source with CGRO/EGRET and using early observations with the Fermi-LAT. The emission was found to correlate with massive star-forming regions and to be particularly bright towards 30 Doradus. Aims: Studies of the origin and transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way are frequently hampered by line-of-sight confusion and poor distance determination. The LMC offers a complementary way to address these questions by revealing whether and how the γ-ray emission is connected to specific objects, populations of objects, and structures in the galaxy. Methods: We revisited the γ-ray emission from the LMC using about 73 months of Fermi-LAT P7REP data in the 0.2-100 GeV range. We developed a complete spatial and spectral model of the LMC emission, for which we tested several approaches: a simple geometrical description, template-fitting, and a physically driven model for CR-induced interstellar emission. Results: In addition to identifying PSR J0540-6919 through its pulsations, we find two hard sources positionally coincident with plerion N 157B and supernova remnant N 132D, which were also detected at TeV energies with H.E.S.S. We detect an additional soft source that is currently unidentified. Extended emission dominates the total flux from the LMC. It consists of an extended component of about the size of the galaxy and additional emission from three to four regions with degree-scale sizes. If it is interpreted as CRs interacting with interstellar gas, the large-scale emission implies a large-scale population of ~1-100 GeV CRs with a density of ~30% of the local Galactic value. On top of that, the three to four small-scale emission regions would correspond to enhancements of the CR density by factors 2 to 6 or higher, possibly more energetic and younger populations of CRs compared to the large-scale population. An alternative explanation is that this is emission from an unresolved population of at least two dozen objects, such as pulsars and their nebulae or supernova remnants. This small-scale extended emission has a spatial distribution that does not clearly correlate with known components of the LMC, except for a possible relation to cavities and supergiant shells. Conclusions: The Fermi-LAT GeV observations allowed us to detect individual sources in the LMC. Three of the newly discovered sources are associated with rare and extreme objects. The 30 Doradus region is prominent in GeV γ-rays because PSR J0540-6919 and N 157B are strong emitters. The extended emission from the galaxy has an unexpected spatial distribution, and observations at higher energies and in radio may help to clarify its origin. FITS file of Fig. 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/586/A71

  11. VERY LARGE ARRAY OH ZEEMAN OBSERVATIONS OF THE STAR-FORMING REGION S88B

    SciTech Connect

    Sarma, A. P.; Eftimova, M.; Brogan, C. L.; Bourke, T. L.; Troland, T. H.

    2013-04-10

    We present observations of the Zeeman effect in OH thermal absorption main lines at 1665 and 1667 MHz taken with the Very Large Array toward the star-forming region S88B. The OH absorption profiles toward this source are complicated, and contain several blended components toward a number of positions. Almost all of the OH absorbing gas is located in the eastern parts of S88B, toward the compact continuum source S88B-2 and the eastern parts of the extended continuum source S88B-1. The ratio of 1665/1667 MHz OH line intensities indicates the gas is likely highly clumped, in agreement with other molecular emission line observations in the literature. S88-B appears to present a similar geometry to the well-known star-forming region M17, in that there is an edge-on eastward progression from ionized to molecular gas. The detected magnetic fields appear to mirror this eastward transition; we detected line-of-sight magnetic fields ranging from 90 to 400 {mu}G, with the lowest values of the field to the southwest of the S88B-1 continuum peak, and the highest values to its northeast. We used the detected fields to assess the importance of the magnetic field in S88B by a number of methods; we calculated the ratio of thermal to magnetic pressures, we calculated the critical field necessary to completely support the cloud against self-gravity and compared it to the observed field, and we calculated the ratio of mass to magnetic flux in terms of the critical value of this parameter. All these methods indicated that the magnetic field in S88B is dynamically significant, and should provide an important source of support against gravity. Moreover, the magnetic energy density is in approximate equipartition with the turbulent energy density, again pointing to the importance of the magnetic field in this region.

  12. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE NEBULA AROUND G79.29+0.46

    SciTech Connect

    Umana, G.; Buemi, C. S.; Trigilio, C.; Leto, P.; Agliozzo, C.; Ingallinera, A.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Hora, J. L.

    2011-09-20

    We have observed the radio nebula surrounding the Galactic luminous blue variable candidate G79.29+0.46 with the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) at 6 cm. These new radio observations allow a morphological comparison between the radio emission, which traces the ionized gas component, and the mid-IR emission, a tracer of the dust component. The InfraRed Array Camera (8 {mu}m) and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (24 {mu}m and 70 {mu}m) images have been reprocessed and compared with the EVLA map. We confirm the presence of a second shell at 24 {mu}m and also provide evidence for its detection at 70 {mu}m. The differences between the spatial morphology of the radio and mid-IR maps indicate the existence of two dust populations, the cooler one emitting mostly at longer wavelengths. Analysis of the two dusty, nested shells have provided us with an estimate of the characteristic timescales for shell ejection, providing important constraints for stellar evolutionary models. Finer details of the ionized gas distribution can be appreciated thanks to the improved quality of the new 6 cm image, most notably the highly structured texture of the nebula. Evidence of interaction between the nebula and the surrounding interstellar medium can be seen in the radio map, including brighter features that delineate regions where the shell structure is locally modified. In particular, the brighter filaments in the southwest region appear to frame the shocked southwestern clump reported from CO observations.

  13. Observations of a large flare in GX 1+4 with the Compton gamma ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubert, R.; Maisack, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Draxler, T.; Finger, M. H.; Fishman, G. J.; Strickman, M. S.; Starr, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    The pulsating X-ray binary GX 1+4 (4U 1728-24) was observed by Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE) onboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) from 9 to 21 September 1993 as a target of oppurtunity after Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) had detected the onset of a large flare by the greatly increased pulsed flux at the period of approximately 2 min. The total flux in the 40-100 keV range as observed by the OSSE reached its maximum of 83 mCrab on 14/15 September, after which it fell sharply to about 31 mCrab within 2 days. The spectrum is well described by thermal type spectra. The characteristic temperature of the average OSSE spectrum for a thermal Bremsstrahlung model is kT = (35.5 +/- 0.5) keV. A single power law can be ruled out. There is evidence for a hardening of the spectrum with decreasing intensity at the end of the flare. The barycentric pulse period was (120.567 +/- 0.005) s on 5 September. The average spin-down rate as taken from the standard BATSE analysis was dP/dt = 0.0105 s/day, and constant over the time of the flare. A further target of oppurtunity (TOO) observation with the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) on 18 September led to the first detection of the source with a reflecting X-ray telescope and to a signifcantly improved position: RA(2000) = 17h 32m 2.1s and DEC(2000) = -24 deg 44 min 44 sec. This position 3.5 sec from V2116 Oph, with a 90% error radius of 8 sec is the most accurate so far obtained with an X-ray instrument, thus confirming the identification with the suspected stellar counterpart.

  14. OBSERVATION OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT IC 443 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2010-03-20

    We report observation of the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 (G189.1+3.0) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) in the energy band between 200 MeV and 50 GeV. IC 443 is a shell-type SNR with mixed morphology located off the outer Galactic plane where high-energy emission has been detected in the X-ray, GeV and TeV gamma-ray bands. Past observations suggest IC 443 has been interacting with surrounding interstellar matter. Proximity between dense shocked molecular clouds and GeV-TeV gamma-ray emission regions detected by EGRET, MAGIC, and VERITAS suggests an interpretation that cosmic-ray (CR) particles are accelerated by the SNR. With the high gamma-ray statistics and broad energy coverage provided by the LAT, we accurately characterize the gamma-ray emission produced by the CRs accelerated at IC 443. The emission region is extended in the energy band with theta{sub 68} = 0.{sup 0}27 +- 0.{sup 0}01(stat) +- 0.{sup 0}03(sys) for an assumed two-dimensional Gaussian profile and overlaps almost completely with the extended source region of VERITAS. Its centroid is displaced significantly from the known pulsar wind nebula (PWN) which suggests the PWN is not the major contributor in the present energy band. The observed spectrum changes its power-law slope continuously and continues smoothly to the MAGIC and VERITAS data points. The combined gamma-ray spectrum (200 MeV

  15. Characteristics of large-scale wave structure observed from African and Southeast Asian longitudinal sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tsunoda, R. T.; Chau, H. D.; Hoang, T. L.; Damtie, B.; Wassaie, M.; Yatini, C. Y.; Manik, T.; Tsugawa, T.

    2014-03-01

    The spatial large-scale wave structure (LSWS) at the base of F layer is the earliest manifestation of seed perturbation for Rayleigh-Taylor instability, hence, found to play a deterministic role in the development of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs). Except for a few case studies, a comprehensive investigation has not been conducted on the characteristics of LSWS because of the complexity involved in detecting the LSWS, particularly, in spatial domain. In this scenario, a comprehensive study is carried out, for the first time, on the spatial and temporal characteristics of LSWS observed in spatial domain over African and Southeast Asian longitudinal sectors during the year 2011. The observations indicate that these wave structures can be detected a few degrees west of E region sunset terminator and found to grow significantly at longitudes past the sunset terminator. The phase fronts of these spatial structures are found to align with the geomagnetic field (B?) lines over a latitudinal belt for at least 5-6 (~500-600 km) centered on dip equator. The zonal wavelengths of these structures are found to vary from 100 to 700 km, which is consistent with the earlier reports, and the EPBs were consistently observed when the amplitudes of LSWS were grown to sufficient strengths. These results would provide better insights on the underlying physical processes involved in excitation of LSWS in terms of important roles being played by E region electrical loading and polarization electric fields induced via spatially varying dynamo current due to neutral wind perturbations associated with atmospheric gravity waves.

  16. FIRST OBSERVATIONS OF A DOME-SHAPED LARGE-SCALE CORONAL EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE

    SciTech Connect

    Veronig, A. M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I. W.; Temmer, M.; Vrsnak, B.

    2010-06-10

    We present first observations of a dome-shaped large-scale extreme-ultraviolet coronal wave, recorded by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager instrument on board STEREO-B on 2010 January 17. The main arguments that the observed structure is the wave dome (and not the coronal mass ejection, CME) are (1) the spherical form and sharpness of the dome's outer edge and the erupting CME loops observed inside the dome; (2) the low-coronal wave signatures above the limb perfectly connecting to the on-disk signatures of the wave; (3) the lateral extent of the expanding dome which is much larger than that of the coronal dimming; and (4) the associated high-frequency type II burst indicating shock formation low in the corona. The velocity of the upward expansion of the wave dome (v {approx} 650 km s{sup -1}) is larger than that of the lateral expansion of the wave (v {approx} 280 km s{sup -1}), indicating that the upward dome expansion is driven all the time, and thus depends on the CME speed, whereas in the lateral direction it is freely propagating after the CME lateral expansion stops. We also examine the evolution of the perturbation characteristics: first the perturbation profile steepens and the amplitude increases. Thereafter, the amplitude decreases with r {sup -2.5{+-}0.3}, the width broadens, and the integral below the perturbation remains constant. Our findings are consistent with the spherical expansion and decay of a weakly shocked fast-mode MHD wave.

  17. Fermi Large Area Telescope observation of high-energy solar flares: constraining emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima

    2015-08-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the most sensitive instrument ever deployed in space for observing gamma-ray emission >100 MeV. This has also been demonstrated by its detection of quiescent gamma-ray emission from pions produced by cosmic-ray protons interacting in the solar atmosphere, and from cosmic-ray electron interactions with solar optical photons. The Fermi LAT has also detected high-energy gamma-ray emission associated with GOES M-class and X-class X-ray flares, each accompanied by a coronal mass ejection and a solar energetic particle event increasing the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. During the impulsive phase, gamma rays with energies up to several hundreds of MeV have been recorded by the LAT. Emission up to GeV energies lasting several hours after the flare has also been recorded by the LAT. Of particular interest are the recent detections of two solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B satellite. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  18. Modeling and surface observations of arsenic dispersion from a large Cu-smelter in southwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bing; Stein, Ariel F.; Castell, Nuria; de la Rosa, Jesus D.; Sanchez de la Campa, Ana M.; Gonzalez-Castanedo, Yolanda; Draxler, Roland R.

    2012-03-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element for human health. Consequently, a mean annual target level for arsenic at 6 ng m-3 in PM10 was established by the European Directive 2004/107/CE to take effect January 2013. Cu-smelters can contribute to one-third of total emissions of arsenic in the atmosphere. Surface observations taken near a large Cu-smelter in the city of Huelva (Spain) show hourly arsenic concentrations in the range of 0-20 ng m-3. The arsenic peaks of 20 ng m-3 are higher than values normally observed in urban areas around Europe by a factor of 10. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model has been employed to predict arsenic emissions, transport, and dispersion from the Cu-smelter. The model utilized outputs from different meteorological models and variations in the model physics options to simulate the uncertainty in the dispersion of the arsenic plume. Modeling outputs from the physics ensemble for each meteorological model driving HYSPLIT show the same number of arsenic peaks. HYSPLIT coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) meteorological output predicted the right number of peaks for arsenic concentration at the observation site. The best results were obtained when the WRF simulation used both four-dimensional data assimilation and surface analysis nudging. The prediction was good in local sea breeze circulations or when the flow was dominated by the synoptic scale prevailing winds. However, the predicted peak was delayed when the transport and dispersion was under the influence of an Atlantic cyclone. The calculated concentration map suggests that the plume from the Cu-smelter can cause arsenic pollution events in the city of Huelva as well as other cities and tourist areas in southwestern Spain.

  19. Geophysical characterization of two circular structures at Bajada del Diablo (Patagonia, Argentina): Indication of impact origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, Claudia B.; Orgeira, María Julia; Acevedo, Rogelio D.; Ponce, Juan Federico; Martinez, Oscar; Rabassa, Jorge O.; Corbella, Hugo; Vásquez, Carlos; González-Guillot, Mauricio; Subías, Ignacio

    2012-02-01

    An impact origin has been proposed for the circular structures found in Bajada del Diablo, Patagonia, Argentina. Taking into account its extension and the number of impact structures, Bajada del Diablo would be the largest meteoritic impact areas known on Earth, being an extremely interesting area for the research of impact events and processes. Moreover, the global distribution of known impact structures shows a surprising asymmetry. Particularly, South America has only seven described areas. It is evident that this situation is an artifact, highlighting the importance of intensifying the research in the least studied areas such as Argentina. Circular structures in Bajada del Diablo have been identified on two rock types: the Quiñelaf eruptive complex and Pampa Sastre Formation. In the first case, circular structures are placed in olivine basalts. On the other hand, Pampa Sastre Formation (late Pliocene/early Pleistocene) corresponds to conglomerate layers with basalt clasts boulder and block in size in a coarse sandy matrix. With the aim of further the investigation of the proposed impact origin for these circular structures, we carried out detailed topographic, magnetic and electromagnetic ground surveys in two circular structures ("8" and "A") found in Pampa Sastre conglomerates. Both circular structures are simple, bowl-shaped with rim diameters of 300 m and maximum depths of 10 m. They have been partially filled in by debris flows from the rims and wind-blown sands. Two preliminary magnetic profiles have also been carried out in circular structure "G" found in Quiñelaf basalts. The magnetic anomalies show a circular pattern with a slightly negative and relatively flat signal in the circular structures' bases. Furthermore in the circular structures' rims, high-amplitude, conspicuous and localized (short wavelength) anomalies are observed. Such large amplitude and short wavelength anomalies are not detected outside the circular structures. For all used frequencies, the electromagnetic profiles show lower apparent electrical conductivities in the circular structures' base, while the rims present notably higher values. Curvature attributes, analytic signal, horizontal gradient and Euler solutions were calculated for the magnetic data. 2.5D magnetic models were developed across the studied circular structures. Our results suggest that in the circular structures' bases up to 12 m of Pampa Sastre conglomerate would have been removed. On the contrary, the circular structures' rims exhibit high-amplitude, localized magnetic anomalies and higher apparent electrical conductivities, which would be related to the anomalous accumulation of basalt boulders and blocks remanently magnetized. Such high-amplitude anomalies are not present outside the surveyed circular structures. The geomorphological, geological and geophysical features of the studied circular structures can only be explained by means of an extra-terrestrial projectile impact. We conclude that, considering the results obtained to date, Bajada del Diablo should be envisaged as a focus of further research, which could provide novel information about impact events, associated processes and their evidences. Particularly, the data produced in this study could represent one of the first documented geophysical signatures of the impact of a comet nucleus on Earth.

  20. Statics of circular-ring stiffeners for monocoque fuselages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stieda, W

    1942-01-01

    For circular-ring stiffeners in monocoque fuselages the bending moments, axial forces, and shear forces under the action of applied external forces or a moment are accurately computed by known methods. Circular-ring stiffeners with variable moments of inertia are likewise considered. In comparison with the step-by-step and partially graphical procedure, the one here described is a more accurate and at the same time a simpler method.

  1. Production and trapping of cold circular Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. A.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Sapiro, R. E.; Raithel, G.

    2013-09-01

    Cold circular Rydberg atoms are produced and magnetically trapped. The trap is characterized by direct spatial imaging of ion distributions, ion counting, and state-selective field ionization. At room temperature, we observe about 70% of the trapped atoms remaining after 6 ms. We measure a trap oscillation frequency increase of the circular Rydberg atom trap relative to the ground-state atom trap due to the larger magnetic moment of the circular Rydberg atoms. Simulations of the center-of-mass and internal-state evolution of circular states in our magnetic trap are performed and results are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  2. Exploring the origin of a large cavity in Abell 1795 using deep Chandra observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, S. A.; Fabian, A. C.; Kosec, P.

    2014-12-01

    We examine deep stacked Chandra observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 1795 (over 700 ks) to study in depth a large (34 kpc radius) cavity in the X-ray emission. Curiously, despite the large energy required to form this cavity (4PV = 4 × 1060 erg), there is no obvious counterpart to the cavity on the opposite side of the cluster, which would be expected if it has formed due to jets from the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) inflating bubbles. There is also no radio emission associated with the cavity, and no metal enhancement or filaments between it and the brightest cluster galaxy, which are normally found for bubbles inflated by AGN which have risen from the core. One possibility is that this is an old ghost cavity, and that gas sloshing has dominated the distribution of metals around the core. Projection effects, particularly the long X-ray bright filament to the south-east, may prevent us from seeing the companion bubble on the opposite side of the cluster core. We calculate that such a companion bubble would easily have been able to uplift the gas in the southern filament from the core. Interestingly, it has recently been found that inside the cavity is a highly variable X-ray point source coincident with a small dwarf galaxy. Given the remarkable spatial correlation of this point source and the X-ray cavity, we explore the possibility that an outburst from this dwarf galaxy in the past could have led to the formation of the cavity, but find this to be an unlikely scenario.

  3. Large format heterodyne arrays for observing far-infrared lines with SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C.; Kulesa, C.; Kloosterman, J.; Lesser, D.; Cottam, T.; Groppi, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Edgar, M.; Radford, S.; Goldsmith, P.; Langer, W.; Yorke, H.; Kawamura, J.; Mehdi, I.; Hollenbach, D.; Stutzki, J.; Huebers, H.; Gao, J. R.; Martin, C.

    2010-07-01

    In the wavelength regime between 60 and 300 microns there are a number of atomic and molecular emission lines that are key diagnostic probes of the interstellar medium. These include transitions of [CII], [NII], [OI], HD, H2D+, OH, CO, and H2O, some of which are among the brightest global and local far-infrared lines in the Galaxy. In Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs), evolved star envelopes, and planetary nebulae, these emission lines can be extended over many arc minutes and possess complicated, often self absorbed, line profiles. High spectral resolution (R> 105) observations of these lines at sub-arcminute angular resolution are crucial to understanding the complicated interplay between the interstellar medium and the stars that form from it. This feedback is central to all theories of galactic evolution. Large format heterodyne array receivers can provide the spectral resolution and spatial coverage to probe these lines over extended regions. The advent of large format (~100 pixel) spectroscopic imaging cameras in the far-infrared (FIR) will fundamentally change the way astronomy is performed in this important wavelength regime. While the possibility of such instruments has been discussed for more than two decades, only recently have advances in mixer and local oscillator technology, device fabrication, micromachining, and digital signal processing made the construction of such instruments tractable. These technologies can be implemented to construct a sensitive, flexible, heterodyne array facility instrument for SOFIA. The instrument concept for StratoSTAR: Stratospheric Submm/THz Array Receiver includes a common user mounting, control system, IF processor, spectrometer, and cryogenic system. The cryogenic system will be designed to accept a frontend insert. The frontend insert and associated local oscillator system/relay optics would be provided by individual user groups and reflect their scientific interests. Rapid technology development in this field makes SOFIA the ideal platform to operate such a modular, continuously evolving instrument.

  4. A Summary of Large Raindrop Observations from GPM GV Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Patrick N.; Petersen, Walter; Tokay, Ali; Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, V. N.; Carey, Lawrence; Wingo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) has conducted as series of Ground Validation (GV) studies to assist algorithm development for the GPM core satellite. Characterizing the drop size distribution (DSD) for different types of precipitation systems is critical in order to accurately estimate precipitation across the majority of the planet. Thus far, GV efforts have sampled DSDs in a variety of precipitation systems from Finland to Oklahoma. This dataset consists of over 33 million raindrops sampled by GPM GV's two-dimensional video disdrometers (2DVD) and includes RSD observations from the LPVEx, MC3E, GCPEx, HyMEx and IFloodS campaigns as well as from GV sites in Huntsville, AL and Wallops Island, VA. This study focuses on the larger end of the raindrop size spectrum, which greatly influences radar reflectivity and has implications for moment estimation. Thus knowledge of the maximum diameter is critical to GPM algorithm development. There are over 24,000 raindrops exceeding 5 mm in diameter contained within this disdrometer dataset. The largest raindrops in the 2DVD dataset (>7-8 mm in diameter) are found within intense convective thunderstorms, and their origins are believed to be hailstones. In stratiform rainfall, large raindrops have also been found to fall from lower and thicker melting layers. The 2DVD dataset will be combined with that collected by dual-polarimetric radar and aircraft particle imaging probes to "follow" the vertical evolution of the DSD tail (i.e., retrace the large drops from the surface to their origins aloft).

  5. Solar Observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.

    2015-04-01

    The Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a joint North American, European, and East Asian project that opens the mm-submm wavelength part of the electromagnetic spectrum for general astrophysical exploration, providing high-resolution imaging in frequency bands currently ranging from 84 GHz to 950 GHz (300 microns to 3 mm). Despite being a general purpose instrument, provisions have been made to enable solar observations with ALMA. Radiation emitted at ALMA wavelengths originates mostly from the chromosphere, which plays an important role in the transport of matter and energy, and the in heating the outer layers of the solar atmosphere. Despite decades of research, the solar chromosphere remains a significant challenge: both to observe, owing to the complicated formation mechanisms of currently available diagnostics; and to understand, as a result of the complex nature of the structure and dynamics of the chromosphere. ALMA has the potential to change the scene substantially as it serves as a nearly linear thermometer at high spatial and temporal resolution, enabling us to study the complex interaction of magnetic fields and shock waves and yet-to-be-discovered dynamical processes. Moreover, ALMA will play an important role in the study of energetic emissions associated with solar flares at sub-THz frequencies.In this paper we describe recent efforts to ensure that ALMA can be usefully exploited by the scientific community to address outstanding questions in solar physics. We summarize activities by the ALMA solar development team comprised of scientists from the East Asia, North America, and Europe. These activities include instrument testing, development of calibration and imaging strategies, software requirements development, and science simulations. Opportunities for the wider community to contribute to these efforts will be highlighted.

  6. The European Large Area ISO Survey - I. Goals, definition and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Seb; Rowan-Robinson, Michael; Alexander, D. M.; Almaini, O.; Balcells, M.; Baker, A. C.; Barcons, X.; Barden, M.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Cabrera-Guerra, F.; Carballo, R.; Cesarsky, C. J.; Ciliegi, P.; Clements, D. L.; Crockett, H.; Danese, L.; Dapergolas, A.; Drolias, B.; Eaton, N.; Efstathiou, A.; Egami, E.; Elbaz, D.; Fadda, D.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Genzel, R.; Goldschmidt, P.; Graham, M.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez-Solares, E. A.; Granato, G. L.; Gruppioni, C.; Herbstmeier, U.; Hraudeau, P.; Joshi, M.; Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Kunze, D.; La Franca, F.; Lari, C.; Lawrence, A.; Lemke, D.; Linden-Vrnle, M. J. D.; Mann, R. G.; Mrquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Mattila, K.; McMahon, R. G.; Miley, G.; Missoulis, V.; Mobasher, B.; Morel, T.; Nrgaard-Nielsen, H.; Omont, A.; Papadopoulos, P.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Puget, J.-L.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Serjeant, S.; Silva, L.; Sumner, T.; Surace, C.; Vaisanen, P.; van der Werf, P. P.; Verma, A.; Vigroux, L.; Villar-Martin, M.; Willott, C. J.

    2000-08-01

    We describe the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). ELAIS was the largest single Open Time project conducted by ISO, mapping an area of 12deg2 at 15?m with ISOCAM and at 90?m with ISOPHOT. Secondary surveys in other ISO bands were undertaken by the ELAIS team within the fields of the primary survey, with 6deg2 being covered at 6.7?m and 1deg2 at 175?m. This paper discusses the goals of the project and the techniques employed in its construction, as well as presenting details of the observations carried out, the data from which are now in the public domain. We outline the ELAIS `preliminary analysis' which led to the detection of over 1000 sources from the 15 and 90-?m surveys (the majority selected at 15?m with a flux limit of ~3mJy), to be fed into a ground-based follow-up campaign, as well as a programme of photometric observations of detected sources using both ISOCAM and ISOPHOT. We detail how the ELAIS survey complements other ISO surveys in terms of depth and areal coverage, and show that the extensive multi-wavelength coverage of the ELAIS fields resulting from our concerted and on-going follow-up programme has made these regions amongst the best studied areas of their size in the entire sky, and, therefore, natural targets for future surveys. This paper accompanies the release of extremely reliable subsets of the `preliminary analysis' products. Subsequent papers in this series will give further details of our data reduction techniques, reliability and completeness estimates and present the 15- and 90-?m number counts from the `preliminary analysis', while a further series of papers will discuss in detail the results from the ELAIS `final analysis', as well as from the follow-up programme.

  7. Constraints on Lorentz Invariance Violation from Fermi -Large Area Telescope Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasileiou, V.; Jacholkowska, A.; Piron, F.; Bolmont, J.; Courturier, C.; Granot, J.; Stecker, Floyd William; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Longo, F.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some Quantum Gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derive limits on the "QG energy scale" (the energy scale that LIV-inducing QG effects become important, E(sub QG)) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high energy photons propagate more slowly than lower energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% CL) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E(sub QG,1) > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E(sub Pl)) and E(sub QG,2) > 1.3×10(exp 11) GeV for linear and quadratic leading order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. These limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of approx. 2. Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E(sub QG,1) < or approx. E(sub Pl)

  8. Observing Recent Changes in the Large-Scale Arctic Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, D. F.; Serreze, M.; Cassano, J.

    2008-12-01

    Changes in the large-scale energy budget of the Arctic are examined using a variety of next-generation reanalysis and observational data. An effort is made to construct a best-guess of the current arctic energy budget using a variety of atmospheric data. For the period of 2000-2005, monthly means from the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data represents the current most-reliable top of atmosphere radiation budget. The remaining components of the energy budget system in the arctic polar cap (defined as 70 degrees North latitude circle), comprising of the vertically-integrated storage and horizontal transports of energy, and net heat transfers between the atmosphere and the subsurface column, are diagnosed using the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project (JRA-25) and the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NRA). The as then record-setting minimum sea-ice extent during the 2005 melt season is used as a marker of recent changes occurring in the arctic climate system. However, changes in each reanalysis differs than the satellite observations. In one example, when compared to the 2000-2005 climatology, CERES shows a shift in the peak TOA radiation from July to June in 2005, a change that is absent in the reanalyses and directly attributable to the early and pronounced albedo reduction. An earlier peak in TOA radiation can strongly modulate the flux energy convergence from lower latitudes through circulation changes. Here, the energy budget framework provides a simplified view of the pathway through which changes of key component parings occur.

  9. Spectral Decay Characteristics in High Frequency Range of Observed Records from Crustal Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurugi, M.; Kagawa, T.; Irikura, K.

    2010-12-01

    Spectral decay characteristics in high frequency range of observed records from crustal large earthquakes occurred in Japan is examined. It is very important to make clear spectral decay characteristics in high frequency range for strong ground motion prediction. Target earthquakes are three events, the 2003 Miyagi-Ken Hokubu earthquake (Mw : 6.1), the 2005 Fukuoka-Ken Seiho-oki earthquake (Mw 6.6), and the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake (Mw 6.9). The borehole data of each event are used in the analysis. The Butterworth type high-cut filter with cut-off frequency, fmax and its power coefficient of high-frequency decay, s [Boore(1983)], are assumed to express the high-cut frequency characteristics of ground motions. The four parameters such as seismic moment, corner frequency, cut-off frequency and its power coefficient of high-frequency decay are estimated by comparing observed spectra at rock sites with theoretical spectra. The theoretical spectra are calculated based on the omega squared source characteristics convolved with propagation-path effects and high-cut filter shapes. In result, the fmaxs of the records from each earthquakes are estimated from 6.5Hz to 8.4Hz, and the power coefficient, s, are estimated from 0.90 to 0.96, respectively. The fmax filter shapes of these earthquakes are almost same. The average characteristics of the three fmax filter shapes express in fmax is 7.64Hz, the power coefficient, s, is 0.91, respectively. The obtained results in this study may contribute to strong ground motion prediction in high frequency range. References: Hanks,T.C.: fmax, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 72, 1867-1879, 1982. Boore,D.M.: Stochastic simulation of high-frequency ground motion based on seismological models of the radiated spectra, Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865-1894, 1983.

  10. Chandra and Very Large Array Observations of the Nearby Sd Galaxy NGC 45

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Laine, Seppo; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lacey, Christina K.; Moffitt, William P.; Sharma, Biswas; Lackey-Stewart, Aaron M.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Filipovi?, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of high angular resolution observations made in the X-ray and the radio with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), respectively, of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 45. This galaxy is the third that we have considered in a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) populations of nearby spiral galaxies and the present work represents the first detailed analysis of the discrete X-ray and radio source populations of this galaxy. We analyzed data sets from the three pointed observations made of this galaxy with Chandra along with a merged data set obtained from combining these data sets: the total effective exposure time of the merged data set is 63515 s. A total of 25 discrete X-ray sources are found in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip, with 16 sources found within the visual extent of the galaxy. We estimate that as many as half of the sources detected in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip and seven of the sources detected in the optical extent of NGC 45 may be background sources. We analyzed the spectral properties of the discrete X-ray sources within the galaxy and conclude that the majority of these sources are X-ray binaries. We have searched for counterparts at different wavelengths to the discrete X-ray sources and we find two associations: one with a star cluster and the other with a background galaxy. We have found one source that is clearly variable within one observation and seven that are seen to vary from one observation to another. We also conduct a photometric analysis to determine the near-infrared fluxes of the discrete X-ray sources in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera channels. We constructed a cumulative luminosity function of the discrete X-ray sources seen toward NGC 45: taking into account simultaneously the luminosity function of background sources, the fitted slope of the cumulative luminosity function ? = -1.3{}-1.6+0.7 (all error bounds correspond to 90% confidence intervals). The VLA observations reveal seven discrete radio sources: we find no overlaps between these sources and the X-ray detected sources. Based on their measured spectral indices and their locations with respect to the visible extent of NGC 45, we classify one source as a candidate radio SNR associated with the galaxy and the others as likely background galaxies seen in projection toward NGC 45. Finally, we discuss the properties of a background cluster of galaxies (denoted as CXOU J001354.2-231254.7) seen in projection toward NGC 45 and detected by the Chandra observations. The fit parameters to the extracted Chandra spectra of this cluster are a column density {N}{{H}} = 0.07(<0.14) 1022 cm-2, a temperature kT = 4.22{}-1.42+2.08 keV, an abundance Z = 0.30(<0.75) relative to solar and a redshift z = 0.28 0.14. From the fit parameters we derive an electron number density {n}{{e}} = 4(1) 10-3 cm-3, an unabsorbed X-ray luminosity {L}0.5-7.0 {keV} 8.77(0.96) 1043 erg s-1 for the cluster and an X-ray emitting mass M = 2.32(1.75) 1012 {M}? .

  11. ASCA observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud supernova remnant sample: Typing supernovae from their remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, John P.; Hayashi, Ichizo; Helfand, David; Hwang, Una; Itoh, Masayuki; Kirshner, Robert; Koyama, Katsuji; Markert, Thomas; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Woo, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    We present our first results from a study of the supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from ASCA. The three remnants we have analyzed to date, 0509-67.5, 0519-69.0, and N103B, are among the smallest, and presumably also the youngest, in the Cloud. The X-ray spectra of these SNRs show strong K alpha emission lines of silicon, sulfur, argon, and calcium with no evidence for corresponding lines of oxygen, neon, or magnesium. The dominant feature in the spectra is a broad blend of emission lines around 1 keV which we attribute to L-shell emission lines of iron. Model calculations (Nomoto, Thielemann, & Yokoi 1984) show that the major products of nucleosynthesis in Type Ia supernovae (SNs) are the elements from silicon to iron, as observed here. The calculated nucleosynthetic yields from Type Ib and II SNs are shown to be qualitatively inconsistent with the data. We conclude that the SNs which produced these remnants were of Type Ia. This finding also confirms earlier suggestions that the class of Balmer-dominated remnants arise from Type Ia SN explosions. Based on these early results from the LMC SNR sample, we find that roughly one-half of the SNRs produced in the LMC within the last approximately 1500 yr came from Type Ia SNs.

  12. Inferred Cosmic-Ray Spectrum from Fermi Large Area Telescope ?-Ray Observations of Earth's Limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dalton, M.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hewitt, J. W.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kndlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rain, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Schaal, M.; Schulz, A.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Tronconi, V.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2014-04-01

    Recent accurate measurements of cosmic-ray (CR) species by ATIC-2, CREAM, and PAMELA reveal an unexpected hardening in the proton and He spectra above a few hundred GeV, a gradual softening of the spectra just below a few hundred GeV, and a harder spectrum of He compared to that of protons. These newly discovered features may offer a clue to the origin of high-energy CRs. We use the Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the ?-ray emission from Earth's limb for an indirect measurement of the local spectrum of CR protons in the energy range 90 GeV-6 TeV (derived from a photon energy range 15 GeV-1 TeV). Our analysis shows that single power law and broken power law spectra fit the data equally well and yield a proton spectrum with index 2.680.04 and 2.610.08 above 200 GeV, respectively.

  13. Large-scale jets in the magnetosheath and plasma penetration across the magnetopause: THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, A. V.; Suvorova, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms multipoint observation of the plasma and magnetic fields, conducted simultaneously in the dayside magnetosheath and magnetosphere, were used to collect 646 large-scale magnetosheath plasma jets interacting with the magnetopause. The jets were identified as dense and fast streams of the magnetosheath plasma whose energy density is higher than that of the upstream solar wind. The jet interaction with the magnetopause was revealed from sudden inward motion of the magnetopause and an enhancement in the geomagnetic field. The penetration was determined as appearance of the magnetosheath plasma against the background of the hot magnetospheric particle population. We found that almost 60% of the jets penetrated through the magnetopause. Vast majority of the penetrating jets was characterized by high velocities V > 220 km/s and kinetic ?k > 1 that corresponded to a combination of finite Larmor radius effect with a mechanism of impulsive penetration. The average plasma flux in the penetrating jets was found to be 1.5 times larger than the average plasma flux of the solar wind. The average rate of jet-related penetration of the magnetosheath plasma into the dayside magnetosphere was estimated to be ~1029 particles/d. The rate varies highly with time and can achieve values of 1.5 1029 particles/h that is comparable with estimates of the total amount of plasma entering the dayside magnetosphere.

  14. Observations of short large-amplitude magnetic structures at a quasi-parallel shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Steven J.; Burgess, David; Wilkinson, William P.; Kessel, Ramona L.; Dunlop, Malcolm; Luehr, Herman

    1992-01-01

    Results of a detailed analysis of short large-amplitude magnetic structures (SLAMS) observed at an encounter of the quasi-parallel blow shock by the AMPTE UKS and IRM satellites are presented. Isolated SLAMS, surrounded by solar wind conditions, and embedded SLAMS, which lie within or form the boundary with regions of significant heating and deceleration, are identified. The duration, polarization, and other characteristics of SLAMS are all consistent with their growth directly out of the ULF wave field, including the common occurrence of an attached whistler as found in ULF shocklets. The plasma rest frame propagation speeds and two-spacecraft time delays for all cases show that the SLAMS attempt to propagate upstream against the oncoming flow, but are convected back downstream. The speeds and delays vary systematically with SLAMS amplitude in the way anticipated from nonlinear wave theory, as do their polarization features. Inter-SLAMS regions and boundary regions with solar wind contain hot deflected ions of lesser density than within the SLAMS.

  15. Colorimetry of two large flares of EV Lac according to UBVRI observations in 1996-1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovkaya, M. N.

    2012-06-01

    According to the data of fast UBVRI photometry of the red flaring dwarf star EV Lac obtained in the course of international cooperative observations, a fine temporal structure of two large flares (15 Oct 1996 and 10 Oct 1998) with amplitudes of 3.73 and 2.72 magnitudes in the U band have been studied. A detailed colorimetric analysis allowed us to trace variations in the flare plasma characteristics such as the optical thickness, electron density, and temperature during the development of the flare. It was revealed that, in the time period up to the maximum brightness, both flares are in the state of hydrogen plasma, which is optically thin in the Balmer continuum. In the region of the brightness maximum, both flares emit for about 1 min as an absolutely black body (ABB), the temperature of which varies from 20000 to 12000 K and 16000 to 14000 K, respectively. Then, these flares pass to the plasma state, is optically thick in the Balmer continuum. At the brightness maximum, the flares emitted as an ABB with a temperature of about 15000 and 16000 K. In the ABB approximation, the linear sizes of the flares are approximately 5 and 3% of the stellar radius at luminosity maximum. The area is 5.1 1018 cm2 and 1.6 1018 cm2.

  16. WFPC2 observations of the double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmozzi, R.; Kinney, E. K.; Ewald, S. P.; Panagia, N.; Romaniello, M.

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope-Wide Field/Planetary Camera-2 (HST-WFPC2) optical and ultraviolet imaging observations of the young double cluster NGC 1850 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) are presented. The main cluster, NGC 1850A, is a globular-like cluster and has an age of 50 +/- 10 Myr, while the subcluster, NGC 1850B, which is more loosely distributed, is very young at 4.3 +/- 0.9 Myr. Its young age is confirmed by the detection of a pre-main-sequence population of stars associated to it. The two clusters have considerably different IMF slopes, with the main cluster having a flat slope (f(m) proportional to m(exp -1.4 +/- 0.2)) and the young cluster a much steeper one (f(m) proportional to m(exp -2.6 +/- -0.1)). The LMC field star population displays a broad range of ages, from approximately 0.5 Gyr up to more than 4 Gyr.

  17. Geo-reCAPTCHA: Crowdsourcing large amounts of geographic information from earth observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillen, Florian; Höfle, Bernhard

    2015-08-01

    The reCAPTCHA concept provides a large amount of valuable information for various applications. First, it provides security, e.g., for a form on a website, by means of a test that only a human could solve. Second, the effort of the user for this test is used to generate additional information, e.g., digitization of books or identification of house numbers. In this work, we present a concept for adapting the reCAPTCHA idea to create user-generated geographic information from earth observation data, and the requirements during the conception and implementation are depicted in detail. Furthermore, the essential parts of a Geo-reCAPTCHA system are described, and afterwards transferred, to a prototype implementation. An empirical user study is conducted to investigate the Geo-reCAPTCHA approach, assessing time and quality of the resulting geographic information. Our results show that a Geo-reCAPTCHA can be solved by the users of our study on building digitization in a short amount of time (19.2 s on average) with an overall average accuracy of the digitizations of 82.2%. In conclusion, Geo-reCAPTCHA has the potential to be a reasonable alternative to the typical reCAPTCHA, and to become a new data-rich channel of crowdsourced geographic information.

  18. How do We Choose, Use and Interpret Data From Large Scale Observing Arrays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiebaux, H.

    2005-12-01

    This is a poster presentation of a "website under construction" that will provide free-ware access to spatial analysis modules for Kalman Filtering, Kriging, Neural Networks, Splines, Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis, and Spatial Objective Analysis. The website is being designed to aid scientists, educators and students with the analysis of data which is generally sparse and irregularly spaced, for which the geographic locations of the observing points are essential inputs to the analyses. Sections for each of the state-of-the-art methodologies will include: 1) Discussion of the objectives for which it was originally developed; 2) Examples of applications to large data sets; 3) Mathematical foundations; 4) References to relevant scientific and mathematical literature; 5) E-links to software for data analysis, with explanations for its use; 6) E-links to data sets for exercise of the technology. Modular construction will permit use of any of the above technologies, independent of others. This "workshop presentation" invites creative input that can contribute to the utility of the final product, from all viewers/potential users.

  19. Galaxy evolution and large-scale structure in the far-infrared. I. IRAS pointed observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lonsdale, C.J.; Hacking, P.B.

    1989-04-01

    Redshifts for 66 galaxies were obtained from a sample of 93 60-micron sources detected serendipitously in 22 IRAS deep pointed observations, covering a total area of 18.4 sq deg. The flux density limit of this survey is 150 mJy, 4 times fainter than the IRAS Point Source Catalog (PSC). The luminosity function is similar in shape with those previously published for samples selected from the PSC, with a median redshift of 0.048 for the fainter sample, but shifted to higher space densities. There is evidence that some of the excess number counts in the deeper sample can be explained in terms of a large-scale density enhancement beyond the Pavo-Indus supercluster. In addition, the faintest counts in the new sample confirm the result of Hacking et al. (1989) that faint IRAS 60-micron source counts lie significantly in excess of an extrapolation of the PSC counts assuming no luminosity or density evolution. 81 refs.

  20. Search for Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Berenji, Bijan; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2012-09-19

    Large extra dimensions (LED) have been proposed to account for the apparent weakness of gravitation. These theories also indicate that the postulated massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons may be produced by nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung in the course of core collapse of supernovae. Hannestad and Raffelt have predicted energy spectra of gamma ray emission from the decay of KK gravitons trapped by the gravity of the remnant neutron stars (NS). These and other authors have used EGRET data on NS to obtain stringent limits on LED. Fermi-LAT is observing radio pulsar positions obtained from radio and x-ray catalogs. NS with certain characteristics are unlikely emitter of gamma rays, and emit in radio and perhaps x-rays. This talk will focus on the blind analysis we plan to perform, which has been developed using the 1st 2 months of all sky data and Monte Carlo simulations, to obtain limits on LED based on about 1 year of Fermi-LAT data. Preliminary limits from this analysis using these first 2 months of data will be also be discussed.

  1. Large volume collapse observed in the phase transition in cubic PbCrO3 perovskite

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wansheng; Tan, Dayong; Xiong, Xiaolin; Liu, Jing; Xu, Jian

    2010-01-01

    When cubic PbCrO3 perovskite (Phase I) is squeezed up to ?1.6GPa at room temperature, a previously undetected phase (Phase II) has been observed with a 9.8% volume collapse. Because the structure of Phase II can also be indexed into a cubic perovskite as Phase I, the transition between Phases I and II is a cubic to cubic isostructural transition. Such a transition appears independent of the raw materials and synthesizing methods used for the cubic PbCrO3 perovskite sample. In contrast to the high-pressure isostructural electronic transition that appears in Ce and SmS, this transition seems not related with any change of electronic state, but it could be possibly related on the abnormally large volume and compressibility of the PbCrO3 Phase I. The physical mechanism behind this transition and the structural and electronic/magnetic properties of the condensed phases are the interesting issues for future studies. PMID:20660782

  2. Circular quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Hong-Yu; Long, Gui Lu

    2006-11-01

    A circular quantum secret sharing protocol is proposed, which is useful and efficient when one of the parties of secret sharing is remote to the others who are in adjacent, especially the parties are more than three. We describe the process of this protocol and discuss its security when the quantum information carrying is polarized single photons running circularly. It will be shown that entanglement is not necessary for quantum secret sharing. Moreover, the theoretic efficiency is improved to approach 100% as almost all the instances can be used for generating the private key, and each photon can carry one bit of information without quantum storage. It is straightforwardly to utilize this topological structure to complete quantum secret sharing with multi-level two-particle entanglement in high capacity securely.

  3. Felyx : A Free Open Software Solution for the Analysis of Large Earth Observation Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piolle, Jean-Francois; Shutler, Jamie; Poulter, David; Guidetti, Veronica; Donlon, Craig

    2014-05-01

    GHRSST project, by assembling large collections of earth observation data from various sources and agencies, has also raised the need for providing the user community with tools to inter-compare them, assess and monitor their quality. The ESA /Medspiration project, which implemented the first operating node of GHRSST system for Europe, also paved the way successfully towards such generic analytics tools by developing the High Resolution Diagnostic Dataset System (HR-DDS) and Satellite to In situ Multi-sensor Match-up Databases. Building on this heritage, ESA is now funding the development by IFREMER, PML and Pelamis of felyx, a web tool merging the two capabilities into a single software solution. It will consist in a free open software solution, written in python and javascript, whose aim is to provide Earth Observation data producers and users with an open-source, flexible and reusable tool to allow the quality and performance of data streams (satellite, in situ and model) to be easily monitored and studied. The primary concept of Felyx is to work as an extraction tool, subsetting source data over predefined target areas (which can be static or moving) : these data subsets, and associated metrics, can then be accessed by users or client applications either as raw files, automatic alerts and reports generated periodically, or through a flexible web interface enabling statistical analysis and visualization. Felyx presents itself as an open-source suite of tools, written in python and javascript, enabling : * subsetting large local or remote collections of Earth Observation data over predefined sites (geographical boxes) or moving targets (ship, buoy, hurricane), storing locally the extracted data (refered as miniProds). These miniProds constitute a much smaller representative subset of the original collection on which one can perform any kind of processing or assessment without having to cope with heavy volumes of data. * computing statistical metrics over these miniProds using for instance a set of usual statistical operators (mean, median, rms, ...), fully extensible and applicable to any variable of a dataset. These metrics are stored in a fast search engine, queryable by humans and automated applications. * reporting or alerting, based on user-defined inference rules, through various media (emails, twitter feeds,..) and devices (phones, tablets). * analysing miniProds and metrics through a web interface allowing to dig into this base of information and extracting useful knowledge through multidimensional interactive display functions (time series, scatterplots, histograms, maps). The services provided by felyx will be generic, deployable at users own premises and adaptable enough to integrate any kind of parameters. Users will be able to operate their own felyx instance at any location, on datasets and parameters of their own interest, and the various instances will be able to interact with each other, creating a web of felyx systems enabling aggregation and cross comparison of miniProds and metrics from multiple sources. Initially two instances will be operated simultaneously during a 6 months demonstration phase, at IFREMER - on sea surface temperature (for GHRSST community) and ocean waves datasets - and PML - on ocean colour. We will present results from the Felyx project, demonstrate how the GHRSST community can exploit Felyx and demonstrate how the wider community can make use of the GHRSST data within Felyx.

  4. Efficient circular thresholding.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Kun; Rosin, Paul L

    2014-03-01

    Otsu's algorithm for thresholding images is widely used, and the computational complexity of determining the threshold from the histogram is O(N) where N is the number of histogram bins. When the algorithm is adapted to circular rather than linear histograms then two thresholds are required for binary thresholding. We show that, surprisingly, it is still possible to determine the optimal threshold in O(N) time. The efficient optimal algorithm is over 300 times faster than traditional approaches for typical histograms and is thus particularly suitable for real-time applications. We further demonstrate the usefulness of circular thresholding using the adapted Otsu criterion for various applications, including analysis of optical flow data, indoor/outdoor image classification, and non-photorealistic rendering. In particular, by combining circular Otsu feature with other colour/texture features, a 96.9% correct rate is obtained for indoor/outdoor classification on the well known IITM-SCID2 data set, outperforming the state-of-the-art result by 4.3%. PMID:24464614

  5. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Louis E.; Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2014-09-20

    A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  6. Dynamics of sediment transport in large tropical tidal rivers via observations in the Mekong and Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowacki, D. J.; Ogston, A. S.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Fricke, A. T.; Van, P.; Souza Filho, P. W.; Silva, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Of the ten largest-discharge river systems worldwide, freshwater delivery to the ocean from tropical rivers comprises approximately 72% of the total. Tropical-river suspended-sediment loads make up about 45% of the total among the same ten largest rivers. In this context, flow and sediment dynamics of tropical river systems are crucial to a comprehensive understanding of global river budgets. The processes by which sediment is eroded, transported, trapped, and ultimately exported from tidal rivers--where tides propagate but oceanic salinity is absent or only ephemerally present--are poorly understood, even though previous research suggests up to one-third of riverine sediment loads may be trapped within tidal rivers. In an effort to better understand these processes, we present and contrast results from several campaigns along two large tropical tidal rivers: the Mekong and Amazon. Under conditions of high and low seasonal discharge, three cross-sections within the Mekong tidal river were each occupied for a 25-hour tidal cycle, during which ADCP and CTD transects were completed every 15-30 minutes. In this transitional environment between fluvial and estuarine conditions, flow reversed throughout the water column during both low and high flow at all locations, and a strongly sheared flow was present during lesser flood tides. Salinity was spatially variable over seasons: during low flow, salinity in excess of 10 PSU was observed 30 km upstream during maximum flood, while at the same location during high flow, salinity was less than 0.5 PSU at all times. Conditions were partially stratified during low flow. When present, stratification was in the form of a salt wedge during high flow. Suspended sediment was well mixed or exhibited a Rouse-like profile in fresh regions; suspended-sediment concentration within the salt wedge was generally less, except during periods of strong near-bottom flow within the salt-wedge water mass. During both seasons and at all locations, distinct, preferential pathways of water and sediment within the cross-sections were present through the tidal cycles, which may foster development of the rapidly prograding islands within the tidal river. Data collected from seasonal cruises along the geographically vast Amazon tidal river provide context for more spatially constrained studies on the Mekong tidal river and highlight the contrasts between these two large tropical river systems. Ongoing work in these two systems provides a basis for improved understanding of sediment-transport processes within the tidal reach and ultimate quantity, timing, and character of sediment delivered to the ocean.

  7. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  8. XMM-Newton observation of SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavanagh, P. J.; Sasaki, M.; Whelan, E. T.; Maggi, P.; Haberl, F.; Bozzetto, L. M.; Filipović, M. D.; Crawford, E. J.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We present an X-ray study of the supernova remnant SNR J0533-7202 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and determine its physical characteristics based on its X-ray emission. Methods: We observed SNR J0533-7202 with XMM-Newton (background flare-filtered exposure times of 18 ks EPIC-pn and 31 ks EPIC-MOS1, EPIC-MOS2). We produced X-ray images of the supernova remnant, performed an X-ray spectral analysis, and compared the results to multi-wavelength studies. Results: The distribution of X-ray emission is highly non-uniform, with the south-west region much brighter than the north-east. The detected X-ray emission is correlated with the radio emission from the remnant. We determine that this morphology is most likely due to the supernova remnant expanding into a non-uniform ambient medium and not an absorption effect. We estimate the remnant size to be 53.9 (±3.4) × 43.6 (±3.4) pc, with the major axis rotated ~64° east of north. We find no spectral signatures of ejecta emission and infer that the X-ray plasma is dominated by swept up interstellar medium. Using the spectral fit results and the Sedov self-similar solution, we estimate the age of SNR J0533-7202 to be ~17-27 kyr, with an initial explosion energy of (0.09-0.83) × 1051 erg. We detected an X-ray source located near the centre of the remnant, namely XMMU J053348.2-720233. The source type could not be conclusively determined due to the lack of a multi-wavelength counterpart and low X-ray counts. We found that it is likely either a background active galactic nucleus or a low-mass X-ray binary in the LMC. Conclusions: We detected bright thermal X-ray emission from SNR J0533-7202 and determined that the remnant is in the Sedov phase of its evolution. The lack of ejecta emission prohibits us from typing the remnant with the X-ray data. Therefore, the likely Type Ia classification based on the local stellar population and star formation history reported in the literature cannot be improved upon. Based on observations obtained with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and NASA.

  9. Very large array observations of ammonia in high-mass star formation regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Xing; Gu, Qiusheng; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Wang, Junzhi

    2014-08-01

    We report systematic mapping observations of the NH{sub 3} (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines toward 62 high-mass star-forming regions using the Very Large Array (VLA) in its D and DnC array configurations. The VLA images cover a spatial dynamic range from 40'' to 3'', allowing us to trace gas kinematics from ∼1 pc scales to ≲0.1 pc scales. Based on the NH{sub 3} morphology and the infrared nebulosity on 1 pc scales, we categorize three subclasses in the sample: filaments, hot cores, and NH{sub 3}-dispersed sources. The ubiquitous gas filaments found on 1 pc scales have a typical width of ∼0.1 pc and often contain regularly spaced fragments along the major axis. The spacing of the fragments and the column densities is consistent with the turbulent supported fragmentation of cylinders. Several sources show multiple filaments that converge toward a center where the velocity field in the filaments is consistent with gas flows. We derive rotational temperature maps for the entire sample. For the three hot core sources, we find a projected radial temperature distribution that is best fit by power-law indices from –0.18 to –0.35. We identify 174 velocity-coherent ∼0.1 pc scale dense cores from the entire sample. The mean physical properties for these cores are 1.1 km s{sup –1} in intrinsic linewidth, 18 K in NH{sub 3} rotational temperature, 2.3 × 10{sup 15} cm{sup –2} in NH{sub 3} gas column density, and 67 M{sub ☉} in molecular mass. The dense cores identified from the filamentary sources are closer to being virialized. Dense cores in the other two categories of sources appear to be dynamically unstable.

  10. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE RADIO EVOLUTION OF SN 2011dh

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, M. I.; Chomiuk, L.; Brunthaler, A.; Rupen, M.; Soderberg, A. M.; Zauderer, B. A.; Bietenholz, M. F.; Chevalier, R. A.; Fransson, C.

    2012-05-10

    We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the Type IIb supernova 2011dh, performed over the first 100 days of its evolution and spanning 1-40 GHz in frequency. The radio emission is well described by the self-similar propagation of a spherical shockwave, generated as the supernova ejecta interact with the local circumstellar environment. Modeling this emission with a standard synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) model gives an average expansion velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.1c, supporting the classification of the progenitor as a compact star (R{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} cm). We find that the circumstellar density is consistent with a {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -2} profile. We determine that the progenitor shed mass at a constant rate of Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, assuming a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup -1} (values appropriate for a Wolf-Rayet star), or Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} assuming 20 km s{sup -1} (appropriate for a yellow supergiant [YSG] star). Both values of the mass-loss rate assume a converted fraction of kinetic to magnetic energy density of {epsilon}{sub B} = 0.1. Although optical imaging shows the presence of a YSG, the rapid optical evolution and fast expansion argue that the progenitor is a more compact star-perhaps a companion to the YSG. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the radio properties of SN 2011dh with the SSA model implies that any YSG companion is likely in a wide, non-interacting orbit.

  11. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of fetal growth restriction: a large prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of maternal caffeine intake with fetal growth restriction. Design Prospective longitudinal observational study. Setting Two large UK hospital maternity units. Participants 2635 low risk pregnant women recruited between 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. Investigations Quantification of total caffeine intake from 4 weeks before conception and throughout pregnancy was undertaken with a validated caffeine assessment tool. Caffeine half life (proxy for clearance) was determined by measuring caffeine in saliva after a caffeine challenge. Smoking and alcohol were assessed by self reported status and by measuring salivary cotinine concentrations. Main outcome measures Fetal growth restriction, as defined by customised birth weight centile, adjusted for alcohol intake and salivary cotinine concentrations. Results Caffeine consumption throughout pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction (odds ratios 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.6) for 100-199 mg/day, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for 200-299 mg/day, and 1.4 (1.0 to 2.0) for >300 mg/day compared with <100 mg/day; test for trend P<0.001). Mean caffeine consumption decreased in the first trimester and increased in the third. The association between caffeine and fetal growth restriction was stronger in women with a faster compared to a slower caffeine clearance (test for interaction, P=0.06). Conclusions Caffeine consumption during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of fetal growth restriction and this association continued throughout pregnancy. Sensible advice would be to reduce caffeine intake before conception and throughout pregnancy. PMID:18981029

  12. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between approx 100 MeV and approx 100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to approx 10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W(sub CO)) at a 1 deg 1 deg pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W(sub CO) range of approx 10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W(sub CO)-to-mass conversion factor, X(sub CO), is found to be approx 2.3 10(exp 20) / sq cm (K km/s)(exp -1) for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212 deg), approx 1.7 times higher than approx 1.3 10(exp 20) found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X(sub CO) in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas.W(sub CO) decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W(sub CO).

  13. Gamma-Ray Observations of the Orion Molecular Clouds with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Enoto, T.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fukui, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kerr, M.; Kndlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Lee, S.-H.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makishima, K.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rain, S.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tramacere, A.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Zimmer, S.

    2012-09-01

    We report on the gamma-ray observations of giant molecular clouds Orion A and B with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The gamma-ray emission in the energy band between ~100 MeV and ~100 GeV is predicted to trace the gas mass distribution in the clouds through nuclear interactions between the Galactic cosmic rays (CRs) and interstellar gas. The gamma-ray production cross-section for the nuclear interaction is known to ~10% precision which makes the LAT a powerful tool to measure the gas mass column density distribution of molecular clouds for a known CR intensity. We present here such distributions for Orion A and B, and correlate them with those of the velocity-integrated CO intensity (W CO) at a 1 1 pixel level. The correlation is found to be linear over a W CO range of ~10-fold when divided in three regions, suggesting penetration of nuclear CRs to most of the cloud volumes. The W CO-to-mass conversion factor, X CO, is found to be ~2.3 1020 cm-2(K km s-1)-1 for the high-longitude part of Orion A (l > 212), ~1.7 times higher than ~1.3 1020 found for the rest of Orion A and B. We interpret the apparent high X CO in the high-longitude region of Orion A in the light of recent works proposing a nonlinear relation between H2 and CO densities in the diffuse molecular gas. W CO decreases faster than the H2 column density in the region making the gas "darker" to W CO.

  14. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of the supernova remnant HESS J1731-347

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Rui-zhi; Zhang, Xiao; Yuan, Qiang; Liu, Siming

    2014-07-01

    Context. HESS J1731-347 has been identified as one of the few TeV-bright shell-type supernova remnants (SNRs). These remnants are dominated by nonthermal emission, and the nature of TeV emission has been continuously debated for nearly a decade. Aims: We carry out the detailed modeling of the radio to γ-ray spectrum of HESS J1731-347 to constrain the magnetic field and energetic particles sources, which we compare with those of the other TeV-bright shell-type SNRs explored before. Methods: Four years of data from Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations for regions around this remnant are analyzed, leading to no detection correlated with the source discovered in the TeV band. The Markov chain Monte Carlo method is used to constrain parameters of one-zone models for the overall emission spectrum. Results: Based on the 99.9% upper limits of fluxes in the GeV range, one-zone hadronic models with an energetic proton spectral slope greater than 1.8 can be ruled out, which favors a leptonic origin for the γ-ray emission, making this remnant a sibling of the brightest TeV SNR RX J1713.7-3946, the Vela Junior SNR RX J0852.0-4622, and RCW 86. The best-fit leptonic model has an electron spectral slope of 1.8 and a magnetic field of ~30 μG, which is at least a factor of 2 higher than those of RX J1713.7-3946 and RX J0852.0-4622, posing a challenge to the distance estimate and/or the energy equipartition between energetic electrons and the magnetic field of this source. A measurement of the shock speed will address this challenge and has implications on the magnetic field evolution and electron acceleration driven by shocks of SNRs.

  15. Multiple self-controlled case series for large-scale longitudinal observational databases.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Shawn E; Madigan, David; Zorych, Ivan; Schuemie, Martijn J; Ryan, Patrick B; Suchard, Marc A

    2013-12-01

    Characterization of relationships between time-varying drug exposures and adverse events (AEs) related to health outcomes represents the primary objective in postmarketing drug safety surveillance. Such surveillance increasingly utilizes large-scale longitudinal observational databases (LODs), containing time-stamped patient-level medical information including periods of drug exposure and dates of diagnoses for millions of patients. Statistical methods for LODs must confront computational challenges related to the scale of the data, and must also address confounding and other biases that can undermine efforts to estimate effect sizes. Methods that compare on-drug with off-drug periods within patient offer specific advantages over between patient analysis on both counts. To accomplish these aims, we extend the self-controlled case series (SCCS) for LODs. SCCS implicitly controls for fixed multiplicative baseline covariates since each individual acts as their own control. In addition, only exposed cases are required for the analysis, which is computationally advantageous. The standard SCCS approach is usually used to assess single drugs and therefore estimates marginal associations between individual drugs and particular AEs. Such analyses ignore confounding drugs and interactions and have the potential to give misleading results. In order to avoid these difficulties, we propose a regularized multiple SCCS approach that incorporates potentially thousands or more of time-varying confounders such as other drugs. The approach successfully handles the high dimensionality and can provide a sparse solution via an L? regularizer. We present details of the model and the associated optimization procedure, as well as results of empirical investigations. PMID:24117144

  16. Convection During SEAC4RS: Comparing Aircraft Observations to WRF Large-Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, N.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Tanelli, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deep convection remains a challenge to accurately parameterize in global and climate models. Increases in computer power recently have allowed large-eddy simulations (LES; grid spacing of O(100 m)) of deep convection, which are beginning to increase our understanding of this unresolved issue. Our research examined the Weather Research and Forecasting model in LES mode (WRF-LES) as a potential tool to further our understanding of deep convective cloud dynamics and microphysics. Idealized and nested WRF-LESs were made for 02 September 2013, a day on which 3 aircraft from the recent NASA SEAC4RS campaign extensively sampled deep convection during all phases of its lifecycle. When modeling deep convection at the LES scale, one of the greatest uncertainties is the choice of cloud microphysical parameterization. Thus, we tested the sensitivity of the WRF-LESs to several microphysical schemes. Simulated flight tracks were used to evaluate the WRF-LESs against the dynamical and microphysical data gathered during the SEAC4RS aircraft cloud penetrations. Results indicated the importance of cloud microphysical parameterizations when making deep convective LESs, especially if they are used to develop cumulus parameterizations. Results from the idealized WRF-LESs then were used to "tune" a real-data run in which the WRF-LES domain was nested within a mesoscale domain. This multi-scale nesting of an LES provides a framework for making detailed simulations of case studies when high-resolution observed data are available for evaluation. This nesting approach also might provide a new method, which uses more realistic atmospheric forcing for the LES, to develop cumulus parameterizations.

  17. Circular analysis in complex stochastic systems.

    PubMed

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Ruling out observations can lead to wrong models. This danger occurs unwillingly when one selects observations, experiments, simulations or time-series based on their outcome. In stochastic processes, conditioning on the future outcome biases all local transition probabilities and makes them consistent with the selected outcome. This circular self-consistency leads to models that are inconsistent with physical reality. It is also the reason why models built solely on macroscopic observations are prone to this fallacy. PMID:26656656

  18. Circular analysis in complex stochastic systems

    PubMed Central

    Valleriani, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Ruling out observations can lead to wrong models. This danger occurs unwillingly when one selects observations, experiments, simulations or time-series based on their outcome. In stochastic processes, conditioning on the future outcome biases all local transition probabilities and makes them consistent with the selected outcome. This circular self-consistency leads to models that are inconsistent with physical reality. It is also the reason why models built solely on macroscopic observations are prone to this fallacy. PMID:26656656

  19. Electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lundsgaard, M.F.V.; Chen, Z.; Lin, C.D. ); Toshima, N. )

    1995-02-01

    Electron capture cross sections from circular Rydberg states as a function of the angle [ital cphi] between the ion velocity and the angular momentum of the circular orbital have been reported recently by Hansen [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1522 (1993)]. We show that the observed [ital cphi] dependence can be explained in terms of the propensity rule that governs the dependence of electron capture cross sections on the magnetic quantum numbers of the initial excited states. We also carried out close-coupling calculations to show that electron capture from the circular H(3[ital d],4[ital f],5[ital g]) states by protons at the same scaled velocity has nearly the same [ital cphi] dependence.

  20. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G19.30+0.07

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, K. E.; Churchwell, E.; Chandler, C. J.; Borg, K. J.; Brogan, C.; Indebetouw, R.; Shirley, Y.

    2011-05-20

    We present Very Large Array observations of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) (1,1), (2,2), and dicarbon sulfide (CCS) (2{sub 1}-1{sub 0}) emission toward the infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G19.30+0.07 at {approx}22 GHz. The NH{sub 3} emission closely follows the 8 {mu}m extinction. The NH{sub 3} (1,1) and (2,2) lines provide diagnostics of the temperature and density structure within the IRDC, with typical rotation temperatures of {approx}10-20 K and NH{sub 3} column densities of {approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The estimated total mass of G19.30+0.07 is {approx}1130 M{sub sun}. The cloud comprises four compact NH{sub 3} clumps of mass {approx}30-160 M{sub sun}. Two coincide with 24 {mu}m emission, indicating heating by protostars, and show evidence of outflow in the NH{sub 3} emission. We report a water maser associated with a third clump; the fourth clump is apparently starless. A non-detection of 8.4 GHz emission suggests that the IRDC contains no bright H II regions and places a limit on the spectral type of an embedded zero-age main-sequence star to early-B or later. From the NH{sub 3} emission, we find that G19.30+0.07 is composed of three distinct velocity components or 'subclouds'. One velocity component contains the two 24 {mu}m sources and the starless clump, another contains the clump with the water maser, while the third velocity component is diffuse, with no significant high-density peaks. The spatial distribution of NH{sub 3} and CCS emission from G19.30+0.07 is highly anti-correlated, with the NH{sub 3} predominantly in the high-density clumps and the CCS tracing lower-density envelopes around those clumps. This spatial distribution is consistent with theories of evolution for chemically young low-mass cores, in which CCS has not yet been processed to other species and/or depleted in high-density regions.

  1. Large scale IRAM 30 m CO-observations in the giant molecular cloud complex W43

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlhoff, P.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Schilke, P.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Beuther, H.; Bontemps, S.; Heitsch, F.; Hill, T.; Kramer, C.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schuller, F.; Simon, R.; Wyrowski, F.

    2013-12-01

    We aim to fully describe the distribution and location of dense molecular clouds in the giant molecular cloud complex W43. It was previously identified as one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. To trace the moderately dense molecular clouds in the W43 region, we initiated W43-HERO, a large program using the IRAM 30 m telescope, which covers a wide dynamic range of scales from 0.3 to 140 pc. We obtained on-the-fly-maps in 13CO (2-1) and C18O (2-1) with a high spectral resolution of 0.1 km s-1 and a spatial resolution of 12''. These maps cover an area of ~1.5 square degrees and include the two main clouds of W43 and the lower density gas surrounding them. A comparison to Galactic models and previous distance calculations confirms the location of W43 near the tangential point of the Scutum arm at approximately 6 kpc from the Sun. The resulting intensity cubes of the observed region are separated into subcubes, which are centered on single clouds and then analyzed in detail. The optical depth, excitation temperature, and H2 column density maps are derived out of the 13CO and C18O data. These results are then compared to those derived from Herschel dust maps. The mass of a typical cloud is several 104 M⊙ while the total mass in the dense molecular gas (>102 cm-3) in W43 is found to be ~1.9 × 106 M⊙. Probability distribution functions obtained from column density maps derived from molecular line data and Herschel imaging show a log-normal distribution for low column densities and a power-law tail for high densities. A flatter slope for the molecular line data probability distribution function may imply that those selectively show the gravitationally collapsing gas. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe final datacubes (13CO and C18O) for the entire survey are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/560/A24

  2. Large-scale worldwide observational study of adherence with acne therapy.

    PubMed

    Drno, Brigitte; Thiboutot, Diane; Gollnick, Harald; Finlay, Andrew Y; Layton, Alison; Leyden, James J; Leutenegger, Eric; Perez, Montserrat

    2010-04-01

    Acne is a common chronic disease that typically requires prolonged treatment. Several small studies conducted over the past few years suggest that adherence to acne medications is often poor. In addition, data regarding the factors that positively or negatively impact adherence in patients with acne are sparse. This study utilized a simple, validated questionnaire (ECOB, Elaboration d'un outil d'evaluation de l'observance des traitements medicamenteux) to assess the risk of poor adherence in a large worldwide cohort of acne patients (n = 3339) from three major geographic regions [the Americas (n = 952), Europe (n = 1196), and Asia (n = 1191). In addition, information about patient and treatment characteristics was collected to identify factors that correlated with adherence. Overall, there was a poor adherence rate of 50% in this study; this varied by region, with significantly worse adherence in Europe versus Asia and America (poor adherence rates of 58%, 48%, and 43%, respectively, P < 0.0001). To provide insight into factors that affect medication-taking behavior in acne, adherence was analyzed by the type of treatment (a combination of topical and systemic, topical only, oral isotretinoin). Among patients taking a combination of both systemic and topical therapy, 60% (n = 944) of patients had poor adherence to at least one treatment as defined in the study protocol. In this group, there was a higher proportion of patients who had poor adherence to systemic treatment versus topical treatment (54% vs. 44%, respectively). Among patients treated with topical therapy only, poor adherence occurred in 40% (n = 356) of cases. A total of 46% (n = 325) of patients using oral isotretinoin therapy had poor adherence. Multivariate analysis showed that poor adherence was independently correlated with young age (most strongly with <15 years but also in the age group from 15 to 25 years), the occurrence of side effects, lack of improvement as evaluated by dermatologist, previous systemic therapy, lack of knowledge about acne treatment, consultation with a primary care physician, and lack of patient satisfaction with treatment. Factors that had a positive effect on adherence were more severe acne, use of cosmetics (moisturizers, cleansers), use of either topical therapy alone or isotretinoin, good clinical improvement as evaluated by the dermatologist, patient satisfaction with therapy, and knowledge of acne treatment. PMID:20465705

  3. Comparison of H-alpha synoptic charts with the large-scale solar magnetic field as observed at Stanford

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, T. L., Jr.; Wilcox, J. M.; Svalgaard, L.; Scherrer, P. H.; Mcintosh, P. S.

    1977-01-01

    Two methods of observing the neutral line of the large-scale photospheric magnetic field are compared: neutral line positions inferred from H-alpha photographs (McIntosh and Nolte, 1975) and observations of the photospheric magnetic field made with low spatial resolution (three minutes) and high sensitivity using the Stanford magnetograph. The comparison is found to be very favorable.

  4. Interpretation of broad band circular polarization measurements using Stokes V spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muerset, U.; Stenflo, J. O.; Solanki, S. K.

    1988-10-01

    The wavelength dependence and the center to limb variation of the broad band circular polarization of solar active regions are determined by integrating over spectra with a large wavelength range obtained with a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). It is shown that the broad band circular polarization (BBC) is due mainly to the asymmetry of the Stokes V profiles. The approximate contributions of lines of different depths to the total broad band signal are analyzed. The diagnostic contents of BBC observations with low spatial resolution, such as those of Kemp et al. (1987), are discussed. These observations are reproduced with the help of simulated broad band polarization data obtained by integrating FTS spectra. It is shown that the spatial distribution of the net field on the solar surface (within a single large spatial resolution element) can affect the measured BBC signal considerably, and may even change its sign.

  5. Integrated observations of processes and products of large scale cratering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.; Ross, P.; White, J. D.; Taddeucci, J.; Zimanowski, B.; Lube, G.; Kueppers, U.; Bowman, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Detailed analysis of volcanic craters and ballistic deposits can provide insight into eruption dynamics and evolution. As fully exposed craters and associated unmodified deposits are rarely preserved, the dynamics involved can only be inferred. Large-scale blast experiments conducted at the University at Buffalo Geohazards Field Station produced deposits from single and multiple subsurface explosions at individual craters, along with a range of observational data, and provide a unique opportunity to link dynamics with geologic structures and deposits. Meter-scale craters were produced through repeated blasts using chemical explosives in 15 cm thick strata constructed of compacted aggregates (e.g. sands and gravels). Each experiment had 1-3 individual explosions with the same epicenter to form a single crater, with a total of 12 blasts and five craters. Three craters were produced through a series of shallow blasts (34-75 cm depth, six blasts) and two additional craters were produced by deeper blasts (75-100 cm, six blasts). The experiments successfully reproduced crater structures similar to those of maar volcanoes, which are the product of one or more subsurface explosions resulting from the interaction of magma with groundwater. Deep explosion tests successfully reproduced mixing and structures similar to maar-diatremes. The ballistics produced were collected in sample boxes up to 18 m from the blast center. The pits were later excavated and the vertical structures and deposits were described and sampled. Deposits can be described as bedded-diatreme (fallback/inter-crater deposits), unbedded diatreme (disturbed subsurface material), tephra ring (debris on the pre-blast surface) and distal extra-crater deposits. Granulometry and componentry were acquired for all samples. The diatreme structures and deposit componentry were interpreted using high-speed video recordings of the blasts. A comparison of ballistic source depth and collection location revealed the importance of multiple blasts in the excavation of deeper layers, suggesting that componentry of extra-crater deposits does not accurately indicate the depth of explosions, and would yield underestimates of the depth of activity. Additionally, material derived from the surface/shallow depths is deposited farther from the crater than deeper-derived material, suggesting an important lateral control on deposition from explosions at depth. Fallback deposits are critical to interpreting the evolution of the diatreme and crater, because only with the shallowest blasts does material escape the crater. Sampling of deposits from multiple blasts revealed mixing of subsurface material, and the influence of early fallback deposits and a pre-blast crater on the deposits preserved below, within and outside of the crater. Experiments such as these reveal links between explosions and their deposits unattainable from geological studies, and advance our ability to reconstruct processes of real eruptions from their deposits.

  6. Observation of the Earth's dynamic ellipticity with a large ring laser gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Wei; Schreiber, Karl Ulrich; Kluegel, Thomas; Gebauer, Andre

    2015-04-01

    With the rapid advance of large ring laser gyroscopes, their promising applications in geoscience (such as, detection of Earth's tides, Earth's free oscillations and seismical waves etc.) have been demonstrated impressively by several ring laser groups. In this work we will report on one more application, which is the determination of the Earth's dynamical ellipticity by measuring the retrograde diurnal polar motion at the K1 wave with a single large ring laser. The Earth's astronomical dynamical ellipticity Hd = 0.00325(6) is estimated by means of 168 days of continuous data from the G-ring, located in Wettzell, Germany, which is the most stable one amongst the currently running large ring laser gyroscopes.

  7. Large-Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattell, C. A.; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J. R.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, M. D.; Blake, J. B.; Roth, I.

    2012-12-01

    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large-amplitude whistler mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s of mV/m) whistler mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large-amplitude whistler mode waves are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. These characteristics are different than those of typical chorus, though it remains to be seen whether the large-amplitude whistler mode waves are a subpopulation of chorus or something else entirely. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in electron energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large pitch angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  8. Radar Observation of Large Attenuation in Convective Storms: Implications for the Dropsize Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, G. M.; Srivastava, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne meteorological radars typically operate at attenuating wavelengths. The path integrated attenuation (PIA) can be estimated using the surface reference technique (SRT). In this method, an initial value is determined for the radar cross section of the earth surface in a rain-free area in relatively close proximity to the rain cloud. During subsequent observations of precipitation any decrease 'in the observed surface cross section from the reference value s assumed to be a result of the two-way attenuation along the propagation path. In this paper we present selected instances of high PIA observed over land by an airborne radar. The observations were taken in Brazil and Florida during TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission) field campaigns. We compared these observations with collocated and nearly simultaneous ground-based radar observations by an S-band radar that is not subject to significant attenuation. In this preliminary evaluation, a systematic difference in the attenuation in the two storms is attributed to a difference in the raindrop size distributions; this is supported by observations of ZDR (differential reflectivity).

  9. Observation of large refrigerant capacity in the HoVO3 vanadate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balli, M.; Roberge, B.; Jandl, S.; Fournier, P.; Palstra, T. T. M.; Nugroho, A. A.

    2015-08-01

    The HoVO3 orthovanadate undergoes a large negative and conventional magnetocaloric effects around 4 K and 15 K, respectively. The partly overlapping of the magnetic transition at 15 K and the structural transition occurring at 40 K, as well as the large magnetization, give rise to a giant refrigerant capacity without hysteresis loss. For a magnetic field variation of 7 T, the refrigerant capacity is evaluated to be 620 J/kg, which is larger than that for any known RMnO3 manganite. These results should inspire and open new ways for the improvement of magnetocaloric properties of ABO3 type-oxides.

  10. Large 6300-A airglow intensity enhancements observed in ionosphere heating experiments are excited by thermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantas, George P.

    1994-05-01

    It is shown that the 6300-A airglow intensity enhancements observed in ionosphere heating experiments, by high-power HF waves, which have been hitherto attributed to excitation by energetic electrons accelerated in plasma instabilities, are excited by energetic electrons from the tail of the heated thermal (maxwellian) electron gas. In addition, a plausible explanation for the inadequacy of the electron temperatures observed in the early ionosphere heating experiments at Arecibo to account for the observed oxygen red line enhancements is presented. In the light of these developments, electron acceleration in ionosphere HF heating experiments might be more scarce than is commonly believed. might be more scarce than is commonly believed.

  11. Visualizing circular motion around a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Thomas; Boblest, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    An observer who moves on a circular orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole with a constant but arbitrary velocity must compensate for the gravitational and centrifugal acceleration to stay on this orbit. The local reference frame of the observer undergoes a geodesic precession, which depends on the radius of the orbit and the velocity. We describe the details of this circular motion and an interactive program that shows what the observer would see.

  12. Circular states of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Lutwak, R.; Holley, J.; Chang, P.P.; Paine, S.; Kleppner, D.; Ducas, T.

    1997-08-01

    We describe the creation of circular states of hydrogen by adiabatic transfer of a Rydberg state in crossed electric and magnetic fields, and also by adiabatic passage in a rotating microwave field. The latter method permits rapid switching between the two circular states of a given n manifold. The two methods are demonstrated experimentally, and results are presented of an analysis of the field ionization properties of the circular states. An application for the circular states is illustrated by millimeter-wave resonance in hydrogen of the n=29{r_arrow}n=30 transition. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. Condensation of circular DNA.

    PubMed

    Starostin, E L

    2013-04-28

    A simple model of a circularly closed double-stranded DNA in a poor solvent is considered as an example of a semi-flexible polymer with self-attraction. To find the ground states, the conformational energy is computed as a sum of the bending and torsional elastic components and the effective self-attraction energy. The model includes a relative orientation or sequence dependence of the effective attraction forces between different pieces of the polymer chain. Two series of conformations are analysed: a multicovered circle (a toroid) and a multifold two-headed racquet. The results are presented as a diagram of state. It is suggested that the stability of particular conformations may be controlled by proper adjustment of the primary structure. Application of the model to other semi-flexible polymers is considered. PMID:23635167

  14. How historic simulation-observation discrepancy affects future warming projections in a very large model ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Projections of future climate made by model-ensembles have credibility because the historic simulations by these models are consistent with, or near-consistent with, historic observations. However, it is not known how small inconsistencies between the ranges of observed and simulated historic climate change affects the future projections made by a model ensemble. Here, the impact of historical simulation-observation inconsistencies on future warming projections is quantified in a 4-million member Monte Carlo ensemble from a new efficient Earth System Model (ESM). Of the 4-million ensemble members, a subset of 182,500 are consistent with historic ranges of warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake simulated by the Climate Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) ensemble. This simulation-consistent subset projects similar future warming ranges to the CMIP5 ensemble for all four RCP scenarios, indicating the new ESM represents an efficient tool to explore parameter space for future warming projections based on historic performance. A second subset of 14,500 ensemble members are consistent with historic observations for warming, heat uptake and carbon uptake. This observation-consistent subset projects a narrower range for future warming, with the lower bounds of projected warming still similar to CMIP5, but the upper warming bounds reduced by 20-35 %. These findings suggest that part of the upper range of twenty-first century CMIP5 warming projections may reflect historical simulation-observation inconsistencies. However, the agreement of lower bounds for projected warming implies that the likelihood of warming exceeding dangerous levels over the twenty-first century is unaffected by small discrepancies between CMIP5 models and observations.

  15. Large XCH4 anomaly in summer 2013 over Northeast Asia observed by GOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, M.; Uchino, O.; Morino, I.; Inoue, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Mabuchi, K.; Shirai, T.; Tohjima, Y.; Maksyutov, S.; Ohyama, H.; Kawakami, S.; Takizawa, A.

    2015-09-01

    Extremely high levels of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of atmospheric methane (XCH4) were detected in August and September 2013 over Northeast Asia (~ 20 ppb above the averaged summertime XCH4 over 2009-2012, after removing a long-term trend), as being retrieved from the Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) spectral data observed with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). Similar enhancements of XCH4 were also observed by the ground-based measurements at two Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) sites in Japan. The analysis of surface CH4 concentrations observed at three monitoring sites around the Japan islands suggest that the extreme increase of XCH4 has occurred in a limited area. The model analysis was conducted to investigate this anomalously high XCH4 event, using an atmospheric transport model. The results indicate that the extreme increase of XCH4 is attributed to the anomalous atmospheric pressure pattern over East Asia during the summer of 2013, which effectively transported the CH4-rich air to Japan from the strong CH4 source areas in East China. The two Japanese TCCON sites, ~ 1000 km east-west apart each other, coincidentally located along the substantially CH4-rich air flow from East China. The GOSAT orbiting with three-day recurrence successfully observed the synoptic-scale XCH4 enhancement in the comparable accuracy to the TCCON data. This analysis demonstrates the capability of GOSAT to monitor an XCH4 event on a synoptic scale.

  16. Testing of Large Diameter Fresnel Optics for Space Based Observations of Extensive Air Showers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H.; Christl, Mark J.; Young, Roy M.

    2011-01-01

    The JEM-EUSO mission will detect extensive air showers produced by extreme energy cosmic rays. It operates from the ISS looking down on Earth's night time atmosphere to detect the nitrogen fluorescence and Cherenkov produce by the charged particles in the EAS. The JEM-EUSO science objectives require a large field of view, sensitivity to energies below 50 EeV, and must fit within available ISS resources. The JEM-EUSO optic module uses three large diameter, thin plastic lenses with Fresnel surfaces to meet the instrument requirements. A bread-board model of the optic has been manufactured and has undergone preliminary tests. We report the results of optical performance tests and evaluate the present capability to manufacture these optical elements.

  17. Observation of collisionless shocks in a large current-free laboratory plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, C.; Gekelman, W.; Constantin, C. G.; Everson, E. T.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Winske, D.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Pribyl, P.

    2014-11-01

    We report the first measurements of the formation and structure of a magnetized collisionless shock by a laser-driven magnetic piston in a current-free laboratory plasma. This new class of experiments combines a high-energy laser system and a large magnetized plasma to transfer energy from a laser plasma plume to the ambient ions through collisionless coupling, until a self-sustained MA 2 magnetosonic shock separates from the piston. The ambient plasma is highly magnetized, current free, and large enough (17 m 0.6 m) to support Alfvn waves. Magnetic field measurements of the structure and evolution of the shock are consistent with two-dimensional hybrid simulations, which show Larmor coupling between the debris and ambient ions and the presence of reflected ions, which provide the dissipation. The measured shock formation time confirms predictions from computational work.

  18. Search for Electromagnetic Counterparts to LIGO-Virgo Candidates: Expanded Very Large Array Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazio, Joseph; Keating, Katie; Jenet, F. A.; Kassim, N. E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes a search for radio wavelength counterparts to candidate gravitational wave events. The identification of an electromagnetic counterpart could provide a more complete understanding of a gravitational wave event, including such characteristics as the location and the nature of the progenitor. We used the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA) to search six galaxies which were identified as potential hosts for two candidate gravitational wave events. We summarize our procedures and discuss preliminary results.

  19. Large gamma anisotropy observed in the sup 252 Cf spontaneous-fission process

    SciTech Connect

    van der Ploeg, H.; Postma, R.; Bacelar, J.C.; van den Berg, T.; Iacob, V.; Jongman, J.; van der Woude, A. )

    1992-05-25

    The energy spectrum and the angular dependence relative to the fission direction of photons in the energy region between 2 and 40 MeV have been measured for the spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf. A large anisotropy was found in the energy region 8 to 12 MeV implying that photons in this region are emitted from a nuclear system which is highly elongated along the fission axis.

  20. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-12-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s-1 and 0.1494 m s-2, respectively.

  1. Very Large Array observations of Uranus at 2.0 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berge, G. L.; Muhleman, D. O.; Linfield, R. P.

    1988-01-01

    Radio observations of Uranus obtained at 2.0 cm with the B configuration of the VLA during April 1985 are reported. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described in detail, and the results are presented in tables, maps, and graphs and compared with IRIS 44-micron observations (Hanel et al., 1986). Features discussed include highest brightness centered on the pole rather than on the subearth point, a decrease in brightness temperature (by up to 9 K) at latitudes between -20 and -50 deg (well correlated with the IRIS data), and disk-center position (corrected for the observed radio asymmetry) in good agreement with that found on the basis of the outer contours of the image.

  2. Observations and implications of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a solar filament

    SciTech Connect

    Luna, M.; Knizhnik, K.; Muglach, K.; Karpen, J.; Gilbert, H.; Kucera, T. A.; Uritsky, V.

    2014-04-10

    On 2010 August 20, an energetic disturbance triggered large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations in a nearby filament. The triggering mechanism appears to be episodic jets connecting the energetic event with the filament threads. In the present work, we analyze this periodic motion in a large fraction of the filament to characterize the underlying physics of the oscillation as well as the filament properties. The results support our previous theoretical conclusions that the restoring force of large-amplitude longitudinal oscillations is solar gravity, and the damping mechanism is the ongoing accumulation of mass onto the oscillating threads. Based on our previous work, we used the fitted parameters to determine the magnitude and radius of curvature of the dipped magnetic field along the filament, as well as the mass accretion rate onto the filament threads. These derived properties are nearly uniform along the filament, indicating a remarkable degree of cohesiveness throughout the filament channel. Moreover, the estimated mass accretion rate implies that the footpoint heating responsible for the thread formation, according to the thermal nonequilibrium model, agrees with previous coronal heating estimates. We estimate the magnitude of the energy released in the nearby event by studying the dynamic response of the filament threads, and discuss the implications of our study for filament structure and heating.

  3. Large Amplitude Whistler Waves and Electron Acceleration in the Earth's Radiation Belts: A Review of STEREO and Wind Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, Cynthia; Breneman, A.; Goetz, K.; Kellogg, P.; Kersten, K.; Wygant, J.; Wilson, L. B., III; Looper, Mark D.; Blake, J. Bernard; Roth, I.

    2012-01-01

    One of the critical problems for understanding the dynamics of Earth's radiation belts is determining the physical processes that energize and scatter relativistic electrons. We review measurements from the Wind/Waves and STEREO S/Waves waveform capture instruments of large amplitude whistler-mode waves. These observations have provided strong evidence that large amplitude (100s mV/m) whistler-mode waves are common during magnetically active periods. The large amplitude whistlers have characteristics that are different from typical chorus. They are usually nondispersive and obliquely propagating, with a large longitudinal electric field and significant parallel electric field. We will also review comparisons of STEREO and Wind wave observations with SAMPEX observations of electron microbursts. Simulations show that the waves can result in energization by many MeV and/or scattering by large angles during a single wave packet encounter due to coherent, nonlinear processes including trapping. The experimental observations combined with simulations suggest that quasilinear theoretical models of electron energization and scattering via small-amplitude waves, with timescales of hours to days, may be inadequate for understanding radiation belt dynamics.

  4. Pioneer and Voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.; Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Data obtained from the electrostatic analyzers aboard the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft and from the Faraday cup aboard Voyager 2 were used to study spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Prior to mid-1985, both spacecraft observed nearly identical solar wind structures. After day 150 of 1985, the velocity structure at Voyager 2 became flatter, and the Voyager 2 velocities were smaller than those observed by Pioneer 11. It is suggested that these changes in the solar wind at low latitudes may be related to a change which occurred in the coronal hole structure in early 1985.

  5. MIC-Large Scale Magnetically Inflated Cable Structures for Space Power, Propulsion, Communications and Observational Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Rather, John

    2010-01-01

    A new approach for the erection of rigid large scale structures in space-MIC (Magnetically Inflated Cable)-is described. MIC structures are launched as a compact payload of superconducting cables and attached tethers. After reaching orbit, the superconducting cables are energized with electrical current. The magnet force interactions between the cables cause them to expand outwards into the final large structure. Various structural shapes and applications are described. The MIC structure can be a simple flat disc with a superconducting outer ring that supports a tether network holding a solar cell array, or it can form a curved mirror surface that concentrates light and focuses it on a smaller region-for example, a high flux solar array that generates electric power, a high temperature receiver that heats H2 propellant for high Isp propulsion, and a giant primary reflector for a telescope for astronomy and Earth surveillance. Linear dipole and quadrupole MIC structures are also possible. The linear quadrupole structure can be used for magnetic shielding against cosmic radiation for astronauts, for example. MIC could use lightweight YBCO superconducting HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) cables, that can operate with liquid N2 coolant at engineering current densities of ~105 amp/cm2. A 1 kilometer length of MIC cable would weigh only 3 metric tons, including superconductor, thermal insulations, coolant circuits, and refrigerator, and fit within a 3 cubic meter compact package for launch. Four potential MIC applications are described: Solar-thermal propulsion using H2 propellant, space based solar power generation for beaming power to Earth, a large space telescope, and solar electric generation for a manned lunar base. The first 3 applications use large MIC solar concentrating mirrors, while the 4th application uses a surface based array of solar cells on a magnetically levitated MIC structure to follow the sun. MIC space based mirrors can be very large and light in weight. A 300 meter diameter MIC mirror in orbit for example, would weigh 20 metric tons and MIC structures can be easily developed and tested on Earth at small scale in existing evacuated chambers followed by larger scale tests in the atmosphere, using a vacuum tight enclosure on the small diameter superconducting cable to prevent air leakage into the evacuated thermal insulation around the superconducting cable.

  6. A large Italian observational multicentre study on vascular ulcers of the lower limbs (Studio Ulcere Vascolari).

    PubMed

    Apollonio, Alessandro; Antignani, Pier L; Di Salvo, Michelangelo; Failla, Giacomo; Guarnera, Giorgio; Mosti, Giovanni; Ricci, Elia

    2016-02-01

    An observational study of 2 years was promoted by the Italian Association for Cutaneous Ulcers (AIUC) in order to monitor the epidemiology of leg ulcers, the trend of healing and the more frequent therapeutic approaches in lower limb ulcers. Fifty-nine sites in 14 different Italian regions involved in the study, with 1333 enrolled patients (1163 patients fully evaluated and followed up for 9 months). A prevalence of females (62%) was observed with a mean age of 70 years and a high rate of hypertension (62%), diabetes (38%) and obesity (29%). Venous ulcer was most frequent (55%), followed by mixed (25%) and diabetic (8·3%) ulcers. Basically, all patients received a local therapy (LT) (compression and advanced local therapies), while 63% of patients have an associated systemic pharmaceutical treatment. Ulcer healing rates progressively increased throughout the study and despite the type of observational study does not allow conclusions on the treatment, it was observed that the patients receiving additional systemic drugs were associated with a more rapid acceleration of healing rates of ulcers compared to LT alone (3 months: 39·7% versus 29·2%; 6 months: 62·0% versus 47·0%; 9 months: 74·7% versus 63·8%). In particular, the Studio Ulcere Vascolari (SUV) study showed that a combination treatment with sulodexide and compression therapy allows for a greater increase in the healing rates in venous ulcers. PMID:24618175

  7. Mimicking the cosmological constant for more than one observable with large scale inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Antonio Enea

    2010-12-01

    Assuming the definition of the inversion problem (IP) as the exact matching of the terms in the low redshift expansion of cosmological observables calculated for different cosmological models, we solve the IP for DL(z) and the redshift spherical shell mass density mn(z) for a central observer in a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) space without cosmological constant and a generic ?CDM model. We show that the solution of the IP is unique, corresponds to a matter density profile which is not smooth at the center, and that the same conclusions can be reached expanding self-consistently to any order all the relevant quantities. Contrary to the case of a single observable inversion problem, it is impossible to solve the IP (LTB vs ?CDM) for both mn(z) and DL(z) while setting one of the two functions k(r) or tb(r) to zero, even allowing nonsmooth matter profiles. Our conclusions are general, since they are exclusively based on comparing directly physical observables in redshift space, and do not depend on any special ansatz or restriction for the functions defining a LTB model.

  8. The large-scale observational signatures of low-mass galaxies during reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Keri L.; Iliev, Ilian T.; Mellema, Garrelt; Ahn, Kyungjin; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    Observations of the epoch of reionization give us clues about the nature and evolution of the sources of ionizing photons, or early stars and galaxies. We present a new suite of structure formation and radiative transfer (RT) simulations from the PRACE4LOFAR project designed to investigate whether the mechanism of radiative feedback, or the suppression of star formation in ionized regions from UV radiation, can be inferred from these observations. Our source halo mass extends down to 108 M⊙, with sources in the mass range 108-109 M⊙ expected to be particularly susceptible to feedback from ionizing radiation, and we vary the aggressiveness and nature of this suppression. Not only do we have four distinct source models, we also include two box sizes (67 and 349 Mpc), each with two grid resolutions. This suite of simulations allows us to investigate the robustness of our results. All of our simulations are broadly consistent with the observed electron-scattering optical depth of the cosmic microwave background and the neutral fraction and photoionization rate of hydrogen at z ˜ 6. In particular, we investigate the redshifted 21-cm emission in anticipation of upcoming radio interferometer observations. We find that the overall shape of the 21-cm signal and various statistics are robust to the exact nature of source suppression, the box size, and the resolution. There are some promising model discriminators in the non-Gaussianity and small-scale power spectrum of the 21-cm signal.

  9. AQUAPORINS ARE OBSERVED IN THE DUCT EPITHELIA OF THE EPIDIDYMAL REGION OF THE LARGE WHITE TURKEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating the re-uptake of the testicular fluid supporting sperm exiting the testes is not known in the bird. The presence of aquaporin, a protein involved in the transmembrane water transport, was investigated. Observations were limited to the ductuli efferent...

  10. Circularization pathway of a bacterial group II intron

    PubMed Central

    Monat, Caroline; Cousineau, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Group II introns are large RNA enzymes that can excise as lariats, circles or in a linear form through branching, circularization or hydrolysis, respectively. Branching is by far the main and most studied splicing pathway while circularization was mostly overlooked. We previously showed that removal of the branch point A residue from Ll.LtrB, the group II intron from Lactococcus lactis, exclusively leads to circularization. However, the majority of the released intron circles harbored an additional C residue of unknown origin at the splice junction. Here, we exploited the Ll.LtrB-?A mutant to study the circularization pathway of bacterial group II introns in vivo. We demonstrated that the non-encoded C residue, present at the intron circle splice junction, corresponds to the first nt of exon 2. Intron circularization intermediates, harboring the first 2 or 3 nts of exon 2, were found to accumulate showing that branch point removal leads to 3? splice site misrecognition. Traces of properly ligated exons were also detected functionally confirming that a small proportion of Ll.LtrB-?A circularizes accurately. Overall, our data provide the first detailed molecular analysis of the group II intron circularization pathway and suggests that circularization is a conserved splicing pathway in bacteria. PMID:26673697

  11. Circularization pathway of a bacterial group II intron.

    PubMed

    Monat, Caroline; Cousineau, Benoit

    2016-02-29

    Group II introns are large RNA enzymes that can excise as lariats, circles or in a linear form through branching, circularization or hydrolysis, respectively. Branching is by far the main and most studied splicing pathway while circularization was mostly overlooked. We previously showed that removal of the branch point A residue from Ll.LtrB, the group II intron from Lactococcus lactis, exclusively leads to circularization. However, the majority of the released intron circles harbored an additional C residue of unknown origin at the splice junction. Here, we exploited the Ll.LtrB-?A mutant to study the circularization pathway of bacterial group II introns in vivo. We demonstrated that the non-encoded C residue, present at the intron circle splice junction, corresponds to the first nt of exon 2. Intron circularization intermediates, harboring the first 2 or 3 nts of exon 2, were found to accumulate showing that branch point removal leads to 3' splice site misrecognition. Traces of properly ligated exons were also detected functionally confirming that a small proportion of Ll.LtrB-?A circularizes accurately. Overall, our data provide the first detailed molecular analysis of the group II intron circularization pathway and suggests that circularization is a conserved splicing pathway in bacteria. PMID:26673697

  12. Placement of the dam for the no. 2 kambaratinskaya HPP by large-scale blasting: some observations

    SciTech Connect

    Shuifer, M. I.; Argal, E. S.

    2011-11-15

    Results of complex instrument observations of large-scale blasting during construction of the dam for the No. 2 Kambaratinskaya HPP on the Naryn River in the Republic of Kirgizia are analyzed. The purpose of these observations was: to determine the actual parameters of the seismic process, evaluate the effect of air and acoustic shock waves, and investigate the kinematics of the surface formed by the blast in its core region within the mass of fractured rocks.

  13. Limits on large extra dimensions based on observations of neutron stars with the Fermi-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R.A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P.A.; Casandjian, J.M. E-mail: elliott@slac.stanford.edu [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU Collaboration: Fermi-LAT collaboration; and others

    2012-02-01

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to γγ should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.

  14. Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cameron, R.A.; Caraveo, P.A.; Casandjian, J.M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; /more authors..

    2012-08-17

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to {gamma}{gamma} should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.

  15. Limits on Large Extra Dimensions Based on Observations of Neutron Stars with the Fermi-LAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Scargle, J. D.; Troja, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present limits for the compactification scale in the theory of Large Extra Dimensions (LED) proposed by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali. We use 11 months of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) to set gamma ray flux limits for 6 gamma-ray faint neutron stars (NS). To set limits on LED we use the model of Hannestad and Raffelt (HR) that calculates the Kaluza-Klein (KK) graviton production in supernova cores and the large fraction subsequently gravitationally bound around the resulting NS. The predicted decay of the bound KK gravitons to should contribute to the flux from NSs. Considering 2 to 7 extra dimensions of the same size in the context of the HR model, we use Monte Carlo techniques to calculate the expected differential flux of gamma-rays arising from these KK gravitons, including the effects of the age of the NS, graviton orbit, and absorption of gamma-rays in the magnetosphere of the NS. We compare our Monte Carlo-based differential flux to the experimental differential flux using maximum likelihood techniques to obtain our limits on LED. Our limits are more restrictive than past EGRET-based optimistic limits that do not include these important corrections. Additionally, our limits are more stringent than LHC based limits for 3 or fewer LED, and comparable for 4 LED. We conclude that if the effective Planck scale is around a TeV, then for 2 or 3 LED the compactification topology must be more complicated than a torus.

  16. Tilt Angle and Footpoint Separation of Small and Large Bipolar Sunspot Regions Observed with HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate bipolar sunspot regions and how tilt angle and footpoint separation vary during emergence and decay. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory collects data at a higher cadence than historical records and allows for a detailed analysis of regions over their lifetimes. We sample the umbral tilt angle, footpoint separation, and umbral area of 235 bipolar sunspot regions in Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager—Debrecen Data with an hourly cadence. We use the time when the umbral area peaks as time zero to distinguish between the emergence and decay periods of each region and we limit our analysis of tilt and separation behavior over time to within ±96 hr of time zero. Tilt angle evolution is distinctly different for regions with small (≈30 MSH), midsize (≈50 MSH), and large (≈110 MSH) maximum umbral areas, with 45 and 90 MSH being useful divisions for separating the groups. At the peak umbral area, we determine median tilt angles for small (7.°6), midsize (5.°9), and large (9.°3) regions. Within ±48 hr of the time of peak umbral area, large regions steadily increase in tilt angle, midsize regions are nearly constant, and small regions show evidence of negative tilt during emergence. A period of growth in footpoint separation occurs over a 72-hr period for all of the regions from roughly 40 to 70 Mm. The smallest bipoles (<9 MSH) are outliers in that they do not obey Joy's law and have a much smaller footpoint separation. We confirm the Muñoz-Jaramillo et al. (2015) results that the sunspots appear to be two distinct populations.

  17. Spacewatch Observations of Asteroids and Comets Supporting the Large-Scale Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Robert S.; Bressi, Terrence H.; Scotti, James V.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.; Mastaler, Ronald A.

    2014-11-01

    We specialize in followup astrometry of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) of high priority while they are faint, including recently discovered objects on the MPC's Confirmation Page, objects with potential close encounters with Earth, NEOs for which NEOWISE determined albedos and diameters, targets of radar, potential destinations for spacecraft, and special requests by the MPC or JPL. The present era of Spacewatch observations began on 2011 Oct 15 with a new imaging camera on our 1.8-meter telescope. From then, the MPC has been accepting an annual average of 8,492 lines of astrometry of 1,018 different NEOs from Spacewatch, including 177 different PHAs per year. Thus we observe half of all such objects that are observed by anyone in the same interval. We make twice as many measurements of PHAs while they are fainter than V=22 than the next most productive astrometry group. We have contributed to the removal of half of the objects that were retired from JPL's impact risk list. Per year we observe about 35 radar targets, 50 NEOs that were measured by NEOWISE, and 100 potential rendezvous destinations. We also average 400 observations of comets per year. Since 2004 we have increased our efficiency by a factor of six in terms of observations per unit personnel work year by means of new hardware, software, and the automation of the 0.9-m telescope. Last year we received a grant to upgrade our 0.9-m telescope and develop a public archive of image data dating back to 1990. New grants from the NEOO Program now support our use of telescopes larger than the 1.8-meter of Spacewatch and improvement of the efficiency of the Spacewatch 1.8-m. Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Steward Observatory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted to the MPC of the IAU for their web services.

  18. Children's Sensitivity to Circular Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Laura A.; Danovitch, Judith H.; Keil, Frank C.

    2008-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the quality of explanations is an essential part of children's intellectual growth. Explanations can be faulty in structural ways such as when they are circular. A circular explanation reiterates the question as if it were an explanation rather than providing any new information. Two experiments (N=77) examined children's

  19. VLA observations of stellar planetary nebulae. [using Very Large Array at National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. M.; Balick, B.; Thompson, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Coordinates, dimensions, 4885-MHz flux densities, and brightness temperatures of K3-2, NGC 6833, Ps 1, II 5117, Me 2-2, Hb 12, Vy 1-1, and M1-5 are reported. In two other cases, H3-29 and H3-75, confused extended structure was detected in which the nebula could not be identified with certainty. He 2-467, M1-2, and Peterson's H-alpha object in M15 were also included in the observations but not detected with an upper limit of less than 10 mJy. The observations are compared with some of the previous optical and radio data, such as log S(H-beta). Distances are computed from the present data with standard assumptions. Corresponding linear radii range below 0.1 pc, among the smallest in previous distributions of radius.

  20. Very Large Array-RATAN 600 observations of a solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogod, V. M.; Gel'freikh, G. B.; Willson, R. F.; Lang, K. R.; Opeikina, L. V.; Shatilov, V.; Tsvetkov, S. V.

    1992-01-01

    VLA-RATAN-600 observations of the sun around the partial solar eclipse in July 1990 are discussed. The relatively flat spectrum of the extended emission is attributed to the optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung of electrons trapped in a magnetic loop at coronal temperatures. Step-spectrum sunspot-associated emission is attributed to thermal gyroresonance radiation at different heights along the leg of a loop joining regions of positive magnetic polarity. Comparisons with predicted distributions of gyroresonance radio indicate that compact sunspot-associated sources lie at heights of 2500-17,500 km above the photosphere. Differences in the observed and predicted microwave emission suggest an inhomogeneous distribution of thermal plasma in the corona above the sunspot or the presence of localized flux tubes containing higher density plasma or nonpotential fields.

  1. Fermi large area telescope observations of blazar 3C 279 occultations by the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Buehler, R.; Cameron, R. A.; Chiang, J.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Ciprini, S.; Cecchi, C.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheung, C. C. E-mail: phdmitry@stanford.edu; and others

    2014-04-01

    Observations of occultations of bright ?-ray sources by the Sun may reveal predicted pair halos around blazars and/or new physics, such as, e.g., hypothetical light dark matter particlesaxions. We use Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) data to analyze four occultations of blazar 3C 279 by the Sun on October 8 each year from 2008 to 2011. A combined analysis of the observations of these occultations allows a point-like source at the position of 3C 279 to be detected with significance of ?3?, but does not reveal any significant excess over the flux expected from the quiescent Sun. The likelihood ratio test rules out complete transparency of the Sun to the blazar ?-ray emission at a 3? confidence level.

  2. Large-scale earth surface thermal radiative features in space observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Han, Yuge; Xuan, Yimin

    2015-08-01

    It is necessary to complete the earth thermal radiative modeling, since it is the most important background in space infrared observation. A new method was proposed to calculate the earth thermal infrared radiation combined with remote sensing technology. The simplified model also was proposed when the solar radiative impact is neglected properly. The practical split-window algorithm was used to retrieve the global surface temperature from MODIS data products. Integrated with MODTRAN code to calculate the atmospheric radiation and transmittance, the earth thermal infrared features were calculated in typical months. Moreover the radiance dependence on viewing angle was discussed. Through the comparison with CERES measurement results, this model has been proved effective and practicable, and that it would have a further application in space thermal environment analysis or space infrared observation technology.

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of Blazar 3C 279 Occultations by the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Kndlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Paneque, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Prokhorov, D.; Rain, S.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Romoli, C.; Snchez-Conde, M.; Sanchez, D. A.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.

    2014-04-01

    Observations of occultations of bright ?-ray sources by the Sun may reveal predicted pair halos around blazars and/or new physics, such as, e.g., hypothetical light dark matter particlesaxions. We use Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) data to analyze four occultations of blazar 3C 279 by the Sun on October 8 each year from 2008 to 2011. A combined analysis of the observations of these occultations allows a point-like source at the position of 3C 279 to be detected with significance of ?3?, but does not reveal any significant excess over the flux expected from the quiescent Sun. The likelihood ratio test rules out complete transparency of the Sun to the blazar ?-ray emission at a 3? confidence level.

  4. Large-scale outflow in quasar LBQS J1206+1052: HST/COS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Carter; Arav, Nahum

    2015-11-01

    Using two orbits of HST/COS archival observations, we measure the location and energetics of a quasar outflow from LBQS J1206+1052. From separate collisional excitation models of observed N III/N III* and S III/S III* troughs, we measure the electron number density n_e of the outflow. Both independent determinations are in full agreement and yield n_e =10^{3.0} cm^{-3}. Combining this value of n_e with photoionization simulations, we determine that the outflow is located 840 pc from the central source. The outflow has a velocity of 1400 km s-1, a mass flux of 9 M? yr-1 and a kinetic luminosity of 1042.8 erg s-1. The distance finding is much larger than predicted from radiative acceleration models, but is consistent with recent empirical distance determinations.

  5. Observing two dark accelerators around the Galactic Centre with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, C. Y.; Yeung, P. K. H.; Ng, C. W.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Cheng, K. S.; Kong, A. K. H.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results from a detailed ?-ray investigation in the field of two "dark accelerators", HESS J1745-303 and HESS J1741-302, with 6.9 years of data obtained by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For HESS J1745-303, we found that its MeV-GeV emission is mainly originated from the "Region A" of the TeV feature. Its ?-ray spectrum can be modelled with a single power-law with a photon index of ? 2.5 from few hundreds MeV to TeV. Moreover, an elongated feature, which extends from "Region A" towards north-west for 1.3, is discovered for the first time. The orientation of this feature is similar to that of a large scale atomic/molecular gas distribution. For HESS J1741-302, our analysis does not yield any MeV-GeV counterpart for this unidentified TeV source. On the other hand, we have detected a new point source, Fermi J1740.1-3013, serendipitously. Its spectrum is apparently curved which resembles that of a ?-ray pulsar. This makes it possibly associated with PSR B1737-20 or PSR J1739-3023.

  6. Observing two dark accelerators around the Galactic Centre with Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, C. Y.; Yeung, P. K. H.; Ng, C. W.; Lin, L. C. C.; Tam, P. H. T.; Cheng, K. S.; Kong, A. K. H.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.

    2016-04-01

    We report the results from a detailed γ-ray investigation in the field of two `dark accelerators', HESS J1745-303 and HESS J1741-302, with 6.9 yr of data obtained by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. For HESS J1745-303, we found that its MeV-GeV emission is mainly originated from the `Region A' of the TeV feature. Its γ-ray spectrum can be modelled with a single power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 2.5 from few hundreds MeV-TeV. Moreover, an elongated feature, which extends from `Region A' towards north-west for ˜1.3°, is discovered for the first time. The orientation of this feature is similar to that of a large-scale atomic/molecular gas distribution. For HESS J1741-302, our analysis does not yield any MeV-GeV counterpart for this unidentified TeV source. On the other hand, we have detected a new point source, Fermi J1740.1-3013, serendipitously. Its spectrum is apparently curved which resembles that of a γ-ray pulsar. This makes it possibly associated with PSR B1737-20 or PSR J1739-3023.

  7. Observations of Jupiter at 26.3 MHz using a large array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Carr, T. D.; Levy, J.

    1975-01-01

    A 640 element phase-steerable dipole array has been used to make highly sensitive observations of the planet Jupiter during the 1973 apparition. The satellite Io is found to have very little influence at the low flux levels, whereas the definition of sources A and B appears to be relatively flux independent. A two-dimensional analysis of the data in the Jupiter-Io plane has revealed considerable source B activity at low intensities which is not influenced by Io.

  8. Pan-Chromatic Observations of the Remarkable Nova Large Magellanic Cloud 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Shore, Steven N.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Bode, Michael F.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Van Rossum, Daniel R.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13 5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the Swift/XRT and Chandra spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf (WD) being very hot, 1 MK, and luminous, 1038 erg s-1. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24 0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of 0.3 mag which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, i = 60 10{\\circ{}}, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The HST/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the N v (1240 ) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, 10-6 {{M}? }, from a hot and massive WD near the Chandrasekhar limit. The WD, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme WD characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  9. Energetic delayed hadrons in large air showers observed at 5200m above sea level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, T.; Hagiwara, K.; Yoshii, H.; Martinic, N.; Siles, L.; Miranda, P.; Kakimoto, F.; Tsuchimoto, I.; Inoue, N.; Suga, K.

    1985-01-01

    Energetic delayed hadrons in air showers with electron sizes in the range 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 9th power were studied by observing the delayed bursts produced in the shield of nine square meter scintillation detectors in the Chacaltaya air-shower array. The frequency of such delayed burst is presented as a function of electron size, core distance and sec theta.

  10. Satellite observed widespread decline in Mongolian grasslands largely due to overgrazing.

    PubMed

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-02-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70% of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or over-grazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12% on average) in MODIS observed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40% below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80% of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30% of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50% in areas with denser vegetation cover (P < 0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r(2)  = 0.10, P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies. PMID:23966315

  11. Satellite Observed Widespread Decline in Mongolian Grasslands Largely Due to Overgrazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilker, Thomas; Natsagdorj, Enkhjargal; Waring, Richard H.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie

    2014-01-01

    The Mongolian Steppe is one of the largest remaining grassland ecosystems. Recent studies have reported widespread decline of vegetation across the steppe and about 70 percent of this ecosystem is now considered degraded. Among the scientific community there has been an active debate about whether the observed degradation is related to climate, or overgrazing, or both. Here, we employ a new atmospheric correction and cloud screening algorithm (MAIAC) to investigate trends in satellite observed vegetation phenology. We relate these trends to changes in climate and domestic animal populations. A series of harmonic functions is fitted to MODIS observed phenological curves to quantify seasonal and inter-annual changes in vegetation. Our results show a widespread decline (of about 12 percent on average) in MODIS observed NDVI across the country but particularly in the transition zone between grassland and the Gobi desert, where recent decline was as much as 40 percent below the 2002 mean NDVI. While we found considerable regional differences in the causes of landscape degradation, about 80 percent of the decline in NDVI could be attributed to increase in livestock. Changes in precipitation were able to explain about 30 percent of degradation across the country as a whole but up to 50 percent in areas with denser vegetation cover (p0.05). Temperature changes, while significant, played only a minor role (r20.10, p0.05). Our results suggest that the cumulative effect of overgrazing is a primary contributor to the degradation of the Mongolian steppe and is at least partially responsible for desertification reported in previous studies.

  12. Large-scale longitudinal variation in ionospheric height and equatorial spread F occurrences observed by ionosondes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.

    2007-08-01

    Variations in ionospheric height associated with the prereversal enhancement (PRE) at two equatorial ionosonde stations separated by 6.34 in longitude were studied for the first time. The stations used were in Chumphon (10.7N, 99.4E, 3.3 Mag. Lat.), Thailand and Bac Lieu (9.3N, 105.7E, 1.6 Mag. Lat.), Vietnam. Variations in the virtual height of the bottomside of the F region (h'F) at 2.5 MHz observed at these two stations were analyzed for a period in March and April 2006. When the equatorial spread F (ESF) was not observed, h'F variations at the two stations were very similar, with a local time shift corresponding to the longitude separation. However, when ESF was observed, they were often significantly different. Our results show that h'F enhancement, which could be interpreted as being due to the eastward electric field enhancement, is quite localized in longitude when ESF occurs.

  13. MESSENGER Orbital Observations of Large-Amplitude Kelvin-Helmholtz Waves at Mercury's Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundberg, Torbjorn; Boardsen, Scott A.; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2012-01-01

    We present a survey of Kelvi\\ n-Helmholtz (KH) waves at Mercury's magnetopause during MESSENGER's first Mercury year in orb it. The waves were identified on the basis of the well-established sawtooth wave signatures that are associated with non-linear KH vortices at the magnetopause. MESSENGER frequently observed such KH waves in the dayside region of the magnetosphere where the magnetosheath flow velocity is still sub -sonic, which implies that instability growth rates at Mercury's magnetopau are much larger than at Earth. We attribute these greater rates to the limited wave energy dissipation in Mercury's highly resistive regolith. The wave amplitude was often on the order of ' 00 nT or more, and the wave periods were - 10- 20 s. A clear dawn-dusk asymmetry is present in the data, in that all of the observed wave events occurred in the post-noon and dusk-side sectors of the magnetopause. This asymmetry is like ly related to finite Larmor-radius effects and is in agreement with results from particle-in-cell simulations of the instability. The waves were observed almost exclusively during periods when the north-south component of the magnetosheath magnetic field was northward, a pattern similar to that for most terrestrial KH wave events. Accompanying plasma measurements show that the waves were associated with the transport of magnetosheath plasma into the magnetosphere.

  14. Circular chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A circular chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of electrodes is fabricated on an electrically insulating substrate. The pattern of electrodes is arranged in a circle-filling geometry, such as a concentric, dual-track spiral design, or a circular interdigitated design. A drop of a chemically sensitive polymer (i.e., chemiresistive ink) is deposited on the insulating substrate on the electrodes, which spreads out into a thin, circular disk contacting the pair of electrodes. This circularly-shaped electrode geometry maximizes the contact area between the pair of electrodes and the polymer deposit, which provides a lower and more stable baseline resistance than with linear-trace designs. The circularly-shaped electrode pattern also serves to minimize batch-to-batch variations in the baseline resistance due to non-uniform distributions of conductive particles in the chemiresistive polymer film.

  15. Radius and brightness temperature observations of Titan at centimeter wavelengths by the Very Large Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, W.; Caldwell, J.; Owen, T.

    1980-01-01

    Brightness and radius measurements of the surface of Titan at 6, 2, and 1.3 cm wavelengths obtained with the Very Large Array radio interferometer are presented. Combined results for the three wavelengths indicate that the radius is 2400 + or - 250 km, implying a density of 2.4 + or - 0.7 g/cu cm, and that the brightness temperature is 87 + or - 9 K. The surface temperature may be somewhat higher if the emissivity is less than unity. The new data do not permit a choice between an inversion model for the atmosphere of Titan that predicts a surface temperature of 78 K and a model with both a stratospheric temperature inversion and a modest greenhouse effect that would increase the surface temperature by 10-40 K.

  16. Fermi Large Area Telescope observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Omodei, N.; Petrosian, V.; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    With the current solar cycle reaching its maximum, the Fermi observatory has proven to play an active role in the study of solar flares. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board Fermi has detected >30 MeV gamma-ray emission associated with GOES M-class and X-class X-ray flares accompanied by coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particle events. These detections include both the impulsive and the long duration phases including the ~20 hours of extended emission from the 2012 March 7 X-class flares. Accurate localization with the Fermi LAT of the gamma-ray production site(s) coincide with the solar active region from which X-ray emissions associated with the 2012 March 7 X-class flares originated. In this talk I present an overview of the Fermi solar flare detections over the past five years of operation.

  17. Observations and modeling of GIC in the Chinese large-scale high-voltage power networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunming; Li, Yunlong; Pirjola, Risto

    2014-01-01

    During geomagnetic storms, the geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) cause bias fluxes in transformers, resulting in half-cycle saturation. Severely distorted exciting currents, which contain significant amounts of harmonics, threaten the safe operation of equipment and even the whole power system. In this paper, we compare GIC data measured in transformer neutrals and magnetic recordings in China, and show that the GIC amplitudes can be quite large even in mid-low latitude areas. The GIC in the Chinese Northwest 750 kV Power Grid are modeled based on the plane wave assumption. The results show that GIC flowing in some transformers exceed 30 A/phase during strong geomagnetic storms. GIC are thus not only a high-latitude problem but networks in middle and low latitudes can be impacted as well, which needs careful attention.

  18. Large-Range Movements of Neotropical Orchid Bees Observed via Radio Telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Wikelski, Martin; Moxley, Jerry; Eaton-Mordas, Alexander; López-Uribe, Margarita M.; Holland, Richard; Moskowitz, David; Roubik, David W.; Kays, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) are often cited as classic examples of trapline-foragers with potentially extensive foraging ranges. If long-distance movements are habitual, rare plants in widely scattered locations may benefit from euglossine pollination services. Here we report the first successful use of micro radio telemetry to track the movement of an insect pollinator in a complex and forested environment. Our results indicate that individual male orchid bees (Exaerete frontalis) habitually use large rainforest areas (at least 42–115 ha) on a daily basis. Aerial telemetry located individuals up to 5 km away from their core areas, and bees were often stationary, for variable periods, between flights to successive localities. These data suggest a higher degree of site fidelity than what may be expected in a free living male bee, and has implications for our understanding of biological activity patterns and the evolution of forest pollinators. PMID:20520813

  19. Large Millimeter Telescope Observations of Extremely Luminous High Redshift Infrared Galaxies Detected by the Planck Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corneilus Harrington, Kevin; Yun, Min Su; Cybulski, John R.; Wilson, Grant; Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) Team

    2015-01-01

    We present 8??resolution, 1.1mm, continuum imaging and CO spectroscopic redshift measurements of extremely bright sub-millimeter galaxies identified from the Planck and Herschel surveys, taken with the Large Millimeter Telescope's AzTEC and Redshift Search Receiver instruments. Due to their exceedingly high flux density in the Herschel/SPIRE 250, 350, and 500 micron bands (S_250 ~ S_350 ~ S_500 > 100 mJy), these sources are likely to be strongly lensed dusty galaxies at high redshift. We compiled this target list of lens candidates after cross-correlating the Planck Surveyor mission's highest frequency channel (857 GHz/350 ?m, FWHM = 4.5?) data with archival data taken with the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). Every Planck-Herschel counterpart found within a 150??radius is further examined using the higher angular resolution Herschel and WISE images to identify only dusty, high-z starburst galaxies.

  20. MESSENGER Observations of Large Dayside Flux Transfer Events: Do They Drive Mercury's Substorm Cycle?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imber, Suzanne M.; Slavin, James A.; Boardsen, Scott A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale dynamic behavior of Mercury's highly compressed magnetosphere is predominantly powered by magnetic reconnection, which transfers energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere. The contribution of flux transfer events (FTEs) at the dayside magnetopause to the redistribution of magnetic flux in Mercury's magnetosphere is assessed with magnetic field data acquired in orbit about Mercury by the Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. FTEs with core fields greater than the planetary field just inside the magnetopause are prevalent at Mercury. Fifty-eight such large-amplitude FTEs were identified during February and May 2012, when MESSENGER sampled the subsolar magnetosheath. The orientation of each FTE was determined by minimum variance analysis, and the magnetic flux content of each was estimated using a force-free flux rope model. The average flux content of the FTEs was 0.06 MWb, and their durations imply a transient increase in the cross-polar cap potential of approx. 25 kV. For a substorm timescale of 2-3min, as indicated by magnetotail flux loading and unloading, the FTE repetition rate (10 s) and average flux content (assumed to be 0.03 MWb) imply that FTEs contribute at least approx. 30% of the flux transport required to drive the Mercury substorm cycle. At Earth, in contrast, FTEs are estimated to contribute less than 2% of the substorm flux transport. This result implies that whereas at Earth, at which steady-state dayside reconnection is prevalent, multiple X-line dayside reconnection and associated FTEs at Mercury are a dominant forcing for magnetospheric dynamics.

  1. Cryo-SEM method for the observation of entrapped bubbles and degree of water filling in large wet powder compacts.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, J; Bhuiyan, I U; Forsmo, S P E; Hedlund, J

    2011-05-01

    There are generally two problems associated with cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) observations of large wet powder compacts. First, because water cannot be vitrified in such samples, formation of artefacts is unavoidable. Second, large frozen samples are difficult to fracture but also to machine into regular pieces which fit in standard holders, especially if made of hard materials like ceramics. In this article, we first describe a simple method for planning hard cryo-samples and a low-cost technique for cryo-fracture and transfer of large specimens. Subsequently, after applying the entire procedure to green pellets of iron ore produced by balling, we compare the influence of plunge- and unidirectional freezing on large entrapped bubbles throughout the samples as well as the degree of water filling at the outer surface of the pellets. By carefully investigating the presence of artefacts in large areas of the samples and by controlling the orientation of the sample during freezing and preparation, we demonstrate that unidirectional freezing enables the observation of large entrapped bubbles with minimum formation of artefacts, whereas plunge freezing is preferable for the characterization of the degree of water filling at the outer surface of wet powder compacts. The minimum formation of artefacts was due to the high packing density of the iron ore particles in the matrix. PMID:21118249

  2. Pan-chromatic observations of the remarkable nova Large Magellanic Cloud 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Greg J.; Shore, Steven N.; Page, Kim L.; Osborne, Julian P.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Walter, Frederick M.; Bode, Michael F.; Drake, Jeremy J.; Ness, Jan-Uwe; Starrfield, Sumner; Rossum, Daniel R. Van; Woodward, Charles E.

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an intensive multiwavelength campaign on nova LMC 2012. This nova evolved very rapidly in all observed wavelengths. The time to fall two magnitudes in the V band was only 2 days. In X-rays the super soft phase began 13 5 days after discovery and ended around day 50 after discovery. During the super soft phase, the Swift/XRT and Chandra spectra were consistent with the underlying white dwarf (WD) being very hot, ?1 MK, and luminous, ?10{sup 38} erg s{sup ?1}. The UV, optical, and near-IR photometry showed a periodic variation after the initial and rapid fading had ended. Timing analysis revealed a consistent 19.24 0.03 hr period in all UV, optical, and near-IR bands with amplitudes of ?0.3 mag which we associate with the orbital period of the central binary. No periods were detected in the corresponding X-ray data sets. A moderately high inclination system, i = 60 10{sup ?}, was inferred from the early optical emission lines. The HST/STIS UV spectra were highly unusual with only the N v (1240 ?) line present and superposed on a blue continuum. The lack of emission lines and the observed UV and optical continua from four epochs can be fit with a low mass ejection event, ?10{sup ?6} M{sub ?}, from a hot and massive WD near the Chandrasekhar limit. The WD, in turn, significantly illuminated its subgiant companion which provided the bulk of the observed UV/optical continuum emission at the later dates. The inferred extreme WD characteristics and low mass ejection event favor nova LMC 2012 being a recurrent nova of the U Sco subclass.

  3. Implementation and management of a biomedical observation dictionary in a large healthcare information system

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbussche, Pierre-Yves; Cormont, Sylvie; André, Christophe; Daniel, Christel; Delahousse, Jean; Charlet, Jean; Lepage, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study shows the evolution of a biomedical observation dictionary within the Assistance Publique Hôpitaux Paris (AP-HP), the largest European university hospital group. The different steps are detailed as follows: the dictionary creation, the mapping to logical observation identifier names and codes (LOINC), the integration into a multiterminological management platform and, finally, the implementation in the health information system. Methods AP-HP decided to create a biomedical observation dictionary named AnaBio, to map it to LOINC and to maintain the mapping. A management platform based on methods used for knowledge engineering has been put in place. It aims at integrating AnaBio within the health information system and improving both the quality and stability of the dictionary. Results This new management platform is now active in AP-HP. The AnaBio dictionary is shared by 120 laboratories and currently includes 50 000 codes. The mapping implementation to LOINC reaches 40% of the AnaBio entries and uses 26% of LOINC records. The results of our work validate the choice made to develop a local dictionary aligned with LOINC. Discussion and Conclusions This work constitutes a first step towards a wider use of the platform. The next step will support the entire biomedical production chain, from the clinician prescription, through laboratory tests tracking in the laboratory information system to the communication of results and the use for decision support and biomedical research. In addition, the increase in the mapping implementation to LOINC ensures the interoperability allowing communication with other international health institutions. PMID:23635601

  4. Large-scale waves in the ionosphere observed by the AE satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to establish whether coherent waves in the gravity wave range are present in both neutral and ionized media in the thermosphere. The AE-C data in particular are shown. Data consist of the in situ argon, helium, nitrogen, and oxygen densities, plasma density, and ion and electron temperatures. Filtering provides the fluctuation signals for each which are spectrum analyzed for power and cross spectra. The observed frequencies are essentially proportional to the spatial wavenumbers along the satellite track. Scale sizes range from thousands to tens of kilometers.

  5. Observations of minor planets with the ESO large objective prism at La Silla in April 1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debehogne, H.; de Freitas Mourao, R. R.; Tavares, O. C.

    1980-05-01

    In April 1979, H. Debehogne and J. F. Caldeira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro = UFRJ) have observed Minor Planets at the ESO, La Silla. The GPO (f = 400 cm, D = 40 cm) was used. Magnitude 17.5 can be reached. Measurements were performed at the Valongo Observatory (UFRJ) with the Ascorecord measuring machine (0, 1 pt) and positions calculated by means of five reference stars (two methods : dependences and least squares) on the IBM 370 computer at the Rio Datacentro PUC (Pontifical Universidade Catolica).

  6. Pioneer and voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and lattitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Gazis, P.R.; Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.; Lazarus, A.J.; Smith, E.J.

    1989-03-01

    The Pioneer 10, 11, and Voyager 2 spacecraft are well suited for exploring spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Between 1984 and 1986 Pioneer 11 and Voyager 2 were located at nearly the same heliocentric distance (approx. =20 AU) and longitude but were widely separated in latitude; Pioneer 11 was at a heliographic latitude of greater than or equal to15/sup 0/ while Voyager 2 was near the solar equator. Pioneer 10 was located near the solar equator but at a considerably greater heliocentric distance (approx. =40 AU). IMP observations at 1 AU provide an inner heliosphere baseline.

  7. Large scale image projection setup for observation of flocculation in heavy oil/water emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Costa, Germn

    2005-09-01

    A heavy oil-in-water emulsion is heated by a continuous wave laser beam, thus producing an ascending thermoconvective liquid flow. Once at the open free surface the oil particles are directly heated by the incoming laser beam, which gives rise to flocculation and eventually to coalescence. A bright, enlarged image of the heated region is formed in a projection screen using the backscattered light of their own laser beam. The device thus allows direct observation and high speed photographic recording of the flocculation process as a function of the sample temperature, which is monitored by means of a thermographic camera.

  8. Electronic properties and photoelectron circular dichroism of adsorbed chiral molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, L.; Moras, P.; Gori, P.; Turchini, S.; Zema, N.; Palma, A.; Fujii, J.; Vobornik, I.; Alejandro, G.; Catone, D.; Prosperi, T.; Carbone, C.

    2015-02-01

    We report on an angle-resolved photoemission investigation of the valence states and chiral properties of a nonchirally oriented phase of tartaric acid deposited on a Cu ( 110 ) surface, observed with circularly polarized light. The two optical enantiomers R ,R and S ,S of tartaric acid, separately deposited, produce (40,23) overlayers which show a large dichroic effect and enantiomeric behavior all over the valence energies. The dichroic effects are displayed by native chiral molecular states and molecule-copper interface states. Density-functional theory calculations of the site-resolved density of states analyze the formation of hybrid states at the tartaric acid-copper interface and suggest that an observed interface state acquires chirality on binding.

  9. X-ray observations of a large sample of cataclysmic variable stars using the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, F. A.; Mason, K. O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an X-ray survey of 31 known or suspected cataclysmic variables. Eighteen of these close binary systems are detected with inferred luminosities in the 0.1-4.0 keV band of between 10 to the 30th and 10 to the 32nd erg/sec. The majority have relatively hard X-ray spectra (kT greater than 2 keV) irrespective of luminosity state. Of seven dwarf novae observed during optical outbursts only U Gem exhibited enhanced ultrasoft X-ray emission (kT of about 10 eV) in addition to weak, hard X-ray emission. Variability of the X-ray flux is observed in many of these stars, on time-scales ranging from tens of seconds to hours. The contribution to the flux from extended X-ray emission is investigated for SU UMa and GK Per. Several possibilities for the origin of the hard X-rays are considered.

  10. Constraints on shock acceleration physics from the Chandra Large Project observations of SN 1006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen; Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Long, Knox S.; Winkler, P. Frank; Ressler, Sean; Williams, Brian

    The remnant of the supernova of 1006 C.E., the brightest historical supernova ever recorded, has provided a laboratory for the study of shock acceleration since the discovery and modeling of nonthermal X-rays over 30 years ago. It has now been observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for a total of over 1 Ms, including a full mapping of the remnant in 2012. Chandra's sub-arcsecond angular resolution has allowed detailed study of expansion proper motions, constraints on upstream precursor emission, and ``thin-rim" filamentary morphology at the remnant edges and its energy-dependence, among other properties. I shall summarize the observational data and their consequences for our understanding of the nature of fast shock waves and particle acceleration. The absence of clear upstream ``halo" emission requires that the shock precursor be very narrow, in turn implying amplification of magnetic field in the precursor. Rim thicknesses shrink rapidly with energy, confirming strong post-shock magnetic-field amplification and demanding surprisingly small diffusion coefficients downstream.

  11. Solar wind structure at large heliocentric distances - An interpretation of Pioneer 10 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hundhausen, A. J.; Gosling, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of hourly values of the solar wind speed observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft beyond a heliocentric distance of 4 AU reveals (1) a prevalent 'sawtoothlike' speed-time profile, most speed fluctuations displaying a rapid rise and a much slower decline, and (2) the nearly universal appearance of abrupt (on the 1-hour time resolution of these data) changes in the speed on the rising portions of the speed fluctuations. These previously unreported characteristics, as well as the rate of decay of stream amplitudes derived earlier by Collard and Wolfe, are in general agreement with the predictions of stream propagation models that neglect any conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy outside of shock fronts. Thus the Pioneer 10 observations give the first confirmation of the general concept of solar wind stream evolution employed in these models, i.e., that solar wind speed inhomogeneities appear to steepen to form shock waves and that the 'wave amplitudes' decay slowly as the shock waves propagate outward from the sun.

  12. 76 FR 62148 - Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Circular'' (76 FR 60593) and ``Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular'' (76 FR 60590). Corrections The... Federal Transit Administration Title VI; Proposed Circular, Environmental Justice; Proposed Circular... information sessions, as published in the September 29, 2011, Federal Register Notices titled ``Title...

  13. Occasional large emissions of nitrous oxide and methane observed in stormwater biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Grover, Samantha P P; Cohan, Amanda; Chan, Hon Sen; Livesley, Stephen J; Beringer, Jason; Daly, Edoardo

    2013-11-01

    Designed, green infrastructures are becoming a customary feature of the urban landscape. Sustainable technologies for stormwater management, and biofilters in particular, are increasingly used to reduce stormwater runoff volumes and peaks as well as improve the water quality of runoff discharged into urban water bodies. Although a lot of research has been devoted to these technologies, their effect in terms of greenhouse gas fluxes in urban areas has not been yet investigated. We present the first study aimed at quantifying greenhouse gas fluxes between the soil of stormwater biofilters and the atmosphere. N2O, CH4, and CO2 were measured periodically over a year in two operational vegetated biofiltration cells at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. One cell had a saturated zone at the bottom, and compost and hardwood mulch added to the sandy loam filter media. The other cell had no saturated zone and was composed of sandy loam. Similar sedges were planted in both cells. The biofilter soil was a small N2O source and a sink for CH4 for most measurement events, with occasional large emissions of both N2O and CH4 under very wet conditions. Average N2O fluxes from the cell with the saturated zone were almost five-fold greater (65.6 ?g N2O-N m(-2) h(-1)) than from the other cell (13.7 ?g N2O-N m(-2) h(-1)), with peaks up to 1100 ?g N2O-N m(-2) h(-1). These N2O fluxes are of similar magnitude to those measured in other urban soils, but with larger peak emissions. The CH4 sink strength of the cell with the saturated zone (-3.8 ?g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)) was lower than the other cell (-18.3 ?g CH4-C m(-2) h(-1)). Both cells of the biofilter appeared to take up CH4 at similar rates to other urban lawn systems; however, the biofilter cells displayed occasional large CH4 emissions following inflow events, which were not seen in other urban systems. CO2 fluxes increased with soil temperature in both cells, and in the cell without the saturated zone CO2 fluxes decreased as soil moisture increased. Other studies of CO2 fluxes from urban soils have found both similar and larger CO2 emissions than those measured in the biofilter. The results of this study suggest that the greenhouse gas footprint of stormwater treatment warrant consideration in the planning and implementation of engineered green infrastructures. PMID:23399408

  14. Recent Large Reduction in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions from Chinese Power Plants Observed by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Can; Zhang, Qiang; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Streets, David G.; He, Kebin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Gleason, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite observed substantial increases in total column SO2 and tropospheric column NO2 from 2005 to 2007, over several areas in northern China where large coal-fired power plants were built during this period. The OMI-observed SO2/NO2 ratio is consistent with the SO2/ NO2, emissions estimated from a bottom-up approach. In 2008 over the same areas, OMI detected little change in NO2, suggesting steady electricity output from the power plants. However, dramatic reductions of S0 2 emissions were observed by OMI at the same time. These reductions confirm the effectiveness of the flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) devices in reducing S02 emissions, which likely became operational between 2007 and 2008. This study further demonstrates that the satellite sensors can monitor and characterize anthropogenic emissions from large point sources.

  15. Nuclear spin circular dichroism

    SciTech Connect

    Vaara, Juha; Rizzo, Antonio; Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia

    2014-04-07

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in magneto-optic spectroscopy techniques that use nuclear magnetization as the source of the magnetic field. Here we present a formulation of magnetic circular dichroism (CD) due to magnetically polarized nuclei, nuclear spin-induced CD (NSCD), in molecules. The NSCD ellipticity and nuclear spin-induced optical rotation (NSOR) angle correspond to the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of (complex) quadratic response functions involving the dynamic second-order interaction of the electron system with the linearly polarized light beam, as well as the static magnetic hyperfine interaction. Using the complex polarization propagator framework, NSCD and NSOR signals are obtained at frequencies in the vicinity of optical excitations. Hartree-Fock and density-functional theory calculations on relatively small model systems, ethene, benzene, and 1,4-benzoquinone, demonstrate the feasibility of the method for obtaining relatively strong nuclear spin-induced ellipticity and optical rotation signals. Comparison of the proton and carbon-13 signals of ethanol reveals that these resonant phenomena facilitate chemical resolution between non-equivalent nuclei in magneto-optic spectra.

  16. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Implications and observations at terrestrial craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grieve, Richard A. F.; Cintala, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The volume of impact melt relative to the volume of the transient cavity increases with the size of the impact event. Here, we use the impact of chondrite into granite at 15, 25, and 50 km s(sup -1) to model impact-melt volumes at terrestrial craters in crystalline targets and explore the implications for terrestrial craters. Figures are presented that illustrate the relationships between melt volume and final crater diameter D(sub R) for observed terrestrial craters in crystalline targets; also included are model curves for the three different impact velocities. One implication of the increase in melt volumes with increasing crater size is that the depth of melting will also increase. This requires that shock effects occurring at the base of the cavity in simple craters and in the uplifted peaks of central structures at complex craters record progressively higher pressures with increasing crater size, up to a maximum of partial melting (approx. 45 GPa). Higher pressures cannot be recorded in the parautochthonous rocks of the cavity floor as they will be represented by impact melt, which will not remain in place. We have estimated maximum recorded pressures from a review of the literature, using such observations as planar features in quartz and feldspar, diaplectic glasses of feldspar and quartz, and partial fusion and vesiculation, as calibrated with estimates of the pressures required for their formation. Erosion complicates the picture by removing the surficial (most highly shocked) rocks in uplifted structures, thereby reducing the maximum shock pressures observed. In addition, the range of pressures that can be recorded is limited. Nevertheless, the data define a trend to higher recorded pressures with crater diameter, which is consistent with the implications of the model. A second implication is that, as the limit of melting intersects the base of the cavity, central topographic peaks will be modified in appearance and ultimately will not occur. That is, the peak will first develop a central depression, due to the flow of low-strength melted materials, when the melt volume begins to intersect the transient-cavity base.

  17. Very-large-array observations of a complex gradual solar burst at 6 cm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Mcconnell, D.; White, S. M.; Shevgaonkar, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    A 6-cm VLA observation of a burst from a solar active region is reported. The burst shows a normal impulsive rise and fall superimposed on a gradual component. The peak brightness temperature of the burst remains relatively constant, and the flux variations are due to changes in the source structure. It appears as though an arcade of loops is gradually heated or filled with hot plasma. The burst is weakly polarized but unipolar; the possible reasons for this structure are considered. Depolarization of optically thin emission due to twisted magnetic fields within the source can produce significant depolarization, but is probably not active in this event. Instead, it is suggested that the flare emission is optically thick, and that hot overlying material preferentially absorbs one polarization.

  18. Observation of Large CP Violation in the Neutral B Meson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Abe, K.; Abe, R.; Adachi, I.; Ahn, Byoung Sup; Aihara, H.; Akatsu, M.; Alimonti, G.; Asai, K.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Aso, T.; Aulchenko, V.; Aushev, T.; Bakich, A. M.; Banas, E.; Behari, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beiline, D.; Bondar, A.; Bozek, A.; Browder, T. E.; Casey, B. C.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K.-F.; Cheon, B. G.; Chistov, R.; Choi, S.-K.; Choi, Y.; Dong, L. Y.; Dragic, J.; Drutskoy, A.; Eidelman, S.; Eiges, V.; Enari, Y.; Enomoto, R.; Everton, C. W.; Fang, F.; Fujii, H.; Fukunaga, C.; Fukushima, M.; Gabyshev, N.; Garmash, A.; Gershon, T. J.; Gordon, A.; Gotow, K.; Guler, H.; Guo, R.; Haba, J.; Hamasaki, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Handa, F.; Hara, K.; Hara, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashii, H.; Hazumi, M.; Heenan, E. M.; Higasino, Y.; Higuchi, I.; Higuchi, T.; Hirai, T.; Hirano, H.; Hojo, T.; Hokuue, T.; Hoshi, Y.; Hoshina, K.; Hou, S. R.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsu, S.-C.; Huang, H.-C.; Igarashi, Y.; Iijima, T.; Ikeda, H.; Ikeda, K.; Inami, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, H.; Itoh, R.; Iwai, G.; Iwasaki, H.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jackson, D. J.; Jalocha, P.; Jang, H. K.; Jones, M.; Kagan, R.; Kakuno, H.; Kaneko, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kang, J. S.; Kapusta, P.; Katayama, N.; Kawai, H.; Kawai, H.; Kawakami, Y.; Kawamura, N.; Kawasaki, T.; Kichimi, H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, Heejong; Kim, H. J.; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kim, S. K.; Kim, T. H.; Kinoshita, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Koishi, S.; Konishi, H.; Korotushenko, K.; Krokovny, P.; Kulasiri, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuniya, T.; Kurihara, E.; Kuzmin, A.; Kwon, Y.-J.; Lange, J. S.; Leder, G.; Lee, M. H.; Lee, S. H.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Lin, Y.-S.; Liventsev, D.; Lu, R.-S.; MacNaughton, J.; Marlow, D.; Matsubara, T.; Matsui, S.; Matsumoto, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Mikami, Y.; Misono, K.; Miyabayashi, K.; Miyake, H.; Miyata, H.; Moffitt, L. C.; Moloney, G. R.; Moorhead, G. F.; Mori, S.; Mori, T.; Murakami, A.; Nagamine, T.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, E.; Nakao, M.; Nakazawa, H.; Nam, J. W.; Natkaniec, Z.; Neichi, K.; Nishida, S.; Nitoh, O.; Noguchi, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ogawa, S.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshima, Y.; Okabe, T.; Okazaki, T.; Okuno, S.; Olsen, S. L.; Ozaki, H.; Pakhlov, P.; Palka, H.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. W.; Park, H.; Peak, L. S.; Peters, M.; Piilonen, L. E.; Prebys, E.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Root, N.; Rozanska, M.; Rybicki, K.; Ryuko, J.; Sagawa, H.; Sakai, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Satapathy, M.; Satpathy, A.; Schrenk, S.; Semenov, S.; Senyo, K.; Settai, Y.; Sevior, M. E.; Shibuya, H.; Shwartz, B.; Sidorov, A.; Stani?, S.; Sugi, A.; Sugiyama, A.; Sumisawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Suzuki, J.-I.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Swain, S. K.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Takita, M.; Tamai, K.; Tamura, N.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Teramoto, Y.; Tomoto, M.; Tomura, T.; Tovey, S. N.; Trabelsi, K.; Tsuboyama, T.; Tsukamoto, T.; Uehara, S.; Ueno, K.; Unno, Y.; Uno, S.; Ushiroda, Y.; Vahsen, S. E.; Varvell, K. E.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, J. G.; Wang, M.-Z.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Yabsley, B. D.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yanaka, S.; Yashima, J.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshida, K.; Yusa, Y.; Yuta, H.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, H. W.; Zheng, Y.; Zhilich, V.; ontar, D.

    2001-08-01

    We present a measurement of the standard model CP violation parameter sin2?1 based on a 29.1 fb-1 data sample collected at the ?(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e+e- collider. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed as a J/?KS, ?(2S)KS, ?c1KS, ?cKS, J/?KL, or J/?K*0 decay and the flavor of the accompanying B meson is identified from its decay products. From the asymmetry in the distribution of the time intervals between the two B meson decay points, we determine sin2?1 = 0.99+/-0.14(stat)+/-0.06(syst). We conclude that we have observed CP violation in the neutral B meson system.

  19. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L; Knight, Peter J; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA(+) motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA(+) rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour. PMID:26365535

  20. Melt production in large-scale impact events: Planetary observations and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Grieve, Richard A. F.

    1992-01-01

    Differences in scaling relationships for crater formation and the generation of impact melt should lead to a variety of observable features and phenomena. These relationships infer that the volume of the transient cavity (and final crater) relative to the volume of impact melt (and the depth to which melting occurs) decreases as the effects of gravity and impact velocity increase. Since planetary gravity and impact velocity are variables in the calculation of cavity and impact-melt volumes, the implications of the model calculation will vary between planetary bodies. Details of the model calculations of impact-melt generation as a function of impact and target physical conditions were provided elsewhere, as were attempts to validate the model through ground-truth data on melt volumes, shock attenuation, and morphology from terrestrial impact craters.

  1. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L.; Knight, Peter J.; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA+ motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA+ rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour. PMID:26365535

  2. Direct observation shows superposition and large scale flexibility within cytoplasmic dynein motors moving along microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Shima, Tomohiro; Sutoh, Kazuo; Walker, Matthew L.; Knight, Peter J.; Kon, Takahide; Burgess, Stan A.

    2015-09-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a dimeric AAA+ motor protein that performs critical roles in eukaryotic cells by moving along microtubules using ATP. Here using cryo-electron microscopy we directly observe the structure of Dictyostelium discoideum dynein dimers on microtubules at near-physiological ATP concentrations. They display remarkable flexibility at a hinge close to the microtubule binding domain (the stalkhead) producing a wide range of head positions. About half the molecules have the two heads separated from one another, with both leading and trailing motors attached to the microtubule. The other half have the two heads and stalks closely superposed in a front-to-back arrangement of the AAA+ rings, suggesting specific contact between the heads. All stalks point towards the microtubule minus end. Mean stalk angles depend on the separation between their stalkheads, which allows estimation of inter-head tension. These findings provide a structural framework for understanding dynein's directionality and unusual stepping behaviour.

  3. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis: results from a large observational study in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jick, Susan S; Li, L; Falcone, G J; Vassilev, Z P; Wallander, M-A

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) progression to mortality may not be solely determined by the underlying autoimmune process. We conducted a study in a large cohort of MS patients with the aim of describing characteristics of MS patients and identification of predictors for all-cause mortality in this patient group. We performed a retrospective analysis of primary care data from the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Incident MS cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2006 were identified and validated using electronic and original medical records. Patients were followed to identify deaths; hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional regression with age as time-scale. In total, 1713 incident MS cases were identified. Following MS diagnosis, frequent comorbidities were infections (80%), and depression (46%). Adjusted HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were: 2.0 (1.2-3.4) for current smoking; 7.6 (3.2-17.7) for alcohol abuse; 2.7 (1.6-4.5) for pneumonia and influenza; 4.1 (2.7-6.3) for urinary tract infections; 2.2 (1.2-4.2) for heart disease and 4.9 (2.9-8.0) for cancer. Our results suggest that MS survival is influenced not only by the underlying autoimmune process, but also by patient comorbidities and lifestyle factors. PMID:26067217

  4. Coordinated phenotype switching with large-scale chromosome flip-flop inversion observed in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Cui, Longzhu; Neoh, Hui-min; Iwamoto, Akira; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2012-06-19

    Genome inversions are ubiquitous in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Typical examples can be identified by comparing the genomes of two or more closely related organisms, where genome inversion footprints are clearly visible. Although the evolutionary implications of this phenomenon are huge, little is known about the function and biological meaning of this process. Here, we report our findings on a bacterium that generates a reversible, large-scale inversion of its chromosome (about half of its total genome) at high frequencies of up to once every four generations. This inversion switches on or off bacterial phenotypes, including colony morphology, antibiotic susceptibility, hemolytic activity, and expression of dozens of genes. Quantitative measurements and mathematical analyses indicate that this reversible switching is stochastic but self-organized so as to maintain two forms of stable cell populations (i.e., small colony variant, normal colony variant) as a bet-hedging strategy. Thus, this heritable and reversible genome fluctuation seems to govern the bacterial life cycle; it has a profound impact on the course and outcomes of bacterial infections. PMID:22645353

  5. VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF AMMONIA IN INFRARED-DARK CLOUDS. II. INTERNAL KINEMATICS

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Sarah E.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Heitsch, Fabian; Wilner, David

    2012-02-20

    Infrared-dark clouds (IRDCs) are believed to be the birthplaces of rich clusters and thus contain the earliest phases of high-mass star formation. We use the Green Bank Telescope and Very Large Array maps of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in six IRDCs to measure their column density and temperature structure (Paper 1), and here, we investigate the kinematic structure and energy content. We find that IRDCs overall display organized velocity fields, with only localized disruptions due to embedded star formation. The local effects seen in NH{sub 3} emission are not high-velocity outflows but rather moderate (few km s{sup -1}) increases in the linewidth that exhibit maxima near or coincident with the mid-infrared emission tracing protostars. These linewidth enhancements could be the result of infall or (hidden in NH{sub 3} emission) outflow. Not only is the kinetic energy content insufficient to support the IRDCs against collapse, but also the spatial energy distribution is inconsistent with a scenario of turbulent cloud support. We conclude that the velocity signatures of the IRDCs in our sample are due to active collapse and fragmentation, in some cases augmented by local feedback from stars.

  6. Observation of abnormally large radii of nuclei in excited states in the vicinity of neutron thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Ogloblin, A. A. Danilov, A. N.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Demyanova, A. S.; Goncharov, S. A.; Trzaska, W.

    2011-11-15

    Differential cross sections for inelastic scattering leading to the excitation of some nuclear states situated near neutron-emission thresholds were analyzed. With the aid of a modified diffraction model, abnormally large radii were found for the 1/2{sub 1}{sup +} state of the {sup 13}C nucleus at 3.09 MeV, for the first levels of positive-parity rotational bands in the {sup 9}Be (1/2{sup +} level at 1.68 MeV and 5/2{sup +} level at 3.05 MeV) and {sup 11}Be (5/2{sup +} level at 1.78 MeV and 3/2{sup +} level at 3.41 MeV) nuclei, and for the 2{sub 1}{sup +} state of the {sup 14}Be nucleus at 1.54 MeV and 1{sub 1}{sup -} state of the {sup 12}Be nucleus at 2.7 MeV. All of these states possess signatures typical of neutron halos.

  7. Spitzer observations of dust emission from H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, Ian W.; Evans, Jessica Marie; Xue, Rui; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert A.; Segura-Cox, Dominique M.

    2014-04-01

    Massive stars can alter physical conditions and properties of their ambient interstellar dust grains via radiative heating and shocks. The H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) offer ideal sites to study the stellar energy feedback effects on dust because stars can be resolved, and the galaxy's nearly face-on orientation allows us to unambiguously associate H II regions with their ionizing massive stars. The Spitzer Space Telescope survey of the LMC provides multi-wavelength (3.6-160 μm) photometric data of all H II regions. To investigate the evolution of dust properties around massive stars, we have analyzed spatially resolved IR dust emission from two classical H II regions (N63 and N180) and two simple superbubbles (N70 and N144) in the LMC. We produce photometric spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of numerous small subregions for each region based on its stellar distributions and nebular morphologies. We use DustEM dust emission model fits to characterize the dust properties. Color-color diagrams and model fits are compared with the radiation field (estimated from photometric and spectroscopic surveys). Strong radial variations of SEDs can be seen throughout the regions, reflecting the available radiative heating. Emission from very small grains drastically increases at locations where the radiation field is the highest, while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) appear to be destroyed. PAH emission is the strongest in the presence of molecular clouds, provided that the radiation field is low.

  8. OBSERVATIONS OF ENERGETIC HIGH MAGNETIC FIELD PULSARS WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, D.; Abdo, A. A.; Kerr, M.; Den Hartog, P. R.; Romani, R. W.; Watters, K.; Craig, H. A.; Baring, M. G.; DeCesar, M. E.; Harding, A. K.; Espinoza, C. M.; Stappers, B. W.; Weltevrede, P.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Camilo, F.; Johnston, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Livingstone, M.; Burgay, M.; Freire, P. C. C. E-mail: kerrm@stanford.edu; and others

    2011-12-20

    We report the detection of {gamma}-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119-6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The {gamma}-ray light curve of PSR J1119-6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 {+-} 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 {+-} 0.3{sup +0.4}{sub -0.2} with an energy cutoff at 0.8 {+-} 0.2{sup +2.0}{sub -0.5} GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119-6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field-near that of magnetars-the field strength and structure in the {gamma}-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the {gamma}-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846-0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-B pulsars, PSRs J1718-3718 and J1734-3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  9. Mining Cancer-Specific Disease Comorbidities from a Large Observational Health Database

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yang; Xu, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Cancer comorbidities often reflect the complex pathogenesis of cancers and provide valuable clues to discover the underlying genetic mechanisms of cancers. In this study, we systematically mine and analyze cancer-specific comorbidity from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System. We stratified 3,354,043 patients based on age and gender, and developed a network-based approach to extract comorbidity patterns from each patient group. We compared the comorbidity patterns among different patient groups and investigated the effect of age and gender on cancer comorbidity patterns. The results demonstrated that the comorbidity relationships between cancers and non-cancer diseases largely depend on age and gender. A few exceptions are depression, anxiety, and metabolic syndrome, whose comorbidity relationships with cancers are relatively stable among all patients. Literature evidences demonstrate that these stable cancer comorbidities reflect the pathogenesis of cancers. We applied our comorbidity mining approach on colorectal cancer and detected its comorbid associations with metabolic syndrome components, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Our results not only confirmed known cancer comorbidities but also generated novel hypotheses, which can illuminate the common pathophysiology between cancers and their co-occurring diseases. PMID:25392682

  10. Observations of four types of pulses in a fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Leiran; Liu, Xueming; Gong, Yongkang; Mao, Dong; Duan, Lina

    2011-04-11

    Four different types of pulses are experimentally obtained in one erbium-doped all-fiber laser with large net-normal dispersion. The proposed laser can deliver the rectangular-spectrum (RS), Gaussian-spectrum (GS), broadband-spectrum (BS), and noise-like pulses by appropriately adjusting the polarization states. These kinds of pulses have distinctly different characteristics. The RS pulses can easily be compressed to femtosecond level whereas the pulse energy is restricted by the trend of multi-pulse shaping with excessive pump. The GS and BS pulses always maintain the single-pulse operation with much higher pulse-energy and accumulate much more chirp. After launching the pulses into the photonic-crystal fiber, the supercontinuum can be generated with the bandwidth of >700 nm by the BS pulses and of ~400 nm by the GS pulses, whereas it can hardly be generated by the RS pulses. The physical mechanisms behind the continuum generation are qualitatively investigated relating to different operating regimes. This work could help to a deeper insight of the normal-dispersion pulses. PMID:21503070

  11. Large scale landslide mud flow modeling, simulation, and comparison with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Shao, X.; Zhang, B.

    2012-12-01

    Landslide is a catastrophic natural event. Modeling, simulation, and early warning of landslide event can protect the safety of lives and properties. Therefore, study of landslide bears important scientific and practical value. In this research, we constructed a high performance parallel fluid dynamics model to study large scale landslide transport and evolution process. This model solves shallow water equation derived from 3 dimensional Euler equations in Cartesian coordinate system. Based on bottom topography, initial condition, bottom friction, and mudflow viscosity coefficient, density and other parameters, this model predicts landslide transport process and deposition distribution. Using 3 dimension bottom topography data from an digital elevation model in Zhou Qu area, this model produces the onset, transport and deposition process happened during Zhou Qu landslide. It also calculates spatial and temporal distribution of the mud flow transportation route, deposition depth, and kinematic energy of the event. This model together with an early warning system can lead to significant improvement to construction planning in landslide susceptible area.; Zhou Qu topography from Digital Elevation Model ; Modeling result from PLM (parallel landslide model)

  12. Large amplitude wave packets observed in the ionosphere in association with transverse ion acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labelle, J.; Kintner, P. M.; Yau, A. W.; Whalen, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    Very short duration, large amplitude bursts of monochromatic waves ('spikelets') were detected by the electric field experiment on the sounding rocket MARIE, launched in February 1985 from Churchill, Manitoba. About 35 events were detected, with an average time scale of 5 ms and an average amplitude of 100-150 mV/m. Their frequency varied between 7 and 18 kHz, and there is some evidence that the frequency is a decreasing function of altitude. The bursts are not correlated with any events on the payload, and their occurrence is not related to the rocket's spin or coning. The events were confined to the altitude range 450-650 kilometers. This coincides exactly with the altitude range for which perpendicular (90 deg) ion conics were detected by the particle experiment on the same payload. The 'spikelets' were also correlated one-to-one with small (10-100 mV/m) double-layerlike or shocklike features of similar time scale in the dc electric field data.

  13. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, H.; Tibaldo, L.; Ballet, J.; Giordano, F.; Grenier, I.A.; Porter, T.A.; Roth, M.; Tibolla, O.; Uchiyama, Y.; Yamazaki, R.; /Sagamihara, Aoyama Gakuin U.

    2011-11-08

    We present an analysis of the gamma-ray measurements by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope in the region of the supernova remnant (SNR) Cygnus Loop (G74.0-8.5). We detect significant gamma-ray emission associated with the SNR in the energy band 0.2-100 GeV. The gamma-ray spectrum shows a break in the range 2-3 GeV. The gamma-ray luminosity is {approx} 1 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} between 1-100 GeV, much lower than those of other GeV-emitting SNRs. The morphology is best represented by a ring shape, with inner/outer radii 0{sup o}.7 {+-} 0{sup o}.1 and 1{sup o}.6 {+-} 0{sup o}.1. Given the association among X-ray rims, H{alpha} filaments and gamma-ray emission, we argue that gamma rays originate in interactions between particles accelerated in the SNR and interstellar gas or radiation fields adjacent to the shock regions. The decay of neutral pions produced in nucleon-nucleon interactions between accelerated hadrons and interstellar gas provides a reasonable explanation for the gamma-ray spectrum.

  14. Observations of Energetic High Magnetic Field Pulsars with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parent, D.; Kerr, M.; DenHartog, P. R.; Baring, M. G.; DeCesar, M. E.; Espinoza, C. M.; Harding, A. K.; Romani, R. W.; Stappers, B. W.; Watters, K.; Weltevrde, P.; Abdo, A. A.; Craig, H. A.; Kramer, M.; Lyne, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of gamma-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119.6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The gamma-ray light curve of PSR J1119.6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 +/- 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 +/- 0.3(+0.4 -0.2) with an energy cut-off at 0.8 +/- 0.2(+2.0 -0.5) GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119.6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field--near that of magnetars -- the field strength and structure in the gamma-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the gamma-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846.0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-Beta pulsars, PSRs J1718.3718 and J1734.3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.

  15. The Primordial Helium-4 Abundance from Observations of a Large Sample of Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuan, Trinh Xuan; Izotov, Yuri. I.

    1998-04-01

    We use a sample of 45 low-metallicity H II regions in blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies to determine the primordial helium abundance YP with a precision better than 5%. We have carefully investigated the physical effects which may make the He I line intensities deviate from their recombination values such as collisional and fluorescent enhancements, underlying He I stellar absorption and absorption by Galactic interstellar Na I. By extrapolating the Y vs. O/H and Y vs. N/H linear regressions to O/H = N/H = 0, we obtain YP = 0.244+/-0.002 and 0.245+/-0.001, respectively, higher than previous determinations (YP = 0.230 - 0.234). Part of the difference comes from the fact that previous investigators have not taken into account underlying He I stellar absorption, especially in the NW component of the BCD I Zw 18 which, because of its extremely low metallicity plays a key role in the determination of YP. We derive a slope dY/dZ = 2.3+/-1.0, considerably smaller than those derived before. With this smaller slope and taking into account the errors, chemical evolution models with an outflow of well-mixed material can be built for star-forming dwarf galaxies which satisfy all the observational constraints. Our YP gives $$\\Omega _bh50^2$$ = 0.058+/-0.007, consistent with the lower limit set by dynamical measurements and X-ray observations of clusters of galaxies. It is also consistent, within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis theory, with measurements of primordial 7Li in galactic halo stars and with the D/H abundance measured in absorption systems toward quasars by Burles and Tytler (1997).

  16. THE FAINTEST RADIO SOURCE YET: EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS SDSS J1004+4112

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, N.

    2011-09-20

    We present new radio observations of the large-separation gravitationally lensed quasar SDSS J1004+4112, taken in a total of 6 hr of observations with the Expanded Very Large Array. The maps reach a thermal noise level of approximately 4 {mu}Jy. We detect four of the five lensed images at the 15-35 {mu}Jy level, representing a source of intrinsic flux density, after allowing for lensing magnification, of about 1 {mu}Jy, intrinsically probably the faintest radio source yet detected. This reinforces the utility of gravitational lensing in potentially allowing us to study nJy-level sources before the advent of the Square Kilometre Array. In an optical observation taken three months after the radio observation, image C is the brightest image, whereas the radio map shows flux density ratios consistent with previous optical observations. Future observations separated by a time delay will give the intrinsic flux ratios of the images in this source.

  17. Observation of the Mold-Filling Process of a Large Hydro-Turbine Guide Vane Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jinwu; Long, Haimin; Li, Yongjie; You, Rui; Hao, Xiaokun; Nie, Gang; Wang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Chengchun

    2015-02-01

    The mold-filling process has a determining effect on the quality of castings, and it has always been a hot but difficult research topic. The authors developed a wireless monitoring system for the mold-filling process of castings based on a contact time method and an observation system based on heat-resistant high-speed cameras. By using these two systems, the filling process of a turbine guide vane casting with a stepped gating system was investigated. The filling profile of the casting was recorded, and the filling time of nine typical positions was acquired. These results show that at the beginning, the liquid steel flowed out from the top ingate, which was designed to be the last to fill. The numerical simulation of the filling of the guide vane was performed, and the outflow from the top ingate were predicted. Finally, the gating system of the casting was improved with enlarged sprue. The new design features bigger sprue to ingate ratio; therefore, it could avoid the overflow from the top ingate and realize stable filling.

  18. Large-Area Balloon-Borne Polarized Gamma Ray Observer (PoGO)

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, V.; Chen, P.; Kamae, T.; Madejski, G.; Mizuno, T.; Ng, J.; Tajima, H.; Thurston, T.; Bogaert, G.; Fukazawa, Y.; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Barbier, L.; Bloser, P.; Harding, A.; Hunter, S.; Krizmanic, J.; Mitchell, J.; Streitmatter, R.; Fernholz, R.; Groth, E.; /NASA, Goddard /Princeton U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Kista /Stockholm U. /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /Yamagata U.

    2005-06-30

    We are developing a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGO), to measure polarization of soft gamma rays (30-200 keV) using asymmetry in azimuth angle distribution of Compton scattering. PoGO is designed to detect 10% polarization in 100mCrab sources in a 6-8 hour observation and bring a new dimension to studies on gamma ray emission/transportation mechanism in pulsars, AGNs, black hole binaries, and neutron star surface. The concept is an adaptation to polarization measurements of well-type phoswich counter consisting of a fast plastic scintillator (the detection part), a slow plastic scintillator (the active collimator) and a BGO scintillator (the bottom anti-counter). PoGO consists of close-packed array of 217 hexagonal well-type phoswich counters and has a narrow field-of-view ({approx} 5 deg{sup 2}) to reduce possible source confusion. A prototype instrument has been tested in the polarized soft gamma-ray beams at Advanced Photon Source (ANL) and at Photon Factory (KEK). On the results, the polarization dependence of EGS4 has been validated and that of Geant4 has been corrected.

  19. Simple large-scale synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: in situ observation of crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Wook; Cho, In-Sun; Kim, Jin Young; Jang, Hae Lin; Han, Gill Sang; Ryu, Hyun-Seung; Shin, Heungsoo; Jung, Hyun Suk; Kim, Hyungtak; Hong, Kug Sun

    2010-01-01

    The noble synthesis method for hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles was exploited using a fairly simple reaction of Ca(OH)(2) and H(3)PO(4), which does not generate residual harmful anions and consequently does not need an additional washing process. HAp nanoparticles were found to yield from dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (DCPD) as the only intermediate phase, which was monitored by in situ observation study using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), (1)H and (31)P magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR. Furthermore, we found that the phase evolution of HAp was preceded by heteronucleation of HAp onto the DCPD surface. The combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-ES) analysis gave more information on the HAp crystallization process, which was found to be retarded by the residual Ca(OH)(2) and slow diffusion process of Ca ions into the interface between HAp and DCPD. These results demonstrate that the synthesis of pure HAp nanoparticles with high throughput can be achieved by controlling the residual Ca(OH)(2) and diffusion process of Ca ions. PMID:19810677

  20. GeV Observations of Star-forming Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Cillis, A. N.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Fortin, P.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Jhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kndlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Martin, P.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nishino, S.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ozaki, M.; Parent, D.; Persic, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Petrosian, V.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rain, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sbarra, C.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, ?ukasz; Strong, A. W.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2012-08-01

    Recent detections of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253 by gamma-ray telescopes suggest that galaxies rapidly forming massive stars are more luminous at gamma-ray energies compared to their quiescent relatives. Building upon those results, we examine a sample of 69 dwarf, spiral, and luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies at photon energies 0.1-100 GeV using 3 years of data collected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). Measured fluxes from significantly detected sources and flux upper limits for the remaining galaxies are used to explore the physics of cosmic rays in galaxies. We find further evidence for quasi-linear scaling relations between gamma-ray luminosity and both radio continuum luminosity and total infrared luminosity which apply both to quiescent galaxies of the Local Group and low-redshift starburst galaxies (conservative P-values <~ 0.05 accounting for statistical and systematic uncertainties). The normalizations of these scaling relations correspond to luminosity ratios of log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 1.4 GHz) = 1.7 0.1(statistical) 0.2(dispersion) and log (L 0.1-100 GeV/L 8-1000 ?m) = -4.3 0.1(statistical) 0.2(dispersion) for a galaxy with a star formation rate of 1 M ? yr-1, assuming a Chabrier initial mass function. Using the relationship between infrared luminosity and gamma-ray luminosity, the collective intensity of unresolved star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 < z < 2.5 above 0.1 GeV is estimated to be 0.4-2.4 10-6 ph cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (4%-23% of the intensity of the isotropic diffuse component measured with the LAT). We anticipate that ~10 galaxies could be detected by their cosmic-ray-induced gamma-ray emission during a 10 year Fermi mission.

  1. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Ferrara, E. C.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Moiseev, A. A.; Troja, E.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.l and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.l and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.l. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.l4 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of 1IoS produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant GS.7-0.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrara, E. C.; Hays, E.; Troja, E.; Moiseev, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship among G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially-connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 +/- 0.6 (stat) +/- 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of2.10 +/- 0.06 (stat) +/- 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 +/- 0.12 (stat) +/- 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission ofG8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of pions produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS Jl804-2l6 and that the spectrum in the Ge V band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV-spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.l with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  3. Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations of the Supernova Remnant G8.7-0.1

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Bloom, E.D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G.A.; Cameron, R.A.; Caraveo, P.A.; /more authors..

    2012-09-14

    We present a detailed analysis of the GeV gamma-ray emission toward the supernova remnant (SNR) G8.7-0.1 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. An investigation of the relationship between G8.7-0.1 and the TeV unidentified source HESS J1804-216 provides us with an important clue on diffusion process of cosmic rays if particle acceleration operates in the SNR. The GeV gamma-ray emission is extended with most of the emission in positional coincidence with the SNR G8.7-0.1 and a lesser part located outside the western boundary of G8.7-0.1. The region of the gamma-ray emission overlaps spatially connected molecular clouds, implying a physical connection for the gamma-ray structure. The total gamma-ray spectrum measured with LAT from 200 MeV-100 GeV can be described by a broken power-law function with a break of 2.4 {+-} 0.6 (stat) {+-} 1.2 (sys) GeV, and photon indices of 2.10 {+-} 0.06 (stat) {+-} 0.10 (sys) below the break and 2.70 {+-} 0.12 (stat) {+-} 0.14 (sys) above the break. Given the spatial association among the gamma rays, the radio emission of G8.7-0.1, and the molecular clouds, the decay of p0s produced by particles accelerated in the SNR and hitting the molecular clouds naturally explains the GeV gamma-ray spectrum. We also find that the GeV morphology is not well represented by the TeV emission from HESS J1804-216 and that the spectrum in the GeV band is not consistent with the extrapolation of the TeV gamma-ray spectrum. The spectral index of the TeV emission is consistent with the particle spectral index predicted by a theory that assumes energy-dependent diffusion of particles accelerated in an SNR. We discuss the possibility that the TeV spectrum originates from the interaction of particles accelerated in G8.7-0.1 with molecular clouds, and we constrain the diffusion coefficient of the particles.

  4. Observations of large-amplitude internal wave of the second mode in Luzon Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryany, A. N.; Liu, C.-T.

    2012-04-01

    Among the regions of the World Ocean where intense internal waves occur, the South China Sea is known as an area where the largest internal waves can be met. Comprehensive studies of internal waves, which were carried out there during the last decade, reveal the substantial effects of both the first and second modes. The place where the record amplitude waves are generated is Luzon Strait. In May, 2006, we performed the studies in Luzon Strait, aboard the "Ocean Researcher 1" vessel of the National Taiwan University. In those experiments, we could detect a passage of a solitary internal wave of the second mode in deep water, and to measure its parameters. The observations were carried out at a calm sea, after some days of the passage of a big typhoon Chanchu through the South China Sea. In the measurements, a 150-kHz acoustic Doppler current profiler, the EK 500 echo-sounder, radar that registered the pattern of the sea surface, and a neutral-buoyancy body with temperature and depth sensors were used. In addition, ambient underwater noises were measured by a hydrophone. On May 23, a solitary internal wave passed under the vessel, with a height of 50 m and apparent features of the second mode, was found. The undersurface 200-m water layer suffered from an elevation. At the same time, the deep water layers were depressed. The internal wave moved with an extraordinarily high speed of more than 3 m/s in the north-west direction. The passage of the internal wave was accompanied by a wide rip band that was detected by the vessel radar and the digital camera. The passage also caused the underwater noise. This work was supported by National Science Council of Taiwan in Taiwan-Russia two-side research projects (No. NSC96-2923-E-002-002-MYZ) and by Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

  5. Observations of hysteresis in the annual exchange circulation of a large microtidal estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Steven D.; Wilson, Monica; Luther, Mark. E.

    2015-04-01

    A nonlinear relation between the salinity field and the subtidal exchange circulation in the Tampa Bay estuary is demonstrated using observational data from 1999 to 2011. The data are averaged to form mean monthly climatological values of total freshwater discharge (Q), axial and vertical salinity gradients, and subtidal vertical shear. Well-known steady state solutions indicate that the exchange circulation is linearly proportional to the horizontal salinity gradient, assuming a constant vertical eddy viscosity (Aeff). The exchange flow is found to be multivalued with respect to the horizontal salinity gradient, forming a hysteresis loop in parameter space that passes through three dynamical regimes. Regime I is relatively dry with weak salinity gradients and exchange circulation. Regime II is the wet season (June-September) in which all quantities rapidly increase. In regime III, the exchange flow persists even though Q and the axial salinity gradient are again low. Gradient Richardson numbers and Simpson numbers also form a loop in parameter space with Ri remaining subcritical (turbulent) until the wet season when Ri rises above criticality (weak vertical mixing) where it remains through the end of regime III. The Simpson number is in a narrow range around 0.2, indicating that the horizontal salinity gradient is always a driver of the exchange circulation. The Aeff, estimated from a parameterization of the Richardson number, decreases by almost an order of magnitude from regimes I to II. It remains low during III, indicating that the persistent stratification is insulating the exchange flow from destruction by tidal mixing during this time period.

  6. Do recent observations of very large electromagnetic dissociation cross sections signify a transition towards non-perturbative QED?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The very large electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) cross section recently observed by Hill, Wohn, Schwellenbach, and Smith do not agree with Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory or any simple modification thereof. Calculations are presented for the reaction probabilities for this experiment and the entire single and double nucleon removal EMD data set. It is found that for those few reactions where theory and experiment disagree, the probabilities are exceptionally large. This indicates that WW theory is not valid for these reactions and that one must consider higher order corrections and perhaps even a non-perturbative approach to quantum electrodynamics (QED).

  7. Circular Scan Streak Tube Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevin, S.

    1980-01-01

    A streak tube having circular scan was designed, built and tested. Continuous circular scan, easily derived from out of phase sine waves applied to the conventional deflection plates, permits the timing of pulses traveling long baselines. At the tube's output a circular array of 720 elements is scanned to provide 30 to 40 picosecond resolution. Initial difficulties with electron bombarded silicon arrays were circumvented by using microchannel plates within the streak tube to provide the needed electronic amplification and digital sensitivity and coupling the 720 element arrays to the electron beam by means of a phosphor on a fiber optics. Two ceramic body tubes with S-20 photocathodes were tested and delivered.

  8. Electron capture from circular Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.B.; Ehrenreich, T.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E. ); MacAdam, K.B. ); Dube, L.J. )

    1993-09-06

    Capture cross sections for circular Rydberg states have been measured as a function of the angle, [ital cphi], between ion velocity and angular momentum of the circular orbital. The system studied is 2.5 keV [sup 23]Na[sup +] on Li(1[ital s][sup 2],[ital nlm]) with [ital n]=25, [ital l]=[ital n][minus]1, and [ital m]=+[ital l], where [ital m] is defined relative to a weak, external magnetic field. A strong dependence on [ital cphi] is found. It is expected that studies such as the present will lead to an improved understanding of the three-body problem in the region of sufficiently large quantum numbers and impact velocities for classical physics to be accurate.

  9. Large-scale interplanetary magnetic fields: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1 AU and 9.5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.

    1984-01-01

    The large-scale radial and temporal variations of the interplanetary magnetic field strength B observed by Voyagers 1 and 2 are discussed. Two components of the magnetic field strength were considered: (1) an average component, B sub zero, based on solar rotation averages, and (2) a fluctuation component, delta B, expressed by 10- or 24-hour averages of B normalized by the best-fit average field for the corresponding time and distance. Observations of the sector structure, interfaces, and shocks are presented to further describe magnetic field strength.

  10. Fermi large area telescope observations of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Rochester, L. S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Sgrò, C.; Share, G. H.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report on measurements of the cosmic-ray induced γ-ray emission of Earth’s atmosphere by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The Large Area Telescope has observed the Earth during its commissioning phase and with a dedicated Earth limb following observation in September 2008. These measurements yielded ˜6.4×106 photons with energies >100MeV and ˜250 hours total live time for the highest quality data selection. This allows the study of the spatial and spectral distributions of these photons with unprecedented detail. The spectrum of the emission—often referred to as Earth albedo gamma-ray emission—has a power-law shape up to 500 GeV with spectral index Γ=2.79±0.06.

  11. Cover Image: USGS Circular 1381

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Cover image: USGS Circular 1381. View of Boulder Basin, Lake Mead, at sunset looking east. The flat topped mountain in the background is Fortification Hill, a well-known landmark in the viewshed from Hoover Dam....

  12. Short intronic repeat sequences facilitate circular RNA production

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Recent deep sequencing studies have revealed thousands of circular noncoding RNAs generated from protein-coding genes. These RNAs are produced when the precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing machinery backsplices and covalently joins, for example, the two ends of a single exon. However, the mechanism by which the spliceosome selects only certain exons to circularize is largely unknown. Using extensive mutagenesis of expression plasmids, we show that miniature introns containing the splice sites along with short (?30- to 40-nucleotide) inverted repeats, such as Alu elements, are sufficient to allow the intervening exons to circularize in cells. The intronic repeats must base-pair to one another, thereby bringing the splice sites into close proximity to each other. More than simple thermodynamics is clearly at play, however, as not all repeats support circularization, and increasing the stability of the hairpin between the repeats can sometimes inhibit circular RNA biogenesis. The intronic repeats and exonic sequences must collaborate with one another, and a functional 3? end processing signal is required, suggesting that circularization may occur post-transcriptionally. These results suggest detailed and generalizable models that explain how the splicing machinery determines whether to produce a circular noncoding RNA or a linear mRNA. PMID:25281217

  13. Monitoring observations of the interaction between Sgr A* and G2 with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjouwerman, Lornt O.; Chandler, Claire J.

    2014-05-01

    We report on an ongoing community service observing program to follow the expected encounter of the G2 cloud with the black hole Sgr A* in 2013. The NRAO Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has been observing the Sgr A region since 2012 October on roughly a bi-monthly interval, each for two hours, cycling through eight observing bands at their default continuum frequencies, using 2 GHz of bandwidth. The data from the monitoring program are publicly available through the NRAO data archive immediately after observing has completed, and the flux densities are published by NRAO staff as soon as the data are reduced. The cumulative results of the monitoring effort are posted on the service observing web page observing" xlink:type="simple">https://science.nrao.edu/science/service-observing and so far do not indicate a significant brightening of the emission from the direction of Sgr A* over the period 2012 October to 2013 September, within the calibration uncertainties.

  14. Observations of a High-Latitude Stable Electron Auroral Emission at Approximately 16 MLT During a Large Substorm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cattell, C.; Dombeck, J.; Preiwisch, A.; Thaller, S.; Vo, P.; Wilson, L. B., III; Wygant, J.; Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Ilie, R.; Lu, G.

    2011-01-01

    During an interval when the interplanetary magnetic field was large and primarily duskward and southward, a stable region of auroral emission was observed on 17 August 2001 by IMAGE at 16 magnetic local time, poleward of the main aurora, for 1 h, from before the onset of a large substorm through the recovery phase. In a region where ions showed the energy dispersion expected for the cusp, strong field \\aligned currents and Poynting flux were observed by Polar (at 1.8 RE in the Southern Hemisphere) as it transited field lines mapping to the auroral spot in the Northern Hemisphere. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the long \\lasting electron auroral spot maps to the magnetopause region where reconnection was occurring. Under the assumption of conjugacy between the Northern and Southern hemispheres on these field lines, the Polar data suggest that the electrons on these field lines were accelerated by Alfven waves and/or a quasi \\static electric field, primarily at altitudes below a few RE since the in situ Poynting flux (mapped to 100 km) is comparable to the energy flux of the emission while the mapped in situ electron energy flux is much smaller. This event provides the first example of an emission due to electrons accelerated at low altitudes at the foot point of a region of quasi \\steady dayside reconnection. Cluster data in the magnetotail indicate that the Poynting flux from the reconnection region during this substorm is large enough to account for the observed nightside aurora.

  15. Scattering matrix of infrared radiation by ice finite circular cylinders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lisheng; Ding, Jilie; Cheng, Andrew Y S

    2002-04-20

    Scattering matrix characteristics of polydisperse, randomly oriented, small ice crystals modeled by finite circular cylinders with various ratios of the length to diameter (L/D) ratio are calculated by use of the exact T-matrix approach, with emphasis on the thermal infrared spectral region that extends from the atmospheric short-wave IR window to the far-IR wavelengths to as large as 30 microm. The observed ice crystal size distribution and the well-known power-law distribution are considered. The results of the extensive calculations show that the characteristics of scattering matrix elements of small ice circular cylinders depend strongly on wavelengths and refractive indices, particle size distributions, and the L/D ratios. The applicability of the power-law distribution and particle shapes for light scattering calculations for small ice crystals is discussed. The effects of the effective variance of size distribution on light scattering characteristics are addressed. It seems from the behavior of scattering matrix elements of small ice crystals that the combination of 25 and 3.979 microm has some advantages and potential applications for remote sensing of cirrus and other ice clouds. PMID:12003228

  16. NEAR-INFRARED CIRCULAR POLARIZATION IMAGES OF NGC 6334-V

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jungmi; Tamura, Motohide; Hashimoto, Jun; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kandori, Ryo; Lucas, Phil W.; Hough, James H.; Nakajima, Yasushi; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya

    2013-03-01

    We present results from deep imaging linear and circular polarimetry of the massive star-forming region NGC 6334-V. These observations show high degrees of circular polarization (CP), as much as 22% in the K{sub s} band, in the infrared nebula associated with the outflow. The CP has an asymmetric positive/negative pattern and is very extended ({approx}80'' or 0.65 pc). Both the high CP and its extended size are larger than those seen in the Orion CP region. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo light-scattering models are used to show that the high CP may be produced by scattering from the infrared nebula followed by dichroic extinction by an optically thick foreground cloud containing aligned dust grains. Our results show not only the magnetic field orientation of around young stellar objects, but also the structure of circumstellar matter such as outflow regions and their parent molecular cloud along the line of sight. The detection of the large and extended CP in this source and the Orion nebula may imply the CP origin of the biological homochirality on Earth.

  17. SWAP Observations of the Long-term, Large-scale Evolution of the Extreme-ultraviolet Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Shearer, Paul; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  18. Fluctuations in the ionosphere related to Honshu Twin Large Earthquakes of September 2004 observed by the DEMETER and CHAMP satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwangsun; Chae, Jang-Soo; Lee, Ensang; Parrot, Michel

    2014-12-01

    While investigating possible precursory signatures of large earthquakes in the ionospheric data measured by the DEMETER and CHAMP satellites, we found ionospheric disturbances related to large earthquakes (M=7.2 and 7.4) that occurred on September 2004 near the south coast of Honshu, Japan. The satellite data were statistically compared with an empirical model and local averages of the large set of data in the study period. A fluctuation in the electron density above the epicenter was observed roughly 2 weeks before the main earthquakes. Surveys of the space weather and geomagnetic activities suggest that these fluctuations were not caused by changes in space conditions or by a geomagnetic storm. The features were also distinct from well-known natural ionospheric anomalies. In addition, a peak-like profile in the ion temperature and lowered O+ density around the region of the epicenter was observed a week before the main earthquakes along the satellite passes whose longitudes are close to the epicenter. The features are more apparent when they are compared with the data more distant from the epicenter, suggesting that the disturbances occur along the geomagnetic field lines. The concurrent measurements of the ion drift velocity suggest the fluctuations were triggered by the vertical plasma drift. The observed anomalies disappeared ? 2 weeks after the quakes. According to the current theories on the seismo-ionospheric coupling, the horizontal electric field at the lower boundary of the ionosphere should have been strengthened by the seismic activity in order for the ionospheric plasma movements above the epicenter and its geomagnetic conjugate regions to trigger the observed ionospheric anomalies.

  19. SWAP OBSERVATIONS OF THE LONG-TERM, LARGE-SCALE EVOLUTION OF THE EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Seaton, Daniel B.; De Groof, Anik; Berghmans, David; Nicula, Bogdan; Shearer, Paul

    2013-11-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixels and Image Processing (SWAP) EUV solar telescope on board the Project for On-Board Autonomy 2 spacecraft has been regularly observing the solar corona in a bandpass near 17.4 nm since 2010 February. With a field of view of 54 54 arcmin, SWAP provides the widest-field images of the EUV corona available from the perspective of the Earth. By carefully processing and combining multiple SWAP images, it is possible to produce low-noise composites that reveal the structure of the EUV corona to relatively large heights. A particularly important step in this processing was to remove instrumental stray light from the images by determining and deconvolving SWAP's point-spread function from the observations. In this paper, we use the resulting images to conduct the first-ever study of the evolution of the large-scale structure of the corona observed in the EUV over a three year period that includes the complete rise phase of solar cycle 24. Of particular note is the persistence over many solar rotations of bright, diffuse features composed of open magnetic fields that overlie polar crown filaments and extend to large heights above the solar surface. These features appear to be related to coronal fans, which have previously been observed in white-light coronagraph images and, at low heights, in the EUV. We also discuss the evolution of the corona at different heights above the solar surface and the evolution of the corona over the course of the solar cycle by hemisphere.

  20. First observations of poleward large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances over the African sector during geomagnetic storm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, John Bosco; Katamzi, Zama Thobeka; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents first observations of poleward traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) during strong geomagnetic conditions over the African sector. By analyzing different data sets we have observed both positive and negative ionospheric responses during the storm period of 08-10 March 2012. Considering the African region as a whole, three longitudinal sectors were strategically selected to establish the entire regional response. On both sides of the geomagnetic equator, results show poleward shift in peak total electron content (TEC) enhancements/depletions at different times which are associated to large-scale TIDs. The observed phenomena are linked to the global ionospheric response and electrodynamics. The understanding has been established using data from International GNSS Service receiver network, radio occultation electron density profiles, derived E×B drift measurements from magnetometer observations and regional ground-based and satellite data. Contrary to other related studies, generated regional TEC perturbation maps were not enough to show obvious directions of the large-scale TIDs due to insufficient data over the northern hemispheric part of the African sector. There appears to be a switch between positive and negative storm phases during the same storm period especially in the Southern Hemisphere part of the African region where "enough" data were available. However, a detailed analysis revealed that the positive storm phase corresponded to the expansion of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) toward some parts of midlatitude regions (and possibly with the contribution from low-latitude electrodynamics associated to equatorial electrojet), while the other part recorded a negative storm phase due to storm-induced changes from the auroral origin. We have observed a simultaneous occurrence of both poleward and equatorward propagating TIDs over the African sector during the same geomagnetic storm period. Our results show that short-lived large-scale TIDs are possibly launched by the equatorial electrojet, while the EIA expansion contributes (through modulation) to the poleward propagation of the disturbances. Temporal variation of TEC perturbations on a storm day over the entire African sector showed the existence of large-scale TIDs during the main and recovery phases which can travel poleward up to 20° latitude. The amplitudes of the TIDs have range ±2 total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2, period of 2 h and virtual velocities of 250 ± 59-750 ± 95 m/s in midlatitude regions and up to 990 ± 65 m/s within the EIA region.

  1. 325 MHz VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF ULTRACOOL DWARFS TVLM 513-46546 AND 2MASS J0036+1821104

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeger, T. R.; Kassim, N.; Osten, R. A.; Lazio, T. J.; Mutel, R. L.

    2011-12-15

    We present 325 MHz (90 cm wavelength) radio observations of ultracool dwarfs TVLM 513-46546 and 2MASS J0036+1821104 using the Very Large Array (VLA) in 2007 June. Ultracool dwarfs are expected to be undetectable at radio frequencies, yet observations at 8.5 GHz (3.5 cm) and 4.9 GHz (6 cm) have revealed sources with >100 {mu}Jy quiescent radio flux and >1 mJy pulses coincident with stellar rotation. The anomalous emission is likely a combination of gyrosynchrotron and cyclotron maser processes in a long-duration, large-scale magnetic field. Since the characteristic frequency for each process scales directly with the magnetic field magnitude, emission at lower frequencies may be detectable from regions with weaker field strength. We detect no significant radio emission at 325 MHz from TVLM 513-46546 or 2MASS J0036+1821104 over multiple stellar rotations, establishing 2.5{sigma} total flux limits of 795 {mu}Jy and 942 {mu}Jy, respectively. Analysis of an archival VLA 1.4 GHz observation of 2MASS J0036+1821104 from 2005 January also yields a non-detection at the level of <130 {mu}Jy. The combined radio observation history (0.3 GHz to 8.5 GHz) for these sources suggests a continuum emission spectrum for ultracool dwarfs that is either flat or inverted below 2-3 GHz. Further, if the cyclotron maser instability is responsible for the pulsed radio emission observed on some ultracool dwarfs, our low-frequency non-detections suggest that the active region responsible for the high-frequency bursts is confined within two stellar radii and driven by electron beams with energies less than 5 keV.

  2. Towards a better understanding of shallow convection over land using ground-based observation and large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Klein, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    It is very important and challenging for global climate models to represent a correct diurnal cycle of shallow cumuli over land. In this study, we build a new composite case for fair-weather shallow cumulus over land based on observational statistics. We aim to answer questions: 1) how well the can large-eddy simulation (LES) reproduce the observed cloud metrics? And 2) how well can the composite case represent the shallow cumuli regime compared with one "golden" day case study? These LES results, and the associated forcing and observations, will further serve as a benchmark test bed for the performance of the single column model version of large-scale models on simulating continental shallow cumulus. First, a case library of continental shallow cumulus clouds was established based on longterm observations at Southern Great Plains ARM site (Zhang and Klein 2010, 2013), which includes days of forced- and active-shallow cumulus clouds, and days of shallow convection that transits to deep convective precipitating events in late afternoon. Observational statistics was developed for each regime on cloud macrophysics, meteorological atmospheric and surface conditions. Particularly for active shallow cumulus clouds, in-cloud vertical velocity retrieval based on long-term radar measurements is used to derive cloud updraft and downdraft mass fluxes. Secondly, LES of the composite case is performed for active shallow cumulus clouds and it shows significantly less cloud fraction than observations. Sensitivity tests are then performed on grid resolution, domain size, microphysics scheme, surface fluxes and so on. LES is also done for each individual shallow cumulus day to investigate the possible non-linear effect due to the composite case. Thirdly, LES is used to study the effect of large-scale environmental controls, such as relative humidity and atmospheric stability, on the vertical extent of clouds, the transition between forced and active shallow cumulus and the transition from shallow to deep convection in the afternoon. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-658121

  3. The beam-driven chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares - A model not supported by observations from nonimpulsive large flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.

    1990-01-01

    Most large solar flares exhibit hard X-ray emission which is usually impulsive, as well as thermal soft X-ray emission, which is gradual. The beam-driven chromospheric evaporation model of solar flares was proposed to explain the origin of the soft X-ray emitting flare plasma. A careful evaluation of the issue under discussion reveals contradictions between predictions from the theoretical chromospheric evaporation model and actual observations from a set of large X- and M-type flares. It is shown that although the soft X-ray and hard X-ray emissions are a result of the same flare, one is not a result of the other.

  4. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-09-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform.

  5. Circularly polarized light detection with hot electrons in chiral plasmonic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Coppens, Zachary J.; Besteiro, Lucas V.; Wang, Wenyi; Govorov, Alexander O.; Valentine, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is utilized in various optical techniques and devices. However, using conventional optical systems to generate, analyse and detect circularly polarized light involves multiple optical elements, making it challenging to realize miniature and integrated devices. While a number of ultracompact optical elements for manipulating circularly polarized light have recently been demonstrated, the development of an efficient and highly selective circularly polarized light photodetector remains challenging. Here we report on an ultracompact circularly polarized light detector that combines large engineered chirality, realized using chiral plasmonic metamaterials, with hot electron injection. We demonstrate the detector's ability to distinguish between left and right hand circularly polarized light without the use of additional optical elements. Implementation of this photodetector could lead to enhanced security in fibre and free-space communication, as well as emission, imaging and sensing applications for circularly polarized light using a highly integrated photonic platform. PMID:26391292

  6. SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATIONS OF A LARGE-SCALE WAVE EVENT IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE: FROM PHOTOSPHERE TO CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuandeng; Liu, Yu

    2012-06-20

    For the first time, we report a large-scale wave that was observed simultaneously in the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and low corona layers of the solar atmosphere. Using the high temporal and high spatial resolution observations taken by the Solar Magnetic Activity Research Telescope at Hida Observatory and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board Solar Dynamic Observatory, we find that the wave evolved synchronously at different heights of the solar atmosphere, and it propagated at a speed of 605 km s{sup -1} and showed a significant deceleration (-424 m s{sup -2}) in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) observations. During the initial stage, the wave speed in the EUV observations was 1000 km s{sup -1}, similar to those measured from the AIA 1700 A (967 km s{sup -1}) and 1600 A (893 km s{sup -1}) observations. The wave was reflected by a remote region with open fields, and a slower wave-like feature at a speed of 220 km s{sup -1} was also identified following the primary fast wave. In addition, a type-II radio burst was observed to be associated with the wave. We conclude that this wave should be a fast magnetosonic shock wave, which was first driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and then propagated freely in the corona. As the shock wave propagated, its legs swept the solar surface and thereby resulted in the wave signatures observed in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere. The slower wave-like structure following the primary wave was probably caused by the reconfiguration of the low coronal magnetic fields, as predicted in the field-line stretching model.

  7. Observations of Large Scale Sidereal Anisotropy in 1 and 11 TeV cosmic rays from the MINOS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    de Jong, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The MINOS Near and Far Detectors are two large, functionally-identical, steel-scintillating sampling calorimeters located at depths of 220 mwe and 2100 mwe respectively. The detectors observe the muon component of hadronic showers produced from cosmic ray interactions with nuclei in the earth's atmosphere. From the arrival direction of these muons, the anisotropy in arrival direction of the cosmic ray primaries can be determined. The MINOS Near and Far Detector have observed anisotropy on the order of 0.1% at 1 and 11 TeV respectively. The amplitude and phase of the first harmonic at 1 TeV are 8.2 {+-} 1.7(stat.) x 10{sup -4} and (8.9 {+-} 12.1(stat.)){sup o}, and at 11 TeV are 3.8 {+-} 0.5(stat.) x 10{sup -4} and (27.2 {+-} 7.2(stat.)){sup o}.

  8. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L.F.; Lepping, R.P.; Behannon, K.W.; Klein, L.W.; Neubauer, F.M.

    1982-06-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU have been used to investigate the large-scale structure of the IMF in the years 1977 to 1979, a period of increasing solar activity. This complements the Pioneer 10, 11 investigation between 1 and 8.5 AU during 1972--1976 when the sun was less active. In contrast to the good agreement of the Pioneer observations with the ideal field configuration of the Parker spiral model during near solar minimum conditions, the Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from that configuration. We attribute these deviations both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations was found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. The IMF sector structure was generally not well-developed during the period of this study. Notable differences were found between Voyager 1 and 2 observations. Differences in the region 1--2 AU are attributed to the substantially different latitudes of the two spacecraft during much of the period. Later differences are most likely associated with the fact that the Voyagers moved through the region between 4 and 5 AU at different times. Both Voyager 1 and 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of 'transverse' fluctuations in B that are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind although not necessarily implying the presence of them. The presence of convective structures, compressive modes, and/or a saturated instability of Alfven waves cannot be excluded by these Voyager results.

  9. Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed using GPS receivers over high-latitude and equatorial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idrus, Intan Izafina; Abdullah, Mardina; Hasbi, Alina Marie; Husin, Asnawi; Yatim, Baharuddin

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the first results of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) observation during two moderate magnetic storm events on 28 May 2011 (SYM-H? -94 nT and Dst?-80 nT) and 6 August 2011 (SYM-H?-126 nT and Dst?-113 nT) over the high-latitude region in Russia, Sweden, Norway, Iceland and Greenland and equatorial region in the Peninsular Malaysia using vertical total electron content (VTEC) from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observations measurement. The propagation of the LSTID signatures in the GPS TEC measurements over Peninsular Malaysia was also investigated using VTEC map. The LSTIDs were found to propagate both equatorward and poleward directions during these two events. The results showed that the LSTIDs propagated faster at high-latitude region with an average phase velocity of 1074.91 m/s than Peninsular Malaysia with an average phase velocity of 604.84 m/s. The LSTIDs at the high-latitude region have average periods of 150 min whereas the ones observed over Peninsular Malaysia have average periods of 115 min. The occurrences of these LSTIDs were also found to be the subsequent effects of substorm activities in the auroral region. To our knowledge, this is the first result of observation of LSTIDs over Peninsular Malaysia during the 24th solar cycle.

  10. Overlap statistics of shallow boundary layer clouds: Comparing ground-based observations with large-eddy simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbetta, G.; Orlandi, E.; Heus, T.; Neggers, R.; Crewell, S.

    2015-10-01

    High-resolution ground-based measurements are used to assess the realism of fine-scale numerical simulations of shallow cumulus cloud fields. The overlap statistics of cumuli as produced by large-eddy simulations (LES) are confronted with Cloudnet data sets at the Jlich Observatory for Cloud Evolution. The Cloudnet pixel is small enough to detect cumuliform cloud overlap. Cloud fraction masks are derived for five different cases, using gridded time-height data sets at various temporal and vertical resolutions. The overlap ratio (R), i.e., the ratio between cloud fraction by volume and by area, is studied as a function of the vertical resolution. Good agreement is found between R derived from observations and simulations. An inverse linear function is found to best describe the observed overlap behavior, confirming previous LES results. Simulated and observed decorrelation lengths are smaller (300 m) than previously reported (>1 km). A similar diurnal variation in the overlap efficiency is found in observations and simulations.

  11. SPATIAL SEISMOLOGY OF A LARGE CORONAL LOOP ARCADE FROM TRACE AND EIT OBSERVATIONS OF ITS TRANSVERSE OSCILLATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Verwichte, E.; Foullon, C.; Van Doorsselaere, T.

    2010-07-01

    We present a study of transverse loop oscillations in a large coronal loop arcade, using observations from the Transition Region And Coronal Explorer (TRACE) and Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT). For the first time we reveal the presence of long-period transverse oscillations with periods between 24 minutes and 3 hr. One loop bundle, 690 Mm long and with an oscillation period of 40 minutes, is analyzed in detail and its oscillation characteristics are determined in an automated manner. The oscillation quality factor is similar to what has been found earlier for oscillations in much shorter loops. This indicates that the damping mechanism of transverse loop oscillations is independent of loop length or period. The displacement profile along the whole length of the oscillating loop is determined for the first time and consistently between TRACE and EIT. By comparing the observed profile with models of the three-dimensional geometry of the equilibrium and perturbed loop, we test the effect of longitudinal structuring (spatial seismology) and find that the observations cannot unambiguously distinguish between structuring and non-planarity of the equilibrium loop. Associated intensity variations with a similar periodicity are explained in terms of variations in the line-of-sight column depth. Also, we report intensity oscillations at the loop footpoint, which are in anti-phase with respect to the intensity oscillations in the loop body. Lastly, this observation offers the first opportunity to use the transverse oscillations of the arcade to model the Alfven speed profile in the global corona.

  12. TWO EPOCHS OF VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF WATER MASER EMISSION IN THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 6240

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Yoshiaki

    2010-12-15

    Studies of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O maser emission from the merging galaxy NGC 6240 with double nuclei are presented. Two epochs of Very Large Array (VLA) observations in the A-configuration in spectral-line mode were carried out at 0.1 arcsec resolution by covering the redshifted velocity range of {approx}300 km s{sup -1} with respect to the systemic velocity of the galaxy. The purpose of these new observations is twofold: to detect an H{sub 2}O maser that an earlier VLA observation pinpointed in the southern nucleus in the northern nucleus as well to clarify the kinematics of the double nuclei, and to understand the origin of the maser in the galaxy. In the second epoch, one velocity feature peaking at V{sub LSR} = 7491.1 km s{sup -1}, redshifted by {approx}200 km s{sup -1} relative to the systemic velocity, was detected only toward the southern nucleus. The detection of an H{sub 2}O maser feature at or near this velocity had never been reported in earlier observations. However, including the known velocity features at redshifted velocities, no other velocity features were observed toward either nuclei throughout these epochs. The maser remains unresolved at an angular resolution of {approx}0.''1, corresponding to a linear size of less than about 45 pc. The two epochs of VLA observations show that the maser intensity is variable on timescales of at least three months, while the correlation between the maser intensity and the radio continuum intensity is not certain from our data. It is plausible that the maser in NGC 6240 is associated with the activity of an active galactic nucleus in the southern nucleus. Alternatively, the maser can be explained by star-forming activity at the site of massive star formation in the galaxy.

  13. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the averaged field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.

  14. LUPUS I observations from the 2010 flight of the Balloon-borne large aperture submillimeter telescope for polarimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Novak, Giles; Ade, Peter A. R.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Nutter, David; Angilè, Francesco E.; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeffrey; Benton, Steven J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Chapin, Edward L.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Olmi, Luca; and others

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  15. Lupus I Observations from the 2010 Flight of the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Tristan G.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Benton, Steven J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Chapman, Nicholas L.; Devlin, Mark J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gandilo, Natalie N.; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hargrave, Peter C.; Klein, Jeffrey; Korotkov, Andrei L.; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Mroczkowski, Tony K.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Novak, Giles; Nutter, David; Olmi, Luca; Pascale, Enzo; Poidevin, Frédérick; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Shariff, Jamil A.; Soler, Juan Diego; Tachihara, Kengo; Thomas, Nicholas E.; Truch, Matthew D. P.; Tucker, Carole E.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    2014-04-01

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was created by adding polarimetric capability to the BLAST experiment that was flown in 2003, 2005, and 2006. BLASTPol inherited BLAST's 1.8 m primary and its Herschel/SPIRE heritage focal plane that allows simultaneous observation at 250, 350, and 500 μm. We flew BLASTPol in 2010 and again in 2012. Both were long duration Antarctic flights. Here we present polarimetry of the nearby filamentary dark cloud Lupus I obtained during the 2010 flight. Despite limitations imposed by the effects of a damaged optical component, we were able to clearly detect submillimeter polarization on degree scales. We compare the resulting BLASTPol magnetic field map with a similar map made via optical polarimetry. (The optical data were published in 1998 by J. Rizzo and collaborators.) The two maps partially overlap and are reasonably consistent with one another. We compare these magnetic field maps to the orientations of filaments in Lupus I, and we find that the dominant filament in the cloud is approximately perpendicular to the large-scale field, while secondary filaments appear to run parallel to the magnetic fields in their vicinities. This is similar to what is observed in Serpens South via near-IR polarimetry, and consistent with what is seen in MHD simulations by F. Nakamura and Z. Li.

  16. Circular threshold quantum secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu-Guang; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2008-02-01

    This paper proposes a circular threshold quantum secret sharing (TQSS) scheme with polarized single photons. A polarized single photon sequence runs circularly among any t or more of n parties and any t or more of n parties can reconstruct the secret key when they collaborate. It shows that entanglement is not necessary for quantum secret sharing. Moreover, the theoretic efficiency is improved to approach 100% as the single photons carrying the secret key are deterministically forwarded among any t or more of n parties, and each photon can carry one bit of information without quantum storage. This protocol is feasible with current technology.

  17. Observations of Large Amplitude Electrostatic Waves Associated with Magnetic Ramp Substructure at Earth's Bow Shock by Polar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, A. J.; Larson, D.; Mozer, F.; Wilber, M.; Bale, S.; Scudder, J.; Russell, C.

    2005-12-01

    We present Polar-EFI observations of electrostatic (ES) waves at high frequency (100 Hz < f < 4000 Hz) at Earth's bow shock under extreme solar wind conditions. Polar-EFI provides the first 3-axis measurements of electric fields across the shock layer, allowing for a better evaluation of the electric field properties than previous missions. The ES waveforms are of large amplitude (as large as 20-100 mV/m), and have both parallel and perpendicular components. Although we have observed solitary waves, the most prevalent structures in the magnetic ramp are large amplitude ES wave packets usually lasting from 10-30 cycles. These structures have wavelengths of a few hundred meters (e.g., ~ 10 Debeye Lengths) and are convecting by the spacecraft at speeds from 50 km/s to > 800 km/s. In the events presented, the ES wave power is generally well correlated with maxima in the magnetic ramp substructure, suggesting that these local maxima are important sites for the generation of these waves. These waveforms are not consistent with the classical ion acoustic wave description, since they occur under conditions where T_e~ T_i at local magnetic field maxima as opposed to the gradient and they propagate at oblique angles to the magnetic field. The fact that these waves are collocated with magnetic maxima is suggestive that the free-energy source of these waves may be from phase-space holes in the electron distribution, as a result of the acceleration of the low energy part of electron phase space by the shock DC electric field.

  18. On the 2012 October 23 Circular Ribbon Flare: Emission Features and Magnetic Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Guo, Yang; Ding, M. D.

    2015-06-01

    Circular ribbon flares are usually related to spine-fan type magnetic topology containing null points. In this paper, we investigate an X-class circular ribbon flare on 2012 October 23, using the multiwavelength data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Hinode, and RHESSI. In Ca ii H emission, the flare showed three ribbons with two highly elongated ones inside and outside a quasi-circular one, respectively. A hot channel was displayed in the extreme-ultraviolet emissions that infers the existence of a magnetic flux rope. Two hard X-ray (HXR) sources in the 12-25 keV energy band were located at the footpoints of this hot channel. Using a nonlinear force-free magnetic field extrapolation, we identify three topological structures: (1) a three-dimensional null point, (2) a flux rope below the fan of the null point, and (3) a large-scale quasi-separatrix layer (QSL) induced by the quadrupolar-like magnetic field of the active region. We find that the null point is embedded within the large-scale QSL. In our case, all three identified topological structures must be considered to explain all the emission features associated with the observed flare. Besides, the HXR sources are regarded as the consequence of the reconnection within or near the border of the flux rope.

  19. Observational requirements for Lyα forest tomographic mapping of large-scale structure at z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Khee-Gan; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Ozbek, Melih

    2014-06-10

    The z ≳ 2 Lyα forest traces the underlying dark matter distribution on large scales and, given sufficient sightlines, can be used to create three-dimensional (3D) maps of large-scale structures. We examine the observational requirements to construct such maps and estimate the signal-to-noise as a function of exposure time and sightline density. Sightline densities at z = 2.25 are n {sub los} ≈ [360, 1200, 3300] deg{sup –2} at limiting magnitudes of g = [24.0, 24.5, 25.0], resulting in transverse sightline separations of (d ) ≈ [3.6, 1.9, 1.2] h {sup –1} Mpc, which roughly sets the reconstruction scale. We simulate these reconstructions using mock spectra with realistic noise properties and find that spectra with S/N ≈ 4 per angstrom can be used to generate maps that clearly trace the underlying dark matter at overdensities of ρ/(ρ) ∼ 1. For the VLT/VIMOS spectrograph, exposure times t {sub exp} = [4, 6, 10] hr are sufficient for maps with spatial resolution ε{sub 3D} = [5.0, 3.2, 2.3] h {sup –1} Mpc. Assuming ∼250 h {sup –1} Mpc is probed along the line of sight, 1 deg{sup 2} of survey area would cover a comoving volume of ≈10{sup 6} h {sup –3} Mpc{sup 3} at (z) ∼ 2.3, enabling the efficient mapping of large volumes with 8-10 m telescopes. These maps could be used to study galaxy environments, the topology of large-scale structures at high z, and to detect proto-clusters.

  20. Maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J; Pellegrini, Marco; Pirillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-21

    We determine here the number and the list of maximal dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. We prove that there is no maximal dinucleotide circular code having strictly less than 6 elements (maximum size of dinucleotide circular codes). On the other hand, a computer calculus shows that there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with less than 20 elements (maximum size of trinucleotide circular codes). More precisely, there are maximal trinucleotide circular codes with 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 and 19 elements and no maximal trinucleotide circular code having less than 14 elements. We give the same information for the maximal self-complementary dinucleotide and trinucleotide circular codes. The amino acid distribution of maximal trinucleotide circular codes is also determined. PMID:26382231

  1. Positions of equilibrium points for dust particles in the circular restricted three-body problem with radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pástor, P.

    2014-11-01

    For a body with negligible mass moving in the gravitational field of a star with one planet in a circular orbit (the circular restricted three-body problem), five equilibrium points exist and are known as the Lagrangian points. The positions of the Lagrangian points are not valid for dust particles because in the derivation of the Lagrangian points it is assumed that no other forces besides the gravitation act on the body with negligible mass. Here, we determined positions of the equilibrium points for the dust particles in the circular restricted three-body problem with radiation. The equilibrium points are located on curves connecting the Lagrangian points in the circular restricted three-body problem. The equilibrium points for Jupiter are distributed in large interval of heliocentric distances due to its large mass. The equilibrium points for the Earth explain a cloud of dust particles trailing the Earth observed with the Spitzer Space Telescope. The dust particles moving in the equilibrium points are distributed in interplanetary space according to their properties.

  2. EXPANDED VERY LARGE ARRAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE H66{alpha} AND He66{alpha} RECOMBINATION LINES TOWARD MWC 349A

    SciTech Connect

    Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    2010-10-10

    We have used the greatly enhanced spectral capabilities of the Expanded Very Large Array to observe both the 22.3 GHz continuum emission and the H66{alpha} recombination line toward the well-studied Galactic emission-line star MWC 349A. The continuum flux density is found to be 411 {+-} 41 mJy in good agreement with previous determinations. The H66{alpha} line peak intensity is about 25 mJy, and the average line-to-continuum flux ratio is about 5%, as expected for local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. This shows that the H66{alpha} recombination line is not strongly masing as had previously been suggested, although a moderate maser contribution could be present. The He66{alpha} recombination line is also detected in our observations; the relative strengths of the two recombination lines yield an ionized helium to ionized hydrogen abundance ratio y {sup +} = 0.12 {+-} 0.02. The ionized helium appears to share the kinematics of the thermally excited ionized hydrogen gas, so the two species are likely to be well mixed. The electron temperature of the ionized gas in MWC 349A deduced from our observations is 6300 {+-} 600 K.

  3. Direct observation of dopant atom diffusion in a bulk semiconductor crystal enhanced by a large size mismatch.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Ryo; Mishra, Rohan; Lupini, Andrew R; Findlay, Scott D; Taniguchi, Takashi; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2014-10-10

    Diffusion is one of the fundamental processes that govern the structure, processing, and properties of materials and it plays a crucial role in determining device lifetimes. However, direct observations of diffusion processes have been elusive and limited only to the surfaces of materials. Here we use an aberration-corrected electron microscope to locally excite and directly image the diffusion of single Ce and Mn dopants inside bulk wurtzite-type AlN single crystals, identifying correlated vacancy-dopant and interstitial-dopant kick-out mechanisms. Using a 200 kV electron beam to supply energy, we observe a higher frequency of dopant jumps for the larger and heavier Ce atoms than the smaller Mn atoms. These observations confirm density-functional-theory-based predictions of a decrease in diffusion barrier for large substitutional atoms. The results show that combining depth sensitive microscopy with theoretical calculations represents a new methodology to investigate diffusion mechanisms, not restricted to surface phenomena, but within bulk materials. PMID:25375721

  4. Interaction effect of number of circular holes in a circular plate

    SciTech Connect

    Ukadgaonker, V.G.; Agnahotri, N.A.

    1996-12-01

    The problem of circular tubesheet with uniform tension at its circular boundary and nine holes in the circular pitch pattern at its center is solved using complex stress functions. The Schwarz Alternating Technique is used to find the interaction effect of the holes on each other and then the superposition method is used to obtain desired geometry of the nine holes. This superposition gives the stress free boundary at the central hole exactly satisfied. When these results are compared with those obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale by Finite Element Method it is found that the theoretical solutions give higher stress concentration than FEM by about 20% for a large outer radius. When the outer radius is reduced the stress concentration factor increases considerably and the difference in the analytical and the FEM solution also increases to a large extent. The analytical solution found in the present paper is verified with the FEM and Photoelasticity solution obtained by Ukadgaonker and Kale (1996) earlier. This problem is further generalized for a rhombic pitch pattern, which can be reduced to particular cases such as square pitch pattern, triangular pitch pattern, diagonal pitch pattern by changing the angle of the rhombus. The stress concentration factor around the central hole varies very little for various ligament efficiencies which is given in percentage.

  5. Circular dichroism study of polyriboxanthylic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Spodheim-Maurizot, M; Leng, M

    1977-01-01

    We report in the present paper the circular dichroism spectra of poly(X) at different pH and temperature values. The spectra are characteristic of three stable forms of poly(x) in the pH range of protonation of xanthosine. An electrostatic barrier is proposed to account for the hysteresis and metastability observed in a certain pH range. Some results on oligo(X) at basic pH are also presented. Poly(X) at basic pH is investigated also by hydrodynamic techniques. PMID:17098

  6. Resonances in the population of circular Rydberg states formed in beam-foil excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Adya P.; Nandi, T.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2013-05-01

    By directing fast moving 164 MeV F2656e ion beam on 90 μg/cm2 thick carbon foil we have studied the unresolved decay of short-lived 2p (τ2p≈3.3 fs) and long-lived 2s (τ2s≈350.6 ps) states of H-like Fe in the time range 1.6×104-9.2×105τ2p, where, τ2p and τ2s are, respectively, radiative lifetimes of the 2p and 2s levels. At such large times four resonances have been observed as the humps riding on the decay curve of the beam-foil-excited 2s state. This unusual behavior is explained as consequence of the sequential cascading of circular Rydberg states (l=n-1) to 2p state, which modifies the time dependent photon intensity, I(t), of the 2p→1s transition from an exponential to hump-like structures for t»τ2p. From the detailed study of the cascading process the relative population of circular Rydberg states is determined. It is observed that certain circular Rydberg states are unexpectedly and profusely populated when fast H-like Fe ions emerge from the back surface of a thin solid foil.

  7. Improved large-scale hydrological modelling through the assimilation of streamflow and downscaled satellite soil moisture observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, P.; Wanders, N.; Schellekens, J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sutanudjaja, E. H.; Bierkens, M. F. P.

    2015-10-01

    The coarse spatial resolution of global hydrological models (typically > 0.25°) limits their ability to resolve key water balance processes for many river basins and thus compromises their suitability for water resources management, especially when compared to locally-tuned river models. A possible solution to the problem may be to drive the coarse resolution models with locally available high spatial resolution meteorological data as well as to assimilate ground-based and remotely-sensed observations of key water cycle variables. While this would improve the resolution of the global model, the impact of prediction accuracy remains largely an open question. In this study we investigate the impact of assimilating streamflow and satellite soil moisture observations on the accuracy of global hydrological model estimations, when driven by either coarse- or high-resolution meteorological observations in the Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia. To this end, a 0.08° resolution version of the PCR-GLOBWB global hydrological model is forced with downscaled global meteorological data (from 0.5° downscaled to 0.08° resolution) obtained from the WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim (WFDEI) and a local high resolution gauging station based gridded dataset (0.05°). Downscaled satellite derived soil moisture (from approx. 0.5° downscaled to 0.08° resolution) from AMSR-E and streamflow observations collected from 23 gauging stations are assimilated using an ensemble Kalman filter. Several scenarios are analysed to explore the added value of data assimilation considering both local and global meteorological data. Results show that the assimilation of soil moisture observations results in the largest improvement of the model estimates of streamflow. The joint assimilation of both streamflow and downscaled soil moisture observations leads to further improvement in streamflow simulations (20 % reduction in RMSE). Furthermore, results show that the added contribution of data assimilation, for both soil moisture and streamflow, is more pronounced when the global meteorological data are used to force the models. This is caused by the higher uncertainty and coarser resolution of the global forcing. We conclude that it is possible to improve PCR-GLOBWB simulations forced by coarse resolution meteorological data with assimilation of downscaled spaceborne soil moisture and streamflow observations. These improved model results are close to the ones from a local model forced with local meteorological data. These findings are important in light of the efforts that are currently done to go to global hyper-resolution modelling and can help to advance this research.

  8. Improved large-scale hydrological modelling through the assimilation of streamflow and downscaled satellite soil moisture observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lpez Lpez, Patricia; Wanders, Niko; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Renzullo, Luigi; Sterk, Geert; Schellekens, Jaap; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The coarse spatial resolution of global hydrological models (typically > 0.25o) often limits their ability to resolve key water balance processes for many river basins and thus compromises their suitability for water resources management, especially when compared to locally-tunes river models. A possible solution to the problem may be to drive the coarse resolution models with high-resolution meteorological data as well as to assimilate ground-based and remotely-sensed observations of key water cycle variables. While this would improve the modelling resolution of the global model, the impact of prediction accuracy remains largely an open question. In this study we investigated the impact that assimilating streamflow and satellite soil moisture observations have on global hydrological model estimation, driven by coarse- and high-resolution meteorological observations, for the Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia. The PCR-GLOBWB global hydrological model is forced with downscaled global climatological data (from 0.5o downscaled to 0.1o resolution) obtained from the WATCH Forcing Data (WFDEI) and local high resolution gauging station based gridded datasets (0.05o), sourced from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Downscaled satellite derived soil moisture (from 0.5o downscaled to 0.1o resolution) from AMSR-E and streamflow observations collected from 25 gauging stations are assimilated using an ensemble Kalman filter. Several scenarios are analysed to explore the added value of data assimilation considering both local and global climatological data. Results show that the assimilation of streamflow observations result in the largest improvement of the model estimates. The joint assimilation of both streamflow and downscaled soil moisture observations leads to further improved in streamflow simulations (10% reduction in RMSE), mainly in the headwater catchments (up to 10,000 km2). Results also show that the added contribution of data assimilation, for both soil moisture and streamflow, is more pronounced when the global meteorological data are used to force the models. This is caused by the higher uncertainty and coarser resolution of the global forcing. This study demonstrates that it is possible to improve hydrological simulations forced by coarse resolution meteorological data with downscaled satellite soil moisture and streamflow observations and bring them closer to a hydrological model forced with local climatological data. These findings are important in light of the efforts that are currently done to go to global hyper-resolution modelling and can significantly help to advance this research.

  9. Circular polarized leaky wave surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manene, Franklin; Lail, Brian A.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2014-09-01

    A circular polarized (CP) infrared (IR) leaky wave surface design is presented. The metasurface consists of an array of rectangular patches connected by microstrip and operating over the long-wave infrared (LWIR) spectrum with directional wave emission and absorption. The surface is composed of periodically aligned arrays of sub-wavelength metal patches separated from a ground plane by a dielectric slab. The design combines the features of the conventional patch and leaky wave antenna leading to a metasurface that preferentially emits CP IR radiation by use of axial asymmetrical unit cells. This is a deviation from reported structures that mainly employ a phase shifter to combine linearly polarized waves in order to attain circular polarization. The performance of this leaky wave surface is verified through full-wave simulation using the ANSYS HFSS finite element analysis tool. The leaky wave phenomenon is demonstrated by the frequency and angular dependence of the absorption while circular polarization is characterized via stokes parameters. The main beam of this surface can be steered continuously by varying the frequency while maintaining circular polarization within the main beam direction. A CP leaky wave at 10.6 μm with a scanning angle of 30° is demonstrated. Metasurfaces exhibiting spectral and polarization selectivity in absorption/emission hold the potential for impact in IR applications including detection, imaging, thermal management, energy harvesting and tagging.

  10. Backbone circularization of Bacillus subtilis family 11 xylanase increases its thermostability and its resistance against aggregation.

    PubMed

    Waldhauer, Max C; Schmitz, Silvan N; Ahlmann-Eltze, Constantin; Gleixner, Jan G; Schmelas, Carolin C; Huhn, Anna G; Bunne, Charlotte; Bscher, Magdalena; Horn, Max; Klughammer, Nils; Kreft, Jakob; Schfer, Elisabeth; Bayer, Philipp A; Krmer, Stephen G; Neugebauer, Julia; Wehler, Pierre; Mayer, Matthias P; Eils, Roland; Di Ventura, Barbara

    2015-11-10

    The activity of proteins is dictated by their three-dimensional structure, the native state, and is influenced by their ability to remain in or return to the folded native state under physiological conditions. Backbone circularization is thought to increase protein stability by decreasing the conformational entropy in the unfolded state. A positive effect of circularization on stability has been shown for several proteins. Here, we report the development of a cloning standard that facilitates implementing the SICLOPPS technology to circularize proteins of interest using split inteins. To exemplify the usage of the cloning standard we constructed two circularization vectors based on the Npu DnaE and gp41-1 split inteins, respectively. We use these vectors to overexpress in Escherichia coli circular forms of the Bacillus subtilis enzyme family 11 xylanase that differ in the identity and number of additional amino acids used for circularization (exteins). We found that the variant circularized with only one additional serine has increased thermostability of 7 C compared to native xylanase. The variant circularized with six additional amino acids has only a mild increase in thermostability compared to the corresponding exteins-bearing linear xylanase, but is less stable than native xylanase. However, this circular xylanase retains more than 50% of its activity after heat shock at elevated temperatures, while native xylanase and the corresponding exteins-bearing linear xylanase are largely inactivated. We correlate this residual activity to the fewer protein aggregates found in the test tubes of circular xylanase after heat shock, suggesting that circularization protects the protein from aggregation under these conditions. Taken together, these data indicate that backbone circularization has a positive effect on xylanase and can lead to increased thermostability, provided the appropriate exteins are selected. We believe that our cloning standard and circularization vectors will facilitate testing the effects of circularization on other proteins. PMID:26434634

  11. Circular Bioassay Platforms for Applications in Microwave-Accelerated Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Muzaffer; Clement, Travis C.; Aslan, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design of four different circular bioassay platforms, which are suitable for homogeneous microwave heating, using theoretical calculations (i.e., COMSOL multiphysics software). Circular bioassay platforms are constructed from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for optical transparency between 400800 nm, has multiple sample capacity (12, 16, 19 and 21 wells) and modified with silver nanoparticle films (SNFs) to be used in microwave-accelerated bioassays (MABs). In addition, a small monomode microwave cavity, which can be operated with an external microwave generator (100 W), for use with the bioassay platforms in MABs is also developed. Our design parameters for the circular bioassay platforms and monomode microwave cavity during microwave heating were: (i) temperature profiles, (ii) electric field distributions, (iii) location of the circular bioassay platforms inside the microwave cavity, and (iv) design and number of wells on the circular bioassay platforms. We have also carried out additional simulations to assess the use of circular bioassay platforms in a conventional kitchen microwave oven (e.g., 900 W). Our results show that the location of the circular bioassay platforms in the microwave cavity was predicted to have a significant effect on the homogeneous heating of these platforms. The 21-well circular bioassay platform design in our monomode microwave cavity was predicted to offer a homogeneous heating pattern, where inter-well temperature was observed to be in between 23.7224.13C and intra-well temperature difference was less than 0.21C for 60 seconds of microwave heating, which was also verified experimentally. PMID:25568813

  12. Observation of enhancement of stopping power and possible hydrodynamic shock behavior in penetration of large molecules in solids

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Y.K.; Chu, Y.Y.; Friedman, L. )

    1995-03-01

    Measurements of the stopping power of large multiply charged ions were made by determining energy losses in thin aluminum films directly coated on solid-state detectors. With initial projectile velocities in the range of (1--5)[times]10[sup 7] cm/sec, the stopping power per amu of albumin (molecular weight [ital M][similar to]66290) and cytochrome [ital c] ([ital M][similar to]12400) increases quadratically in velocity to a maximum value of seven times that estimated for isolated atomic nitrogen moving with the same velocity. The observed velocity dependence of the stopping power is in qualitative agreement with the one derived from a one-dimensional shock model. Pressures estimated from the measured stopping power using the model are hundreds of megabars. The results show evidence of the collective interaction that results possibly from hydrodynamic'' shock behavior in plasmas formed by the coherent collision of high-velocity biopolymer atoms with target atoms.

  13. Observation of energetic-ion losses induced by various MHD instabilities in the Large Helical Device (LHD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, K.; Isobe, M.; Toi, K.; Watanabe, F.; Spong, D. A.; Shimizu, A.; Osakabe, M.; Ohdachi, S.; Sakakibara, S.; LHD Experiment Group

    2010-08-01

    Energetic-ion losses induced by toroidicity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) and resistive interchange modes (RICs) were observed in neutral-beam heated plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD) at a relatively low toroidal magnetic field level (<=0.75 T). The energy and pitch angle of the lost ions are detected using a scintillator-based lost-fast ion probe. Each instability increases the lost ions having a certain energy/pitch angle. TAE bursts preferentially induce energetic beam ions in co-passing orbits having energy from the injection energy E = 190 keV down to 130 keV, while RICs expel energetic ions of E = 190 keV down to ~130 keV in passing-toroidally trapped boundary orbits. Loss fluxes induced by these instabilities increase with different dependences on the magnetic fluctuation amplitude: nonlinear and linear dependences for TAEs and RICs, respectively.

  14. A particle consistent with the Higgs boson observed with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider.

    PubMed

    2012-12-21

    Nearly 50 years ago, theoretical physicists proposed that a field permeates the universe and gives energy to the vacuum. This field was required to explain why some, but not all, fundamental particles have mass. Numerous precision measurements during recent decades have provided indirect support for the existence of this field, but one crucial prediction of this theory has remained unconfirmed despite 30 years of experimental searches: the existence of a massive particle, the standard model Higgs boson. The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN has now observed the production of a new particle with a mass of 126 giga-electron volts and decay signatures consistent with those expected for the Higgs particle. This result is strong support for the standard model of particle physics, including the presence of this vacuum field. The existence and properties of the newly discovered particle may also have consequences beyond the standard model itself. PMID:23258888

  15. A dynamic measure of controllability and observability for the placement of actuators and sensors on large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervelde, W. E.; Carignan, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The degree of controllability of a large space structure is found by a four step procedure: (1) finding the minimum control energy for driving the system from a given initial state to the origin in the prescribed time; (2) finding the region of initial state which can be driven to the origin with constrained control energy and time using optimal control strategy; (3) scaling the axes so that a unit displacement in every direction is equally important to control; and (4) finding the linear measurement of the weighted "volume" of the ellipsoid in the equicontrol space. For observability, the error covariance must be reduced toward zero using measurements optimally, and the criterion must be standardized by the magnitude of tolerable errors. The results obtained using these methods are applied to the vibration modes of a free-free beam.

  16. Direct Observation of Very Large Zero-Field Splitting in a Tetrahedral Ni(II)Se4 Coordination Complex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shang-Da; Maganas, Dimitrios; Levesanos, Nikolaos; Ferentinos, Eleftherios; Haas, Sabrina; Thirunavukkuarasu, Komalavalli; Krzystek, J; Dressel, Martin; Bogani, Lapo; Neese, Frank; Kyritsis, Panayotis

    2015-10-14

    The high-spin (S = 1) tetrahedral Ni(II) complex [Ni{(i)Pr2P(Se)NP(Se)(i)Pr2}2] was investigated by magnetometry, spectroscopic, and quantum chemical methods. Angle-resolved magnetometry studies revealed the orientation of the magnetization principal axes. The very large zero-field splitting (zfs), D = 45.40(2) cm(-1), E = 1.91(2) cm(-1), of the complex was accurately determined by far-infrared magnetic spectroscopy, directly observing transitions between the spin sublevels of the triplet ground state. These are the largest zfs values ever determined--directly--for a high-spin Ni(II) complex. Ab initio calculations further probed the electronic structure of the system, elucidating the factors controlling the sign and magnitude of D. The latter is dominated by spin-orbit coupling contributions of the Ni ions, whereas the corresponding effects of the Se atoms are remarkably smaller. PMID:26352187

  17. The observation of large semi-major axis Centaurs: Testing for the signature of a planetary-mass solar companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Rodney S.; Soares, Jean S.; Brasser, Ramon

    2015-09-01

    Several objects whose perihelion lies between Jupiter and Neptune have large semi-major axes a > 100 au, two of them having semi-major axis above 1000 au. Since these objects' perihelia share the same region as the classical Centaurs, a coherent nomenclature for them could be large semi-major axis Centaurs (Laces). It has been argued that the classical Centaurs, with semi-major axes below 50 au, originate from the Scattered Disk. However, the Laces most likely originate from the Oort Cloud. We determine the brightest object in the Laces, classical Centaurs (with semi-major axis >20 au) and Scattered Disk populations using a procedure that introduces observational bias to a set of objects in orbits obtained from numerical simulations of the evolution of the Oort cloud and Scattered Disk in the framework of the Nice model. The application of the procedure consistently determines that the brightest distant Lace (semi-major axis above 500 au) is fainter than the brightest classical Centaur by about one magnitude, no matter what parameters were used for the procedure. However, reality shows a reversed situation: there is an excess of Laces with lower visual magnitudes. It is not clear why this is the case. We test whether a planetary-mass solar companion could produce an excess of bright Laces in comparison with classical Centaurs. We find that with the companion there is an excess of luminous Laces compared to when there is no companion. However, the companion model also produces many classical Centaurs with lower visual magnitudes than the observed ones. Thus we conclude that the companion does not solve this visual magnitude inconsistency, although the results are in general more coherent under the model with the companion than without.

  18. Observations of the refraction of microbaroms generated by large maritime storms by the wind field of the generating storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, Philip; Waxler, Roger; Frazier, Wm. Garth; Talmadge, Carrick

    2014-06-01

    Microbaroms are a continuous infrasonic signal in the 0.15 to 0.3 Hz band caused by the collision of oceanic surface waves of equal period. Such signals are often generated by large maritime storms. Current formulation of the generation mechanism predicts that the microbarom source location due to a large maritime storm in the open ocean is generally located several hundreds of kilometers from the eye of the storm. Assuming such a source location to be correct, propagation of the microbaroms along paths which pass near the storm center as well as those which propagate away from the storm structure have been examined using geometric acoustics. Microbarom propagation paths which pass near the storm center are refracted by the storm winds and are found to have back azimuths directed toward a virtual source around the storm center. Microbarom propagation paths which do not pass near the storm center are found to have back azimuths directed toward the actual source region. To validate these predictions, data from microbarom signals generated by hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean have been collected along the east coast of the United States during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic hurricane seasons. Data from several storm events are presented here for comparison with model predictions. In general, the observations are in agreement with the predictions of the propagation model.

  19. Facing the Challenges of Accessing, Managing, and Integrating Large Observational Datasets in Ecology: Enabling and Enriching the Use of NEON's Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    As the construction of NEON and its transition to operations progresses, more and more data will become available to the scientific community, both from NEON directly and from the concomitant growth of existing data repositories. Many of these datasets include ecological observations of a diversity of taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although observational data have been collected and used throughout the history of organismal biology, the field has not yet fully developed a culture of data management, documentation, standardization, sharing and discoverability to facilitate the integration and synthesis of datasets. Moreover, the tools required to accomplish these goals, namely database design, implementation, and management, and automation and parallelization of analytical tasks through computational techniques, have not historically been included in biology curricula, at either the undergraduate or graduate levels. To ensure the success of data-generating projects like NEON in advancing organismal ecology and to increase transparency and reproducibility of scientific analyses, an acceleration of the cultural shift to open science practices, the development and adoption of data standards, such as the DarwinCore standard for taxonomic data, and increased training in computational approaches for biologists need to be realized. Here I highlight several initiatives that are intended to increase access to and discoverability of publicly available datasets and equip biologists and other scientists with the skills that are need to manage, integrate, and analyze data from multiple large-scale projects. The EcoData Retriever (ecodataretriever.org) is a tool that downloads publicly available datasets, re-formats the data into an efficient relational database structure, and then automatically imports the data tables onto a user's local drive into the database tool of the user's choice. The automation of these tasks results in nearly instantaneous execution of tasks that previously required hours to days of each data user's time, with decreased error rates and increased useability of the data. The Ecological Data wiki (ecologicaldata.org) provides a forum for users of ecological datasets to share relevant metadata and tips and tricks for using the data, in order to flatten learning curves, as well as minimize redundancy of efforts among users of the same datasets. Finally, Software Carpentry (software-carpentry.org) has developed curricula for scientific computing and provides both online training and low cost, short courses that can be tailored to the specific needs of the students. Demand for these courses has been increasing exponentially in recent years, and represent a significant educational resource for biologists. I will conclude by linking these initiatives to the challenges facing ecologists related to the effective and efficient exploitation of NEON's diverse data streams.

  20. Dark matter constraints from observations of 25 Milky Way satellite galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caragiulo, M.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; Dermer, C. D.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Essig, R.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giroletti, M.; Godfrey, G.; Gomez-Vargas, G. A.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Gustafsson, M.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; Hughes, R. E.; Jogler, T.; Kamae, T.; Kndlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kuss, M.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Martinez, G.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Perkins, J. S.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rain, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Snchez-Conde, M.; Sehgal, N.; Sgr, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Spinelli, P.; Strigari, L.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. B.; Tibaldo, L.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Zaharijas, G.; Zimmer, S.; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via ? rays. Here we report on ?-ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in ? rays, and we present ?-ray flux upper limits between 500 MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10 TeV into prototypical standard model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse ?-ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  1. The Vela-X Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondin, M.-H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-09-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2 3 south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  2. Dark Matter Constraints from Observations of 25 Milky Way Satellite Galaxies with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ackermann, M.; Albert, A.; Anderson, B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; Perkins, J. S.

    2013-01-01

    The dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are some of the most dark-matter-dominated objects known. Due to their proximity, high dark matter content, and lack of astrophysical backgrounds, dwarf spheroidal galaxies are widely considered to be among the most promising targets for the indirect detection of dark matter via gamma rays. Here we report on gamma ray observations of 25 Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies based on 4 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) data. None of the dwarf galaxies are significantly detected in gamma rays, and we present gamma ray flux upper limits between 500MeV and 500 GeV. We determine the dark matter content of 18 dwarf spheroidal galaxies from stellar kinematic data and combine LAT observations of 15 dwarf galaxies to constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section. We set some of the tightest constraints to date on the annihilation of dark matter particles with masses between 2 GeV and 10TeV into prototypical standard model channels. We find these results to be robust against systematic uncertainties in the LAT instrument performance, diffuse gamma ray background modeling, and assumed dark matter density profile.

  3. THE VELA-X PULSAR WIND NEBULA REVISITED WITH FOUR YEARS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T.; Harding, A. K.

    2013-09-10

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 3 Degree-Sign south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  4. The VELA-X-Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, Alice K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2deg × 3deg south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  5. A mass-flux cumulus parameterization scheme for large-scale models: description and test with observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tongwen

    2012-02-01

    A simple mass-flux cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for large-scale atmospheric models is presented. The scheme is based on a bulk-cloud approach and has the following properties: (1) Deep convection is launched at the level of maximum moist static energy above the top of the boundary layer. It is triggered if there is positive convective available potential energy (CAPE) and relative humidity of the air at the lifting level of convection cloud is greater than 75%; (2) Convective updrafts for mass, dry static energy, moisture, cloud liquid water and momentum are parameterized by a one-dimensional entrainment/detrainment bulk-cloud model. The lateral entrainment of the environmental air into the unstable ascending parcel before it rises to the lifting condensation level is considered. The entrainment/detrainment amount for the updraft cloud parcel is separately determined according to the increase/decrease of updraft parcel mass with altitude, and the mass change for the adiabatic ascent cloud parcel with altitude is derived from a total energy conservation equation of the whole adiabatic system in which involves the updraft cloud parcel and the environment; (3) The convective downdraft is assumed saturated and originated from the level of minimum environmental saturated equivalent potential temperature within the updraft cloud; (4) The mass flux at the base of convective cloud is determined by a closure scheme suggested by Zhang (J Geophys Res 107(D14), doi: 10.1029/2001JD001005 , 2002) in which the increase/decrease of CAPE due to changes of the thermodynamic states in the free troposphere resulting from convection approximately balances the decrease/increase resulting from large-scale processes. Evaluation of the proposed convection scheme is performed by using a single column model (SCM) forced by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's (ARM) summer 1995 and 1997 Intensive Observing Period (IOP) observations, and field observations from the Global Atmospheric Research Program's Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) and the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE). The SCM can generally capture the convective events and produce a realistic timing of most events of intense precipitation although there are some biases in the strength of simulated precipitation.

  6. Observed and simulated inter-decadal changes in the structure of Southern Hemisphere large-scale circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Ana C. V.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; Whelan, Jennifer; O'Kane, Terence J.; Ambrizzi, Trcio

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have identified that, in the mid-1970s to early 1980s, a major shift occurred in the structure of the large-scale circulation in both hemispheres. This work employs the CSIRO Mk3L general circulation model in ensemble simulations with observed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and historical time-evolving carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations to investigate the inter-decadal changes found observationally in the jet streams, temperature, Hadley circulation, mean sea level pressure and precipitation. First, the performance of the model in simulating these changes for the mean July climate fields of 1949-1968 and 1975-1994, in comparison with the corresponding observations (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I and the Twentieth Century Reanalysis V2), is investigated. We find that the model is quite skilful in reproducing the broad features of the important inter-decadal changes that occurred in the mid-1970s. The model simulations and the NCEP/NCAR and twentieth century reanalyses agree in the eastern hemisphere; whereas in the western hemisphere the reanalyses show differences, and the simulations combine aspects of these two datasets. The role of the direct radiative forcing due to CO2 in driving the inter-decadal changes is also examined. Results indicate that, in comparison with the indirect effect of CO2 carried by the changing SSTs, there is little additional impact of the direct radiative forcing due to CO2 on the changes in the latter period. However, our simulations with fixed CO2 concentration have shown clearly that the atmospheric simulations with historical time-evolving CO2 concentrations are more skilful in reproducing the inter-decadal changes. The sensitivity of the ensemble results to employing the same or different time evolving sea ice boundary conditions in the ensemble members is also studied. The contributions of internal and external variability are discussed.

  7. Surface water waves interaction in a circular vessel with oscillating walls.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denissenko, Petr; Hsieh, Din-Yu

    1998-11-01

    Surface water waves appeared in a circular elastic vessel (modelled after the Chinese antique "Dragon Wash") are studied experimentally. Interaction of different wave modes are investigated. For small amplitude of wall oscillations, only the axisymmetric capillary wave mode, which is hardly visible to naked eyes, exists. When the amplitude is increased, half-frequency circumferential wave appears. Further increase of amplitude leads to chaotic behavior of surface waves. For large amplitudes, water drops jumping from edge regions are observed. Then, excitation of different modes of low frequency axisymmetric gravity waves may be obtained. Conditions for appearance of these gravity waves are investigated. Optical methods were applied for water surface diagnostics.

  8. Nonlinear dissipation of circularly polarized Alfven waves due to the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.

    2012-08-15

    In the present study, the dissipation processes of circularly polarized Alfven waves in solar wind plasmas including beam components are numerically discussed by using a 2-D hybrid simulation code. Numerical results suggest that the parent Alfven waves are rapidly dissipated due to the presence of the beam-induced obliquely propagating waves, such as kinetic Alfven waves. The nonlinear wave-wave coupling is directly evaluated by using the induction equation for the parent wave. It is also observed both in the 1-D and 2-D simulations that the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves strongly suppresses the beam instabilities.

  9. Ionization of Rydberg atoms by circularly and elliptically polarized microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, J.A. ); Farrelly, D. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Utah State University, Logan, Utah 84332-0300 )

    1992-03-01

    A classical study of the dynamics of atomic Rydberg states interacting with both elliptically and circularly polarized microwave fields is presented. In recent experiments, enhanced ionization rates were observed in elliptically as opposed to circularly polarized fields. A classical phase-space simulation provides good qualitative agreement with experimental findings. These results are explained in terms of the breakdown of almost conserved quantities as the polarization of the field is changed from circular to elliptical.

  10. Large grains in discs around young stars: ATCA observations of WW Chamaeleontis, RU Lupi, and CS Chamaeleontis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lommen, D.; Maddison, S. T.; Wright, C. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Wilner, D. J.; Bourke, T. L.

    2009-03-01

    Context: Grains in discs around young stars grow from interstellar submicron sizes to planetesimals, up to thousands of kilometres in size, over the course of several Myr. Thermal emission of large grains or pebbles can be best observed at centimetre wavelengths. However, other emission mechanisms can contribute, most notably free-free emission from stellar winds and chromospheric activity. Aims: We aim to determine the mechanisms of centimetre emission for three T Tauri stars. WW Cha and RU Lup have recently been found to have grain growth at least up to millimetre sizes in their circumstellar discs, based on millimetre data up to 3.3 mm. CS Cha has similar indications of grain growth in its circumbinary disc. Methods: The T Tauri stars WW Cha and RU Lup were monitored over the course of several years at millimetre and centimetre wavelengths, using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). The new ATCA 7 mm system was also used to observe CS Cha at 7 mm. Results: WW Cha was detected on several occasions at 7 and 16 mm. We obtained one detection of WW Cha at 3.5 cm and upper limits only for 6.3 cm. The emission at 16 mm was stable over periods of days, months, and years, whereas the emission at 3.5 cm is found to be variable. A second young stellar object, Ced 112 IRS 4, was found in the field of WW Cha at 16 mm. RU Lup was detected at 7 mm. It was observed at 16 mm three times and at 3 and 6 cm four times and found to be variable in all three wavebands. CS Cha was detected at 7 mm, but the signal-to-noise ratio was not high enough to resolve the gap in the circumbinary disc. The typical resolution of the 7 and 16 mm observations was 5-10 arcsec with rms ~0.2 mJy. Conclusions: The emission at 3, 7, and 16 mm for WW Cha is explained well by thermal emission from millimetre and centimetre-sized pebbles. The cm spectral index between 3.5 and 6.3 cm is consistent with the emission from an optically-thick ionised wind, although the high variability of the cm emission points to a non-thermal contribution. The spectral energy distributions of both RU Lup and CS Cha from 1 to 7 mm are consistent with thermal emission from mm-sized grains. The variability of the longer-wavelength emission for RU Lup and the negative spectral index suggests non-thermal emission, arising from an optically-thin plasma.

  11. Dynamic scheduling and planning parallel observations on large Radio Telescope Arrays with the Square Kilometre Array in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes

    2011-12-01

    Scheduling, the task of producing a time table for resources and tasks, is